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CADD

Bryan G. Holmes

COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING & DESIGN

Compiled Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Projections in Fields Indicating Drafting as an Aspect of Educational Preparedness

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010

CADD-related professional and paraprofessional fields, BLS 2010


BLS OCCUPATION CATEGORY Empl. Ttls. 2008 0,259,400 0,140,300 0,141,200 0,026,700 0,160,200 1,284,900 0,207,800 0,157,800 0,106,400 0,469,300 1,248,700 0,551,000 0,217,800 0,022,700 0,044,300 0,071,700 0,251,900 0,237,700 0,497,300 1,571,900 0,308,200 0,408,300 0,464,700 0,421,500 1,361,300 0,095,200 0,555,900 0,148,900 0,170,700 0,041,600 0,097,800 0,147,000 0,084,300 0,038,400 0,466,400 0,323,300 12,802,500 Proj. Empl. 2018 0,291,700 0,150,100 0,164,200 0,032,000 0,178,600 1,450,300 0,234,500 0,164,500 0,124,200 0,525,500 1,504,600 0,645,800 0,272,900 0,022,900 0,048,300 0,085,600 0,262,500 0,266,200 0,523,100 1,750,300 0,394,800 0,433,300 0,447,800 0,402,200 1,509,200 0,108,300 0,642,100 0,154,600 0,181,800 0,043,800 0,110,000 0,174,500 0,077,600 0,045,700 0,455,900 0,344,000 14,223,400 Change Totals 32,300 9,800 22,900 5,300 18,500 165,400 26,700 6,700 17,900 56,200 255,900 94,800 55,200 200 4,000 13,900 10,700 28,500 25,800 178,300 086,600 25,000 -16,900 -19,300 147,900 13,100 86,300 5,700 11,100 2,200 12,200 27,600 -6,700 7,300 -10,500 20,600 1,421,200 Change % 12 07 16 20 12 13 13 4 17 12 20 17 25 01 09 19 04 12 05 11 28 06 -4 -5 11 14 16 04 06 05 12 19 -08 19 -02 06 11.1

(1) Administrative Services Manager (2) Aircraft/Avionics Mechanic & Svc Tech. (3) Architects (except landscape and naval) (4) Architects, Landscape (5) Brickmasons, Blockmasons, Stonemasons (6) Carpenters (7) Cement Masons, Concrete Finishers, Segmental Pavers, and Terrazzo Workers (8) Computer Control Programmers and Operators (9) Construction and Building Inspection (10) Construction Equipment Operators (11) Construction Laborers (12) Construction Managers (13) Cost Estimator (14) Designers, Fashion (15) Designers, Commercial & Industrial (16) Designers, Interior (17) Drafters (18) Drywall & Ceiling Tile Installers, Tapers, Plasterers and Stucco Masons (19) Engineering Technicians (20) Engineers (21) Heating, Air Cond., & Refrig. Mech. & Installers (22) Ind. Machinery Mechanics & Millwrights (23) Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, & Weighers (24) Machinist (25) Maintenance and Repair Workers (26) Medical, Dental, and Ophthalmic Laboratory Tech. (27) Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, & Steamfitters (28) Roofers (29) Sheet Metal Workers (30) Stationary Engineers & Boiler Operators (31) Structural and Reinforcing Iron and Metal Workers (32) Surveyors , Cartographers, Photogrammetrists, Surveying Technicians (33) Tool and Die Makers (34) Urban and Regional Planners (35) Welding, Soldering & Brazing Workers (36) Woodworkers *Totals

Growth in occupations utilizing or suggesting drafting education by 2018..1,421,200

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(1) ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES MANAGERS:

Most facility managers have an undergraduate or graduate degree in engineering, architecture, construction management, business administration, or facility management. Many also have backgrounds in real estate, construction, or interior design, in addition to managerial experience. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos002.htm
Earnings:
Wages of administrative services managers vary greatly depending on the employer, the specialty, and the geographic area. In general, however, median annual wages of salaried administrative services managers in May 2008 were $73,520. The middle 50 percent earned between $52,240 and $98,980. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $37,430, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $129,770. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of these managers were: Management of companies and enterprises ................. $85,980 General medical and surgical hospitals ....................... 77,870 Local government........................................................ 74,860 Colleges, universities, and professional schools ......... 72,460 State government ......................................................... 65,690

(2) AIRCRAFT AND AVIONICS EQUIPMENT MECHANICS AND SERVICE TECHNICIANS:

Courses in mathematics, physics, chemistry, electronics, computer science, and mechanical drawing are helpful because they demonstrate many of the principles involved in the operation of aircraft, and knowledge of these principles is often necessary to make repairs. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos179.htm
Earnings:
Median hourly wages of aircraft mechanics and service technicians were about $24.71 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $20.25 and $29.25. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $15.85, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $33.19. Median hourly wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of aircraft mechanics and service technicians in May 2008 were: Scheduled air transportation ........................................ $27.96 Federal Executive Branch ........................................... 24.98 Aerospace product and parts manufacturing ............... 24.47 Nonscheduled air transportation.................................. 24.27 Support activities for air transportation ....................... 20.95

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(3) ARCHITECTS, EXCEPT LANDSCAPE AND NAVAL:

A typical program includes courses in architectural history and theory, building design with an emphasis on CADD, structures, technology, construction methods, professional practice, math, physical sciences, and liberal arts. Central to most architectural programs is the design studio, where students apply the skills and concepts learned in the classroom and create drawings and three-dimensional models of their designs. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos038.htm
Earnings:
Median annual wages of wage-and-salary architects were $70,320 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $53,480 and $91,870. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $41,320, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $119,220. Those just starting their internships can expect to earn considerably less.

(4) ARCHITECTS, LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS:

Whenever possible, students are assigned real projects, providing them with valuable hands-on experience. While working on these projects, students become proficient in the use of computer-aided design, model building, geographic information systems, and video simulation. Landscape architects must also be able to draft and design using CAD software. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos039.htm
Earnings:
In May 2008, median annual wages for landscape architects were $58,960. The middle 50 percent earned between $45,840 and $77,610. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $36,520 and the highest 10 percent earned over $97,370. Architectural, engineering, and related services employed more landscape architects than any other group of industries, and there the median annual wages were $59,610 in May 2008.

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(5) BRICKMASONS, BLOCKMASONS, STONEMASONS:

A high school diploma is preferable, especially with courses in mathematics, mechanical drawing, and general shop. [] Knowledge of basic math, including measurement, volume, mixing proportions, algebra, plane geometry, and mechanical drawing are important in this trade. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos201.htm
Earnings:
Median hourly wages of brickmasons and blockmasons in May 2008 were $21.94. The middle 50 percent earned between $16.77 and $28.46. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $13.26, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $35.63. In the two industries employing the largest numbers of brickmasons and blockmasons in May 2008 the foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors industry and the nonresidential building industrymedian hourly wages were $21.71 and $23.84, respectively.

(6) CARPENTERS:

Classes in English, algebra, geometry, physics, mechanical drawing, blueprint reading, and general shop will prepare students for the further training they will need. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos202.htm
Earnings:
In May 2008, median hourly wages of wage and salary carpenters were $18.72. The middle 50 percent earned between $14.42 and $25.37. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $11.66, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $33.34. Median hourly wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of carpenters were as follows: Nonresidential building construction .........................................$21.08 Building finishing contractors .................................................... 19.37 Residential building construction ............................................... 18.24 Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors ............ 17.67 Employment services ................................................................. 15.81

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(7) CEMENT MASONS, CONCRETE FINISHERS, SEGMENTAL PAVERS, & TERRAZZO WORKERS:

In the classroom, apprentices learn applied mathematics, blueprint reading, and safety. High school courses in general science, mathematics, and vocational-technical subjectssuch as blueprint reading and mechanical drawingprovide a helpful background. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos204.htm
Earnings:
In May 2008, the median hourly wage of cement masons and concrete finishers was $16.87. The middle 50 percent earned between $13.46 and $22.71. The bottom 10 percent earned less than $11.02, and the top 10 percent earned more than $30.30. Median hourly wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of cement masons and concrete finishers were as follows: Nonresidential building construction .........................................$17.82 Other specialty trade contractors ................................................ 17.26 Highway, street, and bridge construction ................................... 17.12 Residential building construction ............................................... 16.68 Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors ............ 16.67

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(8) COMPUTER CONTROL PROGRAMMERS AND OPERATORS:

For those interested in becoming computer control programmers or operators, high school or vocational school courses in mathematics (trigonometry and algebra), blueprint reading, computer programming, metalworking, and drafting are recommended. [] Classroom instruction includes math, physics, programming, blueprint reading, CAD software, safety, and shop practices. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos286.htm
Earnings:
Median hourly wages of computer-controlled machine tool operators, metal and plastic, were $16.03 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $12.83 and $19.45. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $10.49, whereas the top 10 percent earned more than $23.84. Median hourly wages in the manufacturing industries employing the largest numbers of computer-controlled machine tool operators, metal and plastic, in May 2008 were: Aerospace product and parts manufacturing ................................................... $18.89 Metalworking machinery manufacturing ........................................................ 18.08 Machine shops; turned product; and screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing ....... 15.57 Motor vehicle parts manufacturing ................................................................. 15.18 Plastics product manufacturing ....................................................................... 14.19

(9) CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING INSPECTORS:

More often, employers look for persons who have studied engineering or architecture or who have a degree from a community or junior college with courses in building inspection, home inspection, construction technology, drafting, and mathematics. [] Courses in blueprint reading, algebra, geometry, and English also are useful. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos004.htm
Earnings:
Median annual wages of wage and salary construction and building inspectors were $50,180 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $39,070 and $63,360. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $31,270, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $78,070. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of construction and building inspectors were: Federal Executive Branch ..........................................................$62,120 Management, scientific, and technical consulting services ........ 58,520 Local government....................................................................... 50,330 Architectural, engineering, and related services ......................... 49,320 State government ........................................................................ 45,700

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(10) CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT OPERATORS:

Also useful are courses in science and mechanical drawing. With the development of GPS, construction equipment operators need more experience with computers than in the past. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos255.htm
Earnings:
Wages for construction equipment operators vary. In May 2008, median hourly wages of wage and salary operating engineers and other construction equipment operators were $18.88. The middle 50 percent earned between $14.78 and $25.49. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $12.47, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $33.34. Median hourly wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of operating engineers were as follows: Nonresidential building construction ................... $21.45 Highway, street, and bridge construction ............. 21.20 Utility system construction................................... 19.79 Other specialty trade contractors .......................... 18.61 Local government................................................. 17.19 Median hourly wages of wage and salary paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators were $16.00 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $12.94 and $20.75. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $10.77, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $26.70. Median hourly wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators were as follows: Other specialty trade contractors .......................... $16.16 Highway, street, and bridge construction ............. 16.13 Local government................................................. 15.94 In May 2008, median hourly wages of wage and salary piledriver operators were $23.01. The middle 50 percent earned between $17.52 and $32.94. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $14.25, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $38.01. Median hourly wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of piledriver operators were as follows: Other specialty trade contractors .......................... $26.07 Other heavy and civil engineering construction ... 23.24 Nonresidential building construction ................... 20.46 Utility system construction................................... 19.54

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(11) CONSTRUCTION LABORERS:

High school classes in English, mathematics, physics, mechanical drawing, blueprint reading, welding, and general shop can be helpful. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos248.htm
Earnings:
Median hourly wages of wage and salary construction laborers in May 2008 were $13.71. The middle 50 percent earned between $10.74 and $18.57. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $8.67, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $25.98. Median hourly wages in the industries employing the largest number of construction laborers were as follows: Nonresidential building construction ................................. $14.95 Other specialty trade contractors ........................................ 13.81 Residential building construction ....................................... 13.79 Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors .... 13.35 Employment services ......................................................... 10.80

(12) CONSTRUCTION MANAGERS:

The ability to manage several major activities at once, while analyzing and resolving specific problems, is essential, as is an understanding of engineering, architectural, and other construction drawings. Familiarity with computers and software programs for job costing, online collaboration, scheduling, and estimating also is important. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos005.htm
Earnings:
Wages of salaried construction managers and self-employed independent construction contractors vary with the size and nature of the construction project, its geographic location, and economic conditions. In addition to receiving typical benefits, many salaried construction managers earn bonuses and are allowed the use of company motor vehicles. Median annual wages of salaried construction managers in May 2008 were $79,860. The middle 50 percent earned between $60,650 and $107,140. The lowest paid 10 percent earned less than $47,000, and the highest paid 10 percent earned more than $145,920. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of construction managers were as follows: Building equipment contractors .................................................$81,590 Nonresidential building construction ......................................... 79,950 Other specialty trade contractors ................................................ 78,410 Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors ............ 76,880 Residential building construction ............................................... 74,770

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(13) COST ESTIMATORS:

In the construction industry, employers increasingly prefer individuals with a degree in construction management, building science, or construction science, all of which usually include several courses in cost estimating. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos006.htm
Earnings:
Salaries of cost estimators vary widely by experience, education, size of firm, and industry. Median annual wages of wage and salary cost estimators in May 2008 were $56,510. The middle 50 percent earned between $42,720 and $74,320. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $33,150, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $94,470. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of cost estimators were: Nonresidential building construction ..................................... $65,410 Building equipment contractors ............................................. 60,510 Building finishing contractors ................................................ 55,430 Residential building construction ........................................... 55,390 Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors ........ 54,670

(14) DESIGNERS, FASHION:

Basic coursework includes color, textiles, sewing and tailoring, pattern making, fashion history, computeraided design (CAD), and design of different types of clothing such as menswear or footwear. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos291.htm
Earnings:
Median annual wages for salaried fashion designers were $61,160 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $42,150 and $87,120. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $32,150, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $124,780. Median annual wages of salaried fashion designers in the largest industries that employed them in May 2008 were: Management of companies and enterprises ............................ $72,560 Cut and sew apparel manufacturing ....................................... 66,000 Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers ...... 61,600 Specialized design services .................................................... 59,560

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(15) DESIGNERS, COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL:

A bachelor's degree in industrial design, architecture, or engineering is required for most entry-level commercial and industrial design jobs. Coursework includes principles of design, sketching, computer-aided design, industrial materials and processes, manufacturing methods, and some classes in engineering, physical science, mathematics, psychology, and anthropology. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos290.htm
Earnings:
Median annual wage-and-salary wages for commercial and industrial designers were $57,350 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $41,550 and $76,700. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $31,400, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $97,770. Median annual wages of salaried commercial and industrial designers in the largest industries that employed them in May 2008 were: Management of companies and enterprises ................. $63,940 Architectural, engineering, and related services .......... 61,450 Specialized design services ......................................... 59,150 Other miscellaneous manufacturing ............................ 50,990

(16) DESIGNERS, INTERIOR:

Basic coursework includes CAD, drawing, perspective, spatial planning, color and fabrics, furniture design, architecture, ergonomics, ethics, and psychology. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos293.htm Earnings:
Median annual wages for interior designers were $44,950 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $34,620 and $61,880. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $27,230, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $82,750. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of interior designers in May 2008 were: Architectural, engineering, and related services .......... $49,290 Specialized design services ......................................... 45,470 Furniture stores............................................................ 41,080 Building material and supplies dealers ........................ 40,040

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(17) DRAFTERS:

Employers prefer applicants who have also completed training after high school at a technical institute, community college, or 4-year college or university. []The American Design Drafting Association (ADDA) has established a certification program for drafters. Although employers usually do not require drafters to be certified, certification demonstrates knowledge and an understanding of nationally recognized practices. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos111.htm
Earnings:
Drafters' earnings vary by specialty, location, and level of responsibility. Median annual wages of architectural and civil drafters were $44,490 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $35,290 and $55,740. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $28,220, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $67,110. Median annual wages for architectural and civil drafters in architectural, engineering, and related services were $44,390.

