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Post-Office Box, 754,

633 Chestnut

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PHILADELPHIA, PA.
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COPYRIGHT SECUREP.

COPYRIGHT,

18SG.

rKINTKU

15Y

MATLACK A HARVEY,
PHILADELPHIA.

S.€DIA COINS OF THE WORLD.ILLUSTRATED ENCYCLOP. COPYRIGHT. NUMISMATIST. STATISTICS. PA. FROM A. FULL DESCRIPTION WITH EXACT FAC-SIMILE OF OVER * SIX NAME THOUSAND LISTS. PHILADELPHIA. 1886. CHESTNUT STREET. TABLES FOR CALCULATION. 754. 700.. 1885 FINENESS. COMPARISON. U. 533 M. &c. FACE VALUE AND METAL WORTH. WEIGHT. POST-OFFICE BOX. . COMPLETE IN ONE VOLUME. ILLUSTRATING THE 4+ A 4- + 4l^atlcrn^ J^ncicnt^ ifmrcni back to atul ifxxvwxxHf B. A. REDUCTION. PUBLISHED BY J^. FULL INDEX. C. HISTORICAL DATA. ^ Jinancml ami itwmi^matic ^ibvavy. D. SMITH. COINS.

comprises but a portion of my task. many of them very valuable in specialities. INTRODUCTORY. Correspondence was entered into with tlie Financial ]\Iinisters of every nation on the earth possessing a coinage official reports only were received as authority.GOLD AND SILVER COINS OFTHE WORLD By a. and to condense the information to the utmost. and. Constant demands from Banks. other languages. but none universal in application. and Merchants for a work of this character. since I became a publisher. Greek. every channel. the requisite information necessary for the casual inquirer or business dealer in current and uncui-rent coins of the world. Such a book did not exist. sift. there has been issued an immense number. WL. that I would prejiare. every source of knowledge was exOur own and foreign liausted to obtain autlientie." within the last two hundred 3'ears. in l)rief form. Of works upon Numismatics. reliable data. To translate many of these works from the Latin. finally induced nie to undertake tlie onerous labor. to compare. and verify all the mass. the results of which are presented in The Excyclop. upon first applying myself to the stud}'. I diligently sought for a work which should contain. Mail}' years since. Brokers. write.EDiA OF Gold and Silykr Coins op the World. . such a text-book. and the ever repeated regrets of experts and students in the science. that they could obtain nothing of the kind. and of " Coin Books. .of ]Sumismatics. Bankers. Italian. Sxiith. all crowded with unnecessary matter. French. and nob one adapted to the requirement of ever\ -day business life or students' reference. or compile. German. select. with frequent requests from all.

an authority beyond question. Philadelphia. have all generously responded to every application for information and material. Foreign and Home departments. large sums of money for importations of literature. and for my own reputation. financial institutions and financiers. 21 35G0 ji.. I be. and cabinets have given copies of tlieir treasures to our artist's pencil. a volume so exhaustive in explanation and illustration or so certainly reliable as this EncycloErrors there may be. claiming that high standard. my my commendation. satisfactory reference. has been Without egotism I may say that I consider my work well done in the whole range of literature devoted to numismatics or coined money there is and has never been. mistakes will creep into the most paedia. to aid. museums. With facts and figures alone I have dealt.Just. arranged for the mo-^t speedy and sole object. official document or statement I have used do not. March. In the interests of the science to which I have been so long devoted. ^I. 1SS6. A. and will thankfully receive corrections. specimen i. ever issued. the most distinguished scientists. I have discovered them in every authority. in systemizing money and commercial transactions. The results of long'^years of study and dearly bought experience.died upon this me. and. conscientious labor for which money cannot recompense umes. I friends and the public witliout further apology or olfer it to my . an embracement of the entire field. book to be the best and most complete. so far as in my power. costly volcoins.edia an amount of hard. fair criticism is invited. to justify the flattering opinion expressed by those who desired this work from my hands. and will be heartily welcomed. and to present these in the plainest possible form. I have expended upon The Excyclop. . claim infallibility. the only complete lieve work of its kind. carefully edited works. S:\IITIT. collections. have all been lavwork to render it complete and correct. national and private. consequently I cannot. artistic and clerical labor. -7 mints. purchase of rare.

35 Austria. Silver. 199 to 207. 510 Current Coins. Gold. A. 119 Silver. Gold and Silver. Honduras 54 . (Germany). 233 to 238. 32 Grammes and Grains (Table). Algiers. Gold. 163 Silver. Germany. (Oriental). Silver. 241 to 283 English (drains and French Grammes Silver. Gold. Silver. 74 to 85 (Germany). Gold.). Silver. 465 to 508 Greek.. Gold. Africa (Great Britain). 18 Coins. Silver. 299 to 303 Bavaria (Germany). 49.(Germany). and Grammes (French) 32 Table. 425 England. Gold. 46 Silvei-. Silver. Frankfort-ou-the-Main. Gold. 53 Silver. 143 Brunswick (Germany). 123 Hechingen (Germany). Ancient. 119. 419 £ast Indies Silver. Gold. Silver. 157 Hanover (Germany). A. Gold. 125 Argentine Republic. Gold. A. :5n. Gold. 415 417. TTesse Darmstadt (Germany). 155 Hanibiirg. (History). 179 to 195. (Table). ' Silver. 509. Silver. (Table). 45 China. 51 Guatemala (C. 509. 01 to 99 Mediicval. " Baden 508 505 to 507 483 to 503 Current. 30 Bologne (Italy). Greek.). 133 Silver. 28 18 U. 303 Ecuador (S. A. Gold. Gold. 465 to 481 Jewish. (S. «9 Silver. Gold. Kio 427 Hindostan. Gold and Silver (Table). Silver. 43 Silver. Silver. 295 to (C. 161. Gold. 89. 277 France. Silver. A. 283 379 4()3 (Great Britain). Standard Value. 811 Brazil (S. Gold. 510 Colombia (U. 259. 50 Egypt. 101. 291 llayti. Jewish. Afghanistan. Cash Value. A. 103 105 to 117 (China). Silver. (Sold. 26 Essequebo (Great Britain). 223 to 238 Silver. (Portugal) Silver. 30 Characters and Numbers. 261. 191 Greiz-Reuss (Germany). 135 to 175. Silver. Silver. Gold. 483 to 503 Anhalt (Germany). 135 to 141 Belgium. 26 Equalization. 363. 364. 369 China (France). Silver. 274 Cash Value. (Table).). Roman. 176. Silver.).). '123 29:'. 311 Silver. 241 to 283 Silver. 200 268 to 273 (Holland). 413 Chili (S. 187. 177. A. 41 Bremen (Germany). Silver. 277 Denmark. S.). 09 to 73 Silver. Gold. (iold. 367. Gold.nada (Great Britain).INDEX -PLATES AND TABLES. 509. 290. 411 Ancient Coins. 288 Greece. 301. 421 421 Altenburg (Germany). 289 Silver. 275 Batavia (Holland). Grains (English). 481 to 465 Greek Coins (Ancient). Allegorical Plate. 508 Roman. 48 Silver. of S. 86 Silver. 133. 106 French Grammes and English Grains 32 (Table). 365 Silver. 83 Silver. S. 38 Silver. Gold. Gold. Silver (Table).). 82 Coin History. 121 to 131. 87 Bolivia (S. Sil150 to 152 ver. Silver. Silver. 277 Guiana (Great Britain). (Table). 145 to 149 Burmah (Great Britain). A. A.5 Holland. U. 86 Silver. 279 Great Britain. 211 to 220 30 Gold and Silver Tables. Gold. Silver. Gold. Gold. 423 Silver. Silver.). 106 Comparative Ratio. 47 Current Coins of World (Table). Gold. 175 America (Spanish) Silver. 209 Silver. 52. 510 Demerara (Great Britain). 277 Ca. 127 to 131 Bank Tokens (English). 68 Hawii (Sandwich Islands). 34. 119 llesse-Cassel ((tcrnianv). A. Silver. Silver. 465 to 481 Silver. 32 Equalization. 159 Silver. Hohenzollern-Siuinarinncn ((Jermanv). S. Silver.

Ligura (Italy). 319 Silver. Gold. . Gold. 271 Mecklenburg (Germany). 62. Gold.). Goli!. India. 4. Gold. 373 375 to 379 176. Silver.). 505 to 507 Mediaeval Coins. 447 Numbers and Cbaraclers (Oriental). A. Italy. Lippe (Cierniany). Silver. 359. 371. Gold. 299 Islands (Holland). 1 3 Lombardy-Venice Silver. 191 . 177 179 to 189 (19 to 73 74 to 85 Reuss-Greiz (Germany). 429 Silver. Gold. (Italy). Silver. 310 to 320. 30:5 (Holland). Silver. 191 Ring Money (Great Britain). 320 426 Morocco. 265. Silver. Portugal. Geld. 34. Gold. <Jold. 107 191. (S. Silver. 137 (Great Britain). Gold. 508 Jewish Coins (Ancient). 267 Roman Coins (Ancient). 337. Silver. 35 119 Leclienstein (German}). 33 La Plata (S. Obsidional Silver. Silver. SiI^e^. Gold. 271. A. Silver. 220 312 :!55 to :357 169 315 279 Malta (Great Britain). 413 Nuremburg (Germany).). Silver. 413 (Italy). 316 Silver. 67 Silver. 04 65. 293 Netherlands (Holland). East Silver. 3:38. 173 Silver. Prussia (Germany). Silver. 483 to 503 Rome (Italy). Mexico. 08 Liberia (Africa). Gold. 360 Silver. Gold. Silver. Gold. Ragusa (Austria). Silver. Lucca (Italy). 348 :^05 to 357 Silver. 63 Norway and Sweden. Silver. 175 Oriental Numbers and (Muiracters. Silver. 281 Silver. 57 58 to 61 Silver. Silver. Gold. 09 to 73 74 to 85 (Groat Britain). 443 Silver. Gold.' Hungary (Austria).362 Japan. Silver. 358. Gold. Lubeck (Germany). 312. 295 to 303 Silver. Newfoundland (Great Britain). 56. 119 Nassau (Germany). Gold. 269 2m. Silver. 304. Silver. 27:} Reuss-Lobenstein (Germany). A. 303 Java (Holland). 321 to 327 oumania. Gold. 329. 257 Oldenburg (Germany). Silver. Silver. ^01. 445.»3 Gold. Silver. Gold. 274 63 New Grenada (S. 320 Monaco (Italy). Money Parma Peru Silver. 317 431 Persia. Lobenstein (Geiniany).

Afghanistan. .INDEX-DESCRIPTIVE PAGES.

Liberia (Africa). .

