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Lexington, KY 40546

Online at: www.uky.edu/KPN

Number 1346
TOBACCO

July 2, 2013
PEST OF HUMANS -Insects around Swimming Pools -Time for seed ticks Newly Hatched Lone Star Ticks FUNGICIDES -Some Principles of Fungicide Resistance IV: FRAC Codes PESTICIDE NEWS AND VIEWS -Oregon Bee Kill Sparks Push for More Education DIAGNOSTIC LAB HIGHLIGHTS INSECT TRAP COUNTS

-Disease Update for the Week of July 1


VEGETABLES

-Bacterial Diseases of Tomato and Pepper


FRUITS -Spotted Wing Drosophila Update FORAGES -What Hay Producers and Buyers Should Know About Blister Beetles

TOBACCO Disease Update for the Week of July 1 By Kenny Seebold, Extension Plant Pathologist Current situation Heavy rainfall and warm temperatures have really pushed outbreaks of black shank in some areas. As was mentioned in last weeks Kentucky Pest News article, supplemental applications of fungicides (Ridomil Gold SL, Ultra Flourish, or MetaStar) can be helpful in reducing losses to black shank. Timing of the fungicide application is important for success, and we tend to see better control in varieties with resistance levels of 4 or better to races 0 and 1 of the black shank pathogen. If a post-transplanting fungicide treatment is used, growers must make sure to get the product onto the soil and incorporated as quickly as possible. Mechanical incorporation (cultivation) is the best option, followed by irrigation or rainfall; rainfall may be the only way that some growers can achieve proper incorporation given wet field conditions that were seeing around the state. Fungicide applications are not recommended on tobacco that is too big to

cultivate. The reason for this is that it is very difficult to deliver soil fungicides to the soil itself; instead, foliage of bigger tobacco tends to intercept the spray. Ridomil Gold and generic fungicides in this class will not translocate to the roots, but instead will move upward in the plant after foliar exposure and not afford any protection against black shank. Blue Mold As of July 1, blue mold has yet to be reported in the tobacco-growing areas of the United States.

VEGETABLES Bacterial Diseases of Tomato and Pepper By Kenny Seebold, Extension Plant Pathologist Unusually wet weather has prevailed throughout many areas of Kentucky, and were seeing a number of disease issues on tomatoes and peppers as a result. Bacterial diseases on both peppers and tomatoes have increased dramatically over the past

two weeks based on field visits and samples that have been submitted to our diagnostic labs. Bacterial spot, which is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. Vesicatoria, will affect peppers and tomatoes and tends to be the most common bacterial disease of these crops in Kentucky. We also have seen a little bacterial canker, caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. Michiganensis, on tomato this year. Control of bacterial diseases of tomato and pepper can be difficult if nothing has been done before symptoms are observed. Prevention is the best defense to reduce potential losses. We recommend that growers use certified, disease-free seed or transplants; in the case of pepper, varieties resistant to the bacterial leaf spot pathogen are highly desirable. Managing bacterial diseases in the greenhouse goes a long way in keeping these problems out of the field. Once in the field, good management practices can help reduce the threat posed by bacterial pathogens. Avoid working tomatoes and peppers when foliage is wet, as bacterial diseases and can easily be spread by handling or application of pesticides. Applications of fixed copper plus mancozeb are effective against bacterial spot when used as part of a preventive disease management program; however, these materials have little effect against bacterial canker of tomato. For those using bell pepper varieties with no resistance to bacterial leaf spot, or those who are growing non-bell types, a fungicide/bactericide program is absolutely necessary. Growers should be aware that 2013 is shaping up to be a big year for bacterial diseases on peppers and tomatoes if rainy conditions continue. Refer to ID-36, the Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers and ID-172, An IPM Scouting Guide for Common Pests of Solanaceous Crops in Kentucky for more information on identification and control of these problems.

FRUITS Spotted Wing Drosophila Update By Ric Bessin, Entomologist Patty Lucas and I have been processing a large number of spotted wing drosophila (SWD) traps this summer and through June all of the samples were negative, no SWD were found. However, a sample from Breathitt Co. (Robinson Substation) collected on the July 1 had one SWD female. This is the first SWD of the year in Kentucky. While this is significant for the blueberry planting where it was found, other growers should not use sprays for SWD during the harvest period if they have not seen the pest.

Figure 1. Spotted wing drosophila female displaying enlarged ovipositor.

