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Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces

lane Wave ropagaLlng ln a lerrlLe Medlum


ropagaLlon ln a lerrlLe-Loaded 8ecLangular
Wavegulde
laraday 8oLaLlon laraday 8oLaLlon
8lrefrlngence
lsolaLors
ClrculaLors
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 1
Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
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Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
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Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
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Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
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Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
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Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
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Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
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Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
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Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
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Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
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Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
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Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
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Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
rf s rf rf rf rf rf rf
s
y x y x
z
z s x z x
y
z s y z y
x
H M H M H M H M H H
dt
dM
M H H M
dt
dM
M M H H H M
dt
dM
M M H H H M
dt
dM
<< << <<
= + =
+ + =
+ + + =
; ;
0 ;
0 0
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0



EC 441 Microwave Engineering 14
s m
M H
0 0 0 0
; = =
Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
( )
( )
x m y m y
y m
x
m y
y
y m x m x
x m
y
m x
x
H j H M
H
dt
dH
M
dt
M d
H j H M
H
dt
dH
M
dt
M d




=
+ = +
+ =
+ = +
0
2 2
0
0
2
0
2
2
0
2 2
0
0
2
0
2
2
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 15
( )
x m y m y
H j H M =
0 0
Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 16
Ierr|magnet|c dev|ces
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 17
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
ln an lsoLroplc medlum, a clrcularly polarlzed (C)
wave remalns a C wave when lL propagaLes
ln an anlsoLroplc medlum, a C may become a
llnearly polarlzed (L) dependlng on Lhe medlum llnearly polarlzed (L) dependlng on Lhe medlum
properLles
1he dlvlslon of wave lnLo Lwo componenLs (an
"ordlnary" and an "exLraordlnary wave"), found ln
maLerlals whlch have Lwo dlfferenL lndlces of
refracLlon ln dlfferenL dlrecLlons
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 18
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
When wave enLerlng cerLaln anlsoLroplc
maLerlals, lL spllLs lnLo Lwo whlch Lravel aL
dlfferenL speeds
8lrefrlngence ls also known as double 8lrefrlngence ls also known as double
refracLlon ln opLlcs
AnoLher example ls Lhe ferrlLe medlum wlLh a
blas fleld
We wlll look aL laraday roLaLlon, ordlnary
wave and exLraordlnary wave, and
blrefrlngence
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 19
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
ln an lnflnlLe ferrlLe-fllled reglon wlLh a uC
blas fleld glve by , Lhe magneLlc
properLles of Lhe medlum are governed by a
permeablllLy Lensor reads
H = zH
o

permeablllLy Lensor reads


where [u] ls an ldenLlLy maLrlx and [] ls a
suscepLlblllLy Lensor
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 20
= == = + ++ +
o
U ([ ] [ ])
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
lane Wave ropagaLlng ln a lerrlLe Medlum
B
B
j
j
H
H
x
y
x
y



( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
= == =



( (( (
( (( (
( (( (



( (( (
( (( (
( (( (


0
0
ln a source-free reglon, we have
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 21
B
B
j H
H
y
z o
y
z



( (( (
( (( (
= == =




( (( (
( (( (




( (( (
( (( (


0
0 0
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
Assume a plane wave propagaLlng ln Lhe z-
dlrecLlon, we have (noLe LhaL operaLor cannoL
be zero, Lhls means when Lhe operaLor ls
/ / x y = == = = == = 0
be zero, Lhls means when Lhe operaLor ls
operaLlng on some funcLlons lL ls glvlng zero
so effecLlvely operaLor ls glvlng zero)
wlLh
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 22
E E e H H e
o
j z
o
j z
= == = = == =

,
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
1herefore,
we have we have
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 23
j E j H j H
j E j j H H
j H
y x y
x x y
o z



= == = + ++ +
= == = + ++ +
= == =
[ ]
[ ]
0
j H j E
j H j E
j E
y x
x y
z



= == =
= == =
= == = 0
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
Slnce boLh and are zero, we have a
1LM wave
ln maLrlx form, we have
E
z
H
z
,
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 24
E
E
j
j
H
H
x
y
x
y



