This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Name Class : : Quah Choong Ming 5 Science Puan Imah Binti Muda
and medical technology to diagnose and treat injury and disease. meaning the art of healing.Introduction Medicine is the applied science or practice of the diagnosis. external splints & traction. and prevention of disease. biologics. . Contemporary medicine applies health science. biomedical research. typically through medication or surgery. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness in human beings. The word medicine is derived from the Latin ars medicina. prostheses. but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy. treatment. ionizing radiation and others.
spiritual therapies. knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant. diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being. animal and mineral-based medicines.Traditional medicine Traditional medicine also known as “Folk Medicine” comprises knowledge systems that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines traditional medicine as: "the health practices." . manual techniques and exercises. applied singularly or in combination to treat. approaches.
Traditional medicine that is well-known in Malaysia Common name Aloe vera Betel Bitter gourd Clove Coconut Garlic Ginger Local name Lidah buaya Sireh Peria Bunga cenkuh Kelapa Bawang putih Halia Scientific name Sansevieria trifaciata Piper betle Momordica charantia Eugenua aromatic Cocos nicifen Allum sativum Zingiber officiniate Uses Sap used to relieve pain from burns Leaves relives sore eyes Fruit used to cure diabetes Relieves toothache Young coconut water reduces fever Reduce infection and hypertension Reduce inflammation and improves blood circulation and digestion Roots maintain good health Leaves relieve headaches and hair loss Seed used to deworm children Sap used to relieve skin rashes Juice of fruit reduce coughing Cures pimples Ginseng Hibiscus Papaya Tamarind Turmeric Ginseng Bunga raya Betik Asam Jawa Kunyit Panax Hibicus rosa sinesis Carica papaya Tamarindus indicus Curcuma longa .
the puncturing of the skin with acupuncture needles poses problems when designing trials that adequately controls for placebo effects. stimulating specific acupuncture points corrects imbalances in the flow of qi through channels known as meridians. Scientific investigation has not found any histological or physiological correlates for traditional Chinese concepts such as qi. and depression. findings apparently at odds with traditional Chinese theories regarding acupuncture point specificity. sleep disturbances. A number of studies comparing traditional acupuncture to sham procedures found that both sham and traditional acupuncture were superior to usual care but were themselves equivalent. such as penetrating the skin with needles that are then manipulated manually or by electrical stimulation. Although minimally invasive. and some contemporary practitioners needle the body foregoing the traditional Chinese approach.Acupuncture Acupuncture is a collection of procedures which involves the stimulation of points on the body using a variety of techniques. the World Health Organization. . It is one of the key components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Current research suggests that traditional forms of acupuncture are more effective than placebos in the relief of certain types of pain and post-operative nausea. and is among the oldest healing practices in the world. Some scientists have criticized these endorsements as being unduly credulous and not including objections to or criticisms of the research used to support acupuncture's effectiveness. There is general agreement that acupuncture is relatively safe when administered by licensed practitioners using sterile needles and carries a very low risk of serious adverse effects. meridians and acupuncture points. but that further research is needed in these regards. Acupuncture's use for certain conditions has been endorsed by the United States National Institutes of Health. According to the traditional Chinese medicine approach. and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. the National Health Service of the United Kingdom. Recent systematic reviews found that acupuncture also seems to be a promising treatment option for anxiety.
Acupuncture chart Acupressure Acupuncture needle .
They could also be synthetic chemical.Modern Medicine Modern medicines are chemicals that are extracted from plants and animals. antidepressants. paracetamol. Type of medicine Analgesics Antibiotics Psychotherapeutic medicine Steroid Function Relieve pain Kill or inhibit growth of infectious bacteria Control symptoms of mental illness protein synthesis. codeine Penicillin. Only a doctor can prescribe some of them while some can be bought in any pharmacy. promoting growth of muscles and bones and also relieve pain Examples Aspirin. antipsychotic Anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone Prednisone . streptomycin Stimulant. They are manufactured from consumers.
