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Ethnobotanical Investigation of Matigsalug Ethnic Group in Sitio Patag, Brgy.

Datu Salumay, Marilog District, Davao City

Undergraduate Thesis Presented to The Faculty of The Department of Natural and Physical Science College of Arts and Sciences University of Southeastern Philippines Barrio Obrero, Davao City

As Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY


March 2012

APPROVAL SHEET This undergraduate thesis hereto attached entitled Ethnobotanical Investigation of Matigsalug Ethnic Group in Sitio Patag, Brgy. Datu Salumay, Marilog District, Davao City, prepared and submitted by Kathleen E. Aballe in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Biology hereby recommended for acceptance and approval.


MARNIE GRACE SONICO, Ed. D. PONDEVIDA, Ph. D. Panel Member Panel Member


Accepted and approved as partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Biology.



A survey and documentation was made in Sitio Patag, Brgy. Datu Salumay, Marilog District Davao City. It aims to determine the different plants and their ecological importance of the Matigsalug Indigenous Tribe. Respondents were randomly selected for the interview. Overall, there are 48 plants species documented, representing 46 genera in 25 families. Family of Poaceae had the highest number of species and second is from the family of Fabaceae. Many of these species of plants had more than one purpose: 26 of plant provide food, 21 had a medicinal value, 13 of which may used for construction and other tools that can be made out of this plant. Thirteen are also are used as economic plant and 8 is for fuel. Majority were identified for food and medicine. Moreover, it

was also documented that some practices are declining now, because of so many factors and one of this is deforestation and conversion of the land into agricultural land. Plants are now declining especially the endemic ones. Although most of the community knows this tragic realization but there is a lack of implementing the programs to address such issue. Awareness of conservation measure and management program is needed and more research is encouraged.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researcher wants to extend her profound gratitude and genuine appreciation to the following individuals who made this study a reality. First and foremost, to our Almighty God, for all the blessings and graces, courage, strength, guidance, love, good health, and wisdom He gave to the researcher. To her adviser, Professor Majella G. Bautista, for her unending support, the knowledge she shared and the supervision she did in pursuing the study.

To her panelist; Dr. Marnie Sonico and Dr. Helen Pondevida, for their advices, suggestions, and the knowledge they shared for the success of this study. To Datu Amado Mansabid and his family for allowing the study to be conducted in his vicinity and for accommodation and assistance while conducting this study. To Arnil Mansabid and Kuya Agustino Paligawon, for the help in communicating with the locals and for sorting the information needed patiently. To all the Datus, Baes and Elders of Matigsalug Indigenous Group and all the community for participating in answering the questions. To Josefa Segovia Foundation (JSF) for allowing the research to be conducted while having their seminar in the Matigsalug IP group. To Jean and the group of Crossing S for introducing the tribe and for the help in conducting the study. To all the classmates batch 2011 and batch 2012, especially the Biots and the Ecorangers who helped and gave inspiration and advice to finish this study. Thank you. To Ate Maje and Ate Hads for all the suggestions how to create a better outcome of this study.

To Aunt Lucille, Ate Honey and Kuya Oli for providing the material and financial means to achieve such noble endeavor. To the parents, Mr. Arturo P. Aballe and Mrs. Angelita E. Aballe, for their unending support, understanding, patience, sacrifices and love they constantly given and also to all the siblings and nieces who gave inspiration to pursue this study. And for those who were not mentioned but in one way or another have contributed a lot in this study, thank you very much!

The Researcher


Approval Sheet...........ii Abstract..iii Acknowledgement.iv Table of List of Figures...viii List of Tables ............xi CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION Objective of the study.1 Significance of the study.2 Scope and Limitation of the study ..3 CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Importance of Ethnobotany ....4 History of Ethnobotany ..........7 Ethnobotany in the Philippines ...8 CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY Location and Duration of the Study ....11 Field Work ......14 Documentation ....14 CHAPTER IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Species Composition ..16 Collection of Plant Species .20

Discussion .51 CHAPTER V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Summary ..55 Conclusion 55 Recommendation ..56 LITERATURE CITED APPENDICES Taxonomic Classification .60 Permission letters ..76 Survey Questionnaire 78



List of Figure Figure 1. Map of the vicinity of Matigsalug- Manobo Tribe 2. Sketch Map of study area 3. Panoramic view of Purok 10, Sitio Patag Brgy. Datu Salumay 3.1 Remaining forest or Puwalas area 4. Example of specimen form 5. Imperata cylindrical
6. Paspalum conjugatum .

