UDC 69.035.


Building on a hillside
This paper describesworkinvolved in preparing on a hillside a level area of 9 acres to receive a plaster mill and warehouse for British Gypsum Ltd. a t Mountfield, Sussex. The long-term stability o f the cuttings50 ft deep in the Wadhurst clay was assessed on a n effective stress basis and a slope of 1 in 3 was found to be safe provided ground water levels were controlled bythesurfacewaterdrainagesystem whichcomprised precast concrete channels and dual-purpose pipe drains. Soil fromtheexcavations wasplaced intheadjacent valley after culverting the river for a length of 400 yd. The 4-ft diameter culvert was in flexible corrugated steel units the stabilitv of which was assured by field control. A steelculvert was chbsen after investigating alternatives, the tecllnical considerations being described in a n Appendix. An account is given of typical plant and building foundations, auger-bored piles, andthepartiallysuspended warehouse floor. The sewage treatment works, which formed one unit of construction in reinforced concrete to minimise risk of damage by movements of the clay soil, is briefly described.

For nearly 100 years gypsum has been mined in Sussex a t Mountfield,between RobertsbridgeandBattle.The mine, owned by British Gypsum Ltd., is in the wooded valley of the River Line which rises at the head of the valleyandeventuallyjoinstheRother.Gypsum rock isprocessed at the minebefore dispatch by road and railtotheCompany'splaster mills andplasterboard factories a t Rochester and Erith and elsewhere. BritishGypsumLtd. decided thatit wouldbe advantageous to manufacture plaster and plasterboard at Mountfield if a suitable site could be found for a factory requiring a ground floor area at one level approximately 1300 ft long and a maximum of 240 ft in width. The proposed layout of the completeprojectisshownin Fig l fromwhich it will beseen that a hardstanding

Fig l-Site plan




Partner, C. W . Glover & Partners, Consulting Engineers Paper to be read before the Institution of Structural Engineers at l 1 Upper Belgrave Street, London SW1, on Thursday 28 March 1968 a t 6 pm.
MARCH 1968 No 3 VOLUME 46




No 3 MARCH ENGINEER STRUCTURAL 1968 THE 74 VOLUME 46 . ) = 1 .butraisingtheformation level to achieve these ends would have increased the height of the embankment to the access road and hardstanding. The only available region of suitable extent on plan laynorth of themainserviceroadandrailway ona hillside which rose from the road to the northern boundary of the Company's property about 100 ft at the west A t the west endthe endand 70 ft at theeastend.65-l.OOO and this was consite W was in the region of sidered sufficient justification of a location some 500 ft farther from the mine.alley which isat the east end. It was obvious that the cost of the earthworks would be the dominant factor in the economics a of thislocation.= 0 -487 alh: Yh A V E .3ru W L AV€ 7/-6' W L . the spread of the embankment towards the existing road and the steepness of the gradient of the access road. also shown in Fig l. Account also hadto be taken of aconditionin thePlanning Permission that the highestpointson the structureabout 70 ft above floor level-should not be visible above the tree cover from adjoining high ground. located as shown in Fig 1. The chosen formation level resulted in a maximum height of embankment of approximately 18 ft and a gradient of l in 12 for the access road. The nearly level area between the toe of the embankment and the existing road was just sufficiently wide toaccommodatea sewage treatment was subsequent a requirement of the works which Company. This was in suitable proximity to the minebut would have required the removal of some million yd3 of soil and the formation of cuttings up to 84 ft in depth.000 yd3 of soil in cuttings of maximum depth 50 ft. L_ _ _ - & 4 _ _ _ _ _ L _ _ _ 4 Choice of site From an operational point of view it was desirable that the new factory be as close as practicable to the processing plantatthe mine so asto minimise the distance over which raw material would have to be conveyed to it.1 .andit was decided to give detailed consideration to alternative locations in an attempt to avoid excessivecost of site preparation. The accommodation of astructure of this size in a narrowvalleyhavingnonaturally level areas of any extent would clearly involve substantial earthworks and the main purpose of this paper is to describe the choice andpreparation of thesiteandtheassociated works. U 't F l F = /. ru = 0 -28 F = 1 .Fig 2 (left)-Typical borehole Fig 3 (above)-Section through main cutting showingstabilityparameters. Thus the closer the chosen site to the mine the more acute would be the problems of earthworks and site preparation: movement to the east. would entail longer lines of conveyance and communication and some other planning difficulties to which reference is made later. and sited to the east of the mine so that the process flowline from mine to finished product would be towards the outlet from the \.fornomenclature see Reference 1 H = 50' y = 128 lb/ft3 D = 1-25 p = 17-5" Slo+e : l in 3 c'/yH = 0.Althoughthe use of site E entailedthe construction of an embankment for the access road and areas of fill. the saving in the cost of earthworks resulting from the selection of this site in preference to f1120. Thelocation finallychosenwas site E inLimekiln Wood. The first site considered in detail was site W .6 5.while alleviating these difficulties. gradient of the hillside was 1 in 6 while at the east end i t was l in 10. The first consideration was that of minimising thedepth of thecuttingsandtheamount of excavation.05 rU = . and with ground floor formation level a t 225 f t AOD this required the excavation of 127. 3 0 rU ( A V E . AT S U R FA C of factor of safety with the pore- Fig 5 (bottom right)-Variation slope angle of factor of safety with i l j effectively increases the maximum width by about 100 ft. In selecting the formation level of 225 ft AOD it was necessary to effect a compromise between conflicting requirements.2 9 F i g 4 (right)-Variation pressure ratio.