Henry L. W. D. S. C. West. First National Bank of Qnincy. Gray. Washington. McGragor. Academy.. Ga. Leominster. Ind. Fales. Parker. 94 Chestnut street. Y. Taunton. X. R. Macon. Butler Co. W. Jasper.. Herkimer F. Edwin Andrews. Brooklyn. 177 La Salle street. 308 Westminster street. P. W. 100 Washington street. E. Clinton. Bunker Ilill. Stone. Deep River. Y. Clarke 224 South Fifth street. R. Chas. D. Capitol Bank of Macon. F. SherriU.. Geo. John S. Lothrop. Cashier. Smithsonian Ins. Macon. A. Xat. Pittsburgh. Germany. Providence. Apenrade. Springfield... City Library. Geo. X. Jusliii Rinichi Ivuki. Building. 10 Branch street. First Xational Bank. The Bristol Co. R. Mass. R. San Francisco. Ills. Conn. AVashington. McKean & Co. James E. Co. Germantown. J. Thomas Cunningham. F. Dr. Y.. Lowell. Taylor. Cavern. Baker. A. L. Dom Pedro II. . Ga. A. Mass. IloUoway. S. Gerald. Albany. Iowa. Ohio. X. Vincent on the Hudson.. Room 52. Henry Abel. J. . C. Christine Elberg. C. Philadelphia. Walworth. Ills. Albert M. Ills. Kinnaird. H.. Chicago. Fleury. Bolton. I. Central College of Ky. riattsburgh. Xew York. R. Washington. Mass. 138 Montague street. Charles IT. Mount St. German Xational Bank. I*a. Gruhlke. Pa. Fla. Bank. W. P. Jewett. Syracuse. Ills. 50 Mill street. C. Waterloo. C. Pn. Kumler. E. W.. Central Library. Mohawk. Xewcomb. Statesman. K. Cushman. Y. Iowa. X. W. X. Y. Texas. C. Furman. 11. Decatur. Palatka. George F. 224 South Fifth street. Science. Xo. J. Mass. A. Philadcl])hia. Danville. National J. Penna. B. Ivy. riiiladclphia. Jr. Fayette Co. E. Quincy. Meigs. Ind. Schlesvig. Thurston. Pa. Chicago. Pa. John AV. Cashier First Xational Bank. Auditor C. Seven Mills. G. L. Xuttellburg. Box 367. Clinton Co. Leominster. Xat. Taylor. W. Ministerfrom Japan to V. Cal. Va. Cashier Clinton National Bank. L. C. Ills. S. Prof. Emperor of P)razil. A.. H. C. C.10 ORIGINA L SUBS CRIBERS. National Xumismatic Museum. General M. H. AV. Bank. Weston. S. Blume.

New York City. Bergcr. Germany. Canada. Canada. X. AV. Staunton. Xorwich. Silverton. M. "Winslow J. Ottowa. AVestmoreland Co. Pa. Chas. Mass. Frank McCoy. Colorada. Cashier First Xational Bank. Y. Ohio. Xebraska. Bangor. Xew London Co. Mo. Smithfield. G.11 A. street. B. Spearfish. Librarian Richmond College. Va. Carl C. A. T. Frank A. Chancery Lane. Ohio. R. Cashier. G. Follett.. E. AVine Growers. Cox. Xew Mexico. Edwin Judson S. Hull. Hamljii Todd. Supreme Gov. 4 Konigsstrasse. K. Williams. Edinger Bros. Y. California. K. Gartner. England.. Bovier. 18 Vesey street. C. Herbert. X. F. Trukee. J. Westfield. 24 Plain street. Beatty P. Hyman. . Penick. Blacke.. Knights of Columbia. J. England. Zschiesche. Jamestown. John Cashner. Haverhill. Librarian Bates College. 43 Orange Lewiston. Montreal. D. AVashington John C. Copenhagen. Los Angeles. Fulton Co. Conn. Lewiston. Byron Reed. Y. London. Dakota. W.. H. 0. Milwaukee. Chas. R. 233 McGill street. Assayer.. S. Iv. Augustine Schneider. Jesse Sweed. Louis. Ills. Leipzig. Ryland. California. Savannah. Morris. AYauseon. Va. Athens. Mass. Omaha. San Francisco. E. Sonne. Wright. John Jones. Eli Foorman. Geo. Chicago. Pa. Exeter. C. Germantown. Francis Ravenscroft. Conn. Cha. Werkheiser. W. Miss Xellie E. Chas. Quaker City. Colcliester. A. Southampton Buildings. Mills. Ind. Anderson. Xumismatist. St. Pa. Bay... Chapman. B. C. Silver City. 324 X. McLochlin. John G. Miss S. II. Farmers and Merchants Saving Fund. Capt. Librarian Public Library. Ohio. Norton. Box 2. G40 Adams street. Cal. 27 East Southern Bay. 3d street. Foster. Conneout. G. Denmark. 111 East 2d street. Richmond. 0. Wis. Cashier. Library of Parliament. 11. Me. Maine.s. 35 Merimack street. 22 AVest Walnut Lane. X. Howard. Kent. Albany. Ohio. Maine. Lunderlielt. Ohio. Ga. S. Eaton. corner Maine & Thames streets. J. Lachman & Jacobi. H. ^N'umismatist. Birkbeck ]jank.

Hill. Xumismaticco Di Brera. L. Heath. Michigan. 2 Gracechurch street. S. Ivoryton. V. Martin. 1309 J. M. Martin Steffan. E. Mint of Birmingham.. Syracuse. England. Germany. Mass. Zanesville.12 O. James Forbes. Hornsea. Philadelphia. Shefter. Hall. Pa. Leipzig. Ralph Heaton & Son. X. Davenport. 3 liuc Montholon. Y. Yt. H. 102 Chestnut street. Ohio. Lyman Low. Schlesvig. Philadelphia. France. United States Counterfeit Detector. Lametsbjerg Lint. A. Xumismatist. H. X. B. Golding. Xorthfield. 1713 Locust street. Xunn & W. Oxford. C. Mo. AVorthington. London. Berlin. Edward Marris. A. Pederson. Christie. Y. Camerino. G. Michigan. Pose. Philadelphia. Jr. Peter M. England. yan Hoesen. H. Monroe. 853 Broadway. Jr. England. M. Meigs. Paris. Xuniismatist. E. Fay. Blackberry Station. Ogden. *Ivarl Edmunds. E. Pa. Memphis. Principal Xornial School of Practice. Arch street. Pa. X. Germany. Germany . 17th and Sjiring Garden.. Ballard. Booksellers. Philadelphia. €. Conn. Stewart. ])r AVm. Oxford Bank. East York. Dr. E. Xew ^'ork. Lippincott Co. C. 1 Turner strasse. Geo. O. E. Box 60. 42 Broad street. Elberg. Hunter Stedman. Foster Ely.. AVarren Gee. Spink (t Son. 1106 Pine street. I). 94 East Genesee street. Sterling. Pa. Bismarck. Berlin. M.'^Morrill. Philadelphia. H. Ikiry St. Hiersemann. J. Spring Lake. Phillips. Schmidt. H. Utah. C. D. Kiel. Middlebury. Francesco Gnecchi. llali. Cashier First Xational Bank. E. Dakota. Y. Ills. 715 Market street. Theodore F. Minn. Ohio. Henry L. Pa. Lorenz J. Germania. Utah. Ills.. Sheldon. Iowa. W. Maack. Syracuse. Xorth Germania. 62 Orange street. Xeb. 41 Unterdcn Linden. G. Jamestown. Cashier Deseret Xational Bank. Dr. D. Aabenraa. Dakota. S. S. Worcester. X. Salt Lake City. Y. A penrade. Philadelphia. England. S. Pa. Cashier. H. Julius Hahlo. Toledo Xational Bank. Foster. X. Toledo. Germany. Schlesvig. Hans Berndt. Xew York City. Adolph AVeyl. Harrington.

of Coins furnished especially for this ^ork by the TT'^x. S. A COMPILATION FROM OFFICIAL DATA. Amount of Pure Metal in Each Piece. Name. Mint. expressed in the money of account of the United States. are to be talvcn ia estimating the values of all foreign merchandize. that "the values of such coins. Current Valuation of the Coins based upon tiie official proclamation of the Secretary U. Director U. Treasury. SMITH CURRENT GOLD AP SILVER COINS OF THE WORLD. made outia any of said Currencies " Gold. M.13 COPYRIGHTED BY A. Fineness ami Weight. accurately computed. . 8.

1 .14 Gold.

") Owing to the frequent variations in the metal value of Silver.OO per ounce. Sl. it is here computed at U. Silver. 3. . value. 1000 fine.].

Silver. value. .iletal value of Silver. >!1. S. it is here comjiuted at U.00 per ounce. 1000 fine.

.J7 UNITED STATES..m„^ Gold.. I. '""'•iiE^'"^ '"->•" .. ^^innrn..«»* .

18 United States Coin History Tabulated. .

. 19 n. I. a Gold.UNITED STATES.

