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Gratitude Firstly I thank God for the force that granted me.

I also thank my parents for the force that they gave me. In second place I am thank our good teacher Puff for the force and courage and pieces of advice that I took advantage him. it was good to be with him and not only, also to my friends that always supported me in the learning of such famous language that it is English. That God blesses you and keep you from now on until the consummation of the centuries. Thank you...

Dedication I dedicate this work to almighty God I dedicate to my parents I dedicate the all those that didn't lose the hope of seeing me finalist of this course I dedicate to all that wasted their precious time for us to come here to attend today. I thank...

Introduction Before we can develop this beautiful one and compound fears would like to define it in an exhausting way. The Bible that is defined as the revelation of God the humanity and she has as her author God and her Real interprets is his Spirit Saint central subject is lord Jesus Christ this attitude to the Bible is of capital importance for the success of her study. Our attitude to the Bible shows our attitude to God. being the Bible as the revelation of God she expresses the will of God, to ignore the Bible is to ignore that will. Certain Anonymous author certainly declared that the Bible is God speaking to the man; it is speaking through the man; God speaking to the man; It is God speaking in favor of the man but it is always God speaking. She is a library of 66 books, and also a book that answers a child's questions and it resists the wisdom of the wise persons. The Bible is not old nor modern but it is eternal he is a book that God wrote divided in two parts: Old will and the New will that it corresponds to 66 books, and it was also written by 40 writers guided by the power of Spirit Saint among 1.500 to 1.600 years she in the obstructive is only a book that is the Bible

To study the Bible among the a lot of reasons we will detach some: because she illuminates the road for God (psalms 105; 119; 130)

because she is spiritual food for the knowledge of all (Jeremias 13:16; 1st S. Pedro 2:1-2) we know that the good health; the grace; the appetite. do you have appetite for the Bible? If you only have appetite for readings without advantage groups disgust for the Bible, what is a bad sign takes care of that. Because she is the instrument that the spirit uses in his/her operation (Efesios 6: 17). If you want that the spirit Saint operates in you, and inclusively in the ministry of the prayer...... he/she tries to have instrument that he uses, that it is the word of God. And that in the prayer we needed to support our faith in the promises of God, and those promises are in the Bible!

How should we study the Bible Among you vary them forms will detach some. To read the Bible knowing his author: God (Isaiah 34: 16; Jeremias 1: 12). Like this being, him same we reveal her (S. Lucas 24: 45; 1st Corinthian 2:10; 12: 13), nobody better can explain a book that his author. The Bible is a book of understanding easy and at the same time difficult, but if we know his author the understanding he becomes but easy. Read the Bible daily (Deutronomio17: 19). Doing had fed like this directly in the divine table. The believer that he/she doesn't read her Bible. It only receives this food when somebody puts it in her mouth...considers lost the day in that you don't read her Bible read the Bible with the prayer (psalms 119: 18 Efesios 1: 16-17) in the presentation of the Mister in prayer the occult things are revealed when we read the Bible God speaks with us when we prayed spoke with God. The Bible and the prayer is completed.

Read the Bible applying her/it to itself own the person that in the reading of the Bible everything that is blessing, comfort, promises they apply itself; everything that is threat, Exhortation, warning applies to the other ones. Read the Bible in Josies attitude so that the Mister he/she manifests as male (one of the cases of teofania of the old will as this narrated him/it in Josies 5 book: 14) " that says mine Mister to his/her servant we should not import message for the Bible, because they already approach of them with their own ideas, his/her own theology, wanting to exhort all this in the divine revelation. Let us arrive the mind Bible cleans and receptive heart his/her divine message and we will be blessed"


Having faith to the that he teaches without doubting. The doubts is her a barrier for the understanding of the deeds.

reading her/it for love and pleasure and with hunger of learning the things of God (Proverbs 2: 3-5 Marcos 12: 37 I Pedro 2: 2). The brother already noticed the hunger that you/they have newly born od! The mothers that say him/it!!! How this his/her Spiritual appetite for the word of God? With the mind we should learn and to memorize the Bible. And with the heart you love her (Hebrew 10:6). There are people that he/she almost knows the Bible all of memory that is praiseworthy however it is better a verse in the heart being loved and obeyed than ten in the head and rotten in the heart (Deuteronomy 6:6). It is of admiring there to be people that find time to read to hear and to see everything less the word of God. Result Eats other things that can the appetite for the word of God so much doesn't exist.