roughly parallel to the face of the hillside and. give ru = 0.= 0. A question of importance was the direction of the dip of the stone strata and fissile hard clays in relationto the plane of the main cutting. where the main cutting was up to 50 ft in depth.e. if stability of the cutting was to be assured. ranging from 10 ft 6 in. wasassumed.Themechanism of failurevaries fromsuperficial flow-slides onshallowinclines to deep rotational slips in the steepervalleys.2 8 the variation in the factor of safety with the slope angle is as shown in Fig 5. this profile being arrived at on the basis of the following considerations.4 a a . The assumed value of 0 -05 for c'/y H corresponds to a value of c' of 2 -23 lb/in. Fig 4 shows the variation of F with ru and also indicatesthat when thewater level rises tothe surface (ru = 0 -49) the factor of safety falls to unity. With ru = 0 . I t was evident that surface water would be a major problem onthissiteand. it would not be reasonable to take this as applyingtoanentireslipsurface which cutsthrough soils some of which are clearly not susceptible to a complete loss of cohesion. position.varyingfrom firm to semi-liquidaccordingly. Standingwater levels in the boreholes varied considerably. i. in one way or another. One factor common t o all the slips examinedwasthe presence of water which. Stability of cuttings in the Wadhurst Clay These soils have achieved notoriety in the district which aboundsinlandslips. although of the same sign and direction as the cuttingface.Takingaccount of the reductionin cohesion which is to be expected in the long term. 2 8 and a factor of safety F of 1 -29. below G. This very treacherous stratum is underlain by clays of higher shear strength and lower silt content which are much less susceptible to the effects of water. a few small springs emerged a t distances of between 1 and 3 ft abovethetoe of thecuttingand onemorevigorous spring located a t a depth of 3 ft 6 in. For the casewhere ru = 0 . stability would clearly be enhanced by the comparatively strong clays and rock strata in the unweathered zone. this was seen as a reasonable value for the average cohesion along a slip surface passing through a variety of soils includingshaleyclays and limestone beds. Site E was first examined in the winter of 1963 when it was still thickly covered with trees and vegetation.. had clearly been a major cause of loss of stability. It was therefore decided to adopt a slope of 1 : 3 for the purpose of the tender drawings and check this with test data from the site investigation when available.25 and this wasused in the analyses. When the cutting was excavated it was found that there was considerable variation in the dip of the various strata from point to point. and no definite conclusions could be drawn from the records except that ground water levels tended to follow the natural slope of the hillside and were nowhere nearer than about 10 ft to the surface. Stability analyses were therefore made with the aid of the tables prepared by Bishop and Morgensternl using the parametersshown in Fig 3. Analysis of the stability of the main cutting Previousexperiencewithcuttingsindeepweathered zones of the clay suggested that a well-drained slope of 1 : 34 was the maximum likely to result in long-term stability.2 which is about 50 per cent of the average value of the effective cohesion obtained from thetriaxialtests. the residualcohesionof true clays is zero. Borings were put down by Le Grand Adsco Ltd. From the borehole records it appeared that this dip was about 6".especiallyasallowancehad to be made for the long-term decline in strength resulting from exposure and relief of lateral pressure on the clays. developed sufficient pressure to emerge at about toe level. It wasalsoconsidered probable that above the top of the cutting the mean water level would be as indicated by the soil survey anda depth of 15 ft t o below G. permanently effective drainage would be essential. Seepage pressure U taken as equal to the static pressure so that.AttheLimekiln Wood site. in the positions shown in Fig 1 and the record of a typical boring is given in Fig 2. for a given 62. as suggested by Skempton2.2 Drainage of the main cutting It was essential that the surface water drainage system be so constructed that it could easily be maintained in good order. 2 8 the factor of safety would be unity when the residual cohesion has fallen to about 1 -0 lb/in.L.L. Consolidated undrained triaxial tests with pore pressuremeasurementsmade onsamples of claytaken a t depths from 9 ft to 32 ft below the surface showed that the effective stress parameters varied little with depth and had the following values: average cohesion: c' = 4 . It will be seen that the soil conditions vary from a soft silty clay at the surface to hard clayshale and thin bands of broken stone at the lowerlevels. Anotheranalysis onsimilarbases but assuming that the water level at the top of the cutting was only 10 ft below G.2 angle of internal friction: 0' = 15" to 20" These tests indicated that the soil could be regarded effective stressparameters as a clayhavingconstant MARCH 1968 No 3 butinterruptedat various levels by layers of much harder material including rock. Several natural courses carried waterfromtheupper levels and some of thesewere draining ancient bell pits which were located just north of the linechosenfor the top of the maincutting. Since these were effective stress analyses it was necessary to estimate the average value of the pore-pressure effects were ignored andthe poreratio ru. I t wasclearlyimpracticable to attempt an accurate analysis of stability in thesecircumstances. One of the functions of the cut-off drain is to prevent this from happening over the upper part of the cutting and it is expected that the toe drain will improve conditions over the lower part by rapid removal of water which emerges at the toe. to 24 ft 0 in. It was therefore reasonable to assume that at the toe of the cutting the water levelwas at the surface.4 lb/in. On the other hand. sometime after completion. During excavation of the cutting no water appeared on its face but. The top deposits of weathered silty clays andsiltsareverysusceptibletochanges inmoisture content. Even if. this dip was considered too slight to be of great concern.Taking a uniform gradient for the water surface over the width of the cutting then resulted in the water level profile shown in Fig. By trial it was found that the lowest values of F corresponded to a value of D of about 1. The most important drain is that at the top of thecutting inwhichposition itinterceptsrun-off 75 ENGINEER STRUCTURAL THE VOLUME 46 . the hard clays tended to be very fissile and the rock strata consisted of broken laminated stone not likely to make a very significant contribution to stability.Soil conditions ThesiteisontheHastingsBedswiththeWadhurst clay as the principle deposit of relevance to the earthworks.49 yu = 128-0 h h The average value of a / h was then obtained from a section of the cutting on which the water level profile was plotted. 3 The average a / h was found from values taken at regularintervals across thecutting:thisgavethe average value of r u as 0 .35 and F = 1 -2. in some places it was near horizontal but in others it was actually parallel to the cuttingface.L.