( (( (

( (( (
= == =








( (( (

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (



( (( (

( (( (








H
H
E
E
x
y
x
y



( (( (

( (( (
= == =







( (( (

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (



( (( (

( (( (
0
0




|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
E
E
j
j
E
E
x
y
x
y



( (( (

( (( (
= == =







( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (






( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (



( (( (

( (( (












0
0
E
E
j
j
E
E
x
y
x
y



( (( (

( (( (
= == =








( (( (

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (



( (( (

( (( (








2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 25
y y





( (( (
( (( (




( (( (
( (( (


0
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um








2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1










( (( (

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (



( (( (

( (( (
j
j
E
E
x
y
=0
noLe LhaL Lhls ls an elgenvalue problem, elgenvalues
are obLalned by seLLlng Lhe deLermlnanL of Lhe
maLrlx Lo zero, Lhe obLalned elecLrlc fleld for each
elgenvalue ls an elgenvecLor
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 26
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 27
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
1he elgenvalues are obLalned from

2 2
2
2
2 4 2
4
0



( (( (
( (( (
= == =
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 28

2 4
0




( (( (
( (( (
= == =

4 2 2 4 2 2 2
2 0 + ++ + = == = ( )

4 2 2 4 2
0 + ++ + + ++ + + ++ + + ++ + = == = ( ) ( )( )
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
LeL us conslder Lhe flrsL mode corresponds Lo
= == = ( )
[ ( )][ ( )]
2 2 2 2
0 + ++ + = == =
LeL us conslder Lhe flrsL mode corresponds Lo
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 29

+ ++ +
= == = + ++ + ( )
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
keca|| that
, we have
( )
2 2 2
0 + ++ + = == = E j E
x y
( )
2 2 2 2
0 + ++ + = == = E j E
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 30
( )
2 2 2 2
0 + ++ + = == = E j E
x y
+ ++ + = == = = == =
2 2 2
0 E j E E jE
x y x y
( )
E jE
x y
= == =
= == = + ++ +

+ ++ +
E E xj y e
o
j z
[ ]

|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te Med|um
1hls ls a rlghL-hand clrcularly polarlzed wave
(8PC), noLe LhaL Lhe angle beLween Ly and (8PC), noLe LhaL Lhe angle beLween Ly and
Lx, l.e.,
keeps changlng wlLh Llme
Lhe wave lmpedance ls
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 31
tan = == =
E
E
y
x
Z
E
H
x
y
+ ++ +
= == = = == =


|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
lor Lhe second mode corresponds Lo
We have


= == = ( )
We have
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 32
( )
2 2 2
0 + ++ + = == =

E j E
x y
( )
2 2 2 2
0 + ++ + + ++ + = == = E j E
x y
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um

2
0 ( ) E jE
x y
+ ++ + = == =
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 33
E jE
y x
= == =
= == = + ++ +


E E x yj e
o
j z
[ ]

|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
Lhls ls a LPC wave,
Lwo modes are propagaLlng wlLh dlfferenL
Y

= == = = == =

= == =







( )
Lwo modes are propagaLlng wlLh dlfferenL
propagaLlon consLanL
and
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 34

+ ++ +


|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
Conslder a llnear polarlzed (ln x) wave aL z =
0 glven by L = xE
o
[ ] [ ] xE
E
x jy
E
x jy
o
o o
= == = + ++ + + ++ +
noLe LhaL propagaLes wlLh
Whlle propagaLes wlLh
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 35
[ ] [ ] xE x jy x jy
o
o o
= == = + ++ + + ++ +
2 2
E
x jy
o
2
[ ] + ++ +
e
j z


E
x jy
o
2
[ ]
e
j z
+ ++ +

|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
Along z-dlrecLlon, Lhe elecLrlc fleld wlll be
represenLed by
E
E
x jy e
E
x jy e
o
j z
o
j z
= == = + ++ + + ++ +

+ ++ +
2 2
[ ] [ ]

EC 441 Microwave Engineering 36
E E x
e e
y
e e
j
o
j z j z j z j z
= == =
+ ++ +
| || |
\ \\ \


| || |
. .. .
| || |
| || |


| || |
\ \\ \


| || |
. .. .
| || |
| || |






` `` `

) )) )