Page 11 12 13 13 15 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 40

7. Oriza sativa
8. Zea mayz

9. Bambusa bambos 10. Saccharum officinarum 11. Vigna cylindrica 12. Gliricidia sepium 13. Leucaena leucocephala 14. Tamarindus indica 15. Erythrina variegata 16. Capsicum frutescens 17.Solanum molengena 18. Solanum lycopersicum 19. Cucurbita maxima 20. Secchium edule 21. Luffa acutangula

22. Euphorbia hirta 23. Manihot esculenta 24. Medinilla venusa

25. Ricinus communis

40 41 41

26. Vitex negundo 27.Mentha arvensis

28. Abelmoschus esculentus

42 42

29. Gossypium hirsutum 30. Musa acuminata 31. Musa sapientum 32. Coleus blumei 33. Allium tuberosum 34. Centella asiatica 35. Ipomea aquatic 36. Duranta erecta 37. Colocasia esculenta 38. Pandanus tectorius 39. Zingiber officinale 40. Basella alba 41. Amaranthus caudatus 42. Carica papaya 43. Bechemia scandens 44. Coffea Arabica 45. Bixa orellana

43 43 43 44 44 44 45 45 45 46 46 46 47 47 47 48 48

46. Psidium guajava 47. Citrus maxima 48. Switenia mahogani 49. Gmelina arborea 50. Heliotropium indicum 51. Annona muricata 52. Alstonia scholaris

48 49 49 49 50 50 50

List of Tables Table Page 1 2 3 3.1 Number of Plants identified in 25 families Uses of Plants Uses and Parts of the Plants Utilized Continuation of table 3 16 17 18 19

4. The 48 species with their scientific and common name, its description and its uses 20

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The symbiotic relationship between man and plant had been the most outstanding aspects of todays world, not just because of the plants availability but also for their different uses and significance. Plants are fundamental to the functioning of all human societies and to the operation of all ecosystems. Along with the photosynthetic bacteria and algae, plants are responsible for the formation of almost all energy that we consume. In terms of the energy from biomass that we are so actively seeking to develop now, they also provide the hope of energy supplies in the future. Yet, despite of the central importance, plants are poorly appreciated (Prance, 2007). In general ethnobotany refers to the field of study that examines the interaction between human societies and plant kingdom. Especially how indigenous people distinguish, manage and utilize the plant around them (Cotton, 1996). Along with the related discipline of ethnobiology the central importance for this field of study is for understanding and improving the sustainability of our relationship with the living world (Prance, 2007). It makes it possible for us to learn from the past and from the diverse approaches to plants represented by the different human cultures that exist today. Ethnobotany is at once a vital key to preserve the diversity of plants as well as to understand and interpret the knowledge by which we are, and will be, enabled to deal with the effectivity and sustainability (Prance, 2007). Concurrently, the diversity of human cultures (ethnobotanical knowledge) is being eroded rapidly everywhere (Prance, 2007). These problems occur because of the

plant extinction and disappearance of traditional cultures. As the plant fares through the human and environmental changes, knowledge about the plant declines. The problem of the declining biodiversity is compounded by the problem of cultural alienation. Cultural alienation is the result of ethnic discrimination, formal education, and exposure to mass media (Sumiguit, 2006). In connection with this, the Matigsalug indigenous group which is one of the 37 Indigenous People found in the Central of Mindanao also encounters similar problem (Peralta, 2009). Although, Patinio (2009) revealed that the members of this tribe are sensitive in foreign themes, there are still factors that deprive them to follow their primitive way of lifestyle. Examples of this are intermarriage, entry of Christian missionaries and influence of modern technology. So now some of the members are adopting the modern way of living and some combined it with their traditional ways. For this reason, the documentation of the ethnobotanical knowledge is really needed for the Matigsalug tribe. To conserve and preserve their knowledge, as well as protect their customs and cultural integrity of the group. Objectives of the Study This study identified the different plants and their taxonomic level in Sitio Patag, Brgy. Datu Salumay Marilog District Davao City. Specifically the study recorded the uses of different plant parts and their cultural importance.

Significance of the Study The study provides baseline information about the maintenance and uses of ethnobotanical diversity and plant utilization among Matigsalug IP group. In addition, the result of this assessment contributes to the awareness on conservation measures of this group. Scope and Limitation of the Study This study was conducted within Sitio Patag, Brgy. Datu Salumay, Marilog District Davao City, area populated mostly by Matigsalug Indegenous group. This study focused in the known plants, the parts that been used and its significance in the tribe by conducting an interview among the knowledgeable members of the community as key informant, with respect of their tradition and rules in the community.