provided the operations of bedding and filling controlled so that around the pipe (see Fig 9) are adequate lateral support is developed. and the prospect of having at the end of the contract a level area of approximately 5 acresopposite themainsite was attractive to the Company. the design load/foot run of culvert was approximately 20. This is a dual-purpose drain which serves to conveywaterfromthemain cut-off channel and acts asaninterceptor for surface water draining towards the end cutting. as shown in Fig 8. Culverting of the River Line The cost of excavating the main cutting accounted for sitesome 30 per cent of the total expenditure under the preparation contract. supply and handling of the pipes. At the east end the manhole discharges into a drain which is below the formation level of 225 ft AOD and is of normal construction. At each end the channel discharges into manholes which incorporate detritus sumps and hinged leaf screens. The embankment condition. The clay formation beyond the toe of the cutting is finished to afall so as to drain into the toe channel which is so positioned that it can accept surface water from the road which will be constructed alongside a t a future date. being surrounded with concrete under the building area and in flexibly jointed pipes for the remainder of its length. below or beside the channel was carefully filled topreventsuch spacesfrombecoming paths for water. JOINTS / / L L € D OVER BOTTOM H A L F O N L Y . there is no reason why such a culvert should be embarrassed by any depth of fill. The main purpose of this drain is to intercept surface water from the cutting face. the conditions under which the culvert units had to be laid and surrounded with soil varied over the length of the culvert from the ' trench ' condition.Main cut-of drain (type A ) Fig 7 (centre)-Dual purpose drain (type C ) J Fig 8 (above)-Toe drain (type B) 1 iromthe highergroundtothenorth. In each case a transition has to be effected from the flexible unit to a rigid structure in a manner which is not embarrassing to either.In consequence. ' I . The consequent saving in time was also an important consideration.S €L ECTEO STONE - ? I i.Details of this 6 : it was inprecast reinforced drain are giveninFig concrete so designed as tofacilitateinstallationina machine-dug trench just wide enough to take the units. This would haverequiredaspunconcrete pipe of high extra strength and raised difficulties with cost. an assessment of the run-off from the catchment area having shown that a culvert of 4 ft internal diameter would be adequate for storm conditions. The importance of lateral support will be a apparent by reference to the Appendixwhichgives review of the structural significance of culvert flexibility. The drain at the toe of the main cutting isalso an open channel of precast reinforced concrete. At the west end the manholeis a t high level and discharges into a piped drain of the type shown in Fig 7.astheworstcase. 76 Design of the culvert Reference to Fig 1 will show that the line of the culvert cuts across the river a t severalpoints and involves a varying depth of excavationatotherpoints. A culvert designwas therefore prepared and agreed with the Kent River Authority.hadtobetaken as the criterion and. it doespresentproblems when the culvert is contiguouswith rigid construction:asituation which arises at theends of the culvert. through an intermediate condition with an excavated face on one side and little or no excavation on the other. Speed was essential since excavation of the main cutting could notcommenceuntiltheculverthad beenconstructed and the valley prepared to receive the excavated soil.000 lb. a suitable length of which would have to be culverted... I t was therefore decided to use corrugated steel units of the Armco pattern which were readily available and quick to instal. A t the ends of the culvert the solution was simple: all that had to be done was so to form the ends of the filled zone that the depth of fill was zero near the rigid No 3 VOLUME 46 MARCH STRUCTURAL 1968 THE ENGINEER .theprocedureadopted a t Mountfield beingas follows. The use of a flexible steel pipe hasitsattractions since its flexibilityenables the pipe to adapt itself to varying conditions of vertical load and lateral support and.000 yd3 of soil Anyproposal whichinvolvedloading the soil into lorries t o be taken off-site would clearly entail substantial extra cost. . to the full ' embankment ' condition. and prevent ponding at the foot of the cutting.The line was chosen with the object of minimising the excavation difficulty as while at the same time presenting as little possible to the contractors who would have to divert the river where its presence would impede construction of theculvert. Fig 6 (left).OOOapproximatelytheamountwhichwouldbesavedby eliminating the carting away operations. which has an area of approximately 3&acres. The general layout of the surface water drainage system is shown in Fig 1 from which it will be seen that all wateris eventually discharged to the River Line in the valley opposite the site.Thispresentedproblems when applying the Marsten-Spanglertheory since it wasclearlydesirable to have one design throughout. at manholesand a t changes in direction of the units. While the flexibility of the thin-walledculvert is a major advantage in relation to its primary load-carrying function. Any excess excavation. with a depth of fill of 25 ftmaximum. The Company therefore agreed to a proposal for depositing thesoil in the valley of the Kiver Line. The estimated cost of the culvert was A20. A major consideration in minimising this cost was how and where to dispose of 130..