MATERIALS IN THAT FORM THE BIBLE ORIGINALLY The main ones were two papyruses and parchment. The papyrus was extracted of an aquatic plant of that same name. There are several mentions of him in the Bible as for instance in Exodus 2: 5; J 8: 11; Isaiah 18: 2. Of papyrus it derives the term paper, his/her use in the writing comes of 3.000 years Before of Christ in Egypt. Parchment is the skin of animals tanned and prepared for writing. It is material Superior to the papyrus however, of more recent use than that. He/she had his/her widespread use, starting from I begin him/it of the century I in smaller Asia. It is also mentioned in the Bible in 2nd Timteo 4: 13.


They were two rolls and codexes. They were those formats of the old books. The roll was of done of papyrus or parchment. It was arrested to two wood cables for handling easiness. Each book of the Bible was a separate roll, on that time nobody could drive the Bible personally as we make today... What turned that possible it was the invention of the paper in the Century II for Chinese later Christ and the one of the type black moves for Aleman Gutenberg in 1450 after Christ, making possible the format of the current books The codex: it is a work in the format of book of great proportions this vocabulary book comes of Latin " liber " that means case of tree firstly later books

TYPE OF PRIMITIVE WRITING OF THE BIBLE It was hand written everything done by the escribas in a slow and onerous laborious way. Cencial is the manuscript that it only contains capital letters, and script, what only contains manuscripts. He/she gave time for here God has been blessing the diffusion of his/her book

marvelously so that in the days today million and million of copies are printed in many points of the globe quickly and university in modern printers. THE ORIGINAL LANGUAGES OF THE BIBLE

The main ones are two: Hebraic for the old will and Greek for the new will. It was in those languages that the Bible was originally inspired. The translations only conserve the inspiration when they reproduce the original faithfully.

THE WRITERS OF THE BIBLE The existence of the Bible includes their his/her writers formation composition, preservation and transmission, it can only be explained as miracle of God, or better, God being his/her author. They were about 40 the writers of the Bible. this way, the written word of God was given us by human channels; as well as it was it the word Christ lives (Apocalypse 19:13). Those men belonged the most varied profession and activity. They wrote and they lived distant some of the other ones in time and different conditions. they took 1500 years to write the Bible, in spite of all those difficulty, She neither contains mistakes nor contradictions, there is yes difficulty in the understanding, interpretation, translation, application, but with all this on the human side, due to our incapacity in all the senses. THE ORIGIN OF THE NAME BIBLE This name just consists in the layer of the Bible but we don't see him/it through the Sacred volume. It was applied the deeds firstly by Joo Crisostomo, great reformer and constantinopla patriarch the Vocabulary " Bible" means "Colco of small books" etymologically this because the books of the Bible are small, formed an entire volume not very big as so well we knew, in fact the Bible is a colo of books, however perfectly harmonic amongst themselves it is divide that that the word Bible being a plural in the Greek, it started to be singular in the modern languages. The leaf papyrus prepared for writing, the Greeks called " Biblos", to the small papyrus roll, the Greeks called "Biblion" and the plural of this they called "Bible". Therefore the vocabularies derived Bible of the Greek language. The vocabularies "Bible" and "biblion" consist in the New Greek will, but not regarding own Bible: Bible: (J 21: 25; Apocalypse: 20: 12) Biblion (S. Lucas 4: 17; J 20:30) Realists as middle of I aid the faith in God went later idolized by them (2nd Roman 18:4) God took care of the burial of Moses and it hid his/her place because certainly the people would adore his/her body (Deuteronomy 34:5-6). THE devil had interest in the idolatry and it was confronted with Archangel that proceeded to the funeral of Moses. Million in a lot of lands

adore the cross of Christ to the instead of Christ of Cruz. It is also Jesus Christ's virgin mother's case, that million adore her more than the son. Besides, we have to consider the following, historically as the inexistence of original manuscripts: 1st were habit of the Jews to bury the manuscripts destroyed by the use or any other cause to avoid his/her mutilation or interpolation spice.