+ ++ + + ++ +


2 2
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
1ake a common facLor
e
j z + ++ +
+ ++ +
( )
2
E E x z y z e
o
j z
= == =







` `` `
) )) )
+ ++ + + ++ +


+ ++ +
cos sin


2 2
2
noLe LhaL Lhe Lwo componenLs and have
equal ampllLude and Lhe phase beLween
Lhem ls glven by
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 37
) )) )
tan tan tan [ tan ]

= == = = == =

= == =

+ ++ + + ++ + 1 1
2 2
E
E
z z
y
x
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
1hls ls sLlll a L buL Lhe phase ls dlfferenL aL each
locaLlon of z, l.e., Lhe angle beLween Ly and Lx
roLaLes as Lhe wave propagaLes ln z
1hls ls called Lhe laraday roLaLlon 1hls ls called Lhe laraday roLaLlon
lf Lhe dlrecLlon of propagaLlon ls reversed, Lhe plane
of polarlzaLlon conLlnues Lo roLaLe ln Lhe same
dlrecLlon
1he orlglnal polarlzaLlon ls noL resLored
(nonreclprocal) lnsLead Lhe wave wlll polarlzed aL an
angle 20
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 38
|ane Wave ropagat|ng |n a Ierr|te
Med|um
lor a round Lrlp, Lhe laraday roLaLlon ls 2
lor +z golng wave
y
x
y
-x
lor +z golng wave
lor -z golng wave
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 39
tan

= == =

+ ++ +
2
L
tan ( )

= == =

= == =


= == =

+ ++ + + ++ +
E
E
L L
y
x
2 2
8|refr|ngence
now leL us conslder Lhe uC blas ls ln Lhe x
dlrecLlon wlLh Lhe wave sLlll propagaLlng ln Lhe z-
dlrecLlon (propagaLlon Lransverse Lo blas fleld)
Lhe permeablllLy Lensor ls glven by

( (( (
o
0 0
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 40




= == =






( (( (

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
o
j
j
0 0
0
0
8|refr|ngence
We have
WlLh
1herefore, we have
/ / x y = == = = == = 0
E xE yE e
x y
j z
= == = + ++ +

( )

1herefore, we have
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 41
j E j H
j E j j H H
j H j H
y o x
x z y
z y



= == =
= == = + ++ +
= == = + ++ +
[ ]
[ ] 0
j H j E
j H j E
j E
y x
x y
z



= == =
= == =
= == = 0
8|refr|ngence
lor Lhe componenL, we have
E
y
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 42
j E j H
j
j
j E
E E
y o x o y
y o y o o





= == = = == =


= == = = == =
( )
,
2 2
8|refr|ngence
lor Lhe componenL, we have
E
x
= == = + ++ + = == = j E j H H H
j
H
x y z z y



,
j
2 2
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 43
= == = + ++ + = == = + ++ + j E j j H j j
j
j
E
x y x








( ) ( )
2 2

2 2 2 2
= == = /



e e e
= == = = == =

,
2 2
8|refr|ngence
1here are Lwo propagaLlng modes,
and
lor mode,

o

e

o
leadlng Lo
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 44
= == = + ++ + = == = + ++ + j E j j H j j
j
j
E
o x y x








( ) ( )
2 2



o x x
E E
2 2
2 2
= == = ( )
0
2 2
= == =


E
x
8|refr|ngence
When L
x
=0 ,
We have
H H
y z
= == = = == = 0
E yE e H xE Y e
o
j z
o o
j z
o o
= == = = == =

,

EC 441 Microwave Engineering 45
Y
H
E
o
x
y o o
= == =

= == = = == =




8|refr|ngence
1hls ls called Lhe ordlnary wave whlch ls
unaffecLed by Lhe magneLlzaLlon of Lhe ferrlLe
medlum
1hls happens when Lhe magneLlc flelds
Lransverse Lo Lhe blas dlrecLlon are zero, l.e.,
H H
y z
= == = = == = 0
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 46
H H
y z
= == = = == = 0
8|refr|ngence

e
j E j H
j
j
j E
y o x o y



= == = = == =

( )
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 47
j

e y o y y
E E E
2 2
0 = == = = == = ,
8|refr|ngence
When , and
1he fleld componenLs are
E
y
= == = 0
H
x
= == = 0
0 = == = + ++ + = == = j H j H H
j
H
z y z y



