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CAMPUS JOURNALISM

Quiz #2 NAME: ____________________ COURSE: _____ DATE: ______ I. MODIFIED TRUE OR FALSE: Directions: Write TRUE if the statement is correct. Write FALSE if the statement is incorrect and underline the word or group of words that make the statement erroneous. ______ 1. A qualified moderator of campus paper adviser is one who is with more than ordinary experience in journalism or school paper work. ______ 2. The editor-in-chief writes the editorials of the organ even without consultation with the members of the editorial staff. ______ 3. He supervises the preparation of the layout and dummying of the paper and paging of the same in cooperation with the features editor and layout artist. ______ 4. The associate editor is always responsible in writing the editorial of the organ. ______ 5. The managing editor checks articles for grammatical and typographical errors. ______ 6. The news editor assigns reporters to cover events relevant to school activities. ______ 7. The Filipino editor acts as liaison officer between the Filipino staff and the adviser. ______ 8. The sports editor writes sports articles assigned to reporters ______ 9. The Layout artist writes the captions of pictures utilized by the paper in cooperation with the ed-in-chief. ______ 10. Regular columns and articles are written by the features editor. II. IDENTIFICATION Directions: Identify what is asked for in each item. Write your answer on the space provided before each number. ______________ 1. a design or type composition placed at the right or left of a nameplate. ______________ 2. the line of type on the front page designating the name of the publication. ______________ 3. A human interest story designed to entertain as well as to inform. ______________ 4. A published letter sent by an avid reader to the editor commenting on public issue. ______________ 5. A satirical drawing commenting on a public issue usually accompanying the editorial. ______________ 6. It is a subordinate headline immediately below its mother headline. ______________ 7. It is a headline that extends across the top of a page. ______________ 8. A general term for all titles of news stories. ______________ 9. the introduction to a straight or formal news story, usually the first paragraph. ______________ 10. any printed matter surrounded or partly enclosed by a special borderline. ______________ 11. the name of the writer placed at the top or at the bottom of the story. ______________ 12. the point at which the newspaper is folded in half. ______________ 13. A line preceding an out-of-town story that gives the date and place from where the story came from.. ______________ 14. text that accompanies photo or artwork. ______________ 15. one line of several words in small type placed above the headline.

______________ 16. a line of type at the top of all newspapers pages, except the first, giving the name of paper & date of issue. ______________ 17. a line or type crediting the source of an item , a photo or a cartoon. ______________ 18. A page umber found at the top of each page of the paper, except the first, alongside the running head. ______________ 19. editorial box which supplies the reader with info on the paper such as name, staff subscription rate, etc. ______________ 20. - a kind of journalistic writing designed to interpret the news deemed most important or significant.

The clanging of the Manila Fire Department trucks one night attracted a throng of spectators, among them Maricel Conception, eight years old, a second grader; Gabby Cuneta, 17, a high schooler; Mrs. Nora Deleon, a housewife, and Warren Cruz, editor of the Torchbearer of the PNU Laboratory school. At school the next day, Maricels teacher asked the pupils to write about something interesting they had seen. Maricel wrote painstakingly:

I saw a fire. It was a big red fire. It burned a house. There were many people around. Some men put water on the fire.
Gabby likewise took advantage of the fire as a topic of his composition:

Fearful scarlet tongues arose to star-studded heavens and licked greedily at the doomed edifice while the brave fire fighters risked their all to quench the terrible conflagration.
Mrs. De Leon, too, mentioned the fire in a letter she scribbled to a friend. Her: version:

I happened to see the most interesting fire in our neighborhood last night. There were many fire trucks called and they were able to extinguish it, but it required much effort. It probably coast the people who owned the house a good deal of money. The date was August 8. August is the 8th month, so I bet in the jueteng 8-8, pompiang.
Editor Cruz on the other hand wrote for his paper the following item:

A fire of undetermined origin razed to the ground a three-story apartment of Christopher Salvador of 164-B Recto St. last night. Four fire companies subdued it within an hour. The damage, estimated at P100, 000 was covered by insurance.
Now which of these four essays do you think is a news story? Maricel wrote with childish simplicity; Gabby with enthusiastic vividness and lavish phraseology Mrs. De Leon with adult dignity Mr. Cruz combined simplicity, vividness and dignity (achieved clarity and compactness, the outstanding qualities of newspaper style.)

TAKE NOTE:

Simplicity alone- bare skeleton of facts Vividness alone- shining masses of embroidered raiment Dignity alone-a dull and drab pattern Combination of the three- simple enough for Mr. Average Reader to understand.

