6th OpenFOAM Workshop, June 13-16 2011, PennState University, USA

Draft Tube calculations using OpenFOAM-1.5dev and validation with FLINDT data

C. Devals, Y. Zhang and F.Guibault
École Polytechnique de Montréal, Canada

T. Vu and B. Nennemann
Andritz Hydro, Pointe-Claire, Canada

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Context
Viscous flow simulations for hydraulic turbo-machinery design

Distributor

Spiral casing

Runner Draft-tube

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C. 2010.Context Previous work: 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems September 20-24. Romania Steady and unsteady flow computation in an elbow draft tube with experimental validation T. Timisoara. Vu. Devals. Y.5%Dth Lt=0. No 1. Zhang. B. Nennemann and F. C. Guibault International Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems Vol 4.25%Dth 3 . January-March 2011 Lt=1%Dth Lt=0.

368 shows an important decrease for Lt=0. Validate OpenFOAM RANS simulations for draft tube on hexahedral meshes Compare recovery coefficient χ prediction with experimental data 4 .Objectives Understand why the recovery coefficient for Phi=0.5%Dth.

0. 0. 0. 0. 0.4 m Rotational speed: N=1000 RPM Angular velocity: ϖ=104.360.380.410 corresponding swirl: 0.214.332. 0.17538m2 5 .242.66 Hz Flow coefficient ϕ: 0. 0.368.076 Recovery coefficient Q ϕ= 3 πϖ R th χ= ∆Pstat 1  Q ρ 2   Aref     2 ∆pstat static pressure difference between inlet and outlet Aref reference section area Aref=0.340.390 and 0. 0.149 and 0.Test Case Description Model draft tube test: FLINDT FLINDT is for FLow INvestigation in Draft Tubes Project (LMH-EPFL Switzerland) Throat diameter: Dth = 0.198.

10−6 m 2 s −1 ρ µturb = µlam ν turb k −ε µturb = = ρ 2 k Cmu ε ρ turbulence model 6 .Physical Properties and Models Steady state Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations r r r rT p ∇ ⋅ (U ⊗ U ) = ∇ ⋅ (− ρ I + ν (∇U + ∇U )) r ∇ ⋅U = 0 ν = ν lam + ν turb Newtonian fluid −1 µ rel ρ = 997kg.89257.m µ ν lam = = 0.

Boundary Conditions Inlet pressure type U.csv" zeroGradient epsilon type turbulentMixingLengthDissipationRateInlet mixingLength 0.0003285 U profile 7 k profile . k type fileName profile1DfixedValue "profil-rr.

Boundary Conditions Outlet pressure type meanValue value U. k and epsilon type fixedMeanValue 0 uniform 0 zeroGradient 8 .

Boundary Conditions pier U type value p. k and epsilon type fixedValue uniform (0 0 0) zeroGradient No slip Wall condition 9 .

Boundary Conditions main U type value p. k and epsilon type fixedValue uniform (0 0 0) zeroGradient No slip Wall condition 10 .

k and epsilon type fixedValue uniform (0 0 0) zeroGradient No slip Wall condition 11 .Boundary Conditions ext U type value p.

e-6.01 for all variables ∆Pstat = χ Monitoring variable: pressure recovery factor 2 1  Q   ρ  2  Aref   12 . relTol of 0.Numerical Model Steady state (RANS) calculations (10000 iterations) Solver: SimpleFOAM Convection term discretization: normalized variable diagram (NVD) scheme GammaV (between 0 and 1) Linear solver: PBiCG for all variables except P. GAMG for P Turbulence model: k-epsilon Velocity inlet BC : axi-symmetrically averaged velocity measures Turbulence inlet BC: axi-symmetrically averaged k measures 4 turbulence length scales tested (epsilon) Convergence: tolerance of 1.

25%Dth. 1. 0.0%Dth and 5%Dth Initial conditions investigation 13 . ψ=0.5%Dth.5 and ψ=1 GammaV is the improved version of the NVD gamma scheme (ψ=0 best accuracy and ψ=1 more robust) Mixing length investigation: Lt=0.Test Cases Mesh investigation # nodes CRS STD FINE 288744 782283 1875470 # elements 276560 757968 1830884 Scheme GammaV investigation: ψ=0.

Test Cases Mesh investigation Scheme GammaV investigation Mixing length investigation Initial conditions investigation 14 .

Mesh investigation – GammaV 1 Coarse mesh Standard mesh Fine mesh 15 .

Mesh investigation – GammaV 1 Coarse mesh Standard mesh Fine mesh Phi=0.380 X=-0.368 Phi=0.25 16 .

380 202 205 208 211 214 ct2 ct1 CFD Experimental Data Steady probe CFD Experimental Data Steady probe Coarse mesh Fine mesh Static Pressure Axial Component Radial Component Tangential Component Energy 17 .203 207 209 213 Mesh investigation – GammaV 1 – Phi=0.

Test Cases Mesh investigation Scheme GammaV investigation Mixing length investigation Initial conditions investigation 18 .

5 GAMMAV 1.0 19 .0 GAMMAV 0.Scheme investigation – GammaV – Coarse mesh GAMMAV 0.

Test Cases Mesh investigation Scheme GammaV investigation Mixing length investigation Initial conditions investigation 20 .

50%Dth Lt=1.00%Dth Lt=5.Mixing length investigation – Standard mesh – GammaV 1 Lt=0.00%Dth 21 .25%Dth Lt=0.

Mixing length investigation – Standard mesh – GammaV 1 Relative Viscosity – Lt=0.20 .20 22 X=-0.25 X=-0.50%Dth X=0.25 X=-0.00%Dth X=0.00 X=-0.20 X=0.20 Relative Viscosity – Lt=5.25 X=0.00 X=0.25 X=0.

Test Cases Mesh investigation Scheme GammaV investigation Mixing length investigation Initial conditions investigation 23 .

25%Dth Initial conditions from no previous calculation Initial conditions from previous calculation 24 .Initial condition investigation – Std mesh – GammaV 1 – Lt=0.

368 Results are sensitive to scheme Results are sensitive to initialization Perspectives Validation and comparison with OpenFOAM-1.Conclusions and Perspectives Conclusions Results are quite good compared to experimental data Results are not so sensitive to mesh resolution except for Phi=0.6ext Runner and Draft-Tube calculations Unsteady cases Wall function investigation 25 .

Thank you for your listening Any questions? 26 .

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