Chapter II REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE Ethnobotany is defined as the study of the interrelationship between plants and people (Gomez-Beloz, 2002). It was develop into its related scientific discipline that looks at the people-plants relationship in a multidisciplinary manner using not only botany and anthropology, but also ecology, economics, public policy, pharmacology, public health, and other disciplines as needed (Balick, 1996; Gomez-Beloz, 2002). To answer the many fast-developing specific subdivisions of this interdisciplinary field, Schultes (1994) gives a more inclusive definition of ethnobotany. He concluded

that it is the study of the uses, technological manipulation, classification, agricultural systems, magico-religious concepts, conservation techniques and general economic and sociological importance of plants in primitive or pre-literate societies. Ethnobotanists, can be able to relate local and specialized plant taxonomies and to study all the physical properties of the plants through close contact with plants of a region. They can pay attention to culturally related mental and the symbolic properties of the plants in a region. Ecological relationships within the plant community are the central to these studies (Ford, 1978). Importance of Ethnobotany Plants are essential for the functioning of all human societies and to the operation of all ecosystems. Along with its photosynthetic bacteria and algae, it is responsible for the formation of almost all of the energy that we consume. Yet despite

their great importance in the society and to all ecosystems, plants is poorly appreciated (Prance, 2007). Plants serve as a global asset of exceptional value to the present and future generations as a continuous appreciation of biodiversity. The human existence would not be complete without a look at plant roles in many cultures, including medicinal purposes (Cabauatan; del Rosario, 2007). In the investigation among the Ybanag Ethnic Minority

of Cabauatan and del Rosario (2007) they revealed some plant knowledge practices or indigenous plant knowledge associated with the group. These are the Wild plants as source of food, Plants as source of medicine, Plants as source of income and subsistence, Plants used in their beliefs, ceremonies and rituals, and lastly plants as part of their birth practices and child rearing. In the investigation of Coe and Anderson (1999), the Ulwa

has 225 species of plants, and used for agricultural fields, markets ("purchased plants"), door- yard gardens, and the forest. Some 187 species are medicinal, 69 are food plants, and 84 are for ancillary uses such as clothing, construction, and crafts. The plants in these various plant use categories play a significant role in providing the Ulwa with the materials for sustenance, medicinal treatments, and even some cash income. Despite of the many importance of the plant in the society, the overgrazing and over exploitation of plant resources are still vast to our world today. It had already led to the decline of the plant material available (Bussman, 2006). As plant diversity dwindles due to human induced environmental changes, knowledge about plants also declines. With the connection of the waning and disappearance of traditional culture (Suminguit, 2006).

As Prance (2007) stated that concurrently the diversity of human cultures is being eroded rapidly everywhere. For example, every week one of the remaining 7,000 languages is being lost. This is only one of the results of the many factors that show how rapid is the disappearance of traditional cultures. According to Schultes (1994) The knowledge of the many indigenous groups about the ambient vegetation as a result of inherited knowledge, is unfortunately doomed to extinction with the rapid acculturation and westernization in many parts of the globe where indigenous peoples can still live peacefully without disruption, from road-building, airstrips, warfare, tourism, industrial penetration, dam-building local greed on the part of settlers or various efforts to "civilize" the natives. Also, as Cunningham (2001) emphasizes that cultural system are even more dynamic than biological ones in the shift from the subsistence economy to a cash economy is the dominant factor amongst all but the remotest of the people. According to Suminguit (2006), the problem of declining biodiversity is compounded by problem of cultural alienation. This cultural alienation is the result of ethnic discrimination, formal education, and exposure to mass media. Ironically, it is the new settler that discriminates the indigenous population. The indigenous population would either withdraw by retreating into the inaccessible mountains or totally blend in with the immigrant population by hiding their ethnic identity. In the study of Rossato, Leito-Filho and Begossi (1999) it is observed that the knowledge of native populations, and their environments, is threatened in most parts of the world and that it was stated that ethnomedical uses are documented for only about 28% of plants on earth. Each of these represents a distinct philosophical and realistic approach to the organization of our lives which means we are losing our cultural heritage at a rate that