NEWSPAPERING IN DETAIL
News- an oral or written report of a past, present or future event. Factual Truthful Accurate Unbiased Interesting

Elements of News
CONFLICT- (physical or mental) IMMEDIACY or TIMELINESS- emphasizes the newest angle of the story. The more recent, the more interesting. PROXIMITY/ NEARNESS - refers to geological nearness; nearness of kinship or interest. PROMINENCE - applies to people who are known bec. of wealth, social position or achievements. - may also refer to places or things. SIGNIFICANCE -whatever is significant is interesting NAMES - important names make important news - the more names the better ODDITY OR UNUSUALNESS - strange or unnatural events, objects, persons, and places. - an odd story is interesting bec of the human interest side of it. ROMANCE & ADVENTURE SEX - romance, marriage, divorce, varied activities of men and women. PROGRESS - the onward and forward march of civilization is chronicled step by step in the newspaper. ANIMALS - animals with special talents (human interest value) NUMBER - sweepstakes numbers, vital statistics, election results, scores in games, casualties,

price of goods, and ages of women make good news. EMOTION - Includes various human responses such as the innate desire for food, clothing, shelter, and the universal interest in children, animals and nature; the natural feeling of love , sympathy and generosity, of fear, hatred, and jealousy.

TYPES OF NEWS STORY SCOPE AND ORIGIN:

1. Local News 2. National News 3. Foreign news 4. Dateline news - news preceded by the date and place of origin where it was written or filed. CHRONOLOGY OR SEQUENCE 1. Advance or Anticipated - sometimes called dope or prognostication - news published before its occurrence 2. Spot News - news gathered and reported on the spot reporter himself is an eye witness to the event that took place. 3. Coverage News - news written from a given beat. - first hand reporting 4. Follow-up News - a sequel to a previous story. STRUCTURE

1. Straight News - consists of facts given straight without embellishments - uses the summary lead..informs.. 2. News Feature - based on facts, but entertains more than it informs. - uses the suspended interest structure (narrative) - writer may give his impression, describe and narrate, but without resorting to biased opinion. - byline usually appears with his story. Types of News Feature: Single feature or one-incident story

- deals with an isolated event -single fact is featured in the lead, and is explained further in the succeeding paragraphs Several Feature, Multiple-angled, or composite story - several facts are included in the lead

TREATMENT 1. Fact Story - plain exposition setting forth a single situation or a series of closely related facts that inform. - written in inverted pyramid. 2. Action Story - narrative of actions involving dramatic events , descriptions of persons and events, and explanatory data. 3. Speech Report - written from public address, talks, speeches 4. Quote Story - speeches, statements, and letters, interviews when reported - based on recorded information, written or spoken, and transcribed by the reporter in the form of news. 5. Interview Story CONTENT 1. Routine Story - celebrations, enrollment, graduation, election stories reported year in and year out. 2. Police Reports - accident, fire, calamity, crime stories, etc. 3. Science News 4. Development News 5. Sports Stories MINOR FORMS 1. News Brief - a short item of news interest, written like a brief telegraphic message, giving mainly the results with details. 2. News Bulletin - similar to the lead of a straight news story. - aims to give just the gist of the story. 3. News Featurette - short news feature usually used as filler

- quirks in the news 4. Flash - a bulletin that conveys the first word of an event.

WRITING THE LEAD LEAD- the introduction

CONVENTIONAL/SUMMARY
1. WHO lead -used when the person involved is more prominent than what he does or what happens to him. Eg. President Gloria Macapagal addressed April 20, the PMA graduates in Baguio City. 2. WHAT lead - used when the event is more important that the person involved. Eg. The Bar Exam for Psychologists will be given Nov. 24 to all graduates of BS Psychology. 3. WHERE lead - used when the place is unique and no prominent person is involved. Eg. The Philippines will be the site of the next Olympic Games.. 4. WHEN lead - rarely used as the reader presumes the story to be timely. - useful when speaking of deadlines, holidays and important events. Eg. September 15 is the deadline for filing of NSAT application forms. 5. WHY lead used when the reason is more prominent or unique than what happens. Eg. Because of poverty, around a hundred students dropped out from school last year. This was learned from PNU President Gloria Salandanan. 6. HOW lead - used when the manner, mode, means or method of achieving the story id the unnatural way. Eg. By appealing to the school board, the Manila Science High School was able to construct a threestory concrete building.

