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Real numbers

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Learning Objectives:

Upon completion, you should be able to: Identify subsets of the set of real numbers; Recognize various forms of rational numbers; Distinguish rational numbers from irrational numbers; Locate numbers on the real number line.

What is a number?

Numbers rule the universe Pythagoras All is number - Pythogoreans

A number is a mathematical object used in counting and measuring. A notational symbol which represents a number is called a numeral.

Natural Numbers

All natural numbers are truly natural. We find them in nature. Also called as counting numbers

Some Subsets of

Time to Think!

What is the largest prime number that you know? ? Is ? and disjoint? and disjoint? and disjoint?

Whole Numbers

Is zero a number? How can a number of nothing be a number?

Integers

Negative numbers are natural numbers with negative (minus) sign. A positive number added to its negative results to 0.

Some Subsets of

Rational Numbers

Illustration

Irrational Numbers

Numbers that can not be expressed as the ratio of two integers Decimal numbers that neither repeat nor terminate

Illustration

Real Numbers

The union of the set of rational numbers and the set of irrational numbers

Time to Think!

Perform the following operations:

There is a one-to-one correspondence between the set of points on a line and the set of all real numbers.

Locate the following numbers in the number line:

Learning Objectives:

At the end of the lesson, you should be able to: Enumerate field axioms; Illustrate the closure property for real numbers; Identify the identity and inverse elements for addition and multiplication; Explain the density property.

Operations on

Addition Multiplication

Closure Property

A set is closed (under an operation) if and only if the operation on two elements of the set produces another element of the set. If an element outside the set is produced, then the operation is not closed.

Closure Property

For any , and

That is,

is closed under

and

Time to Think!

Is

Is Is Is

closed under

closed under closed under closed under

and

and and and

?

? ? ?

Commutative Property

For any

That is, we can add and multiply real numbers in any order.

Associative Property

For any

That is, we can group numbers in a sum/product in any way we want and still get the same answer.

Distributive Property

of multiplication over addition

For any

Zero added to any number results to the number itself. Any number multiplied to one gives the number itself.

For any , there exist two unequal numbers (read zero and one, resp.) such that

Given a certain number, what will you add to it so that the result will be the additive identity element zero?

What will you multiply to it so that the result is the multiplicative identity one?

For any element of , there exists another , denoted by such that

Density Property

We can always find a real number that lies between any two real numbers.

Illustration

State the property that justifies the truth of the following statements:

Summary:

A number is either rational or irrational. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the set of real numbers and the set of points on the line. Real numbers satisfy the field axioms; We need to be familiar with the properties of real numbers in order to solve algebra problems.

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