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PRESENT SIMPLE Use: Form: INFINITIVE (I, You, We, You, They) INFINITIVE + s/es (He, She, It)

The use of s/-es: a) verbs ending in y When a verb ends in y immediately preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to ie before the ending s is added: to fly he flies When a verb ends in y immediately preceded by a vowel, the y is not changed before the ending s is added: to say says b) verbs ending in o When a verb ends in o, the letter e is added before the s ending: to go goes c) verbs ending in s, ch, sh, x, z When a verb ends in s, ch, sh, x, z, the letter e is added before the s ending: to pass passes to watch watches to push pushes to fix fixes to buzz buzzes Signal words: every day, often, sometimes, usually, seldom, always, never, first then I work. / I dont work. / Do I work? He works. / He doesnt work. / Does he work? thoughts and feelings: think, like, love, hate etc. states, things that are true for a long time repeated actions programmes, timetables with to promise, to agree in a negative question with why to make a suggestion: Why don't we go out?

PRESENT CONTINUOUS Use: continuing, ongoing actions, which are taking place at the moment of speaking or writing future meaning: when you have already decided or arranged to do it (a fix plan, date)

Form: TO BE (conj.) + INFINITIVE + ing The use of ing: a) verbs ending in a silent e: When a verb ends in a silent e, the silent e is dropped before the ending ing is added: to close closing When a verb ends in an e which is not silent, the final e is not dropped before the ending ing is added: to be being b) verbs ending in ie: When a verb ends in ie, the ie is changed to y before the ending ing is added: to die dying When a verb ends in y, no change is made before the ending ing is added: to fly flying c) one-syllable verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel Except for the verbs ended in w, -x, -y, when a one-syllable verb ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant must be doubled before the ending ing is added: to nod nodding When a one-syllable verb ends in a single consonant preceded by 2 vowels, the final consonant is not doubled before the ending ing is added: to rain - raining When a verb ends in w, -x, -y, preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is not doubled before the ending ing is added: to fix fixing d) verbs of more than one syllable which end in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel

When a verb of more than one syllable ends in a single consonant other than w, -x, -y preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is doubled to form the present participle only when the last syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress: to expel expelling When a verb of more than one syllable ends in w, -x, -y, the final consonant is not doubled before the ending ing is added: to allow allowing Signal words: now, at the moment, Listen!, Look!