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Notes Periodic Table (Raffles Institution Year 4 Chemistry)

General Information The Periodic Table is an arrangement of elements in the order of increasing proton/atomic number. Horizontal row is called a period. (Note that Hydrogen is in Period 1) Vertical row is called a group. (Note that Groups are only written in Roman Numerals) There are four main classes of elements, from left to right; they are metals, transition metals, metalloids, and non-metals. Elements in the same group 1. 2. 3. 4. Same number of valence electrons Form ions and compounds with similar formulae Tend to have similar chemical properties Elements go from metals to non-metals, from left to right

Elements in the same period 1. Same number of shells Nuclear Charge 1. Actual nuclear charge = atomic/proton number = sum of all protons in nucleus of the atom 2. Shielding electrons = electrons not in valence shell of atom Shield outer shell electrons from attraction force of nuclear charge 3. Effective nuclear charge (Zeff) = Actual nuclear charge - Number of shielding electrons = Resultant charge acting on valence shell electron

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Summary of Trends in Periodic Table Atomic Radius Ionisation Energy Melting and Boiling Points (Metals) Melting & Boiling Points (Non-Metals) Electronegativity Shielding Electrons Effective Nuclear Charge Density Density Melting and Boiling Points Melting and Boiling Points Reactivity Colour of Elements Properties of Metals 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Usually solids at r.t.p (except Hg) High m.p. and b.p. (except Group I) Good conductors of heat and electricity Usually shiny, ductile, malleable and possess great tensile strength Oxides usually basic or amphoteric Always form cations Down the Group Increases Decreases Decreases Increases Decreases Increases Constant Alkali Metals Increases Low Decreases Low Increases All silvery Across the Period Decreases Increases Increases Constant Increases Noble Gases Increases Increases Low All colourless

Halogens Increases Increases Low Decreases Darker

Properties of Non-Metals 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Often gases at r.t.p. (except C, S, Si) Low m.p. and b.p. (except C and Si) Poor conductors of heat and electricity (except graphite, C) Usually dull and soft Oxides usually acidic/ neutral Usually form anions

Trends for Shielding Electrons 1. Number of shielding electrons increases down a group 2. Number of shielding electrons remains the same across a period

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Trends for Effective Nuclear Charge 1. Effective nuclear charge remains the same down a group 2. Effective nuclear charge increases across a period Trends for Electronegativity 1. Measured on Pauling scale Fluorine is most electronegative (value of 4.0) 2. Electronegativity decreases down a group 3. Electronegativity increases across a period For smaller atoms, electrons used in bonding are closer to the nucleus. Hence, there is a greater attractive force, and a greater ability to polarize. Hence, smaller atoms have higher electronegativity, and greater polarizing power. Trends for Ionisation Energy 1. Ionization energy measures the energy required to remove one electron each from one mole of gaseous atoms of an element 2. Ionization energy decreases down a group With more electron shells down a group, valence electron become further away from nucleus. Hence, the force of attraction between the valence electron and the nucleus decreases, resulting in a decrease in ionisation energy. 3. Ionization energy increases across a period The effective nuclear charge increases across the Period (due to increasing number of protons and constant number of shielding electrons), the force of attraction between the nucleus and the valence electrons increases, resulting in an increase in ionisation energy Trends for Atomic Radius 1. Atomic radius measures the distance between 2 nuclei in solid state, divide by 2 (by X-ray diffraction). For non-metallic elements in molecular form, measure distance between nuclei of covalently bonded atoms.

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2. Atomic radius increases down a group Going down a group, a shell of electrons is added for each element, so atoms get larger. 3. Atomic radius decreases across a period The atoms become smaller because the effective nuclear charge increases across the period (due to increasing number of protons and constant number of shielding electrons). Thus, the positively charged nucleus exert a greater force of attraction on the valence electrons, pulling these electrons in towards the nucleus, so that the atoms decreases in size from left to right across the period. Trends for Melting and Boiling Points 1. Melting and boiling points are affected by force of attraction between particles in substance (bond strength). 2. Melting and boiling points decrease down a group (Metals) For metals with larger atoms, delocalized free electrons are further away from positive nuclei, hence the force of attraction between them decreases. Therefore, it is easier to break the electrostatic forces, resulting in a lower melting and boiling point. 3. Melting and boiling point increases down a group (Non-Metals) For non-metals with larger molecules, there is a larger surface for interaction, hence the intermolecular forces of attraction increases. Therefore, it is harder to break the intermolecular forces of attraction, resulting in a higher melting and boiling point.

