The Problem of Mental Health in the Philippines
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Guidelines for contributions: How severe is the problem of mental health in the country today? What research efforts can we cite to prove the state of mental health in the country? Looking at the past, how has the government fared in managing the problem of mental health? What are the prevalent cases of mental illnesses in the country and their causes? Do we see a trend in the severity or improvement of mental health among Filipinos over the past years? Mindset:
The result of research here should help us form our opinion on the relevance of Bill 6679 to the current state and whether its purpose is right on the dot in addressing these problems.
Research by Adrian Jeric Pena: In a disability survey conducted by the National Statistics Office in 2000, the survey revealed that mental illness is the "third most common form of disability" after visual and hearing impairments. The study conducted in 2000 also said that there is an average of 88 reported cases of mental illness per 100,000 Filipinos. In a separate study by the Social Weather Stations, it was said that 0.7% of the total household in the Philippines during the year, 2004, have a member with mental disability. The most reported cases of mental illness are often linked with familial or hereditary mental disorders including schizophrenia alongside with mental illness linked with psychosocial development. Also in the Philippines, it was noted that substance abuse (narcotic drugs, other chemicals, etc.) are the leading direct and indirect causes of mental illness. What is more surprising is that a World Health Organization study revealed that in three primary health centers in Manila, one out of 5 adults and one out of 10 children ages 5 to 15 consulting to these centers have mental disorders (Department of Health, 2005). Reference: Department of Health, (2005). National Objectives for Health Philippines 2005-2010. Manila, Philippines: Department of Health.
= Research by Frank Trazo (http://www2.doh.gov.ph/noh2007/NOHWeb32/NOHperSubj/Chap4/MentalHMD.pdf) I think my research was the same as the previous one. I'll research more about mental health.
Mental Health and Mental Disorders The WHO defines mental health as a state of well being that enables a person to realize his or her own abilities to cope with the normal stresses of life. It emphasizes that mental health is more than just the absence of psychiatric disorder or illness but also includes a positive state of mental well being. Mental illness is not a fatal disease. Even those who have been mentally ill for most of their lives rarely die of mental illness. However, there is a growing concern for the increasing trend of mortality rate from suicide and self-inflicted injuries which has reached a level of 1.8 deaths per 100,000 population in 2000 (PHS). The public health impact of mental illness lies in the fact that it can cause disability for prolonged periods. In a disability survey by the National Statistics Office in 2000, it was found
The distressing experiences of vulnerable population like children and other persons in difficult circumstances can make them susceptible to mental illness.000 population. Since substance abuse is the leading direct and indirect cause of mental illness among the economically productive age group. In another study. Several policies were made to address mental health and mental disorders in the country. TheWHO identified that stigma.8 per 100. according to a United Nations report. Related to mental illness is the problem of drug abuse. is reportedly highest among the older age groups. The first dangerous drug of choice is methamphetamine hydrochloride or shabu and the second is marijuana. prescribing the framework toward the attainment of optimum state of mental health for all Filipinos. The social stigma associated with mental illness is a major cause for non-use of health and psychosocial services by Filipinos. This report is strengthened by the Social Weather Stations Survey commissioned by DOH in June 2004 which revealed that 0. forgetfulness and confusion increase with age while cigarette and alcohol abuse affect adults and adolescents more than they do the older persons. Psychiatric patients in the Philippines are usually managed in a mental hospital setting.2 per 100. About two thirds of people known to have mental disorders do not obtain help from health professionals.9 cases per 100. the Baseline Survey for the National Objectives for Health (BSNOH) conducted in 2000.000 population and Central Luzon at 88. Other predisposing factors in the development of mental illness include familial or hereditary mental disorders like schizophrenia. The National Mental Health Policy needs to be translated into action programs by the various partner agencies with the DOH taking the lead in mobilizing partners and ensuring implementation. the passage of RA 9165 (Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act) would impact positively on the control of mental illness in the country. In this survey. The policy aims to raise the professional and public awareness that mental health is an integral component of total health care. The lack of understanding of mental illness and the importance of mental health among Filipinos is as serious as the lack of a regular and useful
. since it can be chronic. Community-based mental health care is also encouraged. and delusions. The region with the highest prevalence rate of mental illness is Southern Tagalog at 132.7 percent of total households have a family member with mental disability. Persons who are socially deprived are least likely to obtain help for mental and physical trauma. the National Mental Health Policy was issued by the DOH.8 million regular users and 1. There is now a shift in the management of persons with mental disorders at psychiatric wards in university and private hospitals.6 million occasional users of dangerous drugs in the country or around 2. urbanization. discrimination and neglect have prevented care and management from reaching persons with mental disorders. industrialization. and disorders related to psychosocial development. In 2001. Excessive sadness.000 population. The Dangerous Drugs Board in 1998 estimated that there are about 1.5 percent regular users and 2. The prevalence of mental illness. followed by NCR at 130. confusion and forgetfulness. poverty and abuses. Some mental illnesses are due to inability to cope with stress brought about by daily living such as migration.2 percent occasional users. the prevalence rate of mental illness in the Philippines was 88 cases per 100.000 population in 2000. no control over the use of cigarettes and alcohol. the more frequently reported symptoms of mental health problem cited by the sampled household respondents were excessive sadness.that mental illness is the third most common form of disability after visual and hearing impairments.
