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DR TANG TONG BOON
GROUP MEMBERS: LEE SHENG SIANG (17110) YEE KANG YUNG (17215) NOOR AIMAN BIN NOOR RASHID (17117) KHAIRUNNISA BINTI HJ KHAIRUDDIN (17093)
. THEORY Power Supply Figure (1): Power Supply Schematic Diagram The schematic of the dc power supply is shown above.25V to 6V.INTRODUCTION In electrical and electronic engineering. Incoming signals from mains are usually in the form of alternating current (AC) signals. constant direct current (DC) signals as a power supply for various devices are often needed especially for electronic devices. Therefore it is essential to have a DC power supply that is able to convert AC signals into DC signals. OBJECTIVE The objective of this project is to convert alternating current (AC) signals into direct current (DC) signal while having short circuit protection features. adjustable voltage regulator and variable resistor. bridge rectifier. One characteristic of AC signal is the current is bidirectional compared to DC signal which is unidirectional. It has double outputs which can vary from 1. Most electronic devices require input signal current of one direction. or else the circuit might not be functional. filter capacitor. This circuit consists of 9 V step down centertapped transformer.
LM317 develops a nominal 1. LM317 which is adjustable 3-terminal positive voltage regulator is capable of supplying in excess of 1. In operation. giving an output voltage of ( ) is the current that flows out from adjustment where R1 equals to 500Ω. thus the output voltage will definitely less than 16. the input voltage is only up to -9V. However in this design.5A over an output voltage range of -1.7V during forward biased. . LM337 which is adjustable 3-terminal negative voltage regulator is capable of supplying in excess of -1. between the output and adjustment terminal.97V. giving an output voltage of ( ) . However in this design. Capacitors C1 and C2 serve as filter capacitors where they are used to reduce substantially the variations in the rectifier output voltage. a constant current then flows through the output variable resistor R4. This means that only positive cycles will pass through adjustable positive voltage regulator (LM317K) whereas only negative cycles will pass through adjustable negative voltage regulator (LM337K). In the same cycle. diode D2 will be forward biased and diode D4 will be reverse biased. thus current is conducted through diode D4 and diode D2 will be reverse biased. . LM337 develops a nominal -1. Since the transformer is center-tapped.As indicated. The voltage at the input nodes of voltage regulators will be reduce to approximately 16.25V reference voltage. the lower output voltage of the transformer is positive cycles.97V (negative) since there is a voltage drop across the rectifier diode which is around 0. the lower output voltage of the transformer is negative cycles. it will supply positive and negative voltages simultaneously and alternates its output voltages.97V. R2 ranging from 0 to 2kΩ and terminal which is usually in the range of 50μA to 100μA. When the upper output voltage of the transformer is positive cycles. the power supply is fed from the 240V 50Hz ac line and connects to the transformer. current is conducted through diode D3 and diode D1 will be reverse biased. At the same time.5A over a 1. The reference voltage is impressed across resistor R1 and since the voltage is constant. thus the output voltage will definitely less than -9V. a constant current then flows through the output variable resistor R2. In operation. between the output and adjustment terminal.97V (positive) or -16. In the next cycle in which the upper output voltage of the transformer is negative cycles. the input voltage is only up to 16. diode D1 will be forward biased and diode D3 will be reverse biased. The reference voltage is impressed across resistor R3 and since the voltage is constant.2V to 37V output range.25V reference voltage.2V to -37V.
where R3 equals to 500Ω.2 to 12 v DC output appears across O/P2 terminals.2-12v supply (O/P1). When O/P2 terminals short. R4 ranging from 0 to 2kΩ and terminal which is usually in the range of 50μA to 100μA. As a result.2 to 12V DC output from regulator IC 7805 is available. D6 protects against C2. The diodes D5. D6. transistor 2N3905 conducts through resistors R1 and R3 and LED1. The green LED (LED2) glows to indicate the same. D7 protects against C6 and D8 protects against C5. Capacitors C2 and C3 across the main 5V output (O/P1) absorb the voltage fluctuations occurring due to . Working of the short circuit protection circuit is simple. As a result. C5 and C6 are used to provide improved output impedance and rejection of transients. Short Circuit Protection Circuit Figure (2): Short Circuit Protection Circuit Transistors 2N3905 and 2N3904 are used to derive the secondary output of around 1. transistor 2N3904 conducts and short-circuit protected 1. the green LED (LED2) turns off and the red LED (LED1) glows. 2N3905 is also cut-off. When the 1. is the current that flows out from adjustment The capacitors C3.2-12v (O/P2) from the main 1. 2N3904 cuts off due to grounding of its base. while the red LED (LED1) remains off due to the presence of the same voltage at both of its ends. D7 and D8 act as protection diodes for preventing the capacitors from discharging through low current points into the regulator where D5 protects against C3. Thus during short-circuit. C4.
270 Ω x2. Lm337K x1) Resistors ( 500 Ω x2) Variable Resistors ( 2 KΩ x2) Pin Connectors Short Circuit Protection 1) LEDs (Red x2. The design of the circuit is based on the relationship given below: RB = (HFE X Vs)/(1. 1 KΩ x2. 470 Ω x2) . Green x2) 2) BJTs (NPN 2N3904 x2. RB = Base resistances of transistors of 2N3904 and 2N3905 HFE = 200 for 2N3905 and 350 for 2N3904 Switching Voltage Vs = 5V 1. The positive and negative terminals for short circuit protection are the same. ensuring disturbance-free O/P1. The only difference is the transistor 2N3905 is connected to the ground and 2N3904 is shorted to negative terminal.3 = Safety factor IL = Collector-emitter current of transistors COMPONENTS Power Supply 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Transformer Diodes (1N4004 x8) Capacitors (1000 µF x2.short-circuit in O/P2.3 X IL) where. 10 µF x4) Voltage Regulators (LM317K x1. 10 KΩ x2. PNP 2N3905 x2) 3) Resistors (470 Ω x2.
The circuit was obtained from a website. 6) Finally the entire project was encased in a plastic cover and tested. 5) A short-circuit protection circuit was integrated to the power supply circuit to prevent power surge caused by any short circuits that might damage it.PROCEDURES 1) Circuit of power supply was first tested on a breadboard to ensure the circuit’s functionality. 4) The finished printed circuit board was collected and assembled with components and soldered. Figure (3): Fabricated Printed Circuit Board . The PCB diagram of the circuit was translated from the schematic diagram using the same software. 3) Design was submitted to the lab technician to fabricate the power supply design. 2) Then the circuit’s schematic diagram was designed using computer-aided design software called ‘EAGLE’. The fabricated board is shown in Figure (3).
DESIGN Figure (4): Schematic Diagram of Power Supply .
Figure (5): PCB Diagram of Power Supply .
Retrieved from Apowersupply. Therefore it is an ECO-FRIENDLY function to save more power and maintain longer usage period of the power supply. the switch function can make the power supply function more intelligently. short circuit protection was included so that the power supply will be more reliable than other power supplies that came without any protection feature to prevent any power surge due to short circuits. REFERENCES Short Circuit Protection Circuit. .RESULTS Figure (6): Finished Power Supply Design CONCLUSION With safety features in mind.com. which means the user can define which mode they prefer so that the unselected part will be in 'hibernate' mode. In addition to that.