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Sample preparation In total about 3.6 kg of impregnated chips were pretreated.

Due to the limited size of the reactor, 600 g was pretreated at a time. The slurries obtained from the pretreatment runs were mixed together into a single batch and stored at 4 C for future use.

Kelebihan biomass

A comparison between simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and separate hydrolysis and fermentation using steam-pretreated corn stover
Karin O hgren a, Renata Bura b, Gary Lesnicki c, Jack Saddler b, Guido Zacchi a,*
Process Biochemistry 42 (2007) 834839

However, it is clear that the large-scale use of bioethanol will require lignocellulosic biomass to be used as raw material [3,1]. Furthermore, current data suggest that only lignocellulosic ethanol (ethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass) offers large reductions in greenhouse gas emissions compared with fossil fuels [3]. Bio-fuels also provide the opportunity for non-oil-producing countries to be self-sufficient in fuel. Bio-ethanol can be produced fromany biomass, thus access to rawmaterial is virtually unlimited. For example, agricultural byproducts (straw, sugar cane bagasse, stover) provide a readily available, vast source of cheap biomass [4]. However, the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic raw materials ismore difficult than from sugar or starch. Lignocellulosic materials consist primarily of three components, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, of which the first two can be hydrolysed to monomeric sugars [5], which can then be fermented to ethanol using a hexose- and pentose-fermenting organism. The hydrolysis of lignocellulose to monomeric sugars can be achieved in many different ways. One thoroughly investigated method is to first treat the material using steam pretreatment [6], with or without a catalyst. Several studies have been carried out on steam explosion as a method of pretreating corn stover, the raw material used in this study, using dilute sulphuric acid or SO2 as a catalyst, with the aim of solubilizing hemicellulosic sugars, and rendering the remaining cellulose accessible to subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis [711].

After pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis is used to convert the residual cellulose and hemicellulose into monomeric sugars. Pretreatment hydrolysate has an inhibitory effect on

cellulose conversion in the enzymatic step [15,16] but this can be overcome by fermentation of the pretreatment hydrolysate prior to enzymatic hydrolysis [17].

Both the whole slurry (with all the inhibitors present) and washed slurry were used in order to distinguish between inhibition due to byproducts formed in the steam pretreatment stage and sugarinhibition of the enzymes. The enzymes used were commercial enzyme mixtures from Novozymes A/S, Denmark,
Solid fractions, generated by pretreatment, were analysed in the same way as the raw material, and the liquid fraction was analysed with respect to monomeric and oligomeric sugars, acetic acid, 5-hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) and furfural.

A comparison of LHW and steam pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse for bioconversion to bioethanol Bioresources technology 81(2002)33-44. Cellulosic biomass represents the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals and materials (lynd et al 1999) A primary technological challenge in biologically processing cellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals is overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulose to hydrolysis. Cellulose hydrolysis processes are typically categorized into those that are strong mineral acids and those thats use cellulase enzyme. Although processing using acids are more technologically mature, enzymatic processes have comparable projected costs and are expected to enjoy an increasing cost advantage as the technology improves. Due to its resistence to enzymatic attack, however naturally occurring cellulosic biomass must be prereated before it can be enzymatic hydrolyzed. Pretreatment is one of the most expensive and least technologicallymature unit operation in lignocellulosic conversion process using enzymatic hydrolysis. To be effective, a pretreatment process must produce reactive fiber, preserve the utility of the hemicelluloses fraction, limit the extent to which the pretreated material inhibits growth of the fermenting microorganism. To be economical, the process should minimize energy demands and limits costs associated feedstock size reduction, materials ofconstruction and treatments of process residues. In naturally occurring cellulosic substrate, carbohydrate-rich microfibril are surrounded by lignin seal forming a complex structural matrix that is resistant to enzymatic attack. Principle substrate factors that have been correlated with pretreatment effectiveness include cellulose pore volume, hemicelluloses and lignin removal, and cellulose crystallinity. Process condition-temperature reaction time, ph and substrate concentration affect these substrate factors and thus influence pretreatment performance. Pretreatment process can be grouped into