=
As worker enters tank, t = 0, x
i
= 0, x
o
= 0.16; and at final time x
o
= 0.06
Thus:
0.06
0.16 0
/ ( / ) (5.5/ 30) ln(0.06/ 0.16) 0.18min 11
o o L
dx x V V dt s
= = = =
2. The internal pressure is 10bar initially and finally 5 bar (assuming ideal gas behaviour). Since
throughout the process
1
1
( / ) 1.9
2
storage atm
P P
+  
> =

\
, the flow is always choked.
0.5
{( / ) }
V d S
G C AP M RT X =
..(1)
( 1) /( 1)
2
( )
1
X
+
=
+
..(2)
Using , X = 0.335
In the above expressions, A = hole area (m
2
); M = gas molecular weight (kg/kgmol); R = gas
constant (8314 J/kgmol /
o
K); P
S
, T = storage pressure (N/m
2
) and temperature (
o
K).
Now
tan tan
/
storage
k k
V
M
M
dP
dM V
G
dt R T dt
R R Molecular wt
= =
=
..(3)
Substituting (1) and (2) for G
V
in (3) and simplifying, we get:
[ ]
1/ 2
tan
1.4 (0.335)
storage storage leak D
M
k
dP P A C
R T
dt V
= ; (note that X = 0.335)
R
M
= 8314/28; T = 298K, C
D
= 0.8
On substituting all relevant values:
/ 2
3
0
1.3581 10
On solving the above equation, 510 8.5min
o
o
P
storage
P
storage
dP
x dt
P
s
=
= =
4
Test3
1. G
V
= 100g/s; C
max
(on ground) = 2x10
4
gm/m
3
, u = 5m/s. Now analytically for maximum ground
level concentrations:
max
2
2
( / )
V
z y
G
C
e uH
(
=
(
..(1)
/ 2
z
H = ..(2)
For the given stability class
0.9
0.128
y
x = ..(3)
0.85
0.093
z
x = ..(4)
Solution:
(i) Assume H and cal.
z
using (2)
(ii) Cal x from (4)
(iii) Cal
y
from (3)
(iv) Cal. C
max
using (1), If C
max
is not equal to 2x10
4
gm/m
3
, return to (i)
Final H = 90m
2. Starting from the original puff dispersion equation:
2 2 2 2
3/ 2 2 2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( )
( , , , ) [exp{ }][exp exp ]
(2 ) 2 2 2 2
x y z x y z z
M x ut y z H z H
C x y z t
+
= +
Since
x y
= , it follows that
2 2 2 2
3/ 2 2 2 2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( )
( , , , ) [exp{ }][exp exp ]
(2 ) 2 2 2 2
y z x y z z
M x ut y z H z H
C x y z t
+
= +
Now M = 10kg; STEL = 200x10
6
kg/m
3
(i) The safe distance for residential area is the point where the cloud centre point has a
concentration of STEL;
thus:
6 3/ 2 2 3/ 2 2.54
200 10 10/ 2 10 / 2 (0.0036 0.15) 675
y z
x x x x m
= = =
(ii) The person is located at 675/2 = 337.5m; where 12.7 ; 8.8
y z
m m = = . It follows that
one must compute the cloud diameter at this point based on STEL as the end points on
the cloud diameter. Thus:
2
6 3/ 2 2
2
( 337.5)
200 10 [10/ 2 (12.7 ) (8.8 )]exp{ }; 12.7
2
x y
x
x
x m m m
= = =
Hence, 337.5 22 x = . Thus the cloud diameter at a distance of 337.5m is 44m.
Therefore the time of exposure = 44m/3m/s = 15s.
5
Test4
1. Use the standard equations for BLEVE to compute the relevant parameters:
0.26
0.325
2 2
2 2 0.09 0.09
21
90000 ; 0.825(90000) 16sec
6.48(90000) 264 ; 0.75 198 ;
Assume 300
0.3 90000 46350 / (264) 16 357 /
198 300 132 228 ; 2.02( ) 2.02(2850 228) 0.6
BLEVE exposure
W
M kg t t s
D m H D m
r m
E x x kW m
x m P x x
F
= = = =
= = = =
=
= =
= + = = = =
=
2 2 2 2
2 2
21
4/3 2
exp exp
/ 4 (264) / 4(300) 0.1936
42 / 42000 /
(Probit) 14.9 2.56ln[ ( ) ( / ) / 10000] 5.0
50%chance of fatality
Hence the required distance is 300m.
R exposure
osure osure
D r
Q I EF kW m W m
Y t s I W m
= =
= = = =
= + =
2. For chlorine use the probit equation and the relevant plume dispersion equations:
2
exp
3
exp
6 3 0.9 0.85
8.29 0.92ln[( ) (min)]
5.0; 15min 346 1040 /
, ( , 0, 0) /
,1039 10 / 2.7/[ (0.128 )(0.093 )] 265
ppm osure
osure
V y z
Y C t
Y t C ppm mg m
For dispersion C x G u
Thus x kg m x x x m
= +
= = = =
=
= =
3. Here one needs to calculate the maximum diameter of the pool that that results from the leak.
The pool fire height will be maximum corresponding to that pool diameter. Clearly the
maximum pool diameter corresponds to the steady state diameter at which point the
evaporation rate from pool surface equals the rate of leakage of liquid from the pipeline.
The rate of leak from the pipeline is given by:
1/ 2
2( )
; 0
s a
L D leak l
l
p p
G C A H
 
