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Jignesh S. Patel

P.G. Student of Electrical Power System B.V.M. Engineering College V.V.Nagar, Gujarat jigs_new88@ymail.com

Manish N. Sinha

Assistant Professor in EE Department B.V.M. Engineering College V.V.Nagar, Gujarat manishsinha77@ymail.co.in

Abstract Power-system stability is a term applied to alternating-current electric power systems, denoting a condition in which the various synchronous machines of the system remain in synchronism, or "in step," with each other. Conversely, instability denotes a condition involving loss of synchronism, or falling "out of step". Occurrence of a fault in a power system causes transients. To stabilize the system load flow analysis is done. Actually in practice the fault generally occurs in the load side. As we controlling load side which will lead to complex problem in order to avoid that we are controlling the generator side. This paper covers the transient stability analysis of 400 kV substation of Soja. A three phase fault is located at specified bus to analyze the effect of fault location in critical clearing time on the system stability. Keywords- critical clearing time, ETAP, three phase fault, transient, transient stability.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Successful operation of a power system depends largely on the engineer's ability to provide reliable and uninterrupted service to the loads. The reliability of the power supply implies much more than merely being available. Ideally, the loads must be fed at constant voltage and frequency at all times. The first requirement of reliable service is to keep the synchronous generators running in parallel and with adequate capacity to meet the load demand. Synchronous machines do not easily fall out of step under normal conditions. A second requirement of reliable electrical service is to maintain the integrity of the power network. The high-voltage transmission system connects the generating stations and the load centers. Power-system stability is a term applied to alternating-current electric power systems, denoting a condition in which the various synchronous machines of the system remain in synchronism, or "in step," with each other. Conversely, instability denotes a condition involving loss of synchronism, or falling "out of step." For convenience of analysis, stability problems are generally divided into two major categories: Steady-state stability Transient stability Steady-state stability refers to the ability of the power system to regain synchronism after small and slow disturbances, such as ground power changes. An extension of the steady-state stability is known as the dynamic stability.

Transient stability studies deal with the effects of large, sudden disturbances, such as the occurrence of the fault, the sudden outage of a line [1] [2]. Transient stability entails the evaluation of a power systems ability to withstand large disturbances, and to survive transition to a normal operating condition. These disturbances can be faults such as: a short circuit on a transmission line, loss of a generator, loss of a load, gain of load or loss of a portion of transmission network. Large number of simulations is carried out regularly during planning stages to gain knowledge of this system. Yet, even a well designed and normally operated system may face the threat of transient instability [3]. On the platform of ETAP, a worldwide-used simulation tool for power system analysis, the electric grid is settled up for the modeling of generators, transformers, lines, cables, loads, the external equivalent grid, etc. Eleven typical load flow operations, including operation structures under normal, maintenance and extreme conditions, are set up as base cases for the detailed study, including inter-connected situation and isolated operation, or some key electric equipment out of service. With the units number increasing, the system presents rotor angle stability. With the multiple voltage levels in the system, voltage profile is sensitive to the system structure and operation point. It is critical for the case that most of the loads are large motors. Although the system is connected to the bulk system under normal condition, it may operate isolated at extremely fault contingency. Then the system faces the demanding requirement of frequency stability and control [4]. The aim of the investigation is to analyze the behavior of the synchronous machine in particular the angular position of the rotor with respect to time after the fault occurs in the system. Section II is the study of transient stability analysis. Section III describes the development of system model. Section IV is short circuit analysis of the model. Section V describes the results for transient stability. Section VI concludes the paper. II. TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS

A. Transient stability Each generator operates at the same synchronous speed and frequency of 50 hertz while a delicate balance between the

input mechanical power and output electrical power is maintained. Whenever generation is less than the actual consumer load, the system frequency falls. On the other hand, whenever the generation is more than the actual load, the system frequency rise. The generators are also interconnected with each other and with the loads they supply via high voltage transmission line. The power system is routinely subjected to a variety of disturbances. Even the act of switching on an appliance in the house can be regarded as a disturbance. However, given the size of the system and the scale of the perturbation caused by the switching of an appliance in comparison to the size and capability of the interconnected system, the effects are not measurable. Large disturbance do occur on the system. These include severe lightning strikes, loss of transmission line carrying bulk power due to overloading. The ability of power system to survive the transition following a large disturbance and reach an acceptable operating condition is called transient stability. Any disturbance in the system will cause the imbalance between the mechanical power input to the generator and electrical power output of the generator to be affected. As a result, some of the generators will tend to speed up and some will tend to slow down. If, for a particular generator, this tendency is too great, it will no longer remain in synchronism with the rest of the system and will be automatically disconnected from the system. This phenomenon is referred to as a generator going out of step. B. Elementary view of transient stability analysis the machine reactance and the line reactance into a single reactance, we have an electric circuit consisting of two constant-voltage sources, Eg and EM, connected through reactance X =XG + XL + XM. It will be shown that the power transmitted from the generator to the motor depends upon the phase difference of the two voltages EG and EM. Since these voltages are generated by the flux produced by the field windings of the machines, their phase difference is the same as the electrical angle between the machine rotors. The vector diagram of voltages is shown in Fig.2 Vectorially, EG = EM + jXI (1) Hence the current is,

