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Divergent pathway of intestinal metaplasia and cystitis glandularis of the urinary bladder
Ming-Tse Sung1,2, Antonio Lopez-Beltran3, John N Eble1, Gregory T MacLennan4, Puay-Hoon Tan5, Rodolfo Montironi6, Timothy D Jones1, Thomas M Ulbright1, Jean E Blair4 and Liang Cheng1,7
1 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 3Department of Pathology, Cordoba University, Cordoba, Spain; 4Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 5Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore; 6Institute of Pathological Anatomy and Histopathology, School of Medicine, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region (Ancona), United Hospitals, Ancona, Italy and 7Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA

Intestinal metaplasia has been proposed to be a precursor lesion of adenocarcinoma in the urinary bladder. CDX2 is a transcription factor that is encoded by a homeotype gene that plays an essential role in the differentiation and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells. Hepatocyte-specific antigen (Hep) has also been shown to be a useful marker of intestinal metaplasia. Tissues from 46 patients, including 22 cases of intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder, 11 cases of typical cystitis glandularis, and 13 cases containing both lesions, were selected and immunohistochemical stains for CDX2, Hep, cytokeratin 20 (CK20), and cytokeratin 7 (CK7) were performed. Nuclear staining for CDX2 was observed in 29 of 35 (83%) cases of intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder. In contrast, nuclear staining for CDX2 was not observed in any case of typical cystitis glandularis; however, seven of 24 (29%) cases showed aberrant cytoplasmic expression in a mean of 37% of cells. CK20 was expressed in 28 of 35 (80%) cases of intestinal metaplasia, but was observed in only one of 24 (4%) cases of cystitis glandularis in 15% of cells. CK7 was expressed in only six of 35 (17%) cases of intestinal metaplasia, whereas expression of CK7 was observed in all cases (100%) of typical cystitis glandularis with a mean percentage of positively staining cells of 63%. The mean percentages of positively staining cells in intestinal metaplasia with CDX2, CK20, and CK7 were 55, 49, and 53%, respectively. All examples of both intestinal metaplasia and typical cystitis glandularis were uniformly negative for Hep. In the urinary bladder, intestinal metaplasia and typical cystitis glandularis have sharply contrasting immunoprofiles. Additionally, the absence of Hep staining in intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder, despite its morphologic resemblance to normal colonic mucosa and intestinal metaplasia in other organs, may signify the presence of unique metaplastic pathways in the urinary bladder. Modern Pathology (2006) 19, 1395–1401. doi:10.1038/modpathol.3800670; published online 1 September 2006 Keywords: urinary bladder; cystitis glandularis; intestinal metaplasia; CDX2; hepatocyte-specific antigen;

cytokeratin 20

Cystitis glandularis is a metaplastic alteration of the urothelium in the urinary bladder that is thought to be induced by chronic inflammation or irritation.1,2 Two subtypes with distinct morphology and behavior exist. The typical type is characterized by

Correspondence: Dr L Cheng, MD, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, 350 West 11th Street, Clarian Pathology Laboratory Room 4010, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. E-mail: lcheng@iupui.edu Received 27 March 2006; revised 27 June 2006; accepted 30 June 2006; published online 1 September 2006

luminal structures within the lamina propria having an innermost lining of columnar or cuboidal cells and bounded peripherally by transitional cells. The intestinal type, also referred to as intestinal metaplasia, has a similar glandular architecture in the lamina propria but contains abundant mucin-secreting goblet cells in the lining epithelium.3 These two subtypes may coexist but one or the other is usually the predominant or exclusive type in a given case.4 The exact incidences of the two subtypes are uncertain; however, intestinal metaplasia is much less common compared with the typical type of cystitis glandularis.5 Florid cystitis glandularis of

The gene product. EnVisiont þ System) was utilized. prediluted). Antigen retrieval was performed by heating sections in citrate buffer (CDX2. Dako. Cell Marque. as previously described. and CK20 (clone Ks20. Hep. San Ramon. stomach. and strong (3). AR. For CDX2 and Hep immunostains.30 -diaminobenzidine as a chromogen for CK7 and CK20. CDX2 protein. USA. CA. CK20. and lung. CK7. Hot Springs. a highly sensitive polymerbased detection system (DAKO.29 The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the expression of CDX2. USA. and nuclear and aberrant cytoplasmic staining for CDX2 were evaluated in a semiquantitative manner in intestinal metaplasia and typical-type cystitis glandularis. Hep (clone OCH1E5.30 The lesions characterized by luminal structures within the lamina propria having an innermost lining of columnar or cuboidal cells and peripheral transitional cells were classified as typical cystitis glandularis. and 13 cases containing both lesions accessioned between 1989 and 2005. USA. prediluted). cytokeratin 20. Modern Pathology (2006) 19. cytokeratin 7.31–33 Results The results of the immunohistochemical staining are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. Carpinteria.15–20 as well as in intestinal metaplasia in the upper gastrointestinal tract and the gall bladder. including 22 cases of intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder. was initially identified in epithelial cells throughout the small and large intestines. Cytoplasmic staining for CK7. LSAB2 Kit) with 3. moderate (2). All slides were analyzed with the following monoclonal antibodies: CDX2 (clone CDX2-88. Localization of bound antibodies was performed with a peroxidase-labeled streptavidin–biotin system (DAKO. Positive nuclear staining for CDX2 was observed in 29 of 35 (83%) cases of intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder. Biogenex. USA. and cytokeratin 20 (CK20) in intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder and in typical cystitis glandularis in order to determine whether these two entities demonstrate distinct immunophenotypes. Hep.4 and intestinal metaplasia is a risk factor and a putative precursor of adenocarcinoma. CA. Dako.6–9 The human CDX2 gene is a member of the caudaltype homeobox gene family. prediluted).3–5. hepatocyte-specific antigen. and Hep.28. Thick sections (4 mm) were cut from formalinfixed and paraffin-embedded tissue blocks and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The slides were deparaffinized twice in xylene for 5 min and rehydrated through graded ethanol solutions to distilled water. All cases were retrospectively reviewed and diagnosed according to well-accepted criteria.Intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder M-T Sung et al 1396 intestinal type may at times resemble adenocarcinoma. CA.25–27 It has also been shown to be a useful marker of intestinal metaplasia in the esophagus and stomach. were obtained from the Surgical Pathology archives of the participating institutions. CK7 (clone OVTL 12/30.18. CK20. and is believed to play a critical role in the differentiation and maintenance of intestinal epithelium via the regulation of intestine-specific gene transcription. Inactivation of endogenous peroxidase activity was obtained by incubating sections in 3% H2O2 for 10 min. Hep. weak (1). Materials and methods Tissues from 46 patients. which was performed on an automated immunostainer. an analog of the caudal gene in Drosophila melanogaster. uterus.21–24 Hepatocyte-specific antigen (Hep) is a cytoplasmic antigen initially identified in normal hepatocytes and in hepatic neoplasia. and hence whether these two morphologically similar entities are derived via different pathogenetic mechanisms. Table 1 Immunohistochemical staining percentages in intestinal metaplasia and cystitis glandularis Percentages of positive cells CDX2a Intestinal metaplasia 0 1–25 26–50 51–75 76–100 a CK20 Intestinal metaplasia 7 5 13 6 4 (20%) (14%) (37%) (17%) (11%) Cystitis glandularis 23 1 0 0 0 (96%) (4%) (0%) (0%) (0%) CK7 Intestinal metaplasia 29 2 1 1 2 (88%) (6%) (3%) (3%) (6%) Cystitis glandularis 0 1 9 5 9 (0%) (4%) (38%) (20%) (38%) Hep Intestinal metaplasia 35 0 0 0 0 (100%) (0%) (0%) (0%) (0%) Cystitis glandularis 24 0 0 0 0 (100%) (0%) (0%) (0%) (0%) Cystitis glandularis 24 0 0 0 0 (100%) (0%) (0%) (0%) (0%) 6 7 9 4 9 (17%) (20%) (26%) (11%) (26%) Only nuclear staining was considered positive and reported here. 11 cases of typical cystitis glandularis. Appropriate positive controls for each antibody were run concurrently and showed adequate immunostaining.8. prediluted). Similar luminal structures present within the lamina propria but containing mucin- secreting goblet cells in their lining epithelium were considered diagnostic of intestinal metaplasia. cytokeratin 7 (CK7). The percentages of positively staining cells were estimated and the staining intensity was classified as negative (0). 1395–1401 . Carpinteria. Additional sections from appropriately selected blocks were cut for immunohistochemistry. ovary. and CK20) or enzymatically with proteinase K (CK7).10–14 Subsequent studies have demonstrated its expression in adenocarcinomas in the esophagus.

but rather the trigger for. CK20 was expressed in 28 of 35 (80%) cases of intestinal metaplasia. and 53%. stomach. Thus. The mean percentage of positively staining cells in intestinal metaplasia with CDX2. CK20. Three cases of typical cystitis glandularis displayed aberrant cytoplasmic CDX2 staining in the nonmetaplastic urothelium. and lung.15–20 In the present study. intestine. 49. cytokeratin 7. cytokeratin 20. seven of 24 (29%) cases showed aberrant cytoplasmic expression in a mean of 37% of cells. Three cases of intestinal metaplasia revealed nuclear CDX2 expression in the adjacent non-metaplastic urothelium and aberrant cytoplasmic staining of non-metaplastic urothelium was observed in four other cases.23 Aberrant cytoplasmic CDX2 expression may imply that CDX2 plays an important role in the early stages of intestinal metaplasia in the urinary bladder. but was observed in only one of 24 (4%) cases of typical cystitis glandularis in 15% of cells. Similar aberrant cytoplasmic CDX2 expression has also been reported in the esophagus and the gall bladder. typical cystitis glandularis is characterized by the opposite cytokeratin profile. granular cytoplasmic staining of CDX2 in Barrett’s epithelium and in chronically inflamed esophageal mucosa. In sharp contrast. Nuclear staining for CDX2 is often present in intestinal metaplasia. which is not an unexpected finding considering the regulatory role of CDX2 in intestinal differentiation. Weak and aberrant cytoplasmic staining was noted in seven cases of typical cystitis glandularis and in seven specimens of nonmetaplastic urothelium. and its expression may not be the end result of. the development of intestinal metaplasia. nuclear staining for CDX2 was not identified in any case of typical cystitis glandularis. This hypothesis was supported by the study of Eda et al. intermediate urothelium. Discussion In this study. CK20 is one of the cytoskeletal-associated intermediate filaments and its immunohistochemical expression has been reported in gastrointestinal epithelium. nuclear expression of CDX2 was observed in the great majority of cases of intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder. CK7. In sharp contrast. aberrant CDX2 expression in metaplastic mucosal cells in a setting of background inflammmation may be an early indicator of subsequent intestinal differentiation. may signify the presence of a unique metaplastic pathway in the urinary bladder.10. uterus.12–14 Expression of CDX2 has been reported in adenocarcinomas of many sites. as well as in superficial urothelium. One specimen showed only aberrant cytoplasmic staining. CK7 was expressed in only six of 35 (17%) cases of intestinal metaplasia. whereas expression of CK7 was identified in all 24 cases (100%) of typical cystitis glandularis with a mean percentage of positively staining cells of 63%. the absence of Hep staining in intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder. 1395–1401 . and to a lesser extent. CDX2 is a transcription factor that is encoded by a homeotype gene and plays an essential role in the differentiation and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells. Eda et al21 described fine. Hep. intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder and typical cystitis glandularis were found to have different and contrasting immunoprofiles.Intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder M-T Sung et al 1397 Table 2 Staining intensity of immunostains in intestinal metaplasia and cystitis glandularis Intensity CDX2a Intestinal metaplasia 0 1 2 3 a CK20 Intestinal metaplasia 7 5 8 15 (20%) (14%) (23%) (45%) Cystitis glandularis 23 0 1 0 (96%) (0%) (4%) (0%) Intestinal metaplasia 29 1 3 2 (88%) (3%) (9%) (6%) CK7 Cystitis glandularis 0 3 8 13 (0%) (13%) (33%) (54%) Intestinal metaplasia 35 0 0 0 (100%) (0%) (0%) (0%) Hep Cystitis glandularis 24 0 0 0 (100%) (0%) (0%) (0%) Cystitis glandularis 24 0 0 0 (100%) (0%) (0%) (0%) 6 13 7 9 (17%) (37%) (20%) (26%) Only nuclear staining was considered positive and reported here. CK20. including the esophagus.22 in which they found that the expression of CDX2 precedes that of CDX1 and other intestine-specific genes during the development of intestinal metaplasia in the stomach. All examples of both intestinal metaplasia and typical cystitis glandularis were uniformly negative for Hep (Figure 1). but is not characteristic of typical cystitis glandularis. despite its morphologic resemblance to normal colonic mucosa and intestinal metaplasia in other organs.34. This aberrant immunostaining was often observed in a setting of stromal inflammation. ovary.9. hepatocyte-specific antigen. respectively. and CK7 was 55. Aberrant cytoplasmic expression of CDX2 in a background of inflammation was also observed in the gallbladder by Osawa et al. however. Expression of CK20 and absence of CK7 expression typifies the great majority of cases of intestinal metaplasia. However. no case of typical cystitis glandularis revealed similar nuclear staining.35 It is regarded as a useful marker in the diagnosis of Modern Pathology (2006) 19. Additionally.

1395–1401 .Intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder M-T Sung et al 1398 Modern Pathology (2006) 19.

Thus. Although it is widely accepted that some cases of adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder arise as a consequence of longstanding diffuse intestinal metaplasia.30 The typical type is characterized by luminal structures within the lamina propria having Figure 1 Immunohistochemical analysis of intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder (a–e) and typical cystitis glandularis (f–j). this hypothesis would be more tenable if supported by appropriate molecular genetic analysis. The vital role of CDX2 in the development of intestinal metaplasia in the upper gastrointestinal tract has been well established.36–39 CK7 is another intermediate weight cytokeratin that is often expressed in normal urothelium.43 The available data do not allow a conclusive appraisal of the natural history of intestinal metaplasia.34. we observed that coexpression of CK20 and CDX2 is very common in intestinal metaplasia in the urinary bladder. Initial reports showed it to be a sensitive and specific marker for hepatocellular differentiation. urothelial neoplasia. Intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder appears to represent a different part of the metaplastic spectrum. It is likely that investigations of intestinal metaplasia of the urothelium may contribute to an understanding of the pathogenesis of adenocarcinomas in the urinary tract. 1395–1401 . These findings suggest that intestinal metaplasia itself may promote carcinogenesis through the sequential steps of the intestinal metaplasia–dysplasia–carcinoma sequence.24 CDX2 can bind to the promoter of intestinal-specific genes. a report by Corica et al43 showed that none of 53 patients with urinary bladder intestinal metaplasia developed bladder cancer in more than 10 years of follow up. Typical cystitis glandularis is probably more closely related to normal urothelium. Additional studies are needed to further characterize the various pathogenetic mechanisms leading to intestinal-type metaplasia in different organ systems. a reflection of the regulatory role of CDX2 in intestinal differentiation and the frequent expression of CK20 by intestinal-type tissue. villin. However. and negative staining for CK7 (d) and Hep (e). In sharp contrast. Mostofi47 used the term ‘cystitis glandularis’ to include those lesions with inward epithelial proliferation and resembling luminal or glandular structures. have separated cystitis glandularis into two subtypes with different morphologic findings.44. stomach. Typical cystitis glandularis (f) demonstrates negative staining for CDX2 (g). however. and female genital organs.6–9 however. A monoclonal antibody against this antigen was developed by Wennerberg et al26 by using tissue from a formalinfixed failed allograft liver.41 In addition. despite their identical morphological appearance. no cases of intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder showed expression of Hep in our study. including the esophagus. moderate to strong CK7 expression was observed in all cases of typical cystitis glandularis.25.45 Mutoh et al46 found that longstanding intestinal metaplasia induced by CDX2 results in the development of intestinal-type adenocarcinomas in the stomachs of all CDX2-transgenic mice. this notion has been challenged. The divergent immunoprofiles suggest that these two subtypes of cystitis glandularis probably have fundamentally distinct molecular developmental pathways.38 In the current study. colon.44 Overexpression of CDX2 will induce differentiation to selected lineages of intestinal epithelial cells. The majority of authors in recent years. However. such as alkaline phosphatase. subsequent studies have demonstrated its expression in adenocarcinomas in a variety of sites. in contrast to its expression in the upper gastrointestinal tract as reported by Chu et al28 and Fan et al. positive cytoplasmic staining for CK20 (c).26 However. and hence its exact clinical significance remains indeterminate. Hep is a cytoplasmic antigen present in normal hepatocytes and hepatic neoplasia. accounting for less than 2% of all primary bladder tumors. Chu et al28 proposed using Hep as a diagnostic tool for detection of intestinal metaplasia in the esophagus and stomach due to its superior sensitivity and specificity over other markers. There have been numerous reports in which adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder has been seen in association with intestinal metaplasia of the urothelium. In his original article published in 1954. and Hep (j). The majority of cases of intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder lacked immunoreactivity with antibodies against CK7. Intestinal metaplasia (a) demonstrates positive nuclear staining for CDX2 (b). CK20 (h). and positive cytoplasmic staining for CK7 (i).3–5. Primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder is uncommon. lung. with morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics that are markedly different from those of typical cystitis glandularis. or MUC2 and can activate subsequent transcription. and in a proportion of glandular epithelial proliferations in bladder mucosa. regardless of the presence or absence of mucus-secreting cells (goblet cells).Intestinal metaplasia of the urinary bladder M-T Sung et al 1399 metastatic urothelial carcinomas in conjunction with other cytokeratin markers. detailed investigation of molecular events involving CDX2 in the upper gastrointestinal tract might provide us new insights into the illdefined relationship between urothelial intestinal metaplasia and adenocarcinoma in the urinary bladder. an expression pattern that is similar to that of normal urothelium.29 These differing immunohistochemical profiles imply that divergent metaplastic pathways exist in the upper gastrointestinal tract and the urinary bladder.40.42 The exact molecular genetic mechanisms underlying its development have not been elucidated. whereas normal colonic epithelium and the majority of colonic adenocarcinomas lack CK7 immunoreactivity. as suggested by their virtually identical immunoprofiles. Modern Pathology (2006) 19.

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