2nd The kings idolize and impious of Israel they might have destroyed many or contributed to that, as it is the case described in (Jeremiah 36:20-26)

3rd THE monster Antioch Pefanis, king of Syria, during his/her reign dominated on the whole Palestine. It was extremely cruel man had pleasure in applying tortures. He/she decided to exterminate the Jewish religion, it devastated Jerusalem in 168 ac. profaning the temple and destroying all them copy that found of the deeds.

4th in the Ferocious Roman emperor's day Deocleciano the pursuers of the Christian had destroyed how many copy found of the deeds. For 10 Years Deocleciano ordered to search the empire seeking to destroy all the Sacred writings arrived to have faith that it had destroyed everything, because it ordered To coin a coin commemorating such he/she acclaims.

The Jewish literature affirms that the mission of the call great synagogue, presided by Esdra was to gather and to preserve the original manuscripts of the old will the one that the Seventy were served in the preparation of the Septuagint the first translation of the Deeds. WHAT IS THE BIBLE It is the revelation of God humanity; it is the right canonical definition of the Bible. Everything that God has mixture for the man as well as the one that he requests of the man and everything that the man needs to know spiritually of the part of God as for his/her redemption and eternal happiness, it is revealed in the Bible everything that the man has to do and to take the word of God and to adapt of her for the faith. The Author of the Bible is his/her God Real interprets is Spirit Santo and his/her central subject is Mr. Jesus Cristo. The man should read the Bible to be wise, to have faith so that it is safe and to practice the Bible to be sacred or sanctified. The complete collection of the inspired divine books constituting the Bible Canon is called.

The canonical names more common of the sacred book they are:

Sacred deeds or Scriptures (S Mateus 21:42; Roman 1:2) Book of the Mister (Isaiah 34:16) The word of God (S Marcos 7:13; Hebrew 4:12) Oracles of God (Roman 3:2) ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS OF THE BIBLE AND ORIGINAL COPIES

Original manuscripts, that is that it came from the writers' hands, don't exist none known in the moment. God in yours makes arrangements allowed that if somebody existed, the men would adore him more than his/her divine author.

The put metal serpent among the Geronimos was a notable precept the church that was in Rome, the one which on that time they still maintained his/her spiritual purity. The translation was made of Hebrew for Latin, the official language of the Roman empire, is her the official version of the Roman church from I reconcile him of Trento to 1546 years after Christ The Authorized Version or version of King Tiago the place of the translation was in England in the years 1611 after Christ. That version is even hoj the favorite of the people of English speech. The English people have high Adoration for the Bible. She forms the mentality of that people and it is had as his/her support and his/her largest legacy.

Translation of the up to now, the whole Bible or partly he/she is translated in about 1650 languages and dialects. THE BIBLE IN PORTUGUESE The first translation of the Bible in Portuguese was made by an Evangelical one: Almeida's interesting fact shepherd Joo Ferreira and that it was accomplished out of Portugal. The city was Batavia in the Island of Java in the Indian Ocean. Today that City calls herself Jakarta the Capital of the it Republishes of Indonesia, Almeida was minister of the Gospel of the church reformed Dutchwoman the same that you/he/she evangelized in Brazil with headquarters in Recife during the Dutch occupation, in the century XVIII. He/she was born in Portugal close to Lisbon in 1628, it died in Java in 1691. The Catholic Church through the tribunal of the inquisition didn't make a request of you burn him/it alive, and then burn-lo in it decrees in Goa Portuguese possession in India. That church not even now in the ecumenical call it was excused of such things. The texts in original language that the current ones and profits are used in the preparation of the modern versions are reproductions of the current copies of original.