(18) DRYWALL AND CEILING TILE INSTALLERS, TAPERS, PLASTERERS, AND STUCCO MASONS:

A high school education, or its equivalent, is helpful, as are courses basic math, mechanical drawing, and blueprint reading. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos352.htm
Earnings:
The median hourly wages of wage and salary drywall and ceiling tile installers were $18.12 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $14.23 and $23.80. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $11.64, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $31.72. Median hourly wages of wage and salary tapers were $21.03 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $15.45 and $28.27. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $12.62, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $34.91. Median hourly wages of wage and salary plasterers and stucco masons were $18.01 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $14.36 and $22.94. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $12.01, and the top 10 percent earned more than $29.59.

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(19) ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS:

*Where not specifically stated as an educational requirement within the Occupational Outlook Handbook by the U.S. Department of Labor, many engineering fields rely heavily on drafting knowledge in the conveyance of ideas, and many require such courses http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos112.htm
Earnings:
Median annual wages in May 2008 of engineering technicians by specialty are shown in the following tabulation. Aerospace engineering and operations technicians ............ $55,040 Electrical and electronic engineering technicians .............. 53,240 Mechanical engineering technicians .................................. 48,130 Industrial engineering technicians ...................................... 47,180 Electro-mechanical technicians .......................................... 46,310 Civil engineering technicians ............................................. 44,290 Environmental engineering technicians ............................. 41,100 Median annual wages of wage and salary electrical and electronic engineering technicians were $53,240 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $41,550 and $64,120. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $32,490, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $78,560. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of electrical and electronic engineering technicians were: Wired telecommunications carriers ............................................................................... $56,080 Architectural, engineering, and related services ............................................................ 51,650 Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing ................................... 48,960 Navigational, measuring, electromedical, and control instruments manufacturing....... 48,200 Employment services .................................................................................................... 42,960

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(20) ENGINEERS:

*Where not specifically stated as an educational requirement within the Occupational Outlook Handbook by the U.S. Department of Labor, many engineering fields rely heavily on drafting knowledge in the conveyance of ideas, and many require such courses. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos027.htm

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(21) HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING, AND REFRIGERATION MECHANICS AND INSTALLERS:

High school students interested in some initial training for this industry should take courses in shop math, mechanical drawing, applied physics and chemistry, electronics, blueprint reading, and computer applications. [] Classes include subjects such as safety practices, the use and care of tools, blueprint reading, and the theory and design of heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos192.htm
Earnings:
Median hourly wages of heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers were $19.08 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $14.94 and $24.84 an hour. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $12.19, and the top 10 percent earned more than $30.59. Median hourly wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of heating, airconditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers were: Local government.............................................................................................................. $22.79 Hardware, and plumbing and heating equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers ...... 22.18 Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment (except automotive and electronic) repair and maintenance ............................................. 20.83 Direct selling establishments ............................................................................................. 20.03 Building equipment contractors ........................................................................................ 18.26

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(22) INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY MECHANICS AND MILLWRIGHTS:

Employers also prefer to hire those who have taken high school or postsecondary courses in mechanical drawing, mathematics, blueprint reading, computer programming, or electronics. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos353.htm
Earnings:
Median hourly wages of millwrights were $22.87 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $17.85 and $30.53. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $14.37, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $37.02. Median hourly wages of industrial machinery mechanics were $20.99 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $16.87 and $25.82. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $13.63, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $31.40. Machinery maintenance workers earned somewhat less than the higher skilled industrial machinery mechanics. Median hourly wages of machinery maintenance workers were $17.69 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $13.75 and $22.82. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $10.83, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $28.10. Earnings vary by industry and geographic region. Median hourly wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of industrial machinery mechanics are: Motor vehicle parts manufacturing ................................................... $24.04 Machinery, equipment, and supplies merchant wholesalers ............. 20.17 Plastics product manufacturing ......................................................... 20.05 Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment (except automotive and electronic) repair and maintenance ............. 18.65 Animal slaughtering and processing ................................................. 16.65

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(23) INSPECTORS, TESTERS, SORTERS, SAMPLERS, & WEIGHERS:

Training for new inspectors may cover the use of special meters, gauges, computers, and other instruments; quality-control techniques; blueprint reading; safety; and reporting requirements. [] The chances of finding work in this occupation can be improved by studying industrial trades, including computer-aided design, in high school or in a postsecondary vocational program. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos220.htm
Earnings:
Median hourly wages of inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers were $15.02 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $11.58 and $19.52 an hour. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $9.28 an hour, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $25.47 an hour. Median hourly wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers in May 2008 were as follows: Aerospace product and parts manufacturing ..................................... $22.10 Motor vehicle parts manufacturing ................................................... 16.39 Semiconductor and other electronic component manufacturing ....... 14.22 Plastics product manufacturing ......................................................... 13.87 Employment services ........................................................................ 11.64

(24) MACHINISTS:

In high school, students should take math courses, especially trigonometry and geometry and, if available, courses in blueprint reading, metalworking, and drafting. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos223.htm
Earnings:
Median hourly wages of machinists were $17.41 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $13.66 and $21.85. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $10.79, while the top 10 percent earned more than $26.60. Median hourly wages in the manufacturing industries employing the largest number of machinists were: Aerospace product and parts manufacturing ................................................... $19.49 Metalworking machinery manufacturing ........................................................ 17.90 Motor vehicle parts manufacturing ................................................................. 17.06 Machine shops; turned product; and screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing ....... 16.93 Employment services ...................................................................................... 12.94

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(25) MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR WORKERS, GENERAL:

High school courses in mechanical drawing, electricity, woodworking, blueprint reading, science, mathematics, and computers are useful. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos194.htm
Earnings:
Median hourly wages of general maintenance and repair workers were $16.21 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $12.44 and $21.09. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $9.78, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $25.94. Median hourly wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of general maintenance and repair workers in May 2008 are shown in the following tabulation: Local government...................................... $17.11 Elementary and secondary schools............ 16.86 Activities related to real estate .................. 14.41 Lessors of real estate ................................. 13.91 Traveler accommodation ........................... 12.65

(26) MEDICAL, DENTAL, AND OPHTHALMIC LABORATORY TECHNICIANS:

Courses in metal and wood shop, art, drafting, and computers are recommended. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos238.htm
Earnings:
Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians held about 95,200 jobs in 2008. About 58 percent of jobs were in medical equipment and supplies manufacturing, which usually are small, privately owned businesses with fewer than five employees. However, some laboratories are large; a few employ more than 1,000 workers. The following tabulation shows employment by occupation: Dental laboratory technicians ........................ $46,000 Ophthalmic laboratory technicians ................ 35,200 Medical appliance technicians ...................... 13,900

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(27) PLUMBERS, PIPELAYERS, PIPEFITTERS, AND STEAMFITTERS:

Apprenticeshipsboth union and nonunionconsist of 4 or 5 years of paid on-the-job training and at least 144 hours of related classroom instruction per year. Classroom subjects include drafting and blueprint reading, mathematics, applied physics and chemistry, safety, and local plumbing codes and regulations. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos211.htm
Earnings:
Plumbers, pipelayers, pipefitters, and steamfitters are among the highest paid workers in construction occupations. Median hourly wages of wage and salary plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters were $21.94 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $16.63 and $29.66. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $13.22, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $37.93. Median hourly wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters were as follows: Natural gas distribution .....................................$26.27 Nonresidential building construction ................ 23.14 Building equipment contractors ........................ 21.86 Utility system construction................................ 21.15 Local government.............................................. 20.65