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Group I Elements (Alkali Metals) Physical Properties 1. Shiny, silvery, soft metals that are easily cut by razor blades 2. Must be stored in oil as they are easily tarnished in air Chemical Properties 1. Uses their outermost s-orbital electrons for bonding 2. Low density (Li, Na, K float on water) 3. Density increases down the group 4. Low melting and boiling points 5. Melting and boiling points decreases down the group 6. Colour of flame are Lithium red; Sodium yellow; Potassium lilac; Rubidium red; Cesium blue Reactivity Reactivity increases down the group. The reactivity of alkali metals depends on its ability to lose its outershell electrons. Down the group, the atomic radii increases, and hence the number of shells increases down the group while the effective nuclear charge remains the same. Therefore, the force of attraction between the outershell electrons and the positive nuclei is less, and hence it is easier to remove the outershell electrons down the group. Chemical Reactions 1. Alkali Metal + Water Alkali + Hydrogen Gas 2Li + 2H2O 2LiOH + H2

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Group VII Elements (Halogens)

Physical Properties 1. Colours of elements get darker down the group 2. Poisonous

Chemical Properties 1. Exists as diatomic molecules (F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, At2) 2. Density increases down the group 3. Low melting point and boiling point 4. Melting and boiling points increases down the group 5. Halogens more soluble in organic solvents than water, and form distinctive coloured solutions Reactivity Reactivity decreases down the group. The reactivity of halogens depends on its ability to accept one electron to complete their outershell. Down the group, the atomic radii increases, and hence the number of shells increases down the group while the effective nuclear charge remains the same. Therefore, the force of attraction between the outershell electrons and the positive nuclei is less, and hence it is harder to attract electrons to complete its outershell

Chemical Reactions 1. Halogen + Alkali Metal Metal Halide 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl 6. Halogen + Metal Ionic Salt (Halogen as Oxidising Agent) Cl2 + 2Na 2NaCl 7. Halogen + Non-Metal Covalent Molecule

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Cl2 + H HCl 8. Halogen + Alkalis Salt + Water Br2 + NaOH NaBr +NaOBr + H2O 9. Halogen + Water Acid 1 + Acid 2 Cl2 + H2O HCl + HOCL 10. Halogen + Hydrogen Hydrogen Halide (Gas) Cl2 + H2 2HCl 11. Displacement Reaction(Redox Reactions) 2NaI + Cl2 2NaCl + I2 More reactive halogen will displace a less reactive halogen from a solution of its salt

Functions 1. Fluorine is used in toothpaste to prevent tooth decay. 2. Chlorine is used to sterilise water by killing bacteria. 3. Iodine is used as mild antiseptic solution.

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Group O Elements (Noble Gases)

Physical Properties 1. Colourless gases at room temperature and pressure 2. Not flammable 3. Provides an inert environment Chemical Properties 1. Monoatomic 2. Unreactive because of their noble gas electron configuration (Note: do not use the phrase inert gas) 3. Low melting point and boiling point 4. Melting and boiling points increases down the group 5. Density increases down the group Functions 1. Helium is used to fill balloons. 2. Neon is used in advertising signs and fluorescent lights. 3. Argon is used in bulbs and to provide an inert environment for steel welding.

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Group II Elements (Alkali Earth Metals)

Physical and Chemical Properties 1. Denser and harder than Alkali Metals 2. Higher melting point than the alkali metal in the same period 3. Reactive, but not as reactive as Alkali Metals

Transition Metals

Physical and Chemical Properties 1. Located in the central block of the Periodic Table (Sc to Zn form the first row). Uses d-orbital electrons for bonding. 2. Hard, tough, strong, malleable, and ductile 3. Good conductors of heat and electricity 4. High density 5. High melting and boiling point (except mercury) 6. Not very reactive 7. Formed coloured compounds and ions in solution (except zinc, which is colourless) 8. Variable oxidation states, hence they are good catalysts in biological and industrial reactions (due to their ability to be oxidised and reduced easily) Functions 1. Vanadium (V) oxide is used as a catalyst in the Contact Process. 2. Iron is used as a catalyst in the Haber Process. 3. Nickel is used as a catalyst in the manufacture of margarine from vegetable oils.

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