Copy of original manuscripts there is countless in several points of the World. The main three are: The Manuscript of Vatican of Rome The Manuscript of Sinaitico of London The Manuscript of Alexandrine also of London To discourse on them flees to the mark of this work that existent manuscripts harmonize checking like this of his/her authenticity admirably. A configuration of that sees in the manuscript of the Dead Sea. In 1947 close to the Dead Sea it was discovered a manuscript of the prophet Isaiah in roll form written in Hebrew of the year 100 before Christ... Being like this older than the oldest biblical manuscript until then known! (Many other rolls were found also and hundreds of fragments of other works). Well then, the text of that manuscript when compared with the one of our Bible, it agrees fully, this is a singular proof of the authenticity of the deeds, to the we considered that mentioned them manuscript of Isaiah have now more than 2000 years of existence. The biblical manuscript is suitable always for the abbreviation M.S FAMOUS TRANSLATIONS OF THE BIBLE The Septuagint was the first translation of the local Bible Alexandria in the Egypt, in the year 235 before Cristo the translation was made of Hebrew for the Greek, he/she only understood the old will is evident that it was the Bible that Jesus and their apostles used. The oldest copy of the Septuagint this in the library of the Vatican starting from the 325 after Christ. Vulgata is a translation of the Bible all done by Geronimo ended in 405 after Christ in Belem in Palestine, the Greek text of Nestle was used for the new will and letters Hebrew for the old will. The commission permanent reviewer of the ALTAR. The revision is an updating of the text in venaculo so that if he/she understands him/it better. Reason an alive language develops as all of the alive things. To a permanent commission of revision of the ALTAR, maintained by the Biblical Society Brazileira, accompanying the progress of the it criticizes textual. Antonio Pereira of Figueredo Roman Catholic Priest big Latin edited the new will in 1778 and the old will in 1790. The translation in Portuguese was made by a commission of theologians brazileiro and foreigners, the new will was published in 1910 and the old will in 1917 and the very faithful translation the original was suspended in 1954. Humberto Rhodem only the New Greek wills, Nestle priest brazileiro of saint Catharina was published in 1935 that priest left the Roman church. And version very used in the it criticizes textual out of print.

Bushes Soares also priest brazileiro translated vulgata was published in the brazil in 1946, it was already it in Portugal from 1933 and the Bible popular of the Roman Catholics of Portuguese lack a serious inconvenience are the Italians that the times are more extensive s than the text in that it leads to prejudice and tendencies. ALMEIDA'S VERSION

The new will, Almeida translated first, which was published in 1681 in Amsterdam, Holland. In the national library of Rio de Janeiro there is a copy of the 3rd edition of Almeida's new will, done in 1712.

The old will was translated until the book of Ezequel, the that height God called him/it to the Celestial home; In 1691Ministro of the Gospel their friends finished the translation, which was published completes in 1753. The British biblical society and foreigners from London began to publish Almeida's translation in 1809, just the new will. The Bible completes in only one volume starting from 1819. The text in price was revised in 1894 and in 1925. Almeida's Bible was published for the first time in Brazil in 1944 for the press Brazilian biblical organization baptista. The British biblical society and foreigner has been the marvelously used by God in the spread of the Bible in Portuguese in work prioneiro and continuous.

The version A.R.C (Revised Almeida and Corigida), the press biblical Brazilian published in 1951 the reviewed edition and corrected abreviadanente known by A.R.C

The version A.R.A (Revised Almeida Updated), a commission of Brazilian specialists working from 1946 at 1946 o'clock prepared the reviewed edition and actualizada of Almeida, it is a work magnifies with better language and better translation. The new will was published in 1951 the Old in 1958. The publication is of the biblical Society of Brazil. The version of the Brazilian biblical Press. IBB threw in 1968, after long years of careful work a new version in Portuguese, known as VIBB, based on Almeida's tradition. The edition of 1968 just appeared in common popular format in that version the best texts were used in Hebrew and Greek. Great Version

Other Versions. The Roman Catholic Church has been publishing more editions of the Gospel and new will. The Italics notes and appendixes, drive is clear the doctrines of that church. The witness of Jehovah Publish a falsified version of the whole Bible the Translation of the New World." The text is mutilated and full of interpolation. It was prepared to support the antibiblical faiths of those false sects.

The importance of the Bible in Portuguese. The Portuguese language is spoken in all the continents, fact that it emphasizes the importance of the Bible in Portuguese in all the senses The Bible was press for the evangelical ones the first time in Brazil in 1944. The oldest biblical society of the World is the British Biblical Society and Foreigner (SBBE) founded in 1804, Monday is the American Biblical Society (SBA) founded in 1816, in the distribution of Bible all over the world, Brazil occupies the second place.


Being this is one of great extension will speak just some consideration.

Versions and Revisions of the Bible elapse of the need of updating of the language. The language being an alive instrument of communication and expression, it develops modifies and it increases the measure that the time runs.

In the case of the Bible, when it is made occupation is necessary to do changes in the language of the text so that the message of the same doesn't change. The message of the Bible is divine never not changing but, the human language is mute with the countless time the words and sentences of the time in that Almeida made his/her translation of the Bible for the Portuguese had fallen in contention or they alter the sense at the same time that new words and sentences entered continually for the language.