.:is..079 .400 9.(i50 92.HO0..224 Dakota Ari7ona Idaho " " " 119.1.738.325. 1 Federal District and and Territories.607.749..073 13.58.. 363.6. from Cape Cod on llie Atlantic to the Pacific near the 43 parallel.7S0. including water surface of the Lakes and Rivers.524 2-3.39 10.i»70 69.324 25. Allies pioauctsiuisso Pub.926 o«.170 7.027.173 3.100 113..019 4. ISO Ter.4.438 100.389 14(i.50.807.403 .!.40S.311.282 193.413 2.see Ohio Louisiana Indiana Mississippi Illinois 40.973 7(1.3.000.913 1.908.1.946 2.249.307 74.59 150.327.(!31 1(19.. there were 6 cities containing an aggregate of 131.147.5t).051. on September 13th.:.250 33. S20 1.155.3.724.470 50.083 3. from X.780 50.366 37.134 18..2-0 30.341 19.721. population of these cities 11.015 W.Ma»aclmsetts Pvluulf Island ("iiunectieiit 45.910. southermost point of Texas 1.816 4.010 00.227 170.7 210.810.107 135.050 41.547.575 235.577..015 105.869.3S3 103.57s )7.C07.928 12S.M1 5.S37 20.421 3. In 1700 the population of the U.573 .s(l2 46.-304 " " Wyoming Indian 97.ii..000.9.34.712 21.197.S0 West Virginia Nevada Nebraska <^olorado Dist.915 l.0 Minnesota Oregon Kansas 10.179 S10. •• New Mexico Utah ^\'ashington 11.04.Slo 1.o:W 20.448 75.. of the people of the U.090.> 11.a54.118 375.. The Independence of the United States was acknowledged by England which had held them as colonies.800 14(i...944.55 Peiinsvlvania New Haiups^liire . 5.S90 64.040 1.5.377 31.925 70 122.428.336 11. Schools 20.3S4 1.495.468.S55 22.373.886 357.970 (il.393 (i.236 2li514.181 20.3.882.SS2.-314.SI0 ..007..092:025 5.079 121.()S0 2.211 l.227.3.028 631.9(0 12.-3S8 20.000.890 1.776 .4.:!(t3 it(i..30 4.3ii.910 1.(i.530 sq.719.(IS0 24.2:.221 3. real and personal.20 length.103. from the census report of 18S0.303.393 51.183 1.01-3.38.">3.i3.974 4.020 81.20.318.706 ..4.S4 " " 1.175 82. 3.403.) 2. 185.!0 898.JII 12. hounding the Eepublic or single 10 Territories.072 105.316 1.309.109.447.410 3.003.il7 (. after a war which commenced in 1770.3.300 83.833 30.:.^0 Alabama Maine Missouri Arkansas Michigan Florida 52.0.S34.384.179. (."olumbia 110.026 12. was $43. 103.30.33 3s. tlio is nearly 2.7!)3. 1783.)O.SS2.03().5.176.813 75.045 73.415 53.3..297.504 1N.910.547 13.505 42.5.399 H.146 631.09(!.0. S(.02.tlti0 101.177.789.886 318.i.!.448 71.4&3.3. is equal to about 4.7.895.33 21.5 28..5 9.9.G00 miles.033.546.4. The official valuation of property in 1880.992 8.2 5.409..:!50 231. The extremi:y of iMiuneso a to the area.210 42:4.5.514.127.oso. The census of 1880 shows: population of the Republic 50.393.494 124.390 24. miles.-Vj2.748.83.929.390 3.212 13.223 3.41l 7.lll 14s.375. W.540 299.S79.30 Virginia Nortli Carolina South Carolina 52.103.010 2ii(i.127.33..002 08.5S0 84.700 22.5 Iowa Texas Wisconsin California 2^5.6.(i32.: 1 11.39.415 8. was 3.-324.32.284.783. Aroa Value of Ejcpeiullt'rs bq.084.7(10 70.028.H07 Montana '5.475 Georgia Kentiiclcy Vermont Tenues.54 1.804.484 $ 97.005.3..096 2. Tlie total area of the States table following. S. thirteen States were in the original confederation and these are given first in the States).689.570 51/.941.480 11().000.000.5 22.000 48.214.895 " Alaska Total &3.M.741 New York Ki'w Jersey Delaware I^Iaryland 49.742 499.709. Kumber of cities 28G.507 202.198 10.234.825.245 5.018 ](I2 79.2.041 l.080 5().773 25.061.005 0.305.754 2.21. miles (including Alaska but exclusive of the Lakes and River surfaces There are 38 States.303.3.36.197.0.(i77.541 9.:.430.291.(l(..021 1 S3.131 6.482 I11.7i'8 4( 1.:i8.30.472 inhabitants.S5.835 507.3ft5 $ 744.090 .771.237 10.i)29.{3 8.>33.000 sq.978.260.()6.790.Vi3.^:!2.7.074.12().i. 497 .:6 1.092 20.225.982 .642.i'i 414. 221 190.800 miles and the greatest breadth.271.39.310.470.2r.2.317 1.245.298.120 2.127.5..178. S.S50 .720 30.3.9:!6 l:i.401.2(.178 l::.008 30.163 30. 080.

STAT5 unauthorized coins GoM L @i^^ ^^Tir&s' CALIFORNIA.VCISCO . 1P53 KJTV FKA.21 UNITED STATES.

037 miles of line. with 450.793.098.451. a reduction of $942. was 6. in 1883. the average weight of each being 1. 12.624.016.528. There is no gift bestowed by nature. over 213'earsofage..756.924. The gold and silver produce from the mines of the United States in 1883.754.327 of buckwheat.000.200. the Alaska census showed 30.357.817. the total T^egroes. The public debt. the gross earnings of which.57." In 1880. .208 oats: 44. To enumerate the cultivated and natural products of the United States would require more space than a volume of tliis class can afford. including vessels of every class. there was in operation. one company alone controlling 145.257 bales. in 1880. amounted to $1.137 pounds. in pensions to the 322. a total of 110. 1884 was. valtied at $36.000 of silver $46. had an aggregate exceeding 104 miles of line.737. and sold at government rates. In 1880.817.831.571 miles of wire. Foreign born whites.595 of rye.719.383. in 1883.250. 407.772. The total tonnage in 1884. comprised an area of 2. In 1883. S.693. The amount of National Bank and Legal-Tender Xotes. to carry on the different departments of the government.816. The total tobacco crop of the United States. in 1884. 229 tons.076.858. for the the sum of $56.830. 12.487. the estimated population of the Indian Territory was 75. Japanese "colored" population of the United States. outstanding on October 31st.592.338. 5. 3.505 of wheat. at the conclusion of the civil war. Tlie public lands of the United States still open for settlement.404.809.318. 19. 1884.] In the year 1884 there was exported from the United States.883 square miles.495 cotton production for 1880.398.383 patents issued from the United States Patent Office.072. and the service is administered at a cost of $40.084.519. There were within the Union. in 1884. Louisiana alone. Total was 5. are- not incluacd in the above total under "population.580. Immigrants arriving 1885.609 in value.636. was 221.681. was $137. was 4. or to their legal heirs.000.479. amounted in tons to In 1884. necessary for the comfort or luxury of mankind that does not exist or have its equivalent within the boundaries of the nation tlie wealth of minerals. fiscal year 1885. S.814.146. . of merchandise: $740.632.923. The coal fields of the United States are estimated to embrace an area of over 600.133. in 1879.017 post offices. weekly or monthly. of Xational Bank Notes The United Stales paid in 1884. $332.756 surviving participants in her wars.960 per annum.965. 518.127 miles of post -routes. The telegraph companies of the United States. including and Indians. There are 50.707.940. pounds.835. Pig iron manufactured in 1883.999 of of barley. was in value $4. in 1884.095. 1~8 inhabitants. for the year ending June 30. was 469. were $343. 43. and 11. in the U.473.000 square miles. and receiving $19. $536. The total receipts of the U.179 acres. of Legal-Tender Notes $346.315.226 messages.671 different periodicals in course of publication. amounted to $823.[The inhabitants of Alaska and the Indian Territory (both unorganized). there were 22.963. . 271.535 bushels of Indian corn. daily. sending in that year 42. of agricultural products. or 1. shows a totalof 1. in 1884. in value was of gold $30. The sugar product of the State of Salt produced.414 miles of railroad.513.972.113.12 from 1866.000. averaging 475 poimds to the bale. of specie $67. in 1884.045. Chinese.861. built and equipped at a cost of $6.515 hogsheads. total immigration from 1820 to The report of the principal cereal productions in 1880. 459. Tlie amount of appropriation made by Congress.

^ '5> » • ^ <^ '"""•M.«„„„.„..iwv»*^*''' .. „„.m„. <..23 UNITED STATES....»v»»«"""""..0 S'l' V „ . „. Silver..

188-4. its Innits. inexliauslable. on October was as follows: . The state of the total United States circulation. and its resources are so varied its totally independent of entire world beyond 1st.'2 4 precious and useful. if needs be. is incalculable and and immense as to render it.

5 .25 UNITED STATES. I. n a Silver.

110 grains gross. The raUulatiiius are only made as far as tSOO fine. at 87.. 4. the simple rules of arithmetic will give the residts of any pussililc cdndiination.') fine is found to be 96^ grains pure. Gross . its fineness being known. — To find tlie artiuil amount of pure metal contained in a coin. Of course 1000 tine means the entire gross weight is pure."i() tine being onehalf of the figures here given for 'JUU. &c. Thus. If the coin weighs llli» gross take the I'JO and the !• figures in the grains table. take the gross weiglit of the (tieee on the " grains " table and follow directly across until the column of the given fineness is reached. If lower or intcnni'diatc'gra(h\s of lincucss arc sought.2G GIVING THE Kxplaiiation : AMOUNT OF GOLD OR SILVER IN COIN. &c.

.UNITED STATES. A. N.

Sl. GRAINS. V . hn Grains and Ptanijicelyhts. GOLD. the Latin Cui'in.fiOpei . Grains on outer colunin.S.28 COPYRIGHTED BV A. 900 Fim. S. TABLES Cash Value standard Fineness of Aiwrican Coins. and yine-Tcnths of the World. of Gold and Silver. 900 fine. Standard. money value oppo.site. ounce. SMITH. M.

I.29 UNITED STATES. Silver. 7 .

79IJ 3.8211 9.19A 6. GOLD.Gli per otiuce. and so on to any limit.10^\ .15 7 67J 70 Pennyweight Tliree 72 .36ft 2.lier rent.02/^ Pennyweight 200 205 210 215 Nine 8.17if 240 250 300 350 Fifteen 10.16:L Pennyweight 2.03 .59H 5. 1 Opposite the number of grains on the outer eolnmns. Givine the Cash Vnlne of Ooltl an<l Silver 1000 Fine by Ornins TABLES GRAINS.8Sf Pennyweight 216 220 225 230 235 Ten 9.12 m .73H 4. (V? 7. fur 8. Thus iCi (F.46^^ 9. KiOO tine.10 .'O.38-V 5.061 .51if 168 170 175 180 185 190 Eight 7.261 Pennyweight 8.07 28f 30 q'^3 •07/t .33 Pennyweight 10.09 35 •09| 38f 43J 45 Pennyweight Two .361 Pennyweight 360 400 450 Twenty 4. KXlll fine.90i lU.3^ 24 30 35 40 \ / 1.14 14 .09^ Q 90 1 3 3. foreacli huiulred.11 48 50 r.3 its mouey value cal- 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Oue-half (U rm •-•-' 7 3 7 3 1073 (iO •^-•-4? 9X3 3 45 Two 48 50 55 60 05 70 Three 93 lA Five Pennyweight 5.Ulf Peiniyweight 3.9li 15. GRAINS SI L_ V p O Ii .871 Pennyweight 4.02tV .oi^V .15/:i 2. For UOt) fine (Anieritari Standard) deduct lU per cent.45| 6. M.7^ 2.03.06 24 25 . 'Pile valiKi of aiiv U-sser fiiuMii'ss may luMlettTiuiued by ilecliictiugat the rate of 10 prr cent.72J 96 100 105 110 115 4.74f 7. iil)on the metal atll.96if 8.29^ 1.no COPYRJGHTED BV A.66 As the juice of Tlie money value occupies tlie outside columns in this table I Silver fluctuates more and more each year.jU.21f 19.02 5 03 15f .04 10 14f 19^ Pennyweight One .76. such price beiu^ a fair and safe average for bluer and seller.iiglisli Standard) is 7'.491 17.23tL 7 Q1 17 7 531 i 7. these calculation s have been based • I iZ.50fi 1.13 55 57| 00 02| 65 .30A 4. SMiTH.441 144 150 155 160 Seven 6. less than this table.58:t 120 125 130 135 140 Six 5.9r>^ 192 195 8.86tV Pennyweight 1.39^ 480 20.OO per ounce. Staudaril.061 2.08H 4.i 12 15 20 One 13 72 75 80 85 90 95 Four 3.68/^ 9.08 .05 . stauds culated at r.13^ . take olf lo per cent.67/^ 6.V 12.29. S'. S.05^\ . GRAINS.94 . .01^ Pennyweight 3413 •"^3 Pennyweight r.65H 3.601 8.03| Pennyweight 9.81tV 6.06ii 15. 1 aii<1 Penny weights.