4%) and neurotic disorder (1.2% of adults and 18.7%).
Kathleen Toribio Study data regarding the prevalence of mental illness in the Philippines: Philippine Mental Health Country Profile. causation and risk factors of mental illness in the country. The study showed that 17% of adults and 16% of children have mental disorders.3%). The three most frequent diagnoses were : psychosis (4. in collaboration with the Regional Office garnered the following results: The prevalence of mental disorders was 35%. manifestations. The differences between these two rates is that the Lubao study included mild cases of mental illness whereas the Sapang Palay study restricted its data to those with moderate to severe mental illness.6%–29% of children consulting a health center were found to have psychiatric problems 75% of mental illnesses presenting at health centers were not recognized by the health workers Sapang palay study Results showed a prevalence of mental illness in 12 per 1000 people (the internationally recognized rate is 1/1000) If the above data were extrapolated (taking into account that the Philippines has a population of over 60 million).1%).database on the prevalence. a population survey by the University of the Philippines Psychiatrists foundation Inc. mental subnormality (3. For children and adolescents.000 according to the Sapang Palay data. the top 5 most prevalent psychiatric conditions were: enuresis (9. In 1993-1994. The above data only pertains to those who are identified as having a psychiatric illness and not those who may have psychosocial or minor psychiatric problems.pdf _ Lubao study (1970s) 10.3%) and panic (5. anxiety (14.6%).460.3%). then the figures of mentally ill people according to the Lubao data would exceed 2.8%–17.00 and 720. Another study of the WHO shows a Philippine study conducted in 3 primary health centers situated in an urban slum in Manila. adaptations reaction (2.
Just want to add a graphical data on the researches of Jeric and Frank:
Reference: Department of Health. (2005).
. National Objectives for Health Philippines 2005-2010.
expect that 880. a DOH-commissioned Social Weather Stations survey found that 0. or type of disease. said some of the factors that trigger the disease include stress factors like traffic. For example for schizophrenia. one out of five adults and one out of ten children of ages 5 to 15 years old have diagnosable psychiatric disorders. In 2004. 50 percent of adults who consult at rural health centers were diagnosed to have some form of psychological illness. and substance abuse. there is was an article entitled "1 in 5 adult Pinoys have psychiatric disorders.tv/story/52861/1-in-5-adult-Pinoyshave-psychiatric-disorders
Junalyn Camacho WHAT ARE THE PREVALENT CASES OF MENTAL ILLNESSES IN THE COUNTRY AND THEIR CAUSES?
Schizophrenia "It (cases of mental illness) increases as the population increases.” Dr Lourdes Ladrido-Ignacio. said between 17 to 20 percent of the country’s adult population have psychiatric disorders. loss of loved ones. Philippines: Department of Health. meanwhile. Dr.000 of us are schizophrenic.” It further says that more people are developing mental disorders due to “extreme life experiences. to train general pract itioners and healthcare providers since these people are (in the frontline) of primary care. a former president of the Philippine Psychiatric Association. and the increasing number of family members going abroad to work have contributed to more Filipinos developing mental disorders. epilepsy. The World Health Organization defines mental health as a state of well-being that allows a person to realize his or her own abilities to cope with the normal stresses of life.
Reference: http://www. schizophrenia. Ignacio said seamen were found to be the most vulnerable to
. The National Statistics Office’s 2000 disability ranked mental illness as the third most common form of morbidity. “That’s why we are telling them to decentralize. after visual and hearing impairments among Filipinos. HOW SEVERE IS THE PROBLEM OF MENTAL HEALTH IN THE COUNTRY TODAY?
House Bill 6679 states that according to WHO study. The Department of Health. if we are now 88 million. said “extreme life experiences" such as natural disasters. About 10 to 15 percent of children aged 5 to 15 are believed to have mental problems. Oliveros said addressing mental illness as a public health concern remains as a challenge since there are only 400 licensed psychiatrists practicing in the country.
At the GMA News’ online hub.7 percent of total Filipino households have a family member who has a psychological disorder such as depression." she said.Manila. Among overseas Filipino workers. “We’ve tried to identify the components that could influence the mental status of a person and we found that life experiences such as disasters and armed conflict (affect one’s state of mind). president of the Philippine Psychiatrists' Association." Reyes said at a recent health forum. The same survey showed that 88 Filipinos out of every 100.000 population with mental problems. disasters and even bombings." said Dr. director of the National Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Yolanda Oliveros. Ladrido-Ignacio also noted that in remote barrios without doctors.gmanews. Lourdes Ignacio. armed conflict.