will seriously diminish our opportunities to achieve sustainability in the future(Prance, 2007). This suggests that ethnobotanical knowledge is an important resource for the society that could be tapped to revitalize agriculture, increase livelihood options, improve health and raise some sense of cultural pride of the community (Suminguit, 2006). As Prance (2007) emphasized that it is the key to preserving the diversity of plants as well as to understanding and interpreting the knowledge by which we are, and will be, enabled to deal with them effectively and sustainably throughout the world. In Addition, Suminguit(2006) concluded that ethnobotanical documentation can be seen as a way to preserve the oral ethnobotanical knowledge and a way to make it available for the present and future generations. Documentation also provides the indigenous community an opportunity to reflect on the conservation status of biodiversity in their ancestral domain. Hence, in documenting knowledge it also helps to generate new knowledge. This is also a way to generate culturally pertinent learning materials for the functional literacy programs of the indigenous community. History of Ethnobotany All over the world, there has been an increasing interest in the scientific study of man-plant interaction in the natural environment which is clearly visible among various indigenous people commonly designated as aboriginals, natives, autochthonous, fourth world, first people, adivasis (original settlers) and tribals ( Srivastava,2007) Cotton (1996) traced the history of ethnobotany to the casual observation of European travelers and explorers in the 15th century who recorded in their diaries the

economic uses of plants used by indigenous peoples they encountered in their travels (Suminguit,2006). More systematic documentation was carried out later by anthropologists (Alcorn 1984; Brush 1980; Conklin, 1957; Hays, 1979), with the primary goal of understanding how indigenous communities perceived the plants around them and how this perception influenced their subsistence decisions (Suminguit, 2006). In the book entitled Ethnobotany a reader of Minnis (2000), emphasize that ethnobotany or systematic investigation was built on Greek, Roman and Islamic Foundations and it was intensified by colonialism and geographic exploration (Ambrosoli, 1997). Those early anthropological studies have established an idea that indigenous peoples (IPs) have rich indigenous knowledge about their immediate surroundings including biologically diverse plants. The elders are usually served as the store house or the repository of the ethnobotanical knowledge that was traditionally handed down orally from generation to generation. Unfortunately, its oral scenery makes it susceptible to being forgotten (Suminguit, 2006). Ethnobotany of the Philippines The Philippines archipelago is remarkably having a rich flora. It is considered as one hotspot of having the most important biodiversity on earth (Prigge, Langenberger, Martin, 2005). Moreover, Davis (1995) stated that it provides amongst other habitat for almost 8900 vascular plant and Myers (2000) added there are more than 500 endemic vertebrate species. The land was covered almost entirely by rain forest that provided the

Filipino people with meat from wildlife, building materials, and seemingly everlasting supplies of clear, cool water (Heaney, 2007). Over the past few years, Encarnacion (1999) stated that there has been a growing trend to promote local management of forests as a potential solution to these threats. The rationale of community forestry is to transfer the direct management and stewardship of identified upland areas to the communities residing in those areas. And this are the old settlers of the Philippine island the Indigenous People. These communities are suited to be "keepers of the forest" since they are dependent on the protection of these resources for their very own social, economic and political survival (Encarnacion, 1999). This explains that the indigenous tribes are now moved higher and higher up the mountains where they try to retain their traditional ways in the face of incursions of missionaries, civil servants, and violent attacks of the military on rebel hideouts (Michel, S.J, 1999). However more of the IPs was being drawn into mainstream society through formal education and exposure to mass media (Suminguit, 2007). This fact calls for a need to document indigenous knowledge before it vanishes. In the Island of Mindanao, 37 indigenous peoples communities are identified and one of this is the Manobo-Matigsalog Tribe with 44,851 population (Peralta, 2009). The term Matigsalog comes from the word Matig which means people and salug which means river. Simply the Matigsalug people lives along the river. This ethnic group can be found in the middle of the the boundaries of the provinces of in Davao, Cotabato and Bukidnon (Sarahan, 2010).

In the study of Sarahan (2010), he points to the state of the Matigsalog (Matigsalug) tribe and their diminishing practices. He stated that seven out of ten respondents are concurrently not recognizing Lilis, one of the practices of the tribe, as a system of healing practice because there is no right place to go and the forest was already damaged. Also out of the seven respondents, four of them said that there are 80% still using herbal plant medicine although 20% of the plants are not really identified. Moreover, he concluded that some of the respondents are now buying medicines from the pharmacies instead of using herbal medicine. These days researchers reported that ethnobotanical knowledge can be carried out without losing community ownership over intellectual property rights. Suminguit (2007) revealed the significance of documenting the Ethnobotanical knowledge of the Subanens life. He found that there was a notable increase in the technical expertise of the Subanen members of the ethnobotanical documentation team (five women and eight men). This documentation helped reveal the great potential of ethnobotanical knowledge as key to a largely untapped biological and genetic resources. In addition, Cabauatan and del Rosario (2007) recommended that there is a need to introduce conservation measures and better management practices while there is still time, to save the last few remaining plant resources utilized for traditional plant knowledge practices.