31 UNITED STATES. 1. 8 . Silver.

1-33.:. (935.7 1..36 1. 1687. Value of a tine ounce at average quotation.33.7 1.i 1861..31.ftJL 1. 1839..8 1.4 i^m 18G(). .8 1.4 1. d.2 1.. 18G5.8 1..5 33.5 Dollars.-85.6 1.£2. quoiation.34.34. ) siwW^sr. . 611 61| 61^ 59| 18(57 186^.29. ' Calendar yuar.30. Li.7 1.8 1.3L5 1. 51521 •J-^rtr 51 1 s 188 1.30.3 1. 1874. 1876.4 1. 1837. 184i).24.15.8 1.5 34. 1855. London. U. u.1 1. l.5 1. 1870. (30^ 60J ^^\% 59i 1.. 1858 61 GO. 1.3 1.34. taken at the averaye price.31. 1877.32. London.S79.35.29. ^^.6 1. 1873.6 34. 18S1 1882 18^3.3 1.8 33. per ouiirf.29.32.30. 1841 1842. 1875.30. 1834. 1849.33. 1872. . Average quotation.32.32. ' . Average price of her xih-er in London. d.27.34.6 1.. 60/.4 1.^ G0| 00| G(VV 1851 1852.G 59...12.8 1. Dollars.3 1. . Dollars. FOR 1885. 18t7.6 1.20. line ounce at average Calendar year.30.. 32 ADVANCE SHEET FROM REPORT OX THE PRODUCTION OF THE PRECIOUS METALS IN THE U. . 1830.13.35. 50f 50f . 184.29. 1..2 1. 5911 59.S. S.. 59 i 59 i 1844.2.30. 18iJ6.0 1.13. 185G 1857. quotation.30 1.06.. 183S.15.5 1.4 1. 1853.8 32. 1.. 1871. 184a.3 34.3 1.x and the equivalent in Uaittd atatex yold coin of an ounce 1.<) 56^ 52f 54ii| 1880.30. 1848..2 1.4 1. s.14.3 1. 1863 1864. S. 1854. 18")0.8 l. d. . 1878.3 1.. BY THE UIRECTOK OF THE MINT.I 6U 6U 61^ 1. 1862. o9A 59ia 59ix GO •'•'Ttr 1. MO fine. Average quotation.32. 1835.34. London. British slandiird.9 32.6 1869.48 RATIO OF SILVER TO GOLD EACH TEN YEARS SINCE YEAR. Value of a flue ounce at average Value of a Calendar quotation.8 1.31.6 1.30..-). 02^ 1843..11.9 1.11.8 1.

. No. (ien'l Kosa.ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. PERIOD (iaplata) PURE Sn. VALUE .ca platans a Gold. COIN. FINE.A"KR WEIGHT GRAINS OR SECTION. n. ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. ''^^ Gold. OF Coin.

No. .5 [ Silver.. ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.

REPUBLIC (LA PLATA) s A Silver.ARG. .

BOLIVIA. A. FINE. S.19 210 210 104 i do 93 BOLIVIA. FINE. III. 5.77 Cjin. There 500 25 450 22 144 144 47 a Doubloon minted.30 . C(. No gold cuius are issiunl for gent'ral is 3. .04i . . Silver.78 . . WEIGHT GRAINS OF Coin. A. 1-1(3 414 41S 418 .*(.)IN. No. BOLIVIA. Silver..30 . by Bolivia circulation. in general style resembling the silver coins its value is $1. 1. 6. PERIOD i OR SECTION. COIN. 900 900 900 900 900 677 677 900 900 WEIGHT grains! OF PURE I VALi::. 1. I OR SECTION. No. Silver.78 376 .58.93 4. Silver 372 376 2. . i V J Peso or do do do i Real. 7.09 . Peso. Peso of 8 Reals.5. 8. PERIOD S. do Boliviano. PURE Silver ^ALlT.

Silver. A.J7 BOLIVIA S.. . ni. .

PERIOD WEIGHT COIN. IV. . BRAZIL.38 BRAZIL. No. s A Gold. Gold. FINE. OR SECTION.

No BRAZIL. . Silver. A Silver.39 BRAZIL. IV.

40 Silver. .

BRAZIL. IV. Silver. .

Coin. CHILI. No. 3. 6. COIN. Chili became ii Eepublic. 4. Doubloon.42 Gold. Standard. in secediug from Spain. 7. FINE. Gold. 5. .S. WEIGHT GRAINS OF PURE I VALUE. 1817. Its gold coinage is much below the U. PERIOD OR SECTION.

. Gold.4. . CHILI.

44 Silver. . CHILI. No.

s A Silver.CHILI. .

oFSA Gold. S. S. VI. .. REPUBLIC OF COLOMBIA. Gold. U. A. No. 46 COLOMBIA.

Silver. COIN. S. OF S. U. REPUBLIC OF COLUMBIA. A. .47 COLOMBIA. OR SECTION. PERIOD S. Silver. A. No. VI.

VII. Gol . 1.•ib ECUADOR. Gold.

OR SECTION. S. 1 A. PERIOD ECUADOR. Silver vir. Silver. .49 ECUADOR. COIX.

6. where the mint all coins. 5. Coin. FINE. name of the found on Capitol. Vll. . PERIOD OR SECTION.50 Silver. No. WEIGHT GRAINS OF PURE I VALUE. Silver 2. The will lie 4. money of this country fluctuates greatly. is. . 3. Quito. Peso. Tlie COIN.

(^uadrujile. Republics. OF Coin. VIII. .51 GUATEMALA. VALUE. GUATEMALA PERIOD WEIGHT GRAINS OR SECTION. Gold coinage very uncertain as to fineuess. the The most populous of Central Americau COIN. I PURE Gold. No. Gold. Gold. I i FINE.

fruits and coffee (the cotTee crop of 1884 exceeded 4:3. pure. 44. inaliogany. 847 grs. America. Tlie principal exports are cochineal. Silver. No. Xos. All tliese are 900 line and iJropoilionate in weight witli the Peso.52 GUATEMALA.197. Ileal. sarsai)aiilla. Silver. 210 grs. 386 grs. It comprises nineteen departments. Xo.710. tobacco. weight. Xo.240. weight.800 square miles. GUATEMALA. VIII. indigo. 18 cts.054. 172 grs. Peso. 2 Reals. Nos. 1. amounting to 83. 5 and (>. 3. pure. 7. 4 Heals. the most nortlicru and popidous ottlic liepubhcs of Central Total area.000 ponii(l>). sugar. 30 cts. 2 and 09 cts. 72 cts. . 31 cts. 1. population (1872). 4.000. Guatemala. 835 tine.

53 GUATEMALA. M. Philadelphia. The ea . S. Post Office Box 754. A. Smith. c Silver Viri. Published by A.. U. Pa.

000. skins. Mineral wealth is great.000. fustic. 500 miles of R. same .220. Debt. hides. 38!) grains weiglit. and the Half Peso in proportion. ?.120. a Repubof South America. Capital. A.512.R. Exports. Kevenue. sugar. products. 1882. worth 72 cts. expenditure about the same. indigo. hair and tallow. $22. about 500 .— 58.000. tobacco.000. all 900 tine. mahogany.000. .000. Silver. 72. one Railway. ?62. rose 1 1 and Lima wood.151 sq. . are the Peso and Half Peso. Kepublics. Capital. fruit cattle. Honduras. Debt. ides.. expenditures. Tegueigalapa. liorn. cA. Villi Uruguay. 317 grains pure. Exports about $1.000. coffee. 54 HONDURAS. Re V 1 883 was nearly $10.305. The Coins of Honduras and Uruguay here represented.000. miles 87(5. for the Peso.168 sq. Villi. india-rubber. Gold mines exist. $1. .000 pop. cedar. lic . ]\I(mtevideo. Paper money imcurrent in commerce. sarsaparilla. URUGUAY. most central of the C.n . Silver. 410 population . miles. 1882. The grains are cultivated the exl)orts are wool.

OF I PURE Silver VALUE. a 4 Silver. s. PERIOD WEIGHT GRAINS OR SECTION. Coin. COIN. Xll. FINE. 1. No. .VENEZUELA.

No.Ob Gold. MEXICO. .

MEXICO. . ^ A Gold.

No. MEXICO. .o8 Silver.

59 MEXICO. N A Silver. .

MEXICO. .60 Silver.

GI Silver. . IX.

16 Pesos. See remarks on Silver. Dobloon. PURE Gold. Coin. . FINE. No. VALUE. NEW PERIOD GRENADA. OF I OR SECTION.62 Gold. WEIGHT GRAINS COIN.

.N. GRENADA.

XI. PERU. . i-ii. No. do Silver.Gold.

65 PERU. XI. Silver. .

66 Silver. .

s .G7 PERU.

etc.) 08 TT A WTT SANDWICH ISLANDS XII. palm-oil. . $301. about 52.500. In 1883. composed of Colored Emigrants from "the United States. and in 1883 were visited by shipping to the extent of 185.310 tons. rich A forming the kingdom of Hawaii.3.000. and this currency is issued only on and to the extent of coin deposits kept in the treasury for its specific redemption. consisting of sugar.000. Nos. hides. coflee. gold-dust. 2 and . being in the route from America to China.000. ivory. situate in the North Pacific and beautiful chain of islands. in 1847.780." Fifty 2)er cent. silver half-dollars were coined for this government in the United States to the amount of $300. coinage. population.300. was $335.495.974. 1. 25 cents. Exi)orts. the rivers San Pedro and Tong. 173 . and their descendents.080. colTee. sugar. palmof 100 miles. Revenue. Chief Town. etc.000. 1)00 ttOO 412 192 371 77 Half do One Dime. One Dolhir.36 . public debt.18 HAWAUAN (Sandwich) Inlands. . 1. Quurter dollar. —No (all these are of silver. Ten cents. puln. The amount of government (and only) paper currency outstanding at close of 1883. Monrovia. $2. 7.190.000. same standard as the coins of United States. . ginger.07 'M) t)00 34 96 8t) . kemels. rice. Quarter Dollar. 1884. this was done under what is known as the "SpreckeFs contract. 1.500. They are admirably situated for trade.028 square miles. expenditures. indigo. Ocean (consisting of 13 islands. Population.000. Revenue. Exports (1882).000. $4. founded in organized as a 1S20 by The American Colonization Society as a settlement It occupies that i)art of the coast of North Guinea between Repnbli(. United area. $190. b of which are inliabited). S. $8. Liberia is an independent Kepublic of Western Africa. imports. These Coins conform with the United States Silver ]\Ioney. of the gold in the country is of U. about -500 miles extending inwards an average LiBERiAK Coins.

