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Homework 2

chapter 24: 18, chapter 25: 19, 31, 35

18 A solid sphere of radius 40 cm has a total positive charge of 26 μC uniformly distributed throughout its volume. The spherical symmetry requires that the electric field vector at each location have a radial direction from the center of the sphere. (b) 10 cm.Problem 24. Calculate the magnitude of electric field (a) 0 cm. and (d) 60 cm from the center of the sphere. That symmetry also requires that the magnitude of the electric field have the same value along a spherical surface concentric with the charged sphere. we can determine that charge density in our problem: (1) ρ( r ) = dq Q 3Q = = dV V 4 πR 3 (for r < R) . Let's first find the electric field vector as a function of location in the general form. r R From the definition of volume charge density and the fact that the density in this case is uniform. (c) 40 cm.

Let's choose a spherical Gaussian surface concentric with the charged sphere. the flux through the Gaussian surface expressed in terms of the magnitude of the electric field at the Gaussian surface is (2) r r Φ = ∫ E ⋅ dA = ∫ E ⋅ cos0 ⋅ dA = 4 πr 2 E S S From Gauss' law. we know that that flux is proportional to the electric charge inside the Gaussian surface. The angle between the electric field vector and the normal to the surface in this case is 0. (3) 4 3 Q πr ρ = 3 r 3 3 R Q( r ) = Q Q( r ) = 1 Q 3 ⋅ 3r ε0 R 1 4πr 2 E(r ) = Q ε0 for r < R for r ≥ R Therefore 4 πr 2 E ( r ) = for r < R for r ≥ R Hence ⎧ kQ ⎪R 3 ⋅ r ⎪ E(r ) = ⎨ ⎪ kQ ⎪ 2 ⎩ r for r≤R r≥R for .Now we can use Gauss' law to relate the magnitude of electric field with the distance r from the center of the charged sphere. Therefore.

6 5 10 C (0. . a) b) c) d) kQ N ⋅ 0 m = 0 C R3 2 9 Nm ⋅ 26 ⋅ 10 − 6 C 9 ⋅ 10 2 5 N C E(10cm) = ⋅ = ⋅ .) . m 01 3 66 10 C (0.6m) 2 E( 0cm) = (Note.Now we can use the above general expression to find electric field strength at the points indicated in the problem.4 m) 2 2 9 Nm ⋅ 26 ⋅ 10 − 6 C 9 ⋅ 10 2 5 N C E( 40cm) = = ⋅ . There is no question about the direction in the problem.4 m) 3 2 9 Nm 9 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 26 ⋅ 10 − 6 C 2 6 N C 1 46 10 . E( 40cm) = = ⋅ C (0.

1 s 2 s s 2 s 2 s The question refers to the work performed by “external” object.41 kQ2/s. We can assume that the particles are brought to their final positions one by one. The particles also perform “internal” work on each other.) . other than the four charged particles. ΔW = ΔW1 + ΔW2 + ΔW3 + ΔW4 We can use the work-energy theorem to find each work. we can add the “external” work performed on each particle. The kinetic energy is also zero when the system is assembled.Problem 25. For each particle (i) the “external” work is equal to the change in its mechanical energy ΔWi = ΔKi + ΔUi where K is the kinetic energy and U is the potential energy due to electrostatic interaction. In order to find the answer. (From the initial assumption about the kinetic energy we see that the change in the kinetic energy is zero. We can assume that the particles are initially far separated and have no initial s 3 4 kinetic energy. Since electrostatic interaction is conservative it does not matter how the system is assembled.19 Show that the amount of work required to assemble four identical point charges of magnitude Q at the corners of a square of side s is 5.