The revision is an alteration in the language for conservation of the sense of the message; the message of the text is divine, the language that drives her/it human being.

The first is unalterable Monday this always changing. It is necessary because that in the new versions and revision when done with all care saint fear, maturity and devotion to God, the language is updated so that the divine message is communicated with all happiness and seriousness according to the capacity of expression of the language. THE HEBRAIC BIBLE It just consists of our old will is that Bible of the one of the Jews, there the arrangement of the books is different, the total is 24 instead of 39, because I vary groups of books are counted as only one book, the text is always the same the 24 books are classified in 3 groups what Jesus referred in (Lucas 24:44) law, Prophet and Written. The Psalms were the first book of the I finish group maybe for that mentioned in Lucas (24:44), wanting to indicate all of the groups.


There are in Brazil two entities evangelical publishers and dealers of Bible. The first biblical press was sileira (IBB) founded to the 2 July 1940 resulting from the coalition of 1942 1948 of the you negotiate that in Brazil worked belonging the British biblical society and foreigner and of the American biblical society. The (SBB) it was the first of that gender organized in Latin America.

The first remittance of the Bible for popular acquisition arrived in Brazil in 1922 Year of the independence politicizes, and it means this connotation here among the arrival of the Bible in mass and the independence of Brazil. The first bringing the spiritual emancipation, Monday the national or it politicizes. That first remittance was of 200 Bible copies and new will sent by the British and foreign society with headquarters in London close to arrival to Brazil: Recife.

In 1855 new doors if they open for a larger diffusion of the Bible to Brazil with the foundation of the first evangelical Church in our earth. The Church congregational, for Missionary Roberto Kalley and wife. To leave you give he developed great effort for the popularization of the Bible. In 1856 the first was founded negotiates dealer of Bible in Brazil, for the British biblical society and foreigner (SBBE). Monday was the American biblical society (SBA) founded in 1876. both worked in Rio de Janeiro before that, Bible already circulated in the Brazil arrivals through ship commanders that gave them the houses trade foreigners for resale, other outstanding factor was the distributors intinerantes as it is the case of RV James Thompsom sent by SBBE, in 1818, which it traveled a lot through the americases distributing the Saint book. Other case that a lot contributed for the same end is it of Missionary D. Methodist Pkidder that it distributed copies of the word of God in almost whole empire of Brazil starting from 1837. Only in the eternity it will be revealed benefit him that the biblical society above mentioned cooperated by pioneers indometos as mentioned has been bringing Brazil in the sense Spiritual, social and Cultural, by the blessed pioneering sowing of the book of God. It also works in Brazil with headquarters in So Paulo the biblical society filial Trinitarian of his/her headquarters in London in equal way pawned in the spread of the word of God among the people THE BIBLE AND HIS/HER STRUCTURE As the general structure of the Bible, there is in him harmony and unit. We will speak now about his/her physical unit. The physical unit of the Bible to our days it can only be explained with a miracle there is in him 66 books written for an I number of 40 writers accomplishing a period of 16 centuries those men had different activities and they wrote sub different situations in most of the cases didn't meet each other lived in distant places of three continents writing in two main languages. Due

to those circumstance in many cases the others nothing knew what had been written already. A lot of times a writer began a subject to century and later an another completed him/it, all this added in only one book before human would say in undecipherable Babel! Imagines what would be the Bible physically the hand of God was not been.

As the physical unit of the Bible nobody knows for as the 66 books sure met and they grouped in only one volume. That is, work of God, we know that the writers didn't write the 66 books of only one time nor in only one place nor with the objective of gathering in only one more volume in interval for 16 centuries in places that are going from Babylon to Rome. If some leaf was found in the Bible, it will always be on the human side, as translation badly done, inexact orthography, interpretation forced, bad understanding of who studies, and false application as for the sense of the text.