The power output of the generator and likewise the power input of the motor, since there is no resistance in the line is given by, = =

(2)

means the Where Re means the real part of and conjugate of . Now let, = 0 And = Then = So, = 0 90 = 90 90 = cos90 = sin

(3)

(4)

(5)

Consider the very simple power system of Fig.1, consisting of a synchronous generator supplying power to a synchronous motor over a circuit composed of series inductive reactance XL. Each of the synchronous machines may be represented, at least approximately, by a constant-voltage source in series with a constant reactance. Thus the generator is represented by Eg and Xg; and the motor, by EM and XM. Upon combining

This equation shows that the power P transmitted from the generator to the motor varies with the sine of the displacement angle between the two rotors, as plotted in Fig.2. The curve P versus is known as the power angle curve and is shown in fig.3. The maximum power that can be transmitted in the steady state with the given reactance X and the given internal voltages EG and EM is, = And occurs at a displacement angle = 90. The value of maximum power may be increased by rising either of the internal voltages or by decreasing the circuit reactance [1].

(9)

Fig.3. Power-angle curve of the system. C. Swing equation The electromechanical equation describing the relative motion of the rotor load angle () with respect to the stator field as a function of time is known as Swing equation. The swing equation in terms of the inertia constant becomes,

(6)

Where, M = inertia constant, it is not really constant when the rotor speed deviates from the synchronous speed. Pm = Shaft power input, corrected for windage and friction losses. Pe = Pa sin = electrical power output, corrected for electrical losses. Pa = amplitude for the power angle curve. m = mechanical power angle. Swing equation in terms of electrical angle is,

Consider the machine operating at the equilibrium point 0, corresponding to the mechanical power input Pm0 = Pe0 as shown in figure 4. Consider a sudden step increase in input power represented by horizontal line Pm1. Since Pm1 > Pe0, the accelerating power on the rotor is positive and the power angle increases. The excess energy stored in the rotor during the initial acceleration is

= =

(10)

(7)

With increase in , the electrical power increases, and when = 1, the electrical power matches the new input power Pm1. Even though the acceleration power is zero at this point, the rotor is running above synchronous speed; hence, and electrical power Pe will continue to increase. Now Pm < Pe, causing the rotor to decelerate toward synchronous speed until = max. According to Equation for stability, = 0 (11) The rotor must swing past point b until an equal amount of energy is given up by the rotating masses. The energy given up by the rotor as it decelerates back to synchronous speed is, = (12) The result is that the rotor swings to point b and the angle , at which point | | = | | (13)

D. Equal-area criterian The transient stability studies involve the determination of whether or not synchronism is maintained after the machine has been subjected to sever disturbance. This may be sudden application of load, loss of generation, loss of large load, or a fault on the system. In most disturbances, oscillations are of such magnitude that linearization is not permissible and the nonlinear swing equation must be solved. A method known as the equal-area criterion can be used for a quick prediction of stability. This method is based on the graphical interpretation of the energy stored in the rotating mass as an aid to determine if the machine maintains its stability after a disturbance. The method is only applicable to a one-machine system connected to an infinite bus or a two-machine system. Consider a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus. The swing equation with damping neglected is given by,

= =

(8)

This is known as the equal-area criterion. The rotor angle would then oscillate back and forth between 0 and max at its natural frequency. The damping present in the machine will cause these oscillations to subside and the new steady state operation would be established at point b [5].

III. IV.

SYSTEM MODEL

The Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation has established a 400kV SOJA sub-station. it is 1.5 km between from Gojariya-Gandhinagar highway. It has a land of higher bearing capacity. Due to the higher requirement of agricultural as well as bulk power requirement of industrial area the soja center is so chosen. It covers total 50acres land, in which the construction of 400kV, 220kV and 33kV switchyard, control room and also staff quarters etc. The incoming line of 400kV at Soja s/s is from Wanakbori and PGCIL 400kV s/s which is single circuit type transmission line .The tower required for erection of 400kV transmission line which is coming from Wanakbori and PGCIL s/s are of three type i.e., A, type C and type D tower. The total number of tower required between Wanakbori & PGCIL and soja s/s is 412. The line has charged since 28th January 1987 In single line diagram two incoming lines from Wanakbori and PGCIL of 400kV, and two incoming line from Gandhinagar of 220kV.