[ ],
j
j z j z
e e
= == = = == = + ++ +


1he phase beLween Lhe L and P fleld ls a consLanL
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 48
Y
H
E
o
y
x e e
= == = = == = = == =




E xE e H y z
j
E Y e
o
j z
o e
j z
e e
= == = = == = + ++ +

, ( )



8|refr|ngence
1he magneLlc fleld has a longlLudlnal
componenL, l.e., ln Lhe dlrecLlon of
propagaLlon, Lhls ls called Lhe exLraordlnary
wave wave
A llnear polarlzed wave ln y dlrecLlon
propagaLes wlLh (ordlnary wave) and Lhe
wave llnear ln Lhe x dlrecLlon propagaLes wlLh
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 49

o

e
8|refr|ngence
1he facL LhaL propagaLlon consLanL depends
on Lhe polarlzaLlon dlrecLlon ls called
blrefrlngence
noLe LhaL

2 2
noLe LhaL
lf < , ls negaLlve lmaglnary
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 50




e e
= == = = == =

2 2

e
8|refr|ngence
1herefore, a clrcularly polarlzed wave passlng
Lhrough Lhe blas ferrlLe medlum wlll become a
llnear polarlzed wave as Lhe x componenL wlll llnear polarlzed wave as Lhe x componenL wlll
be rapldly decreaslng whlle Lhe y componenL
ls unaffecLed
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 51
kectangu|ar wavegu|de resonance |so|ator
1he lsolaLor has Lhe scaLLerlng maLrlx of Lhe form
1ransmlsslon ls from orL 1 Lo orL 2, boLh porLs are
maLched
[ [[ [ ] ]] ]
S = == =



( (( (

( (( (
0 0
1 0
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 52
1L
m0
mode of Wavegu|de w|th a S|ng|e
Ierr|te S|ab
S ls noL unlLary and musL be lossy, lL ls noL symmeLrlc
and Lherefore nonreclprocal
1hls ls ofLen placed beLween a hlgh-power source
and a load Lo prevenL posslble reflecLlons from and a load Lo prevenL posslble reflecLlons from
damaglng Lhe source
lerrlLe phase shlfLers can be deslgned by conLrolllng
Lhe phase, phase shlfLers have appllcaLlons ln phased
arrays ln whlch anLenna beams can be scanned
elecLronlcally
1hree porL devlce, lossless and maLched aL all porLs,
nonreclprocal
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 53
1L
m0
mode of Wavegu|de w|th a S|ng|e
Ierr|te S|ab
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 54
Ierr|te C|rcu|ators
lf Lhe porLs are
noL perfecLly
maLched, we
have
[ ] S = == =





( (( (

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (






[ ] S = == =





( (( (

( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
0 0 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 55
Ierr|te C|rcu|ators
Pere and are small whlle ls close Lo 1
lor a lossless sysLem, Lhe scaLLerlng maLrlx
musL be unlLary
| | | | | | , * * *
2 2 2
1 0 + ++ + + ++ + = == = + ++ + + ++ + = == =
Slnce boLh and are small, we can drop
Lhelr producL Lerm leadlng Lo
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 56
| | | | | | , * * *
2 2 2
1 0 + ++ + + ++ + = == = + ++ + + ++ + = == =
* * + ++ + = == = 0
Ierr|te C|rcu|ators
We can add Lo Lhe rlghL hand slde
| | | |
| | | | | | | | | |
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 1 2 = == = + ++ + = == =
| |
4
We can add Lo Lhe rlghL hand slde
wlLhouL affecLlng Lhe soluLlon
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 57
| |
4
| | | | = == = 1
Ierr|te C|rcu|ators
lgnorlng Lhe phase, we can slmpllfy Lhe
scaLLerlng maLrlx
[ ] S = == =





( (( (
( (( (
( (( (


1
1
2
2
8eferences:
1. LL 41139 Mlcrowave 1echnlque [uPk
2. Mlcrowave hyslcs and 1echnlques [uCS8
EC 441 Microwave Engineering 58
[ ] S = == =







( (( (
( (( (
( (( (
( (( (


1
1
2
2