= =

\
Using the above equation
1/ 2
5
2
2 9 10
0.6 ( / 4)(1/100) 900 1.9 /
900
L
x x
G x kg s
 
=

\
Now 1.9 /
S
evap L g pool
G G K A P M RT = = =
5 2
, 1.9/[(0.005 0.4 10 60) /(8314 300)] 394 22.4
pool pool
Thus A x x x x m D m = =
Therefore the minimum pool fire height expected = 44.8m. Also, the pool radius > 10m.
Hence considering the spatial location of the overhead pipes, it follows that they would be
engulfed by flames if the pool fire occurred.
6
Test5
1. For 15 min exposure to chlorine leak, 50% fatality obtains at ~ 354ppm ~ 1x10
6
kg/m
3
Hence at D4 the distance of concern ~ 267m
The corresponding event frequency is
3 0 0 6
1
(3 10 / )(15 / 360 ) 125 10 / f x yr x yr
= =
2. The concentration of concern for propane gas leak is 0.5 LFL (50% fatality):
~ 10000ppm ~ 1.8x10
6
kg/m
3
Hence at D4 the distance of concern ~ 46m
The corresponding event frequency
3 0 0 6
2
(3 10 / )(0.3)(52 / 360 ) 130 10 / f x yr x yr
= =
3. For 50% fatality from fireball, the intensity of radiation (I
e
) for the duration of the 30T fireball is
given by using the corresponding probit equation and is ~ 53kW/m
2
The distance at which this intensity obtains ~ 190m
The corresponding event frequency
4 6
3
(1 10 / )(0.25) 25 10 / f x yr x yr
= =
4. For 50 % fatality from UVCE, ie 5 psi overpressure obtains at ~ 175m
The corresponding event frequency
4 6
4
(1 10 / )(0.25) 25 10 / f x yr x yr
= =
Hence
Incident Description
100% fatality
impact distance (m)
Event
frequency x10
6
(/yr)
1 Continuous Liquid Cl
2
leak 267 125
2 Continuous Propane gas discharge (Flash fire)
46 130
3 Instantaneous Liquid Propane discharge (Fireball) 190 25
4 Instantaneous Liquid Propane discharge (UVCE) 175 25
Incident Distance (m) IR (x 10
6
) /person/yr
1 267 125
3 190 150
4 175 175
2 46 305
The last table suggests that at 100m from the plant the IR > 100 /10
6
/person/yr. hence it is not
advisable to set up a residential facility at 100m. On a conservative extrapolation, the safe distance
where one may permit such a residential locality is ~ 0.5km.
7
Test6
1.
2
( ) 2 / f t t a =
[ ]
2
2 2
0
2 2
0 0
3
3
2
( ) 2 /
( ) / ( ); , ( 0) 1
, ( ) 1 /
2 ( ) ; , 0
: ( ) 1 / 2
: 3
( ) ( ) 1 / 9
2 ; : ( ) 1 2
a a
f t t a
Now dR t dt f t also R t
Hence R t t a
MTTF yrs R t dt where t a
Thus MTTF R t dt dt t a dt
Hence a
R system R t t
With t yrs it follows R system
=
= = =
=
= = < <
( = = =
=
( = =
= =
3
2
/ 9 0.17 ( =
2. Construct the Markov Chain diagram, and derive the expressions for ( ) /
i
dP t dt and put them to
zero to derive the relevant algebraic equations and eliminate P
1
to P
n1
. The resultant expression
is
0
( / )
n
n
P P =