three particles contribute to the potential energy of the fourth particle kQ 2 ⎛ 2⎞ ⎟ ΔW4 = U 4f − U 4i = Q((V1f + V2f + V3f ) − (V1i + V2i + V3i )) = ⋅⎜ 2 + ⎟ s ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Hence kQ 2 kQ 2 (4 + 2 ) ≈ 5.The first particle is completely free to move (no other particle interact with it) therefore it requires no work to place it at the right position ΔW1 = 0 The second particle has a nonzero potential energy due to the first particle. Moving the second particle is associated with a change in its potential energy U2 (due to the potential V1 produced by the first particle) ΔW2 = U 2 f kQ 2 − U 2i = Q(V1f − V1i ) = s Potential energy of the third particle results from interaction with the first two kQ 2 ⎛ 2⎞ ⎟ ΔW3 = U 3f − U 3i = Q((V1f + V2f ) − (V1i + V2i )) = ⋅⎜ 1 + ⎟ s ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Finally.41 ⋅ ΔW = s s .

0. Find the expression for the x. ⎥ = − 5 − 6 xy.3x2y +2yz2.-2]m? In this problem. the electric potential is given at all points of the space.5. and z components of the electric field over this region. What is the magnitude of the field at point P. y. the electric field vector has a value of E(1m. which has coordinates [1. z ) = ⎜ 5 ⎟ ⋅ x − ⎜ 3 3 ⎟ ⋅ x 2 y + ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⋅ yz2 ⎝ m⎠ ⎝ m ⎠ ⎝ m⎠ For the sake of simplicity we can omit the units in the above equation but we have to remember that when the components of position are given in meters the value of potential is in volts.4 yz ⎣ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎦ [ ] At point P. the electric potential is V = 5x .−2]m . y. It should be mentioned that the coefficients in that function have such units so that the value of the function is in volts. in terms of an explicit function of scalar components of the position vector. The electric field vector is equal to the gradient of the electric potential for the considered electric field.31 Over a certain region of space.0] V m The magnitude of this vector (found from the definition) is .Problem 25.z] are: ⎡ ∂V ∂V ∂V ⎤ E(r ) = −∇V = − ⎢ . Therefore the components of the electric field vector at location r = [x. whose position is rp = [1. − 2m ) = −[5.0. .−3x 2 + 2z 2 .y. ⎛ V⎞ ⎛ V⎞ ⎛ V⎞ V(x.0m.

−2m ) = E 2 x + E y + E z = 7.2 2 E(1m. we assigned N/C as the SI unit of this quantity. V J Nm N = = = m Cm Cm C . We should make a comment about the unit we have here for the electric field vector.0m. Recall that when we introduced the concept of an electric field vector. The units of the quantities discussed above are also SI units. 1 V m Note.

43) lies along the x axis with its left end at the origin and has a nonuniform charge density λ=αx (where α is a positive constant). we can find the contribution to the electric potential dVA from that segment. Whenever there is a relationship between two physical quantities expressed in the form of an equation. P. and the distance of the considered location to the segment r’(x) = d + x .35 A rod of length L (Fig. by integrating the above (adding) over the entire rod. the limits of integration are 0 and L. dVA = kdq kλ(x )dx = r' d+x We obtain the total electric potential at point A. consistent with the figure. a) Since it is not otherwise specified. Since we have chosen the x-component of position as the variable. We need the (differential) charge dq of the segment.Problem 25. VA = ∫ L L kαxdx d ⎞ L+d⎞ L ⎛ ⎛ = kα ∫ ⎜1 − ⎟dx = kα(x − d ln(x + d )) 0 = kα⎜ L − d ln ⎟ x+d⎠ d ⎠ ⎝ 0 d+x 0⎝ . Recall that the linear charge density is 1 C/m and the unit of length is 1m. b) When we divide the rod into differential segments. (a) What are the units of α? (b) Calculate the electric potential at A. treating it like a point charge. This requires that the coefficient α in the equation λ(x) = αx has unit C/m2. related to the charge density at this location λ(x). the units on both sides must be the same. by default we should assume d dq that the physical quantities discussed in the problem A x L are expressed in SI units.25.

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