(28) ROOFERS:

A high school education, or its equivalent, is helpful and so are courses in mechanical drawing and basic mathematics. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos212.htm
Earnings:
In May 2008, median hourly wages of roofers were $16.17. The middle 50 percent earned between $12.97 and $21.98. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $10.63, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $28.46. Median hourly wages of roofers in the foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors industry were $16.26. Earnings may be less on occasions when poor weather limits the time roofers can work. Apprentices usually begin earning about 40 percent to 50 percent of the rate paid to experienced roofers. They receive periodic raises as they master the skills of the trade. Some roofers are members of United Union of Roofers, Waterproofers, and Allied Workers. Hourly wages and fringe benefits are generally higher for union workers.

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(29) SHEET METAL WORKERS:

For some, this training begins in a high school, where classes in English, algebra, geometry, physics, mechanical drawing and blueprint reading, and general shop are recommended. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos214.htm
Earnings:
In May 2008, median hourly wages of sheet metal workers were $19.37. The middle 50 percent earned between $14.39 and $27.03. The lowest 10 percent of all sheet metal workers earned less than $11.43, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $35.36. The median hourly wages of the largest industries employing sheet metal workers were as follows: Federal Government ............................................................... $23.37 Building finishing contractors ................................................ 21.35 Building equipment contractors ............................................. 19.98 Foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors ........ 17.67 Architectural and structural metals manufacturing ................ 17.32

(30) STATIONARY ENGINEERS AND BOILER OPERATORS:

Apprentices also receive 600 hours of classroom instruction, studying elementary physics, practical chemistry, blueprint reading, instrumentation, and other technical subjects. [] Most employers of entrylevel workers and apprenticeship committees prefer applicants with a basic understanding of mathematics, science, computers, mechanical drawing, machine shop practice, and chemistry. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos228.htm
Earnings:
Median annual wages of stationary engineers and boiler operators were $49,790 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $39,390 and $61,670. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $30,630, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $74,500.

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(31) STRUCTURAL AND REINFORCING IRON AND METAL WORKERS:

[H]igh school courses in general mathematics, mechanical drawing, English, and welding are considered helpful. []Classroom study for apprentices consists of blueprint reading; mathematics, the basics of structural erecting, rigging, reinforcing, welding, assembling, and safety training. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos215.htm
Earnings:
In May 2008, median hourly wages of structural iron and steel workers were $20.68. The middle 50 percent earned between $15.18 and $29.15. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $12.25, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $37.04. In May 2008, median hourly wages of reinforcing iron and rebar workers were $19.18. The middle 50 percent earned between $14.35 and $27.29. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $11.78, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $35.26. In May 2008, median hourly wages of structural iron and steel workers in foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors were $21.51 and in nonresidential building construction, $18.53. Reinforcing iron and rebar workers earned median hourly wages of $19.37 in foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors .

(32) SURVEYORS, CARTOGRAPHERS, PHOTOGRAMMETRISTS AND SURVEYING TECH:

High school students interested in surveying and cartography should take courses in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, drafting, mechanical drawing, and computer science. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos040.htm
Earnings:
Median annual wages of cartographers and photogrammetrists were $51,180 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $39,510 and $69,220. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $31,440 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $87,620. Median annual wages of surveyors were $52,980 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $38,800 and $70,010. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $29,600 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $85,620. Median annual wages of surveyors employed in architectural, engineering, and related services were $51,870 in May 2008. Median annual wages of surveying and mapping technicians were $35,120 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $27,370 and $45,860. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $21,680, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $58,030. Median annual wages of surveying and mapping technicians employed in architectural, engineering, and related services were $33,220 in May 2008, while those employed by local governments had median annual wages of $40,510.