CHAPTER III MATERIALS AND METHOD Location and Duration of the Study The study was conducted in the IP community of Matigsalug in Sitio Patag, Brgy. Datu Salumay, Marilog District Davao City. This area belongs to the 3 rd

Congressional district and estimately has two hours away from the downtown area. Elevation in Marilog District ranges from 1000 to 2000 meters above sea level and it covers around 90 hectares (Cimafranca and Ompoy, 2008).Most forest areas were converted to agricultural and residential area. Figure 1 shows the map of the location of the Matigsalug Tribe in Davao City side and figure 2 shows the location of the study area Sitio Patag Brgy. Datu Salumay, Marilog Distrtict Davao City. Figure 3 also shows the panoramic view of the said site and figure 4 shows the remaining part of the forest.

Figure 1. Map of the vicinity of Matigsalug Tribe in Davao City side.

Figure 2. Sketch map of Sitio Patag, Brgy. Datu Salumay, Marilog District Davao City

Figure 3.

Panoramic view of some part of Purok 10, Sitio Patag Brgy. Datu

Salumay, Marilog District Davao City

Figure 3.1. Some of the remaining forest or Puwalas in the area.

Field Work This field work was based on interviews, observations, and documentation (Khan et al., 2010). In the interview, survey was conducted with pure Matigsalug respondents who were permanent residents of Marilog District (Philippines) particularly at Sitio Patag. Respondents were randomly selected from ages 16 56 above of both sexes. The questionnaire during the survey is for the information of the plant resources, quantities and part of the plant that was being used, rate of consumption, availability and percentage of plants species found, and their utilization by the people. The simulation and immersion will play an important aspect in the data gathered for direct observation. The primary purpose of this is to find out in a more detailed direction regarding the usage of plants in the socio-economic practices of the Matigsalug ethnic group. The standard parameters in identification and indexing of plants were utilized (Cabauatan and del Rosario, 2007).

Documentation The documentation will have a consideration on the belief and traditions of the tribe with the coordination of the elders and Datus. Since this study is a non-destructive research, the ethnobotanical specimen was documented through picture using digital camera instead collection of the samples. Suminguit (2006) suggested to put the plant specimens on the appropriate background to specify the plants or parts of the plant. After which, resizing the image, and adjusting contrast and brightness should be done. These routines can be done by almost any graphic editing software like Adobe Photoshop 7 or higher version as recommended software.

In identifying the specimens, it will be classified based on the information founds in books and compared with the existing literatures. The identification of the different plants will be compared based on of the gross morphological characters of the specimen. This will be subjected to labeling with the following format. Family name: based on taxonomic classification provided Scientific name: should be written in italic form Common names: local names or vernacular names Description: the morphological characteristics are enumerated Uses: a brief discussion on how, when, who, were the plant will be used, including the brief ecological status and the plants part that will be used Local Name: _____________________ Location ___________________ Specimen#: _____________________ Plant Type Photo# : _____________________ Flowers Scientific n.: _____________________ Habitat : _____________________ Fruits ____________________ Availability : ____________________ : : ___________________ : ___________________ :

Uses : _______________________________________________ Figure 4. Specimen Form Special Notes: ______________________________________________ Figure 4 shows the example of the specimen form, it is important to be printed before going into the field to structure the recording of plant attributes. This makes entering data into the database easier (Suminguit, 2006).

CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Species Composition A total of 48 species of plants samples were collected throughout the duration of the study. Some of which had a multiple uses in the Matigsalug tribe. These 48 species belongs to 46 genera in 25 families. The table 1 and table 1.1 show the summary of each species belongs to its correspondent family. Table1 Number of Plants identified in 25 families
Family Name Poaceae Fabaceae Lamiaceae Euphorbiaceae Solanaceae Cucurbitaceae Musaceae Malvaceae Boraginaceae Pandanaceae Zingerberaceae Melastonaceae Baselaceae Amaranthaceae Caricaceae Rhamnaceae Bixaceae Myrtaceae Rutaceae Meliceae Labiateae Liliaceae Apocynaceae Convulvuceae Apiaceae Number of plants 6 5 4 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