Therefore when we found in the Bible a conflicting passage didn't think as soon as it is mistake! Let us know how to contemplate like Agustinho the one that said in a case should have the copyist's mistake, translation badly done of the original or then I don't get to understand... As for unit with the divine revelation. THE STRUCTURE OF THE BIBLE We will study in this point the summary of the structure of the Bible as for his/her composition in parts main books, classification of the books for subject, divisions of the books in chapters and verses and certain particularity indispensable. The division in main parts is two to know: The Old and the New will. The old will is three times bulkier than the new will. Composition as for books they are 66, being 39 in the old will and 27 in the new will. The largest book is it of the Psalms and the smallest book is to 3rd of John.

In terms of chapters the Bible holds 1.189, being 929 of the old will and 260 in the new will. The largest surrenders is the Psalms 119 and the smallest is the Psalms 117, to read the whole Bible in one year it is enough to read the Bible 5 chapters to Monday and three us other days of the week. The Bible was divided by chapters in 1250 years after Christ for Hugo of Santcher, studious Dominican Abad of the deeds.

The division in verses ads 31.173, being 23.214 in the old will and 7.959. In the new will, the largest this in Ester 8:9, and the smallest in Exodus 20:13 or Lucas 20:30 in the (TRBR) in J 3:2 in the (A.R.A), as one see depends in the version in other languages would come also. That doesn't have a lot of importance.

She was divided in verses in two stages, the old will in 1445 for Abi Nathan; The new will in 1551 for Roberto Stevens, a printer of Paris Stevens published the first Bible divided in I surrender and verses in 1555 being being this removed of the text and altering the line thought. They are useful in the location of any fraction of the text.

The 66 books are classified or contained by subjects, without chronological order it is good to have that in mind when studying the Bible because it will avoid very badly understood especially in the sphere of the it recounts of the biblical prophecy and of the development of the doctrine.

The classification of the books of the old will for subject above comes from the version septuaginta through Vulgata and it doesn't take into account the chronological order of the same the one that for the reader less informed gives place the confusion when he tries to contain the subjects chronologically.

The old will their 39 books are divided in 4 classes: Laws Recount Poetry Prophecies And the books of each class are the following ones: Laws: Composed by 5 books that are going Geneses to Deutoronomio, that books are called of pentateucos treats the creation of the law.

Recount: This for his/her time holds 12 books of Josu Ester, it contains her recounts of the chosen people Israel.

Poetry: this that this constituted by 5 books that it is going J Sing her, they are called poetic I divide to the gender of his/her content and not for other reason.

Prophecies: this that contains 17 books that it begins of Isaiah Malaquias those 17 books is subdivided in two Groups to Know: The prophets larger 5 books of Isaiah Daniel. The smaller prophets 12 of Osiers and Malaquias The largest and minor refer to the volume of matter of the books and extension of the prophetic ministry in the Hebraic Bible (our old will), the division of the books is very different as we already spoke. The new will their 27 books are also classified in 4 classes: Biography Recount Doctrine Prophetic We described the books that it contains each classification:

Biography They are the 4 Gospel described Mr. Jesus Christ's life and his/her glorious ministry among the men the first three Gospel due Sinoticos of the parallelism that present are called, the fourth Gospel also speaks his/her university, for they be 4 be the cardinal point. Recount They are the books of Actions of the Apostles, it registers her recounts of the Primitive Church, yours to live and to act, and the book shows that the secret of the progress of the church is the fullness of Spirit Santo in the lives.


They are 21 books called epistles or letters that are going Romans to Judas, some healthy one driven the church, other to individuals. The 7 that space of Tiago to Judas universal epistles are called or you generate.


It is the book of Apocalypse, this word means "Revelation" treats of Mr. Jesus' personal turn the earth that is, his/her revelation, his/her visible manifestation. The Apocalypse is the inverse of the book of Geneses, there he/she narrates as everything began here and as everything it will found.

There are other classification modalities but the one that goes above seems us quite simple and practice.

The disposition of the 66 books, the ones that organized to present disposition of the books were without he/she doubts guided by God because it is noticed a gradual correlation of the doctrines among the same. Examples of that in the old will, there is a beautiful relationship among the books of the Psalms and of Proverbs. They could never come separate, the Psalms treat of our walk with God; Proverbs our walk with the man, those books could not be distant.

Examples in new will, the epistles that here presented:

Romans speech of the salvation 1 and 2 Corrientes speak about the Christian life disciplines Efesios, Filipenses and Colossenses speak about the consecrated life 1 and 2 of Timteo, Tito speak about workers and ministry 1 and 2 of Pedro speak about proofs and tribulations