XIII. GoM. PERIOD WEIGHT COIN. OR SECTION. AUSTRIA. No. Gold. FINE. HUNGARY AND RAGUSA. . .6^ AUSTRIA.

1. WEIGHT GRAINS PURE OF I VALUE. No. Coin. FINE. . Gold. COIN. PERIOD OR SECTION. AUSTRIA.70 Gold.

fi iV S9^ . ^••r. HUNGARY AND RAGUSA.71 AUSTRIA. Gold. XIII.

No.72 Gold. AUSTRIA. .

.USA. Gold XTII./c AUSTRIA H U GARY AND RAC.

74 Silver. .

HUNGARY AND KAGUSA.AUSTRIA. SilVeF. XTII. .

76 Silver. No. AUSTRIA. .

77 AUSTRIA. HU V GARY AND RAGUSA. SUver. . XITT.

No.78 Silver. AUSTRIA. .

HUNGARY AXD KAGUSA SilVGr. .79 AUSTRIA. XTII.

80 Silver. .

XIIT. 9 Silver.8T AUSTRIA. . HUNGARY AND RAGUSA.

AUSTRIA. .82 Silver. No.

83 AUSTRIA. Silver. x:iT. HUNG iARY AND RAGUSA. .

No.84 Silver. . COIN. OR SECTION. AUSTRIA. PERIOD HUNGARY.

SilVeF.85 AUSTRIA. XIII . HUNGARY AND RAGUSA.

.86 Silver.

XIV. .87 BELGIUM. SUver.

. No. PERIOD OR SECTION. DENMARK.ss Gold. COIN.

.81) DENMARK. Gold XVI.

. DENMARK. No.90 Silver.

SHver. XVL .!)1 DENMARK.

DENMARK. .92 Silver. No.

'. DENMARK. . Silver. XVI.).•.

M Silver. .

XVI. SUver.95 DENMARK. .

DENMARK.96 Silver. No. .

.97 DENMARK Silver. XVI.

PERIOD DENMARK. Coin. (In Comnicmoatioa of Suppressec .s pure Silver value. weight of i gra1. OR SECTION. COIN. FIXE.98 Silver..

.99 DENMARK.

. Coin. COIN. Gold. WEIGHT GRAINS PURE OF I VALUE.KM) Gold. FRANCE. PERIOD OR SECTION. 1. No. FINE.

Gold XVTI. .1(11 FRANCE.

No. .! 02 Gold. FRANCE.

.lu:} FRANCE.

. FRANCE. No.104 Silver.

. . Silver.105 FRANCE. XVII.

FRANCE.106 Silver No. PERIOD WL-lGHl' OR SECTION. FIXE. . COIN.

lo. XVll. FRANCE. . Silver.

No.lOS Silver. FRANCE .

XVIT.109 FRANCE. SHver. . .

Silver. .

. XVII.Ill FRANCE. Silver.

112 Silver. .

XVir. Silver. .113- FRANCE.

FRANCE.lU Silver. . No.

>^r^b ^ ^ ^t'^S'.FRANCE.^. ... XVii.!* v^ &^'^ f>< XC-v^~S'fy. . Silver...i. h- '.....<'S^"'"t's>k "•afi. "yfi^ia./^'" ^1 -C.'"''.. %^^W^Jf .

116 Silver. No. FRANCE. .

Silver.FRANCE. XVli. ^•^ill^sli^' .

118 Gold. . No. GERMANY.

LEICHENSTEIN. ^^rm XVlTl. NASSAU. 1 .J±LH X. HESSE-CASSEL SAXONY.119 G'ETJTVrA'NrV \XSlllX±yi. BRUiNfSWlCK. r* ^1 /l U-OlCl.

No. GERMANY .1-20 Silver.

2 .121 GERMANY. XVIII. lirE:^Si^lol\^HY^-^^^'^^^^- SUver.

122 Sil\ .

HOHENZOLLERN-SIGMARINGEN'. CxERlVrANV VJTJUrVlVl^iN I .STADT. VT7-TTT XVIII.I2i ?CHWARZBURG_RUDOI. 3 o . HECHINGEN a^l„^^ OUVer.

124 Sil^ .

125 GERMANY. 4 . XVlii. anhalt Silver.

PERIOD ^^^den. COIN.126 Silver. Coin. Ko. . GERMANY. FINE. Silver 1. OR SECTION. WEIGHT GRAINS OF PURE 1 VALUE.

12. XVI I r. baden. 5 . Silver. GERMANY.

.128 Silver.

XViii. a .129 GERMANY. babka Silver.

GERMANY.180 Silver. OF I PURE Silver VALUE. No. Coin. i. COIN. PERIOD WEIGHT GRAINS OR SECTION. . FINE.

131 GERMANY. Silver. 7 . xviii. BADEN.

132 Gold. BAVARIA. . GERMANY. No.

BAVARIA Gold. .GERMANY. XVIII.

PERIOD bavaria weight grains of pure i OR SECTION. GERMANY. Coin.134 Silver. . VALUE. COIN. No. Sila^er 1. fine.

. bavaria Silver.135 GERMANY. XVlli.

No. .136 Silver. GERMANY.

NUREMBERG BAVARIA. lo . Silver.137 GERMANY. XVIII.

GERMANY. ^^varia .1-38 Silver. No.

ii . XVIII. bavaria Silver.119 GERMANY.

No. . BAVARIA.140 Silver. GERMANY.

bavak.141 GERMANY. XVIII.a. Silver. 12 .

GERMANY. Bremen .142 Silver. No.

143 GERMANY. XVlll. bremen Silver. 13 .

144 Silver. .

Brunswick. u .14. Silver. XVlii.1 GERMANY.

146 Silver. GERMANY. . brunswick. No.

Silver. 15 . XYIIT.14. Brunswick. GERMANY.

. PURE Sila'er VALUE. 1. Coin. Xo.14S Silver. WEIGHT GRAINS OF I OR SECTION. COIN. PERIOD bruxswick. GERMANY. FINE.

lid GERMANY. . Brunswick.6 ^<^IK^^ ^ SPECIES^ P THALER 5 . XVITI. SUver.

FRANKFORD-ON-THE-MAiy. No.150 Silver. GERMANY. .

XVIIT. SilVGr.151 GERMAMY. ^^ 1 . FRAXKFORT-ON^-THE-MAIX.

V.152 Silver. . GrEIilVTANY.MAI. No. FRANKFORT-OX-THE-.

. XVIII.153 GERMANY. SllvGr. tRANKFcDRT-ox-niEMAiN.

.4 Silver.-.1.

U5 Silver. . . XVIII.

. GERMANY.156 Gold. (FINE. COIN. WEIGHT OR SECTION. PERIOD h ANOVER. No.

.V>7 XVIII.

158 Silver. hanover . No. GERMANY.

. .159 GERMANY.. hanover Silver. XVIII.

VALUE. FINE. Silver I. GERMANY.160 Silver. COIN. No. WEIGHT GRAINS PURE OF Coin. PERIOD HESSE-CASSEL. OR SECTION. .

h .16L GERMANY.

OR SECTION. PERIOD i'ksse-cassel. No.162 Silver. GERMANY. . COIN.

163 HESSE-CASSEL. XYlii. . Silver.

COIN. OF I Coin. WEIGHT GRAINS OR SECTION. No. II. . Gulden. PURE Silver VALUE. Ludwig Ludwig Ludwig Ludwig I. III. FINE. Pliilipp. II.1 (M Silver. 2 II. PERIOD HESSE-DARMSTADT. Ludwig do Philipp. GERMANY.

J6o GERMANY. hessedarms TADT. . XVlli. Silver.

PURE Silver VALUE. .166 Silver No. 1. PERIOD ! IPPE. WEIGHT GRAINS OR SECTION. FINE. COIN. OF Coin. GERMANY.

167 GERMANY. lppe Silver. . XVIII.

1G8 Silver. . GERMANY. No.

lubeck Silver. XVlll.169 GEKMANY. .

. GSRIVIANY. FINE. COIN.170 Silver. PERIOD MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN. PURE Silver VALUE. 1. WEIGHT GRAINS OF I OR SECTION. No. Coin.

mejklexuurg. xnu.171 GERMANY. Silver. .

GERMANY.SHver. .

. 1 Nassau SHver.173 GEKMANY. XVIII.

174 Sil^ .

XVIII. . oldexburg. SUver.175 GERMANY.

.176 Gold. PRUSSIA. No.

XYTTI. Gold.177 GERMANY. PRUSSIA.. . .

17 .

XYlii.) GERMANY.17'. PRUSSIA. Silver. .

18U Silver. .

SMITH. XVIII.181 GERMANY. SUver. Publisher PHILADKLPHU. PRUSSIA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. A.: ..M. FA. .

182 Silver. No. . PRUSSIA. PERIOD OR SECTION. COIN.

Silver. xviii. PRUSSIA. 32 H .18^ GERMANY.

184 Silver. .

. Prussia SHver. XVIII.185 GERMANY.

186 Silver. PRUSSIA. . No.

XVIII.187 GERMANY. . pku SUver.

PRUSSIA. No.188 Silver. .

189 GERMANY. pil^sia. . XMII. Silver. ..

GERMANY. . REUSS-GRF.NSTEIN-.190 Silver.rZ AND REUSS I-OBF. No.

REUSS LOBENbTEIN. . XVIII. Silver.191 GERMANY. REUSS GREIZ.

<1?!-^^-^. GERMANY. ^ ^P Silver. SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA. No.192 r' r^. .

XVlll.193 GERMANY. SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA. . Silver.

.194 Silver GERMANY.

GERMANY.19. SHver. SAXE-COEURG-GOTHA. XVIII. .

SAXONY.1<1G Gold. . No. GERMAN.

Gold. SAXONY. .J 97 GERMANY. XVIII.

198 Silver. .

sAxoxv. SHver.199 GERMANY. XYlll.„ . .

No. saxoxv . GERMANY.i(JO Silver.

201 GERMANY. .. . XVIII. saxon Silver.

202 Silver. .

.203 GERMANY. XVIII. saxony Silver.

•20i Silver. .