-... this material makes a very dense and stable fill. the enlargement on plan being intended to offset the concentrated effect of the drag forceson the access shaft. l REJECT STON€ Z 4 N D / A . Therejectstonefrom the minesusedfor this purpose comprised roughly graded limestone pieces of severalinchesmaximum size and a smallcontent of hard shaley clay. but With a plain-walled pipe this would be a problem when the wall is corrugated it is capable of a relatively high order of longitudinal extension or compression. andonly local adjustments were required before the surfacing of the road and hardstanding with hot rolled asphalt. as at A in Fig 10. It was therefore decided to install standard welded mitres and make no special provision for mitre stiffness. and showed the advantage of using a seed mixture and fertilizer of the typespecified by theMinistry of Transport. The relative flexibility of the Armco units washereprovidedfor bymeans of expanded rubber collars around the built-in ends of the units. the cutting faces were covered with top soil and sown with grass seed. On completion of theexcavationandlaying the toe drainage channel. After blinding of the top surface with reject sand.- .the embankment was used continuously in all weathers 15 formonths. the growth of grass was luxuriant. layers. . The shaft itself forces by an was in Armco units protected from drag outer casing of spun concrete pipes as shown in Fig 11. . 1 SELECTED FILL FROM MAIN E X C A V A T I O N S . . . - .. The first was the mitred joint between adjacent units. Fig 9 Compositesection throz4gh culvert F i g 1 l-Detail of culvert manhole I . . Although made between very flexible units.3 During the autumn of 1964 almost complete grass cover was established and so gave protection of the cutting face prior to its first winter exposure. Thiswasan inaccessible brick and concretejunction chamber picking up one of the main surface water drains from the site opposite. To effect the transition from rigid to flexible construction the concrete casing was shaped as shown in Fig 10.. the next major operation was the construction of the THE ENGINEER STRUCTURAL MARCH 1968 No 3 embankment for the mainservice road and hardstanding: see Fig 7._ . .. REJECT A L L W E T CL AY LARGE STONES. ' ~ R ~ ~ ~ / P/PE S€CT/ONS ONC R E T E P/FLS Excavationofmaincutting After completion of the culvert excavationof the main site could proceed with maximum effort.. Timewasveryshortandthis was one factor influencing the decision t o use auger-bored piles extensively. . . . . ends of the culvert and increased uniformly to its maximum some distance from the ends: see Fig 10. and the provision of a surface water drainage system. -. Building and plant foundations By June 1965 the Company's specifications for the building and plant were sufficiently advanced to enable work to commence onthe design of the foundations and ground floors. such a junction is itself relatively very stiff since an increase in the horizontal diameter across the mitre can takeplace only if there is a corresponding longitudinal extension and compression in the adjacent sections. Two cases of change in direction had to be considered. .--.. The work was done throughout witha fleet of scrapers and the provision of two temporary level crossings of the railway enabled these machines to work on a circuit for the bulk excavaof tion. After excavation of the cutting and adjoining areas. \F/LL FROM / A N D . ' I \ L . Despite the very poor cover of top soil.. . one of 1000 tons capacity and the 77 VOLUME 46 . Asecond type of junctionoccurred at B in Fig 10.. . C U L L Y COMPACTED /N M A I N CXCAVATfONS 6"LAYCRS. The first foundations to be constructed were for two storage bins. . At manholes it wasnecessary to have a substantial concrete casing totheculverttosupportthe access shaftanditsoutercasing whichis subjectedtodrag forces due to the consolidation of the fill. . Much importance was attached to this operation as a means of minimising superficial degradation of the cuttings and the development of shrinkagecracksinandaroundthecutting. . When compacted in 18 in.

Since the piles were either 2 ft 6 in. However. itwas possible for a man to descend the tions to those for foundation C and the two foundations shaft and use a breaker to remove stone. A .w f s r END OF M / L L d U / L D / N G COHESION C LB/SQ. in where it was found that therock presented a continuous effect. were designed with due regard to the problems associated 78 VOLUME 46 No 3 MARCH ENGINEER STRUCTURAL 1968 THE ./N. foamedpolystyrenewasused to t I prevent contact between overlapping foundations and to control effectivebearingareas. It wastherefore of the layout and the sequence of design operations which decided that the northern section of the floor should be hadto follow the release of information from plant designed as a road ’ slab on ground and the southern manufacturers. two-thirds of the floor were aboveground level by a Withthe millbuilding andplantthereinthemain distance varying from zero to a maximum of about 14 ft problems in foundation design arose from the complexity alongthesouthside of the building. dept.4% and of these foundations to a low level so avoiding surcharge 9cA where A is the theultimateendbearingloadas on the walls of thehotpitfoundationandthedeep bearing area. Foundation D had to be considered with foundation C During the boring of the piles for the 1000 and 500 ton because they both support a steel structure associated bins rock was encountered at levels above the intended with the same piece of plant. and piling for some heavily loaded items of Typical of the problems encountered are those associplant within the mill building. a spanning block at floor. structures. C and D and hotpit No.moreparticularly. which are described below. level not contributing faceacross the bottom of the boring. The division of the building the foundations for these stanchions had to be enlarged area by the 225 ft contour was such that the southern to provide adequate mass to prevent uplift. in achieving the required uniformdistribution.theauger was impossibility of alwaysseparatingfoundations for the put towork on piling forthe mill building and warehouse building structure and those for the plant.the relative settlement whichwas to beexpected wherea heavily loaded foundation was in close proximity to one which. sum of the friction and end bearing values. Consideration was given to using short bored piles as an alternative but these were found to offer no adWarehouse floor vantageintheseparticular cases.it sectionas a suspended floor offlatslabconstruction was important to ensure that as far as practicable they with a flush soffit. Attheends of the Thewarehouse floor had to be designedfor a general building the stanchions may be subjected to a considersuperimposed load of 5 cwt. the piling was completed comprising foundations. After completion of the further complicated by the presence of deep pits and the piles for theseindependentstructures.h of penetration for four diameters of pile. This procedure was based on the assumpfoundations requiring pits lay to the south of this contour.2 this was offset to some extent by the contractors having For the most part the foundations for the steel structo use minerejects to give access forsteelandplant ture of the mill building were of the ordinary isolated erectors at the 225 ft level before the foundations were block type carried a minimumdepth of 3 ftintothe completed. by reason of its extent on plan. A factor of safety of 2 was applied to the foundations which would otherwise have been necessary. the pilewasreto foundation action. Foundation D was therefore pile base level. The foundations A and C since piles would transfer the load adhesion on the sides of a pile was taken as 0. were linked by a plant supporting pedestal which was. in 26 working days. or piled with the objectof creating similar settlement condi3 ft in diameter. 2. Despite difficulties with ated withthegroup of foundations shown in Fig 15 rock. the cohesion c of the clay was assumed to vary with to be considered. designed to incorporate a belled base to make good the I t will be seen fromFig 1 that the 225 ft contour deficiency in load capacity due to the shaft being shorter passes across the mill building and most of thedeep than specified. I t was also essential to prevent the tilting of foundations and. 25 TONS 20 /O 40 20 60 80 40 100 / 2 0 /W pw TONS /O Il 9 30 50 60 70 I /2 & 2 /3 /I 1 5 3 2 /6 17 l6 ? 2 /9 m e ./ft2 and the wheel loads of able uplift due to wind forces on the high structure and heavy-duty fork lift trucks. excavation to a maximum depth of about 15 ft below depth as showninFig 13 onwhichisalsoshown the floor level and this was one reason for using piles in average values obtained from the test results. investigation-that the rock tion-justified b y a site This resulted in a considerable saving in the amount of stratum was underlain by a clay with a cohesion of a t excavation required for some of the foundations although least 15 lb/in. Fig 14 The three foundations were separated by joints formed shows typical design curves relating permissible load to with foamed polystyrene. clay. Foundation design was other of 500 tons: see Fig 12. Since all foundations were in clay. I ! depth Fig 12 (left)-Bin foundations F i g 13 (centre)-Variations of cohewith sion of clay 1 - 1 Fig 13 (above)-Piledesigncurves withlong-termsettlementand. With this group all the problems mentioned above had For the purpose of assessing the working loads for the The hotpit foundation involved piles. imposed a much I lower pressure onthe soil.