SWD is a potential threat to small fruits and other thin skinned fruits. Unlike other fruit flies in Kentucky, this fly lays its eggs underneath the skin of otherwise sound fruit. Within a couple of days the eggs hatch and the maggots feed on the flesh causing the flesh of the fruit to collapse in this area. Fruits become susceptible to damage as they begin to turn color close to harvest through harvest. Growers managing infested fields need to spray SWD insecticides during the harvest period to prevent egg laying. Growers need to carefully select and manage these sprays to allow for required pre harvest intervals to maintain safe residues.

FORAGES

What Hay Producers and Buyers Should Know About Blister Beetles By Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist Several species of blister beetles occur in Kentucky but large populations are not common. These mid- to late summer insects are active from about mid-July through early August. They are especially attracted to and feed on flowers. An aggregation pheromone released by the insects as they feed results in accumulations of beetles or hot spots, often along field margins.

1/3 the length of the entire body. The segment behind the head is narrow, so the beetle appears to have a "neck". The front wings are soft and flexible in contrast to the hard front wings of most beetles. The black blister beetle (jet black) and the margined blister beetle (black with thin gray stripe around wing covers) are common species in Kentucky. Female blister beetles lay clusters of eggs in the soil in late summer. The small, active larvae that hatch from these eggs crawl over the soil surface entering cracks in search for grasshopper egg pods which are deposited in the soil. After finding the egg mass, blister beetle larvae become immobile and spend the rest of their developmental time as legless grubs. Blister beetles will not lay eggs in hay and the larvae do not feed on or develop in hay bales.

Tips For Hay Producers Learn to recognize blister beetles and understand their behavior. A proactive preventive program will reduce the chances of infested hay. Blister beetles are not active when the first cutting is made in Kentucky; harvest at the late bud stage or when the first flowers open for high quality hay for horses. Blister beetles are attracted to blooms. Manage harvest intervals to minimize flowering of alfalfa or weeds in grass hay. Practice good broadleaf weed management. If flowering plants are present at harvest, inspect them carefully for blister beetles. Avoid crimping hay during harvest. Straddle cut swaths to avoid crushing beetles with tractor tires. There is no efficient way to inspect baled hay carefully enough to be sure that it is free of blister beetles. Tips For Horse Owners Buy first cutting hay; blister beetles are not active then. Develop a relationship your hay producer so that you know their production practices and hay quality. Buy from local sources. Blister beetles have long (3/4" to 1-1/4"), narrow bodies, broad heads, and antennae that are about

PESTS OF HUMANS Insects around Swimming Pools By Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist

Swimming pools attract a variety of insects. Most can be removed with a dip net; small ones, especially thrips, (thrips) are harder to deal with but are usually just a temporary nuisance. Do not put insecticides into swimming pool water or allow nearby spray applications to drift into pools. Bees and wasps need water for colony maintenance so they can be common visitors but are not aggressive or defensive unless disturbed. Honey bees need lots of water to maintain optimum hive temperature and humidity. A nearby swimming pool may be the most convenient supply. Worker bees that find a good water source will recruit colony mates to join them. Over time, hundreds of bees may be appear. Some will fall into the water and drown but others will keep coming. They are preoccupied with this task and generally are not a threat. Dealing with bee visits to small kiddy pools can be as simple as moving the pool to a different spot in the yard every few days. Bees follow directions very strictly and if the

pool is not where it should be, they will not find it easily. You can stay ahead of them with the moves.

Figure 4. Thrips. Figure 2. Giant water bug or toe biter.

Some water bugs and beetles see it as a new home; to them, a swimming pool is just another pond. Giant water bugs and backswimmers are predators adapted for aquatic life. Giant water bugs have grasping from legs and a short, stout beak used to pierce their prey. They can give a painful bite.

Tiny (1/16 inch long thrips) usually are the greatest nuisance. Hundreds can appear as a result of disturbance to their habitat mowing of nearby lawns, clipping of hay fields or wheat harvest. Those that land on the water drown. Those that land on skin may cause an irritating bite with their rasping mouthparts. A strong jet of water may be used to plaster them to decks and other surfaces where they have accumulated. Covering the pool when it is not in use may be the best and only way to exclude chronic problems with unwanted creatures. Fortunately, this may be needed for only a few days at a time.

Time for Seed Ticks Newly Hatched Lone Star Ticks By Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist
Figure 3. Backswimmer.