" she said. a bank manager suffered from schizophrenia.3%). lack the service of psychiatrists. He said the Dangerous Drugs Board recently released data. in particular. forgetting basic functions such as in personal hygiene. they started as saying they have psychiatric disorder but they end up being addicts. A study conducted by the University of the Philippines’ Department of Psychiatry in the rural areas in 1989 yielded similar findings. Ignacio said the provinces of Cotabato and Surigao. where 34% of those with mental disorders had social problems." Reyes said. "Of course. which shows that eight million Filipinos are drug users. "We are very much crisis-oriented and we have natural ways of coping with it.com/forum/index. mental sub-normality (3. However. sense of humor and concern for others. There is some form of regression but in terms of symptoms. but as a clerk. Ignacio said Filipinos have their own natural coping mechanism compared to other nationalities.3%) and panic (5.mental disorders because they tend to rely on alcohol or drugs to ease their homesickness. some of the symptoms of schizophrenia include a change in behavior. he or she cannot go back as a bank manager.7%).
Reference: http://www. anxiety (14. anxiety. for example. She said there are only 400 psychiatrists in the country.3%). She said Filipinos’ strong faith in God.php?showtopic=103178
(by Janice M." he said. Ignacio revealed that the Philippines is facing an acute shortage of psychiatrists due to the unabated migration of mental health doctors who seek greener pastures abroad. are among the mechanisms that help them cope with depression. "Drug addicts or substance abusers have dual diagnosis: substance addiction or substance dependence.9%).[[#_edn3|[iii]]] In the past three decades. social and occupational dysfunction like when the person does not want to go back to work. quite an alarming rate if compared with the internationally recognized rate of 1/1000. they are free from symptoms.asiafinest. the top five most prevalent psychiatric conditions were: enuresis (9.6%). Prevalence of mental health disorders was at 35%. Cabusas) A Philippine study conducted in three primary health centers in urban slum in Manila in 1993-1994 showed that 17 % of adults and 16 % of children had mental disorders. speech and language disorder (3. and psychiatric disorder whether it’s depression. "Some of the statistics in the hospital would say that yes. and most them are in the National Capital Region. According to Reyes. Filipinos have been exported as work force abroad in the
. The three most frequent diagnoses among the adults were: psychosis (4. adaptation reaction (2. Ignacio said they consider these as forms of coping with mental disorders even without scientific basis.1%)[[#_edn2|[ii]]] A study performed in the 1970s even showed that 12 out of 1000 Filipinos have severe mental disorder. but their functioning has already regressed in some form. These factors add up to the mental health of the Philippines. For children and adolescents. adding that these patients become drug addicts because they are self-medicating." he said. Reyes said some mental patients could function normally again after being treated. On the other hand.4%) and neurotic disorder (1. Reyes explained that the increase in the incidence of mental illness was also due to the widespread use of prohibited drugs.
the inability to adapt to other cultures and the unrealistic expectations from their families at home may sometimes add to their grievances. From http://www. T. find it most difficult during long periods of isolation out at sea specially those who work in cargo ships and tankers.org. Heartsick. A. Social and Cultural Rights. Reference: Salazar.[[#_edn4|[iv]]] Despite the alleviation from poverty due to increase of dollar remittances to their families. mostly male workers. Filipinas working as domestic helpers abroad are exposed to situations that render them vulnerable to physical. (2008. Aside from these on-site problems besetting our OFWs.86 million immigrants or permanent residents. Homesick. These are findings of a 2006 pilot study done by the Department of He alth’s National Epidemiological Center on several government agencies at the National Capital Region. . sexual and psychological abuses. B (2004) Philippine mental health country profile. allowing them to interact with other people almost everyday. 159–166. T.net. Health at Stake: Access to Health of Overseas Filipino Workers 2005 Report .edu/hivandaids/Philippines_Mental_Health_Country_Profile. which when left unchecked. in mental health. Seafarers.light of economic justifications to support their families. these countries have not ratified the Migrant Workers Convention. melancholy or loneliness. Inquirer.net/sim/sim/view/20080713-148154/Homesick-Heartsick
Around 32 percent of government employee-respondents had experienced mental health problems at least once.ph/Philippine%20SoH%20Report.net/lifestyle/lifestyle/view/20080530-139836/32-of-govtemployees-suffered-mental-health-problem--study
. Hong Kong and Kuwait. UAE. From http://showbizandstyle. From http://www.pdf Quesada. M. Taiwan. The study involved employees from the 20 national agencies in Metro Manila (Salazar. 2. May 30). OFWs face a wide range of health-related problems. International Review of Psychiatry (February/May 2004) 16(1–2). Inquirer.inquirer. while performing their jobs away from their loved ones. and 1. Accessed fromhttp://showbizandstyle.76 million Filipinos overseas in 197 countries. Of the 7. which embodies the right to health).net. in contrast to those who work on cruise liners whose ships dock more often.hawaii. 15 percent had specific phobias.pdf Tan. (2005). and only Kuwait has ratified he International Covenant on Economic. 2008). July 13).[[#_edn6|[vi]]]
Conde. and 6 percent suffered from depression. 3.38 million documented OFWs.5 million irregularly documented overseas workers. may further cause mental disorders that push them to commit suicide. 32% of gov’t employees suffered mental health problem--study. majority of which work as domestic helpers in countries such as Saudi Arabia. 75% of these workers are women.achieve. (Incidentally. (2008.inquirer.[[#_edn5|[v]]] including and more importantly. 10 percent were alcoholics.