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(33) TOOL AND DIE MAKERS:

Classroom training usually consists of tool designing, tool programming, blueprint reading, and mathematics courses, including algebra, geometry, calculus, trigonometry, and statistics. Tool and die makers must have good computer skills to work with CAD/CAM technology, CNC machine tools, and computerized measuring machines. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos225.htm
Earnings:
Median hourly wages of tool and die makers were $22.32 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $18.00 and $27.99. The lowest 10 percent had earnings of less than $14.69, while the top 10 percent earned more than $34.76. Median hourly wages in the manufacturing industries employing the largest numbers of tool and die makers were as follows: Motor vehicle parts manufacturing ............................................................. $27.99 Forging and stamping .................................................................................. 21.80 Plastics product manufacturing ................................................................... 21.55 Machine shops; turned product; and screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing ... 20.73 Metalworking machinery manufacturing .................................................... 20.46

(34) URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNERS:

Highly recommended also are courses in related disciplines, such as architecture, law, earth sciences, demography, geography, economics, finance, health administration, and management. Because familiarity with computer models and statistical techniques is important, courses in statistics, computer science, and GIS also are recommended or required. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos057.htm
Earnings:
Median annual wages of urban and regional planners were $59,810 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $47,050 and $75,630. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $37,960, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $91,520. Median annual wages in the industries employing the largest numbers of urban and regional planners in May 2008 were: Architectural, engineering, and related services .........................$63,770 Scientific research and development services ............................ 60,750 Management, scientific, and technical consulting services ........ 59,160 Local government....................................................................... 58,260 Colleges, universities, and professional schools ........................ 57,520

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(35) WELDING, SOLDERING, & BRAZING WORKERS:

Courses in blueprint reading, shop mathematics, mechanical drawing, physics, chemistry, and metallurgy are helpful. An understanding of electricity also is very helpful, and knowledge of computers is gaining importance, especially for welding, soldering, and brazing machine operators, who are becoming more responsible for programming robots and other computer-controlled machines. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos226.htm
Earnings:
Median wages of welders, cutters, solderers, and brazers were $16.13 an hour in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $13.20 and $19.61. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $10.85, and the top 10 percent earned more than $24.38. The range of wages of welders reflects the wide range of skill levels in the occupation. Median hourly wages of welders, cutters, solderers, and brazers in the industries employing the largest numbers of them were as follows: Other general purpose machinery manufacturing ........................................................................................................ $16.34 Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery manufacturing ................................................................................ 16.28 Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment (except automotive and electronic) repair and maintenance ... 15.93 Architectural and structural metals manufacturing ...................................................................................................... 15.05 Motor vehicle body and trailer manufacturing ............................................................................................................. 14.73

2010-2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics Compilations, by Bryan G. Holmes, August 2010


(36) WOODWORKERS:

Skilled workers learn to read blueprints, set up machines, and plan work sequences. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos237.htm
Earnings:
Median hourly wages of cabinetmakers and bench carpenters were $13.93 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $11.14 and $17.40. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $9.22, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $21.73. Median hourly wages of sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood were $12.41. The middle 50 percent earned between $9.96 and $15.24. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $8.35, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $18.92. Median hourly wages of woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders, except sawing were $11.89. The middle 50 percent earned between $9.69 and $14.73. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $8.28, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $17.89. Median hourly wages were $12.93 for furniture finishers and $11.57 for all other woodworkers.

Information Irregularities and Disclaimers: Federal data grouped by trade and industry, not educational requirements Some federal groupings generalized, decreasing educational specificity Gaps exist in data supplied by the BLS Errors produced by rounding exist in the BLS data Data is historical in reference (though projections are presented) BLS data utilized, though current economic conditions may not accurately reflect projection deadlines All illustrations were created by the author utilizing Autodesk products Material presented for information purposes only