they don’t come without side effects. methylprednisolone (Medrol dose pack). they usually mean the side effects of systemic steroids. Most side effects are from short-term use. and injectable triamcinolone (Kenalog). vitamins. the route of administration is termed “systemic. These side effects usually resolve after a few days once the steroids have been stopped. severe allergic rhinitis symptoms. Steroid Side Effects of Steroid Oral and injected corticosteroids (or simply “steroids”) are medications used to treat inflammation in the body. such as systemic lupus erythematosus. . Examples include prednisone. and on occasion. difficulty sleeping (insomnia). and natural or herbal medicines can have sideeffects. and experience only temporary side effects. however. flushing (redness) of the face. including prescription and over-the-counter medicines. changes in mood and behavior. All kinds of medicines. and short-term weight gain due to increased water retention. herbal preparations.” These medicines are used to treat a wide variety of diseases.Side effect of medicine Medicines can cause unwanted side effects. Systemic steroids are also used to treat asthma attacks. When taken in oral or injected forms. Short-Term Side Effects of Systemic Steroids Most people receive systemic steroids for only a few days at a time. When people think about the side effects of steroids. and many other autoimmune diseases. While systemic steroids are often necessary and lifesaving medicines needed to treat inflammation. These may include an increase in appetite. long-term use can lead to additional side effects. rheumatoid arthritis.
or when steroids are taken on multiple occasions. Some side effects can be decreased by taking systemic steroids every other day instead of daily. Those with diabetes mellitus may see an increase in their blood sugar readings. people with congestive heart failure may retain water and have worsening of this condition. For this reason. It is for these reasons that the dose and duration of systemic steroids should be minimized whenever possible. People with glaucoma could have an increase of the pressures within their eyes. those with high blood pressure may see their blood pressure readings rise. even if the total dose is the same. more serious side effects may occur.People with underlying medical conditions might also notice other side effects. while other side effects may be permanent. Many of the side effects are reversible if the steroids are stopped. Long-Term Side Effects of Systemic Steroids When systemic steroids are used for long periods of time. Side effects of long-term steroid use includes: Glaucoma Cataracts High-blood pressure Heart disease Diabetes mellitus Obesity Acid reflux/GERD Osteoporosis Myopathy Increase in certain types of infections Cushing syndrome . a person with any chronic underlying disease should be closely followed by their physician while taking systemic steroids.
without producing anesthesia or loss of consciousness.People taking long-term systemic steroids should be closely monitored for the above diseases. non-narcotic analgesic. risedronate (Actonel) and ibandronate (Boniva). Analgesics Side Effects of Analgesics Simply put. analgesics are a class of drugs used to relieve pain. The pain relief induced by analgesics occurs either by blocking pain signals going to the brain or by interfering with the brain's interpretation of the signals. It must be emphasized though that the safety of acetaminophen is tied to proper use of the drug (use according to specific prescribing instructions). These medicines may include supplemental calcium and vitamin D. There are basically two kinds of analgesics: nonnarcotics and narcotics. It should be noted that some references include aspirin and other non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) in the class of analgesics. as opposed to being solely analgesic. because they have some analgesic properties. Examples of bisphosphonates include alendronate (Fosamax). . Frequent measuring of bone-mineral density should also be performed in people taking long-term systemic steroids. Make sure you discuss with your doctor the maximum allowable dose of acetaminophen and any other guidelines for its use. and should take medicines to prevent osteoporosis. If acetaminophen is not used according to the directions on the label. For example. along with medicines to prevent bone loss called bisphosphonates. Acetaminophen is a popular pain-reliever because it is both effective for mild to moderate pain relief and relatively inexpensive. The risk of liver damage with acetaminophen use is also increased by ingesting alcohol. serious side effects and possible fatal consequences can occur. taking more than 4.000 mg/day or using it longterm can increase the risk of liver damage. Aspirin and NSAIDS primarily have an anti-inflammatory effect. Non-Narcotic Analgesics Acetaminophen is the most commonly used over-the-counter.
