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Plastic Parts Design

Kevin Schneider, Autodesk MA32-2


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Plastics -Polymers Polymers


Poly(many) Mer(parts): A large molecule made up of one or more repeating units(mers) linked together by covalentchemical bonds bonds. Example: polyethylene or poly(ethylene)

n = number of monomers reacting >> 1

Effect of Molecular Weight on the Properties of Polyethylene

Outline
Fundamentals Concept Models and Layouts Splitting Technical Modeling The Assembly Process

Design Example File naming Wall thickness Fillets, Draft and Ribs Design For Manufacturing

FUNDAMENTALS

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The Design

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File naming
Define a simple logical naming scheme Stick with it Names for
1. 2. 3. 4 4. 5. Skeletons (skl (skl_XXXX.ipt) XXXX.ipt) Keepouts (ko_XXXX.ipt) Tooling (tooling_XXXX.ipt/iam) Intermediate files like derives or wrapper assemblies(na assemblies(na_XXXX.ipt/iam) XXXX ipt/iam) Top level assemblies (_XXXX.iam)

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Wall thickness
Uneven wall thickness present challenges to the plastic molder manufacturer. Designing your part with uniform walls and cross section will simplify manufacturing and costing. At wall intersection or "tees" sinking will occur. Thick walls cool slower and greater shrinking will occur. Thin walls cool faster as thus, less shrinkage. Ways to deal with this "shrikage

a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Unwanted sink Disguise (texture) Core out top Core out bottom Foaming agent (structfoam) Gas assist molding Spread sink over more area

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Fillets, Draft and Ribs


Your rules may be different Fillets should be min X Wall thickness High stress parts, x Wall thickness Draft min of 1 deg. deg Finish affects draft Ribs should be 1/2 to 2/3 of the nominal wall thickness and less than 3 times thickness in height height. Taper of 1 deg. is typical. Note: excess thickness promotes shrinkage. shrinkage Excess rib height combined with taper will produce thin sections requiring extra time e at t the e mold. od fill t
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Designing for Manufacturing


Is your idea manufacturable? What is your budget? Complex parts = complex tooling = $$$$

Do you need to model:

Parting line/Surfaces Shrinkage Draft Ejector pin locations/pads

What do you need to deliver 2D or 3D?


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Designing for Manufacturing


This Class assumes: Your idea is manufacturable - YES You like KISS principles You do need to model:

Parting line/Surfaces Shrinkage Draft Ejector pin locations/pads You are building the tool in-house

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Basic Parameters Working with internal components Layouts The working Model

CONCEPT MODELS AND LAYOUTS O S


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Make a plastics Template


Make 5 User Parameters
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Wall thickness Inside Radius Outside Radius Rib Draft

Add materials

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Materials
Common Materials.xls
PlasticProperties
Matieral CycolacDH CycolacGSM CycolacKJB Delrin100/500/900 Lexan101/201 Lexan121/221 / Lexan141/241 Lexan141L/241L Lexan150 Lexan161/261 Lexan181/281 Lexan3412(20%GF) Lexan3413(30%GF) Lexan3414(40%GF) Lexan500/503 Lexan920/940/950 LexanPPC4501 LexanPPC4701 Young's Poisson's Shear MassDensity, Modulus,psi Ratio Modulus,psi lb/in3 380000 320000 320000 410000 340000 340000 340000 340000 340000 340000 340000 800000 1100000 1400000 500000 325000 294000 338000 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 14000 12000 12000 NA 114000 114000 114000 114000 114000 114000 114000 203000 260000 319000 147000 114000 NA NA 0.03788 0.03752 0.04401 0.05123 0.04329 0.04329 0.04329 0.04329 0.04329 0.04329 0.04329 0.04878 0.05181 0.05495 0.04505 0.04329 0.04329 0.04329 ThermalExp Coef,1in/in/F 3.90E05 NA 5.50E05 4.20E05 3.75E05 3.75E05 3.75E05 3.75E05 3.75E05 3.75E05 3.75E05 1.49E05 1.21E05 9.30E06 1.79E05 3.80E05 5.10E05 4.50E05 Ultimate Tensile,psi 13000 10700 10000 14100 14200 14000 14000 14000 13500 14200 14200 19000 23000 27000 15000 13200 13800 14100 Ultimate Compressive, psi NA NA NA 5200 12500 12500 12500 12500 12500 12500 12500 16000 18000 21000 14000 12500 NA NA Ultimate Shear,psi NA NA NA 9500 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10500 11000 8500 10000 9800 10600 Thermal Conductivity, Btuin/hrft2F NA 1.22 NA 1.6 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.47 1.5 1.53 1.41 1.35 1.46 1.43 SpecificHeat, Btu/lb/F NA NA NA 0.35 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.28 0.27 0.25 0.29 0.3 0.3 0.3

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Working with internal components


Define logical working groups for Internals

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Layout Process
Create Layout Assembly A bl

Create Layout Part

Define character curves

Position Internal components

Finish Layout exterior

Add work geometry for Split

Add work geometry for Joining


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Keepout Process
Derive Layout

Select specific Internal group

Define work geometry

Model Keep out t volume l


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PCB Keepout - solid

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Speaker Keepout - surface

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The working Model


PCBKeepout. ipt

Layout.iam Speaker.iam

Speaker Keepout.ipt

PCB.iam Skeleton ipt Skeleton.ipt

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Basics Hard the Impossible Workarounds

SPLITTING

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Basics
Linear Parting lines

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Hard
Non linear, but clear edge

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the Impossible
Silhouettes

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Spliting
Derive finished layout

Define split geometry

Split

Shell

Technical ec ca Model
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Snapping and Fastening features Tips for iFeatures

TECHNICAL MODELING

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Snapping features

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Snapping Features

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Snapping Features

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Snapping features and ejection

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Snapping Features and ejection

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Fastening features

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Fastener Limitations
Mechanical fasteners are point fasteners. Localized regions of potentially high stress. Holes >>> stress concentration and weld line formation. Thermal expansion mismatch. mismatch Additional pieces / parts. G k t to Gasket t achieve hi a fluid fl id or gas tight ti ht seal. l

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Fastener Advantages
Operable (or reversible) joints or permanent assembly. An effective method for joining most thermoplastic & thermosetting parts (except very ) flexible items). Join parts produced in similar or dissimilar materials. Available in a variety of sizes and materials. The joining practices are very conventional. Metal fasteners properties are independent of temp., te p, The assembly strength is achieved quickly.
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Bosses

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Tips for iFeatures


Custom Icons Custom Help files Table driven for standard sizes

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THE FINAL ASSEMBLY PROCESS OC SS


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WCS
Simpley put everything at the origin All parts are built off the Layout coordinate system and there for fit with few to no constraints

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The final file tree Prepping for MFG and Rapid Prototyping

REVIEW

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The final file tree

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Material sources: David O. Kazmer, P.E., Ph.D. Department of Plastics Engineering U i University it of f Massachusetts M h tt Lowell L ll
One University Avenue

Lowell, Massachusetts 01854

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