Grammatical Beginning Lead

1. Prepositional Phrase Lead eg. With brooms and other cleaning equipment, boy scouts from Manila public schools cleaned the city markets in consonance with Mayor Alfredo Lims CLEAN and beautification drive. 2. Infinitive Phrase Lead eg. To encourage tourism, balikbayans are given a warm welcome by their fellow Filipinos. 3. Participial Phrase Lead Eg. Dressed like priests, robbers were able to enter the bank. 4. Gerundial Phrase Lead Eg. Winning the development communication trophy during the national press conference was Araullo High Schools best achievement of the year.

Novelty Lead
1. Astonisher Lead - uses an interjection or an exclamatory sentence. Eg. Champion of District-1! 2. Contrast Lead

Beat systems do exist in local television news, but they're still the exception, not the rule. While many stations have a medical reporter or a consumer reporter, it's rare to find a station where most reporters are not considered general assignment. But as one news director puts it, "Unless you want reporters spoon-fed by the assignment desk and existing on a diet of breaking news, planned events and newspaper stories, you have to go to a beat system." The question is, how? Here are some tips and suggestions for building a beat system in your newsroom. Decide what kinds of beats will work best in your area. Stations that cover large geographic areas often arrange beats by location. This can make logistics simpler but it effectively means you still have general assignment reporters, they just cover less ground. Topical beats allow reporters to develop some expertise so they can add context to stories and compare how different communities in your area deal with similar situations. Establish what beats you will cover. Consider what matters most in your community, who the major employers are, where the money comes from and where it goes. Traditional beats include education, health, business, government/politics, crime/courts. Other beats stations are covering include the environment, technology, transportation, growth/sprawl, aging, faith/values, arts/culture. Think broadly about what topics might fall under each beat. Assign beats by matching the interests and skills of your staff with the requirements for covering different topics. In some newsrooms, reporters aren't the only ones assigned to beats. Producers, desk editors, and photographers can track developments in specific interest areas. Be clear about your expectations of beat reporters. Beat reporters generally are expected to track issues in their specialty and to turn beat stories daily. If you plan for reporters to continue working general assignment, but you expect them to stay on top of developments in specific topic areas, being clear about that from the start can avoid a lot of frustration. You may want to adjust newsroom routines to accommodate a beat structure. Some stations do not expect beat reporters to attend the morning meeting in person. Instead, they begin the day by checking in on their beat (stopping by the courthouse, for example) and have a scheduled time to call into the meeting to discuss the stories of the day. Help reporters become experts by suggesting ways they can build expertise. Insist that they read widely--not just newspapers and magazines but trade journals and Internet interest groups. They should get on the mailing list for government and private organizations involved in their beat. And they should use the Freedom of Information Act regularly. Support beat reporters by giving them time to develop stories. This could be as little as one day per quarter when they are not expected to turn a story that they can devote to working the beat. Once a month would be better--time for a reporter to meet sources in

person, check documents, and generally troll for ideas and information. Each "beat day" will generate multiple story ideas for the future. Offer training to beat reporters to improve their skills. Especially useful is training in working with databases, but you may also want to offer training on how to file a FOIA request, where to go to check records, and so on. Consider helping reporters join journalism groups that can build their expertise, like Investigative Reporters and Editors, Society of Environmental Journalists, Education Writers Association, Religion Newswriters Association, and the Association of Health Care Journalists, among others. Reward beat reporters for breaking news on their beats. Some stations offer time off, others provide gift certificates or even silly trophies. The point is to make clear that this work is valued. At the same time, hold beat reporte rs accountable for being productive by making it part of their performance evaluation.

HOW TO ESTABLISH AN INVESTIGATIVE UNIT I-Teams, once endangered in local television news, appear to be making a comeback. "It sets a mood that you are determining your future," says KRQE-TV news director Dan Salamone, whose Albuquerque station recently set up an investigative unit. Salamone and others say that I-Teams can boost a station's ratings. But an I-Team can be a hard sell to some general managers, who fear that it will cost too much--in more ways than one. Speakers at the 2002 IRE conference said journalists should be smarter advocates for investigative reporting. Here are some tips compiled from comments by Scripps-Howard senior vice president John Lansing and KSTP-TV director of investigations Gary Hill, among others: Educate the boss. Focus on the positive outcomes of investigative stories--what this kind of work could mean to the station in terms of community benefit and viewer interest. A good investigation can differentiate your station from the competition and maintain audience into the second quarter hour, says Gary Hill. Build interest by showing examples on tape of excellent work by other stations. Front end the landmines. Get the boss's fears on the table up front and discuss them. How much will this cost? What will the station get for its money? Will the station risk losing advertising dollars because of investigative reports involving sponsors? What about the risk of lawsuits? Create a coalition. Talk over the idea of an I-Team with someone in sales who might see potential for sponsorship and for generating interest in advertising on the station. Include that person in discussions about the value of establishing an investigative unit. Show how the I-Team could help the station's entire news product by building expertise that will pay off on breaking news as well as in-depth reports. Establish parameters. Discuss with the boss the kind of investigative work the newsroom wants to do. Will the I-Team specialize in any particular type of story? (Salamone's unit, for example, focuses on crime and justice stories. At other stations, the investigative unit does mainly consumer stories or health stories.) Set guidelines. Be clear about how you will use the tools of the trade. What will your policy be on the use of hidden cameras? What about granting confidentiality to sources?

Explain what you would do to protect a source, including going to jail. Will you use paid experts, and if so why? When and how might you conceal your identity to get a story? Build trust. Demonstrate how much you care about getting stories right by agreeing to meet early deadlines to allow for script review and legal review. Involve a news manager early and often in story development and evaluation. Be open to reasonable challenges to your stories. Have an answer to this question: "Could you disprove this story if you tried?" Take ownership. Make it part of your job to protect the station by keeping the I-Team involved in every aspect of investigative stories, from promotions to the Web site to anchor banter. Lansing says that more often than not, those are the things that get a station in trouble.

Beat Reporting: What Does it Take To Be The Best? What does it take to be a great beat reporter? The best beat reporters I've known are well-organized, determined, with a clear sense of mission and a wide range of sources. They are constantly reading about the beat and striving to learn new things. They are wellversed in the language, issues and events that matter. They are judged by the breadth of their knowledge and their success at communicating the important stories on their beats.

Beat reporters in the Knight Ridder Washington bureau faced a difficult challenge when I worked there in the early 1990s. We weren't on the top rung of the newsgathering ladder. "People here aren't going to answer your calls first," I remember news editor Bob Shaw telling me. "At the end of the day, there may be a stack of messages from reporters. By the time they've finished calling The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal and the networks, it's time for them to go home. So how do we get the stories, the information, the access we need?" Reporters handled it differently, Shaw said.

More Resources

Upcoming Seminar: Covering the Beat (Jan. 6 deadline) Turn the Beat Around by Diana K. Sugg The Baltimore Sun

Owen Ullman and Ellen Warren, the White House reporters, did it with persistence by demanding that officials treat them with the same respect as more high-profile competitors. Ricardo Alonzo Zaldivar, Charles Green and David Hess did it in Congress by being everywhere, from committee hearings and bill markups to news conferences, and by talking to as many people as they could. Mark Thompson at the Pentagon and investigative reporter Frank Greve did it by knowing the turf so well that often their sources wanted to talk with them to find out what they knew. Probably the hardest part of being a beat reporter is staying on top of things and dealing with sources you have to return to every day even if you've written a story they don't like. Unlike other journalists, beat reporters every day face the challenge of encountering sources who may not be pleased with their reporting. That experience, although sometimes painful, helps instill the quality of persistence that defines good reporters. That's a lesson George Judson learned early in his career. Judson's first job in newspapers had been in rewrite, turning other people's reporting into stories. Years later when he went to work as a reporter at The Hartford Courant in Connecticut, he saw what he had missed. At the Hartford paper, newcomers at the paper

were assigned to cover a specific town everything from police and fire news to zoning commission meetings. "What they were learning (and that I was not learning as a rewrite man) is that they had to go back to the same people day after day and develop relationships that got beyond the superficial, to find out what was going on that wasn't quite public," Judson recalled in My First Year as a Journalist, a collection of insightful memoirs by reporters and editors looking back at the lessons of their first year. "They had to learn to be better reporters than I was required to be." Beat reporting takes courage, discipline and judgment, knowing which story has to be written today and which can be put off. It requires teamwork with an editor and other reporters. Working quickly: getting to sources and obtaining information and then writing on deadline stories that give the news and why it matters. Not getting into a rut. Some reporters take a limited view of their beat. The city hall reporter haunts the corridors of power but rarely visits the neighborhoods where the decisions take effect. The police reporter shoots the bull with the desk sergeant but spends little time talking with victims or suspects. Beat reporters get comfortable with their sources, the jargon and the process, forgetting who they're working for. Defining your beat is crucial, says Jane Mayer, who covered the White House for The Wall Street Journal and is now a staff writer for the New Yorker. "Beats can be constricting," Mayer says in "Speaking of Journalism: 12 Writers and Editors Talk About Their Work." She says, "Some people think that if you cover city hall you should never talk to anyone outside city hall. But I urge anybody whose job is to cover a narrow assignment to interview everyone who touches your beat." Mayer's suggestions for broadening your beat include: "Interview the caterers who come in with the food, interview the photographers who take the pictures. Talk to relatives. Talk to officials who come in contact with the person you're covering. Those things can lead to wonderful stories, and generally people who are on the periphery are looser with the details than those working directly for the person you're covering." Covering a beat isn't easy. For me, schmoozing was probably the toughest part. You often feel like an alien, especially during your first days on the job. You have to acknowledge your ignorance and learn the language, learn the process, learn the people. The best reporters know how the world works, whether it's the world of law enforcement, the laboratory or the corporate boardroom. That takes time, dedication, discipline and courage. Beat reporting demands a wide range of skills, talents, attitudes and work habits. Which ones do you think are most important?

Beat reporting Here's some advice on becoming a beat reporter from Mitch Wagner, tech journalist and fellow member of the Internet Press Guild. I was a beat tech reporter for 12 years, and a beat reporter on community newspapers for four years before then. I changed beats a lot. Changing beats a lot is great because it makes you a generalist. You need to be a generalist to survive in tech journalism, because technologies become obsolete fast, and dominant companies become unimportant dinosaurs in a few years.

You also need to *specialize* to survive in journalism, but there's really no contradiction here. Your specialization is technology, and you should strive to become as much of a generalist within that field as

possible.

So congratulations! You just started your first day as a beat reporter! You don't have anybody to show you the ropes, because your predecessor was fired summarily after an unfortunate incident involving the publisher's niece which nobody's willing to talk about. Nobody on the publication knows anything about this new beat including you - but you're now expected to be an expert! Here's how to get yourself up to speed.

1) Write a lot. That's about 90% of it right there. Keep interviewing people for stories, write a lot of stories, and that'll get you up to speed. When you are doing interviews for your stories, keep asking questions about anything you don't understand.

1a) If you're talking to marketing people, they probably don't understand the issues either, but they'll pretend you do. If someone keeps talking and talking and you *still* don't understand what they're saying, it's probably because they don't know what they're talking about but are pretending they do. Try to talk to product managers instead of marketing managers.

2) Get yourself on every press release distribution list within your specialty that you can. Contact MediaMap and Barrons to let them know your beat. Sign up for PRNewswire and BusinessWire to receive press releases on your beat. This will be a great source of stories at first. You'll quickly outgrow it, but you can - and should - just write e-mail filters to shunt the press releases off into a folder somewhere and check that folder once or twice a day.

2a) It's easier to write filters to whitelist good e-mail, and let everything that's not on the whitelist go into a folder that you check once or twice a day.

2b) You are signing up to receive a ton of spam forever. Alas, that can't be helped.

3) Learn who the competition is, and read them religiously. Your editors can tell you who the competition to the publication is - read them. Read CNET, InformationWeek, Computerworld, and eWeek. Read the New York Times and Wall Street Journal technology sections. Let Google tell you which are the niche publications in your beat area - type in the name of the technology and beat you cover and see what floats to the surface in blogs and publications. Occasionally ask your sources which publications they read and which conferences to attend. Which brings us to:

4) Get out of the office and meet people face-to-face. I live in San Diego, which is not Silicon Valley or New York but it ain't Bismarck, North Dakota, neither. I get out for a few days every couple of months to conferences and

to meet people who happen to be local. It's great for developing sources and getting new story ideas, but it's also exhausting. I'm a freaking Internet hermit, it's a beautiful Saturday today and I'm still sitting here at my desk on the damn internets. But it's necessary to get out and meet face-to-face.

5) Here in the 21st Century, it's also necessary to be on the internets. Participate in discussion on blogs and forums and mailing lists in your beat area. Get on LinkedIn and Facebook and Twitter. It's a form of networking - just like getting out of the office. 6) Several people on this group have suggested off-the-record background conversations with analysts and vendors to discover what are the big issues. I'm not a big fan of that. To the best of your ability, every conversation should be on the record. You're not serving your readers if you can't put it in print.

6a) Casual conversations at conferences - over lunch or drinks - are in sort of a gray area between on the record and off the record. When I hear something juicy during a casual conversation, I run it by the source to see if it's ok to print it. I'm not asking permission when I do this, but I am listening to what they have to say in response. Possible responses: "Yeah, sure, go ahead and print it," or "I don't remember saying that. Did I really say it? Why on Earth did I say a stupid thing like that? They must have put something in my coffee."