All the foundations were in the form of single bored piles. these being selected because they could be constructed by the piling sub-contractor following a simple procedure without restrictions while themain contractor concentrated his resources on the complexities of the foundations for the mill building and plant. Fractures appeared in the brickwork and a t times treatment ceased altogether. was approximately i228. but this saving was possible only because the fill material was suppliedfree of charge to the contractors by the company. The columns of circular section were formed with Sono tubes and the enlarged heads were cast in wood forms designed to take a seating on the top of the column shaft so that no other support was necessary. These defects appeared to be connected with landslips and other earth movements on the opposite side of the railway which was upheaved on several occasions. If the culvert wall 79 ENGINEER STRUCTURAL THE VOLUME 46 . An investigation showed that lightly compacted fill finished with 3 in.OOO. biological filter and humus tank. Sewage treatment works While the maincontract wasinprogress troublewas experienced with the existing brick built sewage treatment works. It was decided to construct in the position shown in Fig 1 a new sewage treatment works which would take over the duties performed by the existing works and the discharge from the new buildings. The building is planned for extension eastwards and when this takes place the ground floor will become progressively moreelevatedabovethenaturalground level: it is the company's intention that with this extension use will be made of the under-floor space and normal shuttering methods will then be required. of concrete blinding would save a t least E2000 in the construction of the floor owing to the high cost of formwork. it was considered essential to so construct the works that the risk of damage by earth movement would be minimised.PLAN (BELOW EL ) Fig 15 (above)-Typical plant foundations Fig 16 (right).Warehouse JEoor Fig 17 (bottom right)-Layout of sewage works The layout of the warehouse floor and foundations is shown in Fig 16. which included some items of work not described in this paper. it seemed probable that it would be useful to fill the entire area and use the fill as formwork for the floor. such that all three were accommodated in one unit of reinforced concrete construction on a common raft foundation. The principle followed was that of achieving a compact layout of settling tank. The main contractors were Howard Farrow Construction Ltd. Since the under-floor space would be partially filled around the loading bays and by the fill intruding from that placed in front of the building and along its east end. and the total value of the contract. Thethreeloadingbayshave floors which are 3 ft below the warehouse floor level and these were designed as independent floating slabs resting on mine reject fill. Having regard to the MARCH 1968 No 3 Appendix Effect of wall flexibility on behaviour of culvert of circular section Theoretical aspects A culvert installed under an embankment or valley fill sustains vertical earth pressures which can be estimated with sufficient accuracy by means of the MarstonSpangler theory: the procedure is described in a recent papef.4 If the culvert isstiff-walled it creates a ' hard spot so that there is settlement of the soil fill at the sides relative to thesoil over the culvert. A typical detail of the suspended portion of the warehouse floor is shown in Fig 16. CUAMdCR location of the works on soft clay at the foot of an embankmentand close to the roads and railway. The layout of the works is indicated in Fig 17. and the vertical loadon theculvertisgreaterthanthe weight of the column of soil immediately above it.