there are four broad classes of opioids: Endogenous opioid peptides (produced in the body: endorphins.Many people do not realize that acetaminophen is found in more than 600 over-thecounter drugs. It can be found in combination with other active ingredients in many cold. The cumulative effect of acetaminophen must be considered if you are talking multiple drugs which contain acetaminophen. there is no upper limit for the dosage of opioids used to achieve pain relief. According to eMedicine. respiratory depression). for relief of severe or chronic pain. How can acetaminophen damage the liver? Acetaminophen changes into metabolites which are eliminated from the body. sinus. oxymorphone. and more) Opioids are used in medicine as strong analgesics. "Some people with intense pain get such high doses that the same dose would be fatal if taken by someone who was not suffering from pain. According to Wikipedia. thebaine) Semi-synthetic opioids (heroin. nicomorphine) Fully synthetic opioids (pethidine or Demerol. propoxyphene. and cough medications. tramadol. pentazocine. hydromorphone." . Narcotic Analgesics There are two types of narcotic analgesics: the opiates and the opioids (derivatives of opiates). fentanyl. Opiates are the alkaloids found in opium (a white liquid extract of unripe seeds of the poppy plant). By taking more than the recommended maximum daily dose of acetaminophen. oxycodone. enkephalins) Opium alkaloids (morphine. codeine. dynorphins. Opioids are any medication which bind to opioid receptors in the central nervous system or gastointestinal tract. methadone. buprenorphine. but the dose must be increased gradually to allow for the development of tolerance to adverse effects (for example. hydrocodone. butorphanol. Interestingly. more toxic metabolites are produced than can be eliminated. dihydrocodeine.
The enhanced quality of life which opioids may provide the patient must be considered. the benefit of their analgesic properties for treating non-malignant chronic pain.There have been debates over the addictive potential of opioids vs. Some experts believe opioids can be taken safely for years with minimal risk of addiction or toxic side effects. Side Effects / Adverse Reactions of Opioids: Common side effects and adverse reactions: nausea vomiting drowsiness dry mouth miosis (contraction of the pupil) orthostatic hypotension (blood pressure lowers upon sudden standing) urinary retention constipation and/or fecal impaction Less common side effects and adverse reactions: confusion hallucinations delirium hives itch hypothermia bradycardia (slow heart rate) tachycardia (rapid heart rate) . such as chronic arthritis.
3.4) Duragesic (Fentanyl Patch) Hydromorphone (Palladone. Dilaudid) Morphine (MSContin.raised intracranial pressure ureteric or biliary spasm muscle rigidity flushing Most severe side effects and adverse reactions: respiratory depression fatal overdose More Information on Specific Analgesics Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Codeine (Tylenol #2. Oramorph) Oxycodone (OxyContin. Roxicodone) Percocet (Oxycodone/Acetaminophen) Percodan (Oxycodone/Aspirin) Talwin NX (Pentazocine/Naloxone) Ultracet (Tramadol/Acetaminophen) Ultram (Tramadol) Vicodin (Hydrocodone/Acetaminophen) .
Antibiotic Side Effects of Antibiotic .
astemizole. quinidine. CNS depressants – alcohol. disopyramide. · · Diltiazem and verapamil increases serum levels and toxicity of imipramine. sedative hypnotics opioid analgesics causes excessive CNS depression.Psychotherapeutic medicine Side Effects of Psychotherapeutic medicine · Risk of arrhythmias are enhanced by imipramine when volatile anesthetics. terfenadine and pimoxide. . amiodarone.
mouth. sympathomimetics. CVS – orthostatic hypotension. adrenaline and noradrenaline may cause hypertensive crisis. intraventricular conduction defects. tachycardia. Thyroxine. Diuretics enhance the side effects of postural hypotension. urinary retention. · · Imipramine decreases the effects of antiepilieptic drugs. · Neuroleptics. painful vasospastic episodes and acrocyanosis. increased intraocular pressure and hyperpyrexia. · · CNS – peripheral neuropathy. antihistamines and anticholinergics potentiate the antimuscarinic side effects. and pigmentation.· · With MAO inhibitors hypertensive crisis with convulsions may occur. disturbances in accommodation. photosensitation. extrapyramidal symptoms. Endocrine abnormalities. · . ataxia. · Antimuscarinic effects – dry . Allergic hypersensitivity skin reactions – urticaria. blurred vision. · · Weight gain and edema. constipation occasionally leading to paralytic ileus.
collaboration and communication among providers of traditional and other medicines. Needles use must be sterilize before using it Endangered animal as traditional medicine . Such medicine shouldn’t be used because it will disrupt the ecosystem. Some traditional medicine used endangered animal such as sea horse or shark. traditional medicines and practices can cause harmful. Increased patient awareness about safe usage is important. However. adverse reactions if the product or therapy is of poor quality. or it is taken inappropriately or in conjunction with other medicines. as well as more training.Opinion traditional medicine Many people believe that because medicines are herbal (natural) or traditional they are safe (or carry no risk for harm).
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.