3. The Laplacian matrix for obtaining the solution is:
8
4.
1
1 2 1
By Markov Chain Analysis: ( )
dP
P
dt
= +
1 2
3 1 2
3 1 2 1 2
) (
1
2
1 1 3 2
1
) ( 2
2
1 2 3
) ) ( ( 2
1 2
1 2 3
Thus: ( )
Similarly:
Using the expression for ( ) it may be shown that:
( )
Now: ( ) ( ) ( )
t
t t
t t t
P t e
dP
P P
dt
P t
P t e e
R t P t P t e e e
MT
+
+
+ +
=
=
( =
+
( = + = +
+
2
0
1 2 1 2 3 3 1 2
1 1 1
( ) 28.6 TF R t dt days
(
= = + =
(
+ + +
Test7
1. The fault tree may be drawn by considering that for a top event Incipient Runaway the two
contributory events (joined by OR gate) are: (i) loss of cooling, (ii) loss of stirring. The loss
of cooling may be due to (a) Control valve failing closed (b) Plugged cooling coils (c)
Cooling water service failure (d) Controller failing and closing cooling water valve (e) Air
pressure failing and closing cooling water valve (pneumatically driven). All events (a) (e)
are again connected by OR gate.
Thus is follows that
(Incipient runaway) 0.4 /
i
yr = =
The event tree is next drawn as follows by considering the five safety systems. Please note
that the tree shown below is identical to the one required by the problem 3; though the values
of initiating event (A=incipient runaway) frequency and the probability of failure / demand of
the safety systems (here BF) are different in the fig. below:
9
For the present problem, overall frequency of runaway =
6
158.8 10 / x yr
a. Monetary risk =
6 6
(100 10 )(158.8 10 / ) 16000/ Rs x x yr Rs yr
b. Average Individual Risk =
6 6
(0.5 / )(158.8 10 / ) 80 10 / / fatality person x yr x person yr
2.
2 2 2
0 0
( ) ; ( ) 1/ ; ( ) ( ) 1/
t
f t e t f t dt t f t dt
= = = = =
, 1/ ; / 1 hence thus COV = = =
3. good transmitter; not good transmitter G G
1 2
1
1
1 1
2
2
2 2
T Sample passes first test; T Sample passes second test
( ) 0.7; ( ) 0.3
( ) ( )
0.8 0.7
( ) 0.95
0.8 0.7 0.1 0.3 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0.8 0.95
( )
0.8 0.95 0. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
P G P G
P T G P G
x
P G T
x x P T G P G P T G P G
P T G P G
x
P G T
x P T G P G P T G P G
= =
= = =
+ +
= =
+ +
0.993
1 0.05 x
=
10
4. S effective settlement
[ ] [ ] [ ]
2.0; 0.4; 2.5; 0.5; 3.0; 0.75
( ) ( 4) 1 ( 4) 1 ( 4) ( 4) ( 4)
4 2 4 2.5 4 3
1 1 5 3 1.333
0.4 0.5 0.75
1 (1)(0.9986)(0.9088) 0.0925
( ) differential set
A A B B C C
S S S S S S
A B C
i P S P S P S P S P S
ii
= = = = = =
> = < = < < <
( ( (
= =
( ( (
= =
max
max
tlement
Since ( ) 3.5 2.5 1.0
Thus: ( 0.8) 0
( ) By induction, for 1.5, it follows that S must be such that:
4 3 2 3
2.0 4.0; thus P(2.0 4.0)
0.75 0.7
AB B A
C
C C
S S S
P
iii
S S
= = =
=
(
=
(
[ ] [ ]
5
1.333 1.333 0.9088 0.0912 0.8176
(
(
= = =