Backswimmers row along with their long back legs. They are less likely to bite but are good fliers and significant numbers of them can show up from nearby ponds. There will not be enough food to keep these predators around for very long but it is best to remove them with a dip net as they arrive.

Figure 5. Newly hatched lone star ticks.

Earlier in the summer, female lone star ticks laid masses of several thousand eggs on the ground; these are beginning to hatch. Anyone unfortunate

enough to stand in or to pass through such a site can easily pick up hundreds of hungry larvae. These tiny 6-legged creatures, also called "seed ticks and turkey mites", are active between July and September. These blood-thirsty larvae climb low vegetation and wait with outstretched front legs to latch on to passing animals or humans. Once "on board", they crawl around to find a suitable place to attach and feed. The painful feeding site can be irritating for days after the tick has detached or been removed. Hikers, hunters, and persons working outdoors should be aware that seed ticks apparently are much more abundant than normal this year. Use repellents and check regularly for ticks. Clothing repellents that contain permethrin (eg Permanone) can greatly reduce, but not necessarily eliminate encounters with ticks. These products are for clothing not application to the skin.
Figure 6. Structure of a typical eukaryotic cell. From: http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lecturesf04am/l ect06.htm.

FUNGICIDES Some Principles of Fungicide Resistance IV: FRAC Codes By Paul Vincelli, Extension Plant Pathologist The previous three articles in this series showed how fungicide resistance develops, and why overreliance on fungicides is risky. This fourth installment switches gears by considering the submicroscopic world of fungicide resistance. Although they are too small to see with the naked eye, cells of fungi are quite complex (Figure 6). Fungicide manufacturers take advantage of this complexity by creating chemicals that poison the biochemical activity of one or more of these cell structures.

In order to understand how fungicides poison fungi, it is important to understand the normal metabolism of a healthy fungal cell. See Figure 2 for an example. In a healthy cell, enzymes turn a certain molecule (called substrate) into another molecule (called product). Without the simultaneous, furious activity of many thousands of enzymes, the cell would be unhealthy or dead.

Figure 7. Normal molecular function within a living cell. From: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/molecu1.htm.

A fungicide is merely a chemical that interferes with the normal function illustrated in Figure 2. One way it might interfere is illustrated in Figure 3: by binding the active site of the enzymes. Other fungicides interfere in other ways, but in all cases, they interfere with some molecule normally present in healthy fungal cells.

Figure 8. The red chemical is a toxin that interferes with the normal functioning of the enzyme pictured in Figure 2. It binds to the active site of the enzyme, preventing enzymatic activity. From: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/molecu1.htm.

the fungal cell in exactly the same way. Therefore they are both considered to be benzimidazole fungicides, a name which communicates this shared mode of action. This means that, even if you alternate between fungicides within a fungicide group, the fungus sees them as the same fungicide. It also means that if resistance develops to one member of the group, usually resistance is present for all members of that group. So which group a fungicide belongs to is really important for crop producers who want to steward fungicides wisely. Our producers have a lot on their plate, so fortunately, you dont have to learn any biochemistry, or even learn the names of fungicide groups. Several years ago, members of the global Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) decided to represent fungicide groups using numbers. So the benzimidazole group (which includes benomyl and thiophanate-methyl) is represented as FRAC Code 1. Any fungicide with FRAC Code 1 poisons fungi in the same way. This also means that any product with any other FRAC Code poisons a different biochemical target, so any fungicides with a FRAC Code other than #1 truly are different from the members of FRAC Code 1. FRAC Codes are present on the labels of most fungicidal products sold in the USA. See Figure 4 for an example. This makes it easy to alternate products having different biochemical modes of actionjust look for products having a different FRAC Code.

Thus, each fungicide has a particular biochemical way of poisoning the cell. Why is this important for users of fungicides? This is the key point: if two fungicides poison the cell in precisely the same way, they are the same fungicide, from the point of view of the fungus. It does not matter: Whether the active ingredients have different chemical structures Whether the active ingredients have different names Whether they are sold under different trade names Whether they are made by different manufacturers Whether they are formulated differently. From the point of view of the fungus, if they poison the cell in the same way, they are the same fungicide. Here is a classic example. Benomyl was the first systemic fungicide. It was sold under various trade names, including Agrocit, Benex, Benlate, Tersan 1991, and others. Another fungicide that continues to be important today is thiophanate-methyl, which has been sold under a wide variety of trade names, including Clearys 3336, Fungo, Topsin M, and many others. Benomyl and thiophanate-methyl have different chemical structures1. However, they both poison

For the geeks like me, you can see these chemical structures at http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C17804352 &Mask=200

and : http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgibin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+6937

question (dinotefuran) the use would be suspended for 180 days. This incident highlights the need for users of pesticides to read and follow all label requirements. Pesticide labels will have an ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS section that clearly outlines potential risks associated with particular products. In this case the label had indicated a significant risk to bees:
This product is highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment or residues on blooming crops or weeds. Do not apply this product or allow it to drift to blooming crops or weeds if bees are visiting the treatment area.