A. System model in ETAP The case example is modeled in ETAP and shown in fig.6. ETAP is chosen as the simulation tool, which is developed by OTI, a comprehensive analysis platform for the design, simulation, and operation of generation, transmission, distribution, and industrial power systems [5]. It supplies a calculations for load flow, short circuit, transient stability, etc, which are beneficial to explore the characteristics of simulated systems.

Fig. 6 system model in ETAP B. Short circuit study The short circuit view of the system in ETAP is shown in figure 7. In ETAP, the report can be generated for LLL, LL, LG, LLG LLLG (symmetrical and asymmetrical both) fault.

Fig. 5 One line diagram of 400 kV substation of Soja A power system must be modeled as a nonlinear system for large disturbances. Although power system stability may be broadly defined according to different operating conditions, an important problem which is frequently considered is the problem of transient stability. It concerns the maintenance of synchronism between generators following a severe disturbance. By the excitation control in a generating unit transient stability can be greatly enhanced. Another important issue of power system control is to maintain steady acceptable voltage under normal operating and disturbed conditions, which is referred as the problem of voltage regulation [5].

V. TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE SYSTEM

MODEL IN ETAP

The ETAP Transient Stability Analysis program is designed to investigate the system dynamic responses and stability limits of a power system before, during, and after system changes or disturbances. The program models dynamic characteristics of a power system, implements the user-defined events and actions, solves the system network equation and machine differential equations interactively to find out system and machine responses in time domain. The different plot for generator 1&2 when fault on bus-6 at 0.5sec and cleared at 1sec are shown below in fig.8 (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g) & (h).

Fig. 8 (c) Generator Reactive power Fig. 8 (c) shows the reactive power plot (Mvar vs. Time (sec)) for generator 1&2.

Fig. 8 (a) Generator Exciter current Fig.8 (a) shows the result of the exciter current (Per unit vs. Time (sec)) for generator 1&2. Fig. 8 (d) Generator Electrical Power Fig. 8 (d) gives the plot of electrical power (MW vs. Time (sec)) for generator 1&2.

Fig. 8 (b) Impedance Z Fig.8 (b) shows the impedance plot (X in % machine base vs. R in % machine base).

Fig. 8 (e) Generator Speed Fig. 8 (e) shows the plot for speed variation (Rpm vs. Time (sec)) for generator 1&2.

Fig. 8(h) shows the plot of Generator Absolute Power Angle (Degree vs. Time (sec)) for generator 1&2. VI.

CONCLUSION

Fig. 8 (f) Generator Relative Power Angle Fig. 8(f) is the plot for relative power angle (Degree vs. Time (sec)). We can see the result for generator 1&2.

Dynamic performance of a power system is significant in the design and operation of the system. The transient stability study determines the machine power angles and speed deviations, system electrical frequency, real and reactive power flows of the machines, power flows of lines and transformers, as well as the voltage levels of the buses in the system. These system conditions provide indications for system stability assessments. The results are displayed on the one-line diagram, and also can be printed or plotted. For transient stability studies, you should model particular groups of machines in the system , which are known to have important influences on the system operation. The total simulation time for each study case should be sufficiently long to obtain a definite stability conclusion. Power system stability is the property of a power system that insures the system remains in electromechanical equilibrium throughout any normal and abnormal operating conditions. Because the power system stability is an electromechanical phenomenon, it is thus defined as the ability of designated synchronous machines in the system to remain in synchronism with one another following disturbance such as fault and fault removal at various locations in the system. This paper presents the study of transient stability analysis and also the transient stability analysis using ETAP. It shows the different graph of voltage, current, power angle and speed in the ETAP.

Fig. 8(g) Generator Terminal Current Fig. 8(g) is the plot of Generator Terminal Current (Amp vs. Time (sec)) for generator 1&2.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would like to thank to B.V.M Engineering College for allowing the project work and procure the licensed package of ETAP software and kind support during project work. REFERENCES

[1] Ankit Jha, Lalthangliana Ralte, Ashwinee Kumar, Pinak Ranjan Pati TRANSIENT STABILITY ANALYSIS USING EQUAL AREA CRITERION USING SIMULINKMODEL, Department of Electrical Engineering National Institute of Technology Rourkela, 2008-09. [2] Pranamita Basu, Aiswarya Harichandan, POWER SYSTEM STABILITY STUDIES USING MATLAB, National Institute of Technology Rourkela769008, Orissa.. [3] P.K. Iyambo, R. Tzonova, Transient Stability Analysis of the IEEE 14Bus Electrical Power System, IEEE Conf. 2007. [4] Liang Wang, Li Li, Shanshan Shi, Yiwei Zhang, Zongxiang Lu, Junliang ZhangG. Eason, B. Noble, and I. N. Stability and Security Assessment for an Industrial Electric Grid with Enterprise-owned Power Plants, DRPT2008 6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China 1563. [5] Hadi Saadat, Power System Analysis, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Comp. Ltd, New Delhi, Sixteenth reprint 2009. [6] ETAP version 7.5.0.

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