The second Table shows the twenty-six

48 species which

is categorized in its uses ,

(26) species of plants are used as food for the tribe, twenty-one (21) of

which is used as medicine, thirteen (13) species used as construction materials including the different tools that can be made out of these plants. Thirteen (13) of which are source of their income including the three (3) species used to make handicrafts. These plants has economic significance and can be sold in many ways. Also, there are eight (8) species that used as fuel and lastly three (3) has significant alternative uses. The table 3 and table 3.1 shows the 48 species categorized in its uses, part of the plant that being utilized in the Sitio Patag, Brgy. Datu, Salumay, Marilog District, Davao City. Table 2. Uses of Plants Food Medicine Construction Source of income 21 13 13 handicraft Significant Fuel alternative woods uses 3 3 8

No. of species


Table 3. Uses and Parts of the Plants Utilized Part/s of the plant used Leaf, stalk Leaf Leaf, roots Whole plant Leaf Whole plant Leaf Leaf,veins Roots Corm, leaf Leaf Seed, fruit Corm Leaf Fruit Fruit, seed Fruit Fruit Leaf, fruit Fruit Fruit Stem Tuber Seeds

Local name 1.Kogon 2.Herbabuena 3.Carabao grass 4.Tawa-tawa 5.Mayana 6.Sibuyas dahon 7.Balatong 8.Goto-kola 9.Kangkong 10. Bulak sa Puwalas 11. Sole (Gabi) 12. Daluos (Romblon) 13. Benesil 14. Luy-a 15. Tungaw-tungaw 16. Patola 17. Kamatis 18. Sayote 19. Talong 20. Alugbati 21. Kalabasa 22. Okra 23. Tire (tubo) 24. Kamoteng kahoy 25. Kudyapa

Scientific Name Imperata cylindrica Synedrella nodiflora Paspalum conjugatum Euphorbia hirta Coleus blumei Allium tuberosum Vigna cylindrical Centella asiatica Ipomea aquatica Duranta erecta Colocassia esculenta Pandanus tectorius Capsicum frutescens Zingeber officinale Medinilla venosa Luffa acutangula Salanum lycopersicum Sechium edule Solanum melongena Basella alba Cucurbita maxima Abelmoschus esculentus Saccharum officinarum Manihot esculenta Amarathus sp.

Use/s Medicine, house construction Medicine Medicine Medicine Medicine Food, medicine Food, medicine Medicine Food Medicine Food, medicine Handicraft, source of income Food, medicine Food, medicine Medicine Food Food, medicine Food Food Food Food Food Food Food, source of income Food

Table3.1. Continuation of Uses and Parts of the Plants Utilized Musa acuminata Musa sapientum Oryza sativa Carica papaya Zea Mays Berchemia scandens Bambusa bambos Coffea arabica Bixa orellana Gliricidia sepium Psidium guajava Citrus maxima Gossypium hirsutum Racinus communis Leucaena leucocephala Switenia mahogany Tamarindus indica Gmelina arborea Vitex negundo Heliotropium indicum Musa sapientum Erythrina variegata orientalis Alstonia scholaris Food, medicine, source of income Food, source of income Food, alternative lotion Food, source of income Handicraft, source of income Construction materials, holding materials, food Food, Fuel wood, source of income Food, Fuel wood, holding materials Alternative lotion, holding materials Medicine, tool handle, fuel wood Food, fuel wood Medicine, fuel wood Alternative fuel to produce fire Fuel wood, tool handles Fuel wood, tool handles, construction materials Food, construction materials, fuel wood Construction materials Medicine Medicine Food, fuel wood Medicine, construction materials Handicraft, construction materials, source of income

26. Saging 27. Humay 28. Papaya 29. Mais 30. Ratan 31. Laak (Kawayan) 32. Kape 33. Atsuete 34. Madre kakaw 35. Beyabas 36. Buongon 37. Gapas 38. Talang-talang 39. Ipil-ipil 40. Mahogany 41. Simbag 42. Gemelina 43. Lagundi 44. Elepante 45. Banaba 46. Dapdap 47. Dita

Leaf, fruit Seeds Fruit, leaf Fruit Stem Stem, leaf Fruit, stem Stem Leaf, stem Leaf, stem Fruit, stem Leaf, fruit, stem Fruit Stem Stem Fruit, stem Stems Leaf Leaf, Roots Fruit, stem Bark, stem, leaf Bark, stem