R4/EI. For non-cohesive soils a ' secant ' value of E .0 -3) (1) = 0-315 and 6 . 0 lb/in. The load on the culvert is then equal to the weight of the column of soil above it.2 lb/in. but it is useful to consider the factors which influence these pressures in relation to the safe limits of structural performance of theculvert.I. for a saturated clay is proportional to its undrained shear strength c. a t completion of consolidation under the pressure p . The maximum horizontal deflection is then 6 .2 0 -72 * The units arc consistent if the numerator and thc second term in the denominator are multiplied by 1 . a coefficient analogous to the ' at rest' coefficient K .6. E ./R. if 6. The net deflection at X due to the superpositionof active and reactive pressures is given by EI6. then l2EI/R3 = 104 lb/in. i. 3 6 .2 lb/in. = 0. andindependent of thehorizontal deflections of the culvert wall.2 and U = 0 . and k = E. as a first approximation. the deflection of the culvert will dependmainlyuponthe reactive lateral pressure. = 30 lb/in.z and I = 4. for the assumedconditions. that the soil behaves as if the culvert were not present. and (2)a reactive pressure which is proportional to the soil reaction modulus h and entirely dependent upon the horizontal deflections of the culvert wall.Thetotallateral pressure may be regarded as consisting of two components: (1) an active pressurewhich is proportional toa. for natural soil.where E.- l00 and 6 .a) .2 + . It has been shown6 that thevalue of K . = 30 (1 ...2 so that 0.4. where m.2 If./R is limited to 1/12 then we have 20 (1 . would be appropriate. but isit generally assumed that the horizontalplane of uniform settlement coincides with the top of the culvert.4 and E = 30 x 106 lb/in. = 0 -54 X 30 = 16. = 750lb/in. = i. Both culverts have a mean diameter of 50 in. the stiff walled culvert will derive very little additional support from reactive lateral pressure.72 E .079 in. if for example K .. Re-arranging equation l and + 7-- I The relative significance of the stiffness terms in the denominator of this expression will be apparent from the following examples of stiff and flexible culverts similar to those considered for use a t Mountfield. consolidation being a short-term effect. we have lZEIIR3 = 6130 lb/in. = 40c. . R4 (1 . = k. I 1 Fig 18-Distribution of pressures on cztlvert ( a ) (left)-actiue firessures p . The lateral earth pressuresactingon the sides of a culvertcannotbepredictedwithsuch confidence.06 k 6 . 6 (1) EI 0. = l/m.. Taking p . which is required and. i.18 - R 104 + 540 .2 No 3 80 VOLUME 46 MARCH 1968 THE STRUCTURAL ENGINEER . 0 in. = = 233 lb/in.z. IC4 Continuing with the above example.0 . = 20 lb/in. 3 ) 12 K. 3 ) (l) 2. In Fig 18(a) the active pressures p. = K . is thestress/strain modulus of the soilincompression. Since this is small relative to thesoil stiffness term. (1) = 540 lb/in.2. I n comparison with this value the soil stiffness term is insignificant and..2 and the maximum total lateral pressureis 22 . is the oedometer compressibility. Considering first concrete a culvert and taking E = 2 x 106 lb/in. Thestructural significance of thelateral pressures may be studied on the bases of any rational assumptions as to the distribution of the pressures on the culvert wall. = F )(1 . and it is assumed that E.6.0.z/in. equal to the modulus of compressibility K. we can take E . R 6130 540 100 p. *h = 20 X 0 -3 = 6 . N 0 . hasaninitial valuecorrespondingtoelastic compression of the soil and.e.e. = 0. = 0. I t is the value of E .06 k R4 This is similar in form to the expression given by Spanglers except t h a t a term is included for the active lateral pressure and it is preferred that long-term effects be allowed for by reducing the value of k instead of using a ' deflection lag factor ' as suggested by Spangler. then 40c = 233 and c = 5 -82 lb/in. for the steel culvert.2 for a corrugated steel culvert.0833 p .0 .0 in.a) P.20 (1 . for cohesive soils. which is the lcngth of culvert being considcrcd. E . R4 O-0833pVR4(l-a)* . Neglecting the wall stiffness term in the denominator of equation 2 putting E .2for a concrete culvert and 20 lb/in.- 6 . An indication of the properties of a cohesive soil required to establish equilibrium of a flexible culvert a t a specified maximum deflection is obtained as follows. At Mountfield the average vertical pressures wereassessed at 30 lb/in.I. and f i h p . a time-dependent ' effective ' value corresponding to the total compression.is flexiblethe situation may be reversed. The distribution of the reactive pressure on the horizontal projection of the culvert must have the general form shown in Fig 18(b) if it isassumed t h a t t h e pressureiseverywhere proportional to the horizontal deflection of the culvert so that p. (final) = K . = -E. = 0 -54 in. and transposing: E. I = 0 -0045 in.6. Thus.2 I t is apparent that for these conditions the pressure distribution around the culvert is approximately uniform.079 x 30 = 2 -37 lb/in. and p h are assumed to be uniformly distributed over the vertical and horizontal projections of the culvert and give the maximum bending moments and deflections shown. a comThe establishment of asimilarrelationshipfor pacted cohesive soil would enable theshearstrength corresponding to the required compressibility t o be obtained. Taking p./K = 750125 = 30 lb/in.e. 0 6 k8. The value of h depends not only on the soil properties but alsoon the dimensions of the case and it isusual to assume that k N E.

