METALLURGY, WELDING, INSULATION, REFRACTORY VALIDATION: 1. What are the acceptance criteria for refractory cracks?

The crack must not be more than 3 mm wide and must not be deeper than half of the total refractory depth 2. What are the different types of services in which refractory is used? High temperature, high abrasion 3. Name three important properties of refractories? Good structural stability at high temperatures, good reflectivity and heat retentivity, Good abrasion resistance and low coefficient of expansion as compared to metals 4. What is the typical pot life of refractory material? Pot life is around 15-20 min 5. What the different ways of application of refractory? Manual, gunning, vibracast 6. What are the advantages of vibracast over manual application? It gives good compaction and hence lesser gaps in the refractories 7. Describe the process of welder qualification? The welder is asked to weld in the qualified position on standard test piece. The piece is then sent for radiography and if the welding is found to be sound and without any cracks he is qualified for welding in the specific welding positions 8. What is the type of current used in welding? DC 9. What happens if the amperage is too low or too high? If the amperage is too low then the welder cannot strike an arc and if the amperage is too high then the base metal ‘burning’ takes place 10. What are the protective equipment to be used while welding? Face shield, leather hand gloves, safety shoes, ELCB

What special type of insulation is required to cover top and bottom dome heads? . What are inspection pockets for? Inspection pockets are openings in the insulation for periodic thickness survey of the equipment 16. What is the Bechtel project specification number for insulation? 25194-3PSGAW-006 for hot and 25194-3PSGAW-018 for cold 20. How are the insulation slabs and cladding secured to the equipment? The material is secured by SS strips placed at intervals of 800 mm 19. What is backing? Backing is a layer of weld between pieces of butted base metal and is used to give support to the subsequent weld layers 12. ceramic wool 15. What are the different types of insulation? Application wise: Hot insulation. When is preheat required? Pre heat is required in CS if thickness of base metal is > 25 mm. What is the definition of hot insulation? Hot insulation is to prevent ingress of heat when the process temperature is greater than 0 C 17.11. It is required to evenly heat up the base metal and reduce distortions due to localized heating 13. cold insulation. What is the new type of system used for insulation in JERP tank farm area? Track-loc system is being used and does not require separate securements or cladding 18. What is PWHT? Post weld heat treatment is to heat the joint and base metal around the joint to a particular temperature and soak for some time and subsequent cooling down in order to reduce weld stresses and bring about uniformity in the weld composition 14. personal protective insulation Material wise: Rock wool. glass wool.

What is galvanic corrosion? The corrosion that occurs between two dissimilar metals due to their difference in the galvanic series (potential series) by passing of electricity due to this potential difference 22. These mattresses are to be secured by wires of approx 1mm dia to the supports in the equipment.Dome heads require mattress type insulation to hold it in place and has mesh to support the insulation material. . What is hydrogen embrittlement? The formation of internal hydrogen blisters or blister-like cracks at internal delaminations or at sites of nonmetallic inclusions in low strength materials. These internal cracks may propagate by a process called hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) or hydrogen blistering. 21.

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