Figure 9. Example of a FRAC Code on a product label. From: http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/icm/2006/612/fungicides.html.

Bottom line: Active ingredients within the same fungicide group poison fungi in exactly the same way. From the point of view of the fungus, such fungicides are identical, regardless of who markets the product. Fungicides in the same fungicide group share the same FRAC Code. This code makes it easy for growers to use fungicides in ways that reduce the risk of fungicide resistance. More information on FRAC Codes is available at http://www.frac.info/index.htm. Watch for additional installments in this series of articles on fungicide resistance.

Another product with the same active ingredient but labeled for ag use states:
This compound is toxic to honey bees. The persistence of residues and potential residual toxicity of dinotefuran in nectar and pollen suggest the possibility of chronic risk to honey bee larvae and the eventual instability of the hive. This product is toxic to bees exposed to treatment for more than 38 hours following treatment. Do not apply this product to blooming, pollen-shedding or nectarproducing parts of plants if bees may forage on the plants during this time period, unless the application is made in response to a public health emergency declared by appropriate state and federal authorities.

PESTICIDE NEWS AND VIEWS Oregon Bee Kill Sparks Push for More Education By Ric Bessin, Entomologist Last week there was a bumble kill in Oregon as a result of an insecticide application. While this was not an agricultural incident, this was a landscaper treating aphids in Lindens on a commercial property, the EPA has requested more education in order to help protect pollinators. As a result The Oregon Department of Agriculture told the company that manufactures the product in

Following these restrictions is just as important as following any other label requirements including usage rates, REIs, and PHIs. Using a product that is in any way inconsistent with the label is illegal and sets the user up for potential penalties. The label protects wild pollinators as well as honey bees.

DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORY HIGHLIGHTS

By Julie Beale and Brenda Kennedy


Agronomic samples diagnosed in the PDDL in the past week have included Fusarium head blight on

wheat; stinkbug injury on corn; black shank, Rhizoctonia stem rot, Pythium and Rhizoctonia root rots, Fusarium wilt, alfalfa mosaic virus, tomato spotted wilt virus, temporary phosphorus deficiency and symptoms of transplant shock on tobacco. On fruit and vegetable samples, we have diagnosed black rot, bitter rot and anthracnose on grape; common leaf spot, Phomopsis leaf blight and black root rot complex on strawberry; fire blight on pear; cedar-apple rust on apple; scab on peach; Ascochyta leaf spot on rhubarb; anthracnose and bacterial blight on bean; bacterial wilt on cantaloupe; bacterial blight on pea; purple blotch on garlic; bacterial leaf spot on pepper; bacterial spot, Septoria leaf spot, early blight, Botrytis leaf blight, leaf mold (Fulvia) and buckeye rot on tomato; and Pythium root rot on watermelon. On ornamentals and turf, we have seen anthracnose on dianthus; anthracnose and Rhizoctonia root rot on daylily; and Phytophthora root rot on arborvitae; and brown patch on fescue.

2013 INSECT TRAP COUNTS

June 21 - 28 Location Black cutworm Armyworm European corn borer Corn earworm Southwestern corn borer Fall armyworm Princeton, KY 41 * 0 5 14 0 Lexington, KY 23 332 4 1 5 1

Graphs of insect trap counts for the 2013 season are available on the IPM web site at http://www.uky.edu/Ag/IPM/ipm.htm.

FYI Each year, more than 3,300 plant samples are processed at the Plant Disease Diagnostic Labs; 60,000 cases a year are completed at the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory; 61,000 soil analyses are completed at Regulatory Services; and more than 4 million people engage in a Cooperative Extension Service activity. http://news.ca.uky.edu/article/name-changereflects-broad-work-uk-college-agriculture-foodand-environment#.Uc3e9lEmZZ4.facebook

Note: Trade names are used to simplify the information presented in this newsletter. No endorsement by the Cooperative Extension Service is intended, nor is criticism implied of similar products that are not named.