.205 GERMANY. XVIII. saxony Silver.

206 .

XVlli. Silver. WALDECK.20i GERMANY. .

COIN. .208 Gold. OR SECTION. GERMANY. PERIOD WURTEMBERG. No.

. wurtemburg Gold. XVIII.209 GERMANY.

210 .

XVlll. 1 46 .211 GERMANY. WURTEMBURG. Silver.

GERMANY.212 Silver. . wurtemberg. No.

XVIII.21i GERMANY. 1 wurtemburg. ^^ . SUver.

214 .

XVIII.« . Silver. .215 GERMANY. wurtemburg.

216 Silver. No. GERMANY. . WURTEMBERG.

XVlll. . wurtemburg Silver.GERMANY.

GERMANY. No. WURTEiMBERG. .218 Silver.

219 GERMANY. SUver. Published by A. . S. tijiiTH. ^v UKTEMBURG. PaitADELPmA. U.. A. XYIII. M. Post Office T5ox 754. Pa.

LOBENSTEIN Silver. No. PERIOD OR SECTION. . XVIII.220 GERMANY. COIN.

200. 3 and 6. the circulation in that metal is entirely of Napoleons and Austrian pieces of 8 and 4 florins. sheep and horses and precious metals are said to abound.000 lei. and 58. 26. weiglit. — — — . 14 eents. 72 cents Nos. Public revenue of Roumania (1884).221 ROUMANIA. SHver. raised to a king- dom March rich. about the same as the revenue. largest of the three provinces. The soil is very Products: corn. 09 grs.946. 49. 2. Silver. in pieces of 5 lei. Moldavia.000. imports (1882). pure. and the territory of Dobrudscha added to it. beans and peas. the coinage of gold has been very small. 385 grains weight. was 12.870. rock-salt and cattle. 13th July. XXXVin. recognized as an independent State. there has been authorized an issue of 25. pure.370. $132. Since 1881. exports (1882). Total area. 1878. has area of 28. public debt. The paper circulation in 1883.810. $26.790 composed almost francs in national bank notes.289. grain and wine. ROUMANIA COINS. No. maize. pure. weight. it maize. 3 and 5. 5 Lei.141.420. has about produces large quantities of fruit.000 inhabitants.— — ROUMANIA. Exports: wheat. are reai'cd.060. millet. 34 grs. 4 and 7. population 5. 38 grs. $48.115. exi^enditures. This kingdom consists of the Moldo-Wallachia provinces. 1 Leu. $53. 346 grs. 7 cents Nos. .091. the least of the three provinces.276 square miles. minerals Immense numbers of cattle. 1. .000. 1881. 154 grs. formerly belonging to Turkey.730 francs in treasury notes. 50 Bani. forests most extensive. 77 grains weight. 3 Lei. Walla- chia. by treaty of Berlin. Nos. pure. vines and various fruits arc abundant. all 900 Fine. 28 cents.498. 138 grs.202 square miles.

. No.•>)•) Gold. GREAT BRITAIN.

.223 GREAT BRITAIN. Gold. . XTX.

•224 Gold. GREAT BRITAIN. No. .

22r> GREAT BRITAIN. . XIX. Gold.

1.22G Gold. PERIOD WEIGHT GRAINS OR SECTION. FINE. OF Coin. No. GKEAT BRITAIN. COIN. . VALUE. PURE Gold.

Gold.227 GREAT BRITAIN. XIX. .

GREAT BRITAIN. . No.•>28 Gold.

XIX. .229 GREAT BRITAIN. Gold.

. GREAT BRITAIN.•230 Gold. No.

XIX.281 GREAT BRITAIN. . Gold.

COIN. GREAT BHITAIN. . PERIOD OR SECTION.•2:]2 Gold. No.

GHEAT BHITAIN .

I PURE Gold. . COIN. OF Coin. No.2. GREAT BRITAIN. 1. 2. FINE. VALUE. PERIOD WEIGH!' GRAINS OR SECTION.u Gold.

XIX. Gold. .235 GKEAT BRITAIN.

236 Gold. .

XIX.237 GREAT BRITAIN. 1 Gold. /^^'^^fe>v5 .

XIX.38 GKEAT BRITAIN. . Gold. No.2.

zinc.072. and still is. iron. In olden times it was celebrated for its mineral wealth. and exported $476. estimated 4. and 60 miles from its north-east extremity to the port of Latakia on the Syrian coast. . amounting in 1883 to $93. large quantities of salt are obtained from salt lakes near Larknaka. The principal productions are cotton.- 290 square miles.115. and these are sepaQuebec also includes the Isle of Anticosti and the 3Iagrated by the river Ottawa. lead. limestone. or Canada Proper. Montreal commands a vast overland system of communication by canal and railway.J9 GREAT BRITAIN. animals.000. 4.695. spirit.352. dalen Islands in the Gulf of St. the copper being of superior grade. sponges and raisins. is a strip of coast.753. fish. and the inqjort amounted to $880. of silver coin and silver bullion there was no export. wine.407. about 45 miles in length. $950. are divided about equally between the United States and Great Britain. Lawrence. British Columbia. and salt. with some land south of the Krian River. The aA^erage of dutj' on all inqumed commodities. two pro Upper or Western Canada is now Ontario. wine. Montreal. Government. and a large district Province Wellesley. Cyprus still forms part of the Ottoman Empire. zinc and copper. opposite Penang.050. In 1883 (latest report) of gold coin and gold bullion there was imported $1. a confederated government. and fruits. Exporis: cotton.733: Quebec 188. slate. Lower or Eastern Canada is Quebec. and will be while Russia holds Batoum and Kars. sandstone. is under the authorities of high state of cultivation. The mineral resources are not fully developed. the exports amounted to $1. receives a yearly subsidy of $438. Poi)ulation. banks.192. Petroleum is produced in large quantities.^ is Ontario and Quebec. limestone. carobs (or locust beans). manufoctured goods and gold. area of these viuce. embracing the British North American Provinces of Ontario.870. about 50 miles from the coast of Asia Minor. It has an area of 270 square miles. grain. from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.2. with which it is connected by submarine telegraph cable. though agriculture and cattle raising are fast growing in importance. and farm products as exports. The 290. in a Penang. especially the shores of Lake Superior and Lake Huron produce gold. lead. Nova Scotia. The Sublime Porte In 1883. Avas 17. and the area Its is estimated at 3. iron. ^lanitoba.000 of gold Avas produced the same year fiom the mines. North-West Territorj^. and produce copper. the mines were long abandoned. slate duty. This territorj'. the distance to Port Said at the entrance of the Suez Area.430. on the main land.084. silver. called the Dindings. balt. Vancouver's and Prince Edward Islands. thereof. The paper circulation outstandiiig Avas. $16. locust-beans. exports are agricultural products.228. but are now being again worked. those of Upper Canada chiefly British. Agriculture receives most attention in Ontario. similar to that tres of distribution. about as large as Europe. i^tretches THE DOMIXIOX OF CANADA.451. the fisheries also yield great revenues. The timber trade has long been. of Canal.580. an island of the Levant. at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. wool. New r^runswick. wheat. compared with the neighboring territory. silver.088). with population in 18S1. 185. co- woods and lumber. but the government is administered by England.5 per ccnl. silk.501. in 1883. subject to sandstones. and marbles. The inhabitants of Lower Canada are mostly of French descent. Cyprus. and marbles of every color are found. Quebec and Toronto being the great cenKingston occupies a relation to the Lake trade. cobalt. barley.421 square miles (Ontario 101. since 1807.000 square miles. is 240 miles. $36. Quebec. There is no mint in Canada. the most valuable of its commerce.080. but a large section. of Quebec with the sea. Toronto being second in sharing this commerce.

. GKEAT BRITAIN.240 Silver. No.

Silver.241 GREAT BRITAIN. . XIX.

212 Silver. No. GREAT BRITAIN. .

GREAT BRITAIN. .

'44 Silver. .•. GREAT BRITAIN. No.

Silver. Xix .> GREAT BRITAIN.24.

No.24G Silver. GREAT BRITAIN. .

Silver.247 GREAT BRITAIN. XIX.^ . ii^' H^j) @.

lU. GREAT BRITAIN. .s Silver. No.

Silver.249 GREAT BRITAIN. . xix.

GREAT BRITAIN. . No.2")0 Silver.

XIX.251 GREAT BRITAIN. .3 . SUver.

252 Silver. GREAT BRITAIN. WEIGHT GRAINS PURE OF I VALUE. PERIOD OR SECTION. No. . Silver 1. COIN. FINE. Coin.

.253 GKEAT BRITAIN. . XIX. . Silver.

. GREAT BRITAIN. No.254 Silver.

.i GRSAT BRITAIN. XIX. . .25. Silvpr.

. . Silver..256 GREAT BRITAIN. ROBTSRT. XIX. sTEPff^^* wrLLTJOC I. JIEITRY I.

I„}^ SHver. XTX. . ^^.?J^^^f.2o7 GREAT BRITAIN.

258 SUver Tokens. GREAT BRITAIN. No. .

XIX. BANK TOKENS SUver. M. Smith.. Published bv A.. Post Office Box. Phila Pa. 7di.259 GKEAT BRITAIN. .

. No.itO Gk>ld. SCOTLAND. GREAT BRITAIN.

. SCOTLAND. Gold.2G1 GREAT BRITAIN. XIX.

GREAT BRITAIN. . TLAND.262 Silver. No. SC>.

scotla SUver. .263 GREAT BRITAIN. XIX.

In the 24tU chapter and 'iiJd verse of Genesis. cotton. that rings ot dilferent size and metals were current money. $2. extending inland to an average distance of 50 miles. ment consists of the Island of St. Castle. hides. to 82. made of the i)recious metals.G20 square miles and a population of over 520. says •"they use. From the far East.•H'A GREAT BRITAIN. Dixcove and Accra. lead ore. were of a certain standai d weight and passed current as riKniey is certainly proved by Holy Writ. ivory. this settleCapital. ginger. maize. Lagos is an island and port on the Slave Coast. of 60. population (1881). and to develop its important trade in palm kernels and oil. to the "West and Xorth. and pictured records of past ages. with a population. hides and groundnuts. iM)pulation in 1881 was 75. evidently passing as payment. . Freetown. Greenwich.150. the ring-money found its way at an early age. $1. Albreda. longitude. It was permanently occupied to efieet the complete suppression of the slave trade in the Bight of Benin. The Ceded Mill. Elmina. and l^o 20'— 13° 20' W. longitude. "took a golden ear-ring of half a shekel weight. of whom only 105 were whites. some even containing fractional thirds.035. gum copal. of whom only 103 were resident whites. in 1S81. and ISIcCarthy's Island. called Kous. embracing an area of over COO square miles. . of whom onh* 94 were whites. and a kind of millet. nuts. Area 21 square miles. probable that the use of ring-money was much more common in that country than in Britain. The principal exports are wax. and cola Gambia. rice.095. Gold Coast Colony to 1° 10' E. ports (1881). Lagos is the ExI)rincii)al town. monkey skins. between 20 50' and 4^ 30' E. which adjoins the Republic of Liberia and the Isles dc Los. and its similarity to actual coinage is rendered more striking from its There are small rings of exactly one-half careful adjustment to special weight. it is centuries.'" recording of rings. speaking of the money of Britain. The Exports: gold. latitude. jkiIui kernels. with some contiguous tracts and territorj' on the sea coast extending to. the whole situated between 7^ 20'— 8^ 40' X. palm oil. of liLN'G-MOXEY. Axim. rings adjusted to a certain weight. coffee and cocoa have been introduced by tlie British.700. the capital. embracing also tlie north coast of tlie Gulf of Guinea. meeting Rebecca at the Avell. relating to otiier nations fuily sustain the opinions of nmnismatists.370. Sherboio Island. Tliat personal oniametits.'' though they then had money both of bronze and gold in circulation this related to the century preceding the (jhristian Era. seven jjennyweight. tropical fruits and plants grow luxuriantly. including an area of about 1G. indigo and canewood.005. comprises the coast of the Gulf of Guinea from 2^ 40' "W. Sierra LiCone comprises Ihe peninsula of that name. palm kernels and oil. small change. and two-bracelets for her hands of ten shekels weight of gold"' and gave them to the damsel who ''was very fair to Hieroglyphic sculptures of ancient Egyi>t alsc) sliow the weighing and look ujion. and Caisar in his Commentaries. oil-palm grows on this coast in great profusion. and in Sweden and Norway it still existed in the eleventh and twelflii As most of the specimens now in collections Avere found in Ireland. these are sent principally to England. Mary. in contradiction to tlie dissent of certain savants. In Ireland the ring-money was current for years later tiian the iieriod mentioned. gum copal. india-rubber. as it were a perfect money system. British Combo. cocoanuts. instead of money.546. groundnuts. . amounting in 18S2. 14. Value of exports in 1882. Abraham's servant. Exports: bennie seed. are produced in the country along the Gambia River. The chief forts and settlements are Cape Coast. l)eimyweight and so on through almost every intermediate grade up to thirteen ounces.100. but not sufficient for export. and including Mannah.300.0 30.

265 GREAT BRITAIN. i^iNGM'M^y .

Xo. " This prince reigned A. over Britain. in St affords! ire. it weighs two poimds. land. 1883. doubled into a loop. 13 dwts. the i)rogress of which can ea. tlie South Georgia. as is still tlie case Avitli the bracelets and anklets worn in some The illustration Xo. of volcanic British Possessions in the South Atlantic. 16 dwts. of IreThe earliest were little more than i)ieces of wire bent ronnd. 1. Fulklarul Islands. 1()-V. the yield is plentiful. tirst. island. latitude. was In 17U0 a generally of pure gold and sometimes weighed as much as five pounds.000 square miles). served to fasten it. aieeded no fastening. situated in the In October. but always having a fixed and standard weight rendering it transferable as actual money. uud contains To dollars worth of gold.") dwts. 10. was four IVet long. in Xo. and though they were soon melted and recoined into modern English money yet From the small circle of increased. and people. gold. and "daugh'' is the denomit)f a coin of his country.is a proof that the precious metal is only thus shaped to give to it a monetary character. and 140 25' 5" W. 4 oz. discovered in 18. In Ireland silver as well as gold ring-money has l)een found. 4. as shown in Xo. seaman and Kroomau.543. and a population in 1881. It now has a steam factory. in a bog in County (Talway. within the that these people never use rings for ornament. tlieir extreme ductility causing them to retain the shape when placed on a limb. specimen was imearthed at Pattingham. naval and victualling yards. D. The second plate illustrates different varieties of the ring. coaling depot and hospitals.700 square miles). 9 also. 35 square miles. which contained tlu'ee pounds two ounces of fine gold. l. 3. origin. hides. found in Somparts of British India. The use of I'ing-money is still prevalent in Africa. $300. it is formed of a flat wire. ersetshire. West Falkland (2. 7 is also of Irish production. struck at Lari. Exports: turtles and birds' eggs.06 grains.tent wire the fashion and weight of the ring-money especially the Gallic warriors carried tiieir fortunes iii)on their IJersons in the shape of ornaments. and is an exact reproduction of the gold ones mentioned. oil. the Eonlah-jolaf and other African tribes still bringing gold-ring money to Sierra Leone. 4 oz. it is a fact Eing-money has also. the bend which formed a hook at each end. of . 5. tallow.sily be traced by the specimens [iresented. i drawings were made from them and are here given on a reduced scale. some being marked for division in halves. is of gold weighing fifteen ounces. arose from the fact that tlie former country maintained its indejiendence k)ng after the Romans had subjugated Britain and recoined every form of metallic currency into the money of Rome. and be easily extended to its original form. E. 11. It is probable tiiat the far greater extent of the use of this form of coinage in Ireland. comprising in the aggre- gate 4. rocks and sandbanks.). andXo.'-2. and about 100 small and wool. which A\as found tliese baser metal rings have been foimd ni vast quantities. hist few years V)een dug up in Ceylon. a stamped Daugh. Xo. England . as is Xo. 1 is of a bronze torque. of 1. and consist of East Falkland (area 2. and plain at the ends were later flattened or shaped into varions forms. Ireland. Xo. England. 2 of The other s])ecimens are also of pure gold and probably Plate. Area. T). nation Ascension is an isolated South Atlantic Ocean. and so flexible that it could be wrapped round the arm like a roi)e. . Xos.. 8 the brass rings are looped one within the other for con^enience in carrying Xo. with rude attempts at ornamentation. lie about 300 miles east of the Straits of ^Magellan.47 grains. The torcpie. worn aroiuid the neck. with the rings treble joined . These. 5 are copies of other relics. the population consisted of 89 officers. and . 4 weighed 41bs. an island 800 miles E. 7^55' S.740 square miles. the only considerable cluster in the SoiUh Atlantic. lib. 13. The English took possession of it in 1815. 1.^ 266 GREAT BRITAIN. lib. and stamped with inscrijtt ions such as ''•Sultan Ali Aadil Shah. very bright. islets.47 grains. 1 oz. 3.-money. 10 is of cast bi-ass. longitude. seal skins Exports: S. game aboiuids and where the soil is cultivated. and is worth Xo.

GREAT BRITAIN. king money .

268 Gold. EAST INDIA. GREAT BRITAIN. No. .

. XTX. ..209 GREAT BRITAIN. fast l1> inpia Gold.

270 Silver. . GREAT BRITAIN. No. EAST INDIES.

SUver. EAST IXniA.271 GREAT BRITAIN. . XTX.

. FINE. No. 1. PERIOD f)R eastindia OF I WEIGHT GRAINS COIN. PURE Silver SECTION.272 Silver. Coin. VALUE. GREAT BRITAIN.

.5 GREAT BRITAIN.27. XIX. kast im ia Silver.

1 to 13|S|'^. m . VI (1547) coined the same pieces as his father. He. called the half-crown.. fineness and value. the quarter. Gold was raised only about ^V. James I (1G03) shows the bust of the King in armor. No. 33 grs. the half-unite. . The sovereign was ciu-rent for 20 s." or " vyals " were issued by this King. on sovereigns.. : . Henry YIII. 7 25 cents of Canada. Charles I coined but little gold his reign the proportion of fine gold 1 .vry yill no "nobles. pure 11. 2 dollars of Newfomidland (Gold) 910 fine. 6 10 cents of Canada. Great Britain's American Colonies. or 1 £ sterling. pure 13 cents. 4 20 cents of Newfoundland. 89 grs. and introduced the crovfi into the English series. a protit of nearly (10 per cent. 83 pure 17 cents. 35 grs. No. By jn-oclamation of Nov. . called a double crown the (luarter.. XIX nt this time. sovereign for 4 s. change in general design of sovereign or double ryal. No. — — — — — — — — . or one ] omid sterling. 50 cents of Canada. The sovereign here is for the first time called tlu^ rose ryal. 2 . 32 grs. No. to fine silver was The Commonwealth gold similar to those of Charles I. All silver coins. exactly . 8d. <> d. in th« 43d year of her reign to be as 1 to lOff^f previous to which time it had been jw : No . or crown. and made the proportion of fine silver to fine gold. h« coineLl the doul)le ryal. weight. 105 pure grs. . n a colonies Silver. 5 10 cents of Newfoundland. Edward series. 3 . No. 925 fine. 1553 Silver raised in proportion to gold to 1 to HtVtElizabeth (1558) made many unimportant changes in her coins issued the pound sovereign. 37 grs. He also issued the unitit. weight. Gold was raised -^j^.59. the dotibia as before. 1 to 11^. 6s. b(^ing made by while the silver was inflated f exchanging silver for gold. 274 GREAT BRITAIN. and the half -crown to 2 s. bringing the proportions of fine silver and fine gold to 1 as to 5jVDuring this reign the date was first placed on coins of the English ) . weight. or sovereign.. Mary. 51 grs. pure 0^ cents. The angel type is the same as before. . 72 grs. or unite. for 5 s. and the half-ciuarter. 50 cents of Newfoundland. 34 cents. weight. weight. No. weight. called the Britain crown. 1G8 pure ?5 cents. he raised the nominal and true value of gold to 10 per cent. . coin are in weight. GO grs. tliH soverei'^u for 20 shillings. 179 grains weight. 30 grs. Kill. pure Oi cents. No. 181 grs.. tlie angel.

GREAT BRITAIN. No. SHver Tokens. XIX. GREAT BRITAIN. SHver. .

Great Britain. PKMF. No.AI-A. .276 Silver.RARA AX ^oSF.QUEB^ Ol'.

E^sfJS.«Dr. . 3.Silver.v.277 GREAT BRITAIN. XIX.l^.

1. WEIGHT GRAINS OF PURE I VALUE. Coin. Grand Masters. PERIOD OR SECTION. No. FINE. KNIGHTS OF MALTA.278 Gold. Gold. COIN. .

1. afric. .283 GREAT BRITAIN. XIX. Silver.

Abp. Plegmund. of silver. put his name. second son of Ethelwlf. by ^tlielstan. Men11(111 is here confined to pieces struck by the Sees of Canterbury and York. succeeded Widsius. Ecgbeorht. struck at the city of Martin. jSIercia. The earliest autlientic coin originating at the mint of the Archbishop of Canterbury is a very rare penny of Jaenbrhi. 790 to 803. but held the See only three months and left no IMercia. 803 to 830. whose his stycas. struck at St Edmundsbury about 950. Yiqmund. St Echmmd. His pennies are Ethelwlf. Coins very rare. tories England. all St. 851. succeeded to Kent.yiven permission to stril'ie money. tlievc are many varieties. 856 to 8(56. going to ^thelstan. Archrisiiops. Enbald. 925 to 941. brother of the above. 830 to 870. but the latter alone were allowed to stamp their own portraits on the coin. called his terriand concpiered nearly all of South Britain. Lincoln. only two specimens extnnt . mostly pen^Elfred. very light aiul of debased silver. they reverted to Ethelwlf. . left a few of liis i:)ennies with name and title.. succeeding only to the West Saxon Kent. kings of and both tlieir names occur on his coins. 806 to S71. \)e\my and half-penny. 872 to 901. ^Ethdred. and on tliis he is united witli the King of — . and even these were banished in tlie reign of Henry VIII. seized on West Saxony in 855 and held it until his death. 871 to 890 only one coin known. is the first of this See whose stycas are known. Coins not numerous. Coins pennies. Fifty varieties of his pennies are known. Ceolnoth. the last Archbishop.-284 GREAT BRITAIN. size and form of pennies struck at York. resemble the former ones.Etkelbald. but he is probablv the second of that name . mintage . name occurs on I'ork MOXARCHS OF KXGLAND. ^Ethelstan. 800 to 837. 855 to 860. very rare. in early times. . the immediate successor of Embald. and regulated the mints in A'arious towns conferred upon some ecclesiasticals the privilege of striking dominions : . . u:^hilheard Abp. son of the above. who ordered that all the money in tlie kingdom should be uniform after tliat tlie ecclesiastical mintages were distinguished from tlie royal only by some IK'culiar marks. Peter. Bisliops. bust and titles on pennies. mitil tliev were patterned after the regal coins. of which Ethered. Sussex and Surry. etc. Theogild succeeded Yulfred. yEtlielbearht. half-pence or thirds of pennies. 854 to 892. coins. Sixty varieties of his coin known. 891 to 9-23. son of Ethelwlf. prior to the restrictions imposed by ^thelstan. brother of the above. 852. Essex. which are very rare. 837 to 856. on whose death. nies hilt some pieces are in existence that are not of that class. very rare. Ahp. The ri^ht was withdrawn in 924. Vulfrcd. portrait. and to West Saxony after his bnHher. : . abbots. son of vElficd. pennies. several exist. devices as preceding. 901 to 925. about eighty varieties known. became King of the West Saxons. St. Eadweard. . Tlie coins of the arclibishoi»s of York were stycas. Only one coin of his ever known. succeeded his father. contemporary with Offa and Coenwlf. who held that See from 7(33 to 790. Vigmund left several types. on his father's death. on his pennies dropped the king's name. and archbishops were. 796. placing liis own and his portrait on the Obverse. who left no coins. ])ut no . and tlicii sonic symbol or miiit-niark was the distinguishing feature. Ulfhere.

"' 975 to 978. . Eadmund. Eustace. Cnut. but ordered it all to be of one (tlie regal) type. 958. of mints acter. Elfrida. Harold II. brother of foregoing and his coins all of like char: .3. 1087 to 1100. . 941 to 94G. 95S to 975. elected to succeed his brother. has two coins ascribed to him. succeeded his murdered half-brother passed laws for regulation of coinage. Ot Sweyne. had in 101. dissipated Very few of his pieces are extant all that the treasury and debased the coin. succeeding at Coins like the age of b! nuu-dered l\v conuuand of his step-mother. 95. various. Erdqar. after his brother's death. The money of l)oth tliese kings imitates that of their Saxon predecessors so closely that it is hard to distinguisli to which one of them the pieces belong. 310 moneyers being mentioned and more places of mintage than any other king. About 400 varieties. Pennies alone were coined. but it is doubtful if they are rightly assigned. though generally lighter. . : j similar to those of his predecessors. took conmiand of the army and liberated her husband when he was a prisoner. Stephen and Matilda : One type supposed to have been sti-uck when Matilda. Earl of Gloucester. succeeded Edward and reigned only nine months killed Coins numerous. . English and Ilarthacnut.Martyr. his father's. Over 100 types known. with one exception. 1006. the legitimate brother of Stephen. at the Ijattle of Hastings. brother of Kadwig. son of Eadmund 30 varieties. and is quite numerous. 50 Harold I. for they are uniformly round. QK) to 1)55 types of coins (120 known . illegitimate son of Henry.wife of Stei)hen. Eadweard II. and finally obtained rule . of good sih-er. size and weight half-pence and fartliings were formed by cutting the penuy into two or four parts. . 1135 to 1154. : money over the whole kingdom. 1100 to 1135. son of Cnut. 1035 to 1010. over 250 varieties being known. to 1035. Eadwig. 10(3G to 1087. One coin is known as struck by his authority. Edmond Ironsides (who left no coins). Henry. usurped the throne after Henry's death. ^Ethelrad 11. and numerous. Henry I. moneyer'sl names and over 70 mints mentioned on his varieties. and fought hard against ^Etiielra'd and liis son. money. '• The . Eadred. 170 Heptarchy. Types like the aboA'e. varieties known. Coins various in type. he became King of all Britain. Pieces plentiful. Two Aarieties very rare and very imperfect. His money presents some lunelties of type and appearance. One type of coin Robert. 978 to 1010. Bishop of Winchester. known. About sixty variations and 110 of moneys occur upon liis coins all i)ennies. eldest son of above. during whose life he had beeii elected King of all the country between the Tlianies and the Firth of Forth.''^ 1042 to 106G. Willinm the Conqueror. Stephen. no English coins are known Init the of Cnut is very plentiful. and must have been struck in a collar.') to 959. Danish coins apjwar in this reign all very rare. 1040 to 1042. Sweyne. lOK). Wilham.285 GREAT BRITAIN. son of Stephen. being the first monarch to rule over all the really and permanently united Kingdom of the Coins sinnlar to the otliers. Sweyne. and ^Ethelrsed took refuge in Xorniandy. are known are of good silver. and William Rufus. King of Denmark. . elder son of Stephen and Governor of York. claimed the dominion of his fatlier. His pennies are veiy light . Edward '• The Confessor. regulated coinage and passed severe laws against Pennies only known of types and forms very counterfeiters and debasers. gained Cnut possession of part of Britain.

1422 to 14(31. which was last emjjloyed for this purpose in his reign. : Very many varieties. 1216 to 1272 Pennies only known. William and Mary. In Elizabeth. size. weight.. adopted a new money which was very poorly In 1180 he sent for a size and shape and in i)arts illegible. 2dwt. Richard III. and many varieties. very many varieties. conducted his coinage upon the same principles as that of his brother. 1558 to 1002. of silver with 18 dwts. 1377 to 1399 ifenryiF. weight Henry VIII. of alloy. but otherwise not nuieii benefited. 1307 to 1327 Coinage of same weight. Edward IV. or shillings. tried to better the disgracefully debased money of his father without great success. improved the appearance of his coins and kept np . : that of Elizabeth. issued coinage identical with that of James II. but no Itichard II. of standard fineness. 1625 to 1049. and of the weight of eighty grains. standard and type as not very rare. to be struck with eciual i)arts of silver and alloy. of metal. and struck money from the King's dies. until after the execution of Charles. that of his father. never coined before or since. but none have been disco^•ered. Mary. irregiilai- m : : . in denomination. but some distinguisliing mint marks Edward III. half-i)ence and farthings and the Henry II. Many varieties and types.286 GREAT BRITAIN. and it is generally believed that ^Many varieties. coining none in their own name. 1509 and fineness of fineness. 1603 to 1025 On his accession the two Kingdoms of England and Scotland were united and a new coinage was ordered. round and legible. half-groats. and it became Cohis numerous. and tartiiings. Henry V.. In 1501 the mill and screw process was and the pieces thus coined are known as milled introduced by a Frenchman money. Henry III. Charles /. coined pennies. to 1413. 1000. refusing to u. struck groats. Henry VII. some variation in device. 1272 to 1307. 1<)S5 to 1(588. Richard J and John No Englisli money known. Many varieties in this reign. and in 1551 commenced tlie circulation of crowns. 1483. half-pence : . 1399 . six-pences and three-pences. 1154 to IISO. Philip Ayniary ot Tows. Edicard V. weight and fineness. . coined money like his father's. Edward II. There are many varieties. loreign artist. lJf83 to lJf85 : Similar to the Henrys and Edwards . James J. Henry VI. Charles II. upon his restoration. Edward /. half-crowns. the second year of her reign she had struck pieces of three-half-pence and threefarthmgs. minted. Commonwealth Parliament seized the tower and mint in 1642. their first pieces bearing date 1049. He ordered festoons. There is no certainty of the coins of any of these Henrys. all varying in to 1547 Plenty. Five different classes of coinage. with many variations type. 11 oz. James II. original groat is by some assigned to this reign. The standard was the standard. 7|f gr. so far as tlie date is concerned the types are similar and Ihe coinage almost identical. Edward VI. 1327 to 1377. 1547 to 1553. : same coins. as his predecessor. 1553 to 1558. 1435 to 15C9 : Same : as above. pennies. set seriously to work to restore the standard. and pennies. 14G1 to 1483 Same as the Henrys. : farthings known. to imi)rove his coinage.se the mill and screw and striking his pieces by the hammer. shillings. types. to the penny. 1(J8S to 1095. announced her intention of restoring the coinage of it« original highest standard. etc. he lirst cause^l that coin to be struck. is said to have had coins struck. 1413 to 1422. but she made it lower than ever.

George I]\ lf^20 to 183U A. ^^i^jii^j J**-. 17(1-2 to 1714. and varied according to necessity of providing special pieces for colonial : . 17(10 to 1S20. George III. same as i>receding. George J. no cliange. «ize. but altered the type of liis money. continued the standard of lier })redecessors. 1830 to a new coinage on the higii standard. -4))?)^. made no change in weitrht or fineness. 1(195 to 1702. possesions.287 GREAT BRITAIN. WiUimn III. 1727 to 1700. made no change in denonuiiation. new coinage on the same principles. Victoria. George TT. as before. • ^t^-inx^iO' . weight or fineness. 1714 to 1727.

COIN. when cultivated. Silver Coixs. 2.819. all 900 fine. Revenue 87. Servia : chia. prmcipal exports. By the Berlin Treaty of 1878. Servia. 1. borderiiig on Slavonia. about $35. Bosinia and Hungary. Ko. November. GREECE. 1. 1. ])roducing.000. its valleys fertile. Gold. worth about 39 and Xo. i)runes.787 square miles population (in 1883). weight grains of pure i VALUE. good crops of corn and other cereals . PERIOD OR SECTION. Belgrade. 1884. 2 