When equilibrium of the soil-structure system is established in this way the only contribution required from the culvert itself is the transmission of direct forces. 4. 19.. ' The loads imposed on conduits laid under embankmentsorvalley fills.p. Soil Textbook Co. 444. Cracking may convert a concrete culvert into a mechanism. N. which is proportional to a. Clarke.5 L 8 / / N Z A S 0 BUT C O M P A C T E D 70 THL DRY D€NSIT/ES S H O W N c. December 1960.. which it must achieve withoutfailurein compression orthroughelasticinstability following excessive deflection. This and other evidence suggests that the specification for field control of a highly compressible fill should aim a t limiting the final horizontal deflection to between 5 per cent and10 per cent of the radius according to the long-term condition of the fill as predicted on the basis of a practicable degree of control and compactive effort. International 5. B. In thecase of a flexible culvert field control is essential since the success of the installation depends upon the culvert deriving full lateral support from the surrounding soil Numerous investigations have revealed thatthe increase horizontal deflections of flexible culverts tend to over a period of yearsuntilthelateralpressuresare approximately equal to the vertical pressures. Vol. The immediate results of compacting a cohesive valley fill dry of optimumcantherefore be deceptive since subsequentsaturationmaylargelydestroythe effects of the compactive effort. Collapse of flexible culverts is associated with symmetrical deflections of the order of 20 percent of theradius. B. Skempton.but prematurefailuremayoccur if unbalancedconditions are created by the filling operations. could make all the difference to the success of an installation. 1951. in time. Although it isrational to ignore reactive lateral pressures when designing stiff walled units it appears that such pressures must account for the factthat some existing culverts have not collapsed. 19. Stationery Office. Mitchell and Chan8 have investigated this effect and Fig. p. but it can still achieve stability and remain serviceable if sufficient lateralsupportisprovidedby the soil to prevent actual collapse. final equilibrium of the soil-structure system requires a substantial contribution from the culvert through the bending strength of its wall. 1961. N.Division 1.p. it is therefore advantageous to control both materials and workmanship when placing and consolidating the fill around the culvert and for a few feet above. P*.M. 36. Seed. I t will be seen that a substantial decrease in the undrained shear strength occurs after soaking when the soil is compacted at a moisture MARCH 1968 No 3 content below optimum. 129. As has been said7 : ' Every pound of pressurewhichcanbebrought to bear against the sides of an elastic ring increases the ability of the ring to carry vertical load by nearly the same amount. p. X. Fourth Rankine Lecture: Long-term stability of clayslopes. p. shows the trend of values as exemplified by at asiltyclaycompactedtoaconstantdrydensity variousmoisturecontents. I t is clearly prudent to ensure that the soil surrounding a concrete culvert can perform this structural function should the necessity arise. 0. However. W.. Spangler. 6. oedometer tests should be carried out on the fill material whenever there is doubt regarding its ability to suitably limit the deflections of the culvert wall. Readings taken at Mountfield 32 months after completion of filling over the culvert gave a meandeflection of 5 . ' Design and construction of sanitary and storm sewers.. p.. Ministry of Transport. A. K. Scranton. The stability of a culvert the wall of which has (or is caused tohave) negligibleflexuralstiffnessisseen to depend upon the compressibility of the surrounding soil fill. M. The arguments in favour of good workmanship thus receive added point in the case of a valley fill. 73.. 63. STRUCTURAL NGINEERTHE VOLUME 46 81 .' Whateverthe flexuralcharacteristics of theculvert wall. In this connection it has to be remembered that a compacted soil mustachieveequilibrium with its environmental conditions of pressure and moisa specialcasesince ture. I t is therefore suggested t h a t in additiontothe usual compaction studies. ' The bearing capacity of clays. its properties will approach those corresponding to the ' soaked undersurcharge ' condition. Since the stiff walled culvert cannot derive appreciable support from reactive lateral pressures.Practical considerations The reduction in maximum bending moment due to active lateral pressure. 2. Engineering. W. AS C O M P A C T E D TO A DRY D € N S / T Y OF /06f6$T3 A FTER S O A K I N G VNDE'R SURCHARGE OF 1. Geotechnique. and R. Formulation of a specification for field control requires attention. The culvert is then fully supported laterally and subjected to an essentially uniform all-round pressure. 12 1 4 l6 l8 20 W A T € R C O N T E N T AT COMPACTION PER C E N T Fig 19-Effect of soaking under 9ressztre on shear strength of cohesive sod References l. I C E .' American Society of Civil Engineers Manual of Engineering Practice hTo.The fill in a rivervalleyis considerable quantities of water are likely to have access to the soil around the culvertso that.Control of the soil properties relevant to the stability of a flexible culvert would then belost and the final condition of the soil may be less satisfactory thanif it hadbeen compacted at or above the optimum moisture content. Vol. G.' Building research congress 1951. 75. 0.and Morgenstern. prepared from their results. 3.37.' Geotechnique.. H. Specification for road and bridge works. 5 per cent of the radius. 1963. inter alia. 180. to the following points. W.' Proc. 7. A. A.Seed. Joint Committee of Water Pollution Control Federation and American Society of Civil Engineers. Mitchell and Chan have shown that the properties of asoaked cohesive soil as indicated by its shear strength improve as the dry density increases: see Fig. ' Stability coefficients for earth slopes. W. XIV. Holtzg has also shown how the consolidation of a fine grained soil canbegreatlyincreased by saturation following compaction a t a moisture content below optimum. A. This will ensurethemaximumactive(andreactive) lateral pressures on the culvert and minimise the deflectionassociated with final equilibrium of the soilstructure system. Vol. London. . Pecklo have recorded horizontal deflections of up to 10 per cent of the radius without any signs of distress in the culverts. 185. January 1967. June 1964. Bishop. Skempton.

1967. 1960. F. J.’ Proc. A. New York and London.Engineering Mechanics. v. Presented by Mr. 1966. E.. Seed. 1967. J. Freeman. 1967. Rowe. 3rd Edition. FITZGERALD. and KELSON. T. and CHEGOLIN. J . Thomas. University of Illinois Bulletin. New York. 1962.-Modern Foundation Methods. v. Structures. S. fioorkee.-Structural Effects c. K. J .-Elastic Instability Analysis of Buckling Modes and Loads of Framed Structures. BARRY. J . A. Middx. Rlitchell. 1967. and A L E X A N D E R . ANDREWS. 2nd Edition. R0LT. The Application of the LaplaceTransformation Method to Engineering Problems.8 . W. American Society of Civil Engineers. DALLY. H. Presented by Mr. London. Lawrenson. Analysis.-Experimental Stress Analysis. Presented by Mr. P.-Industrial Administration and Management. A. R . R . Washington. and RILEY. K . 2. Heffron. Andrews.-Matrix Methods of Stvzfctural Analysis. R.-Design of Thin Concrete Shells. Wingfield. London. USA. B. I<. 2nd Edition. B. R. 1966. 1966. McD. w. and PLASS. USA and London. Glens. Ward. B. G. W. Presented by Mr. K E R O P Y A N . E V E K A R D . Presentedby Mr. New by Mr. A. Bunn. A. 1963. Gurr. London. G. Theory and Sohed Problems.-Plastic Design of Portal Frames. andChan. l<. E. 1967. Essex. London. A. H. G. Presented by Mr.. Presented by Mr. 2nd Edition. London. A. u. Presented by Mr. P. Jenkins. 1966. J. G. Presented by Mr. ’ Thestrength of compacted cohesive soils.Iterative Methods Structural in Analysis. Presented by Mr. A.. New Structures. London. BASZKOWIAK.Baltimore.-The Structural Use of Timber. Californian Highway Transportation of Bridge Design Agency-Manual Practice. Dymott. and KhCZHOU‘SKI. Presented by Mr. ~. New York and London. A. Jnr. P. E. Vol. BOLITIN. New York and London. of American Concrete Institute-Manual Concrete Inspection. J . 1966. Presented by Mr. 1967. Bandyopadhyay. I’resented by Mr. G. K . June 1960. M O R G A N . and C L E V E L A N D . Presented by Mr. s. J.-Fluid Mechanics. and S A R K A R . Presented by Mr. Gokhale. BLUNT. Chan Chia-Tung. A.. Presented A. Prescnted by Mr. W. Presented Robson. nIcMINS. F. M.-Dynamical Stability of Elastic Systems. D.-Engineering in History.-Concrete and Soil-Cement Roads. S. Soc. LIVESLEY. 1964. p. Oxford and London. London. I .-Ultimate Load Design of Conti. M. 1963. J. v. 1967.-Standard Specification for Highway Bridges. l. M. Presentedby Mr. W. J .-Strain Energy Data Sheets : Type I-Cantilevers.-Editor. G. 48. London. Presented by Mr. P. 3rd Edition. S . 1961. R. Presented by Mr. P. W . BOOTH. Theory and Solved Problems. Vol. R . J O H N S T O N . K. Illinois.-Composite Materials.-Laboratory U’ork for Students of Constrzrction. W.-Surveying.nuous Concrete Beams. New York. An Architectural Record Book. H. (2) Recommended Practice-forPlacing Reinforcing Bars. J . J . J. 1948. London. 1967. 1966. With a new introduction and biographical portrait. K. W. and RAYMOND. R.-Historica/ Outline of ArcJlitectural Science. 1967. Gurr. 1967.Principles of Surveying. 2nd Edition. and REECE. 0. Council of Scientific and lndustrial liescarch. 9. London. BATTY. W. M. 1966. 16. Vol. Amin. G. York. L. I’rcscnted by Mr. London. J . 10. Presented by Mr.mdon. Presented by Mr. 1966. Chicago. New York. HAGERTY. Concrete Reinforcing Steel lnstitutc( l ) Design Handbook. I W I N S K I . London. 1965. andPeck. J. Lonby Mr. A concise handbook of engineering fztndamenfals. R. L. BECKETT. Hampton. R. N.-Reinforced Concrete Design. S . J . R . J.-New Ways through the HALDANE. Institute of Welding Handbook for Welding Design. Mellor. 1962.Electrical Analogues in Stvuctztral Engineering. P.-Architectural Engineering. E. 1967. C. G. King. 1967. 1967. C. W. 1966. Holtz. London. New York and London. and others. SP-2. 0. Oxford andLondon. Greenough.-Matrices for Strucfural Analysis. Reading. J. FISCHER.-Highway Engineering. J . A . M. W. W. Prescnted by Rlr. 1964. Presented by Mr. R . Symmons. S. Presentedby Rlr. Presented by Mr. P. March 1949. K. Theory and Solved Problems. Culver.-Students Structural Handbook. Clancy. Presented by Mr. W. Presented by Mr. HAMMOND.-Construction of Buildings. S . MOTT and sosDERs-Engineer’s Companion. 1 ’ . 1965. Am. Oastler. C L E X D I N K I N G . R. New YorkandLondon. 1964. 1962. Oxford and London. Presented by Mr. C. continuedonpage 8 82 VOLUME 46 No 3 MARCH 1968 THE STRUCTURAL ENGINEER . P. BANKISTER. PresentedbyR. J . I<. Smith. Tate. Prescnted by Mr.and Associates. Mills. Negative Curvature Index. Vol. >I. and WOODHEAD. Vol.-Frame HALL. G. Presented by Mr.. P. 2nd Edition. 1957. A. American Association of Statc Highway Officials. Vol.’ Research Conference on shear strength of cohesive soils. Gauld. K . San Francisco. Cumberlidgc. K. Presented by Mr. New York and London. London. American Institute of Timber Construction. Presented by the Authors.W. Barking. 2. New York and London. USA. Selway. Mass. R. C O W A N . J .-Adoanced Mechanics of Materials. New York. 1240. GILES.-Theovy of Beams. l and 2. K I R B Y . Design Criteria for Metal Compression Members. 11. ~l. Homer. E. ASHWORTH. K . S. Mercer and Mr. Gauld. Presented by Mr. P. Pcck. 46. C. 1 ’ . 1957. USA. Vols. C H A N D R A .. Presented by Mr. p. 1965. Gulson. J. J. 1966. 2nd Edition. MORSE. R. B. A. J .. c. 877. Sangster. Presented by Mr.-Timber Construction Manual. Robson.’ Contributions to Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Soil Mechanics Foundation and Engineering. Presented by Mr. 2nd Edition. HEYMAN. ‘ Experiencewith flexible culverts through railroad embankments. H. Williams. I<. CASTIGLIANO. 1966. w. k-strength of Materials. U. 1966. NASH. E. Bannister. J . and others. and T A N N E R . DC. W. A. Presented by Mr. London. I<. S. M A N N I N G . p. for Testing Materials.Detroit. T. 1966. London. G.Sfcel Designers’ Manual. London. Cary.-Theory of Equilibrium of Elastic Systems and its Applications. M. 1964. KELLY.---Strength of Materials. B. KORNHAUSER. London. G. ‘ The determination of limits for the control of placement moisture in high rolled-earth dams.-Solution of Problems in MARSHALL. G. Presented by Mr. l . Sarkar. 1967. don.-Handbook of Ultimate Strength Design of Rein- forced Concrete Members. London. H. 1967. K. H. Butcher. I ( .--l‘heory and Problems of Reinforced Concrete Design. G. M . 1956. 1966. 1963. New York and London. RIcKay. R . K . w. 2 copies presented by Mr. Smith. Presented by Mr. Michalski. Hagan. J . H A A S . FORD. Presented by Mr. USA. R .. and OLLIVER. G R E G O R Y . I. 2nd Edition. K. R . New York and London.A. M . S. Homer.f Impact. 1964. 1962.Engineering Mechanics. London. Presented by Mr. s. Yeung 1’0 ‘l’ak. British Steel Production Conference. Prcscntcd by Mr. W. MCLEAS. I’resented by Mr. I i .

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