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GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

1.-WHAT IS A GERUNDIO? THOUGH A GERUND IS FORMED FROM A VERB AND INDICATES AN ACTION OR STATE OF BEING, IT ACTS AS A NOUN AND THEREFORE OCCUPIES A PLACE IN A SENTENCE WHERE A NOUN NORMALLY WOULD, SUCH AS A SUBJECT, A DIRECT OBJECT, OR AN OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION. 2.-WHAT IS THE MAIN CHARACTERISTIC OF A GERUND? WITHOUT EXCEPTION, A GERUND ALWAYS ENDS IN ING. IT MAY BE CONFUSED WITH A PARTICIPLE, WHICH IS A VERBAL THAT MOST OFTEN ENDS IN -ING OR -ED, BUT A PARTICIPLE ACTS AS AN ADJECTIVE MODIFYING A NOUN RATHER THAN A NOUN ITSELF. THE FOLLOWING WORDS ENDING IN -ING COULD BE GERUNDS OR PARTICIPLES, DEPENDING ON HOW THEY ARE USED IN A SENTENCE. 3. - WHAT IS AN INFINITIVE? AN INFINITIVE IS A VERB FORM THAT CONSISTS OF THE WORD TO FOLLOWED BY A VERB, I.E., TO JUMP, TO LISTEN; HOWEVER, AN INFINITIVE IS NOT USED AS A VERB! IT CAN FUNCTION AS A NOUN, ADJECTIVE, OR ADVERB. 4. - WHAT IS THE MAIN CHARACTERISTIC OF AN INFINITIVE? AS A VERB, AN INFINITIVE MAY TAKE OBJECTS AND OTHER COMPLEMENTS AND MODIFIERS TO FORM A VERB PHRASE (CALLED AN INFINITIVE PHRASE). LIKE OTHER NON-FINITE VERB FORMS (SUCH AS PARTICIPLES, GERUNDS AND GERUNDIVES) INFINITIVES DO NOT GENERALLY HAVE AN EXPRESSED SUBJECT; THUS AN INFINITIVE VERB PHRASE ALSO CONSTITUTES A COMPLETE NON-FINITE CLAUSE, CALLED AN INFINITIVE (INFINITIVAL) CLAUSE. SUCH PHRASES OR CLAUSES MAY PLAY A VARIETY OF ROLES WITHIN SENTENCES, OFTEN AS NOUNS (FOR EXAMPLE AS THE SUBJECT OF A SENTENCE OR AS A COMPLEMENT OF ANOTHER VERB), AND SOMETIMES AS ADVERBS OR OTHER TYPES OF MODIFIER. INFINITIVES ARE NOT USUALLY INFLECTED FOR TENSE, PERSON, ETC. AS FINITE VERBS ARE, ALTHOUGH SOME DEGREE OF INFLECTION SOMETIMES OCCURS.

5. - WRITE SOME EXAMPLES OF GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES GERUNDS SWIMMING IS FUN. (GERUND AS SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE) I LIKE SWIMMING. (GERUND AS DIRECT OBJECT) I NEVER GAVE SWIMMING ALL THAT MUCH EFFORT. (GERUND AS INDIRECT OBJECT) EATING BISCUITS IN FRONT OF THE TELEVISION IS ONE WAY TO RELAX. (GERUND CLAUSE AS SUBJECT) DO YOU FANCY GOING OUT? (GERUND CLAUSE AS DIRECT OBJECT) ON BEING ELECTED PRESIDENT, HE MOVED WITH HIS FAMILY TO THE CAPITAL. (GERUND CLAUSE AS COMPLEMENT OF A PREPOSITION) USING GERUNDS OF THE APPROPRIATE AUXILIARY VERBS, ONE CAN FORM GERUND CLAUSES THAT EXPRESS PERFECT ASPECT AND PASSIVE VOICE: BEING DECEIVED CAN MAKE SOMEONE FEEL ANGRY. (PASSIVE) HAVING READ THE BOOK ONCE BEFORE MAKES ME MORE PREPARED. (PERFECT) HE IS ASHAMED OF HAVING BEEN GAMBLING ALL NIGHT. (PERFECT PROGRESSIVE ASPECT) INFINITIVES

(TO) EAT (PLAIN INFINITIVE, ACTIVE) (TO) BE EATEN (PASSIVE) (TO) HAVE EATEN (PERFECT ACTIVE) (TO) HAVE BEEN EATEN (PERFECT PASSIVE) (TO) BE EATING (PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE) (TO) BE BEING EATEN (PROGRESSIVE PASSIVE) (TO) HAVE BEEN EATING (PERFECT PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE) (TO) HAVE BEEN BEING EATEN (PERFECT PROGRESSIVE PASSIVE, NOT OFTEN USED)