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DESIGN OF SHAFTS TYPES OF SHAFTS: A.

Transmission shafts: Are the shafts which transmit power from one shaft to the other with the help of Pulleys, Drives and Gears etc. B. Machine shafts: Which form an integral part of a machine. Ex: pump shaft. DESIGN OF SHAFTS: Shafts are designed based on A. Strength B. Rigidity / Stiffness. DESIGN OF SHAFTS BASED ON STRENGTH IS AGAIN DONE ON Shafts subjected to TWISTING LOADS / TORQUE Shafts subjected to BENDING ONLY. Shafts subjected to TORQUE AND BENDING Shafts subjected to AXIAL LOADS IN ADDITION TO TORQUE AND BENDING

I.

DESIGN OF SHAFTS SUBJECTED TO TWISTING MOMENT / TORQUE ONLY:

We have the general Torsion equation as T / J = / r - Eqn. 1.15 Page 3 - DDHB Where T = Torsional moment / Twisting Moment / Torque - N-mm J = Polar Moment Inertia of cross sectional area about the axis of rotation - mm = Torsional Shear stress of the shaft MN / mm r = Radius of the outer most fabric from the axis of the rotation = d/2, where d = dia. of the shaft. Also J = d / 32 T = d x 32 d/2 = d x 16

If d = Outer diameter of a hollow shaft d = Inside dia. of the hollow shaft

Then r = d / 2 &

J= 32

x [d - d]

Then T = x [d - d] x 2 32 d

= 16

x [d - d] d Where k =

= x x d 1 d 16 d d d d

= x x d [ 1 k] 16

For the solid & hollow shafts to have the same strength, their Twisting Moments (or) Torques must be equal Ie. d = 16 16 T= P x 60 2n Where P = Power generated / transmitted in kW & In case of Belt Drives Torque T = (T - T) R n = Revolutions per Minute (r. p. m) d [ 1 k] = d = d [1 k]

We also know that Torque T is given by

Where T & T are tensions of the belt on the tight & slack side of the belt & R = Radius of the pulley. II. DESIGN OF SHAFTS SUBJECTED TO ONLY BENDING MOMENT M = I Where M = Bending Moment Nmm mm r I = Second moment of area / Moment of Inertia -

We have the General bending equation

= Bending Stress MN / mm the shaft Also I of a solid shaft =

r = radius of the shaft = d/2, where d = dia. of

d . from table. 1.3 Page no. 9 - DDHB 64

Then

M d / 64

d/2

(or)

M=

d 32 d = Inside diameter

.. Eqn. (1)

For a hollow shaft d = Outer diameter

M=

[d - d] 32

from eqn. (1)

M=

d 132

d d

M=

d [1- k] 32

where

k = d d

III.

Shafts subjected to both twisting & Bending Moments.

The shaft must be designed on the basis of two moments simultaneously. Materials are subjected to elastic failure when subjected to multiple forces. Shafts under multiple forces are analyzed by two types of theories. 1. Maximum shear stress theory Guests theory Used for ductile materials 2. Maximum normal stress theory Rankines theory Used for brittle materials Maximum shear stress theory: We have, for a solid shaft, the max. shear stress (max) is given by

max. =
2

( ) + 4 ()
b

eqn. II

( DDHB page No. 2 eqn. 1.12)

= Bending stress MN / mm shaft. But we have

= Shear stress MN / mm

D = Diameter of the

= b = 32 M
d

& = 16 T d 1 2 = 1 2 = 1 2 16 d 16 d 2

Substituting these values in eqn (II) max. =

32M d

+4

16T d

(2m) + 4 (T) M + T

max.

= 16 d

M + T
=

(2)

max.

d 16

M + T .. (3) M + T is called Equivalent twisting moment Te.

The value

Te is defined as the Twisting Moment, which when acting alone, will produce the same shear stress ()as the actual Twisting Moment

If Max. Shear stress is equal to allowable shear stress then max. = = Te

M + T

d = Te .. (4) 16

Maximum normal stress theory Rankines theory We have, for a solid shaft, the max. Bending stress (max) is given by b (max). = 1 2 Substituting

b +

1 2

( ) + 4 ()
b

(IV)

b = =

32M d

&

= 16T d

in the above equation

b max. =

1 2

32M + 1 d 2

32M d

+4

16T d

= 16 M + 1 d 2

16 d

(2M) + 4 T M + T

= 16 M + 1 x d 2

16 x 2 d

= 16 d =

[M +

M + T] =
= 1 [M + 2

max (d)

b(max.) d
32

M + T]

The term 1 [M +
2

M + T] is called equivalent bending moment (Me)

Me is defined as the bending moment, which when acts alone, will produce the same bending stress as the normal bending moment. If bmax. = , then, b d = 1 32 2 [M +

M + T] = Me .. (V)

FOR A HOLLOW SHAFT: Then

If d = Outer diameter & d = Inside diameter

M + T

= d [1 - k] = Te . (VI) 16

d [1 - k] 32

= 1 2

[M +

M + T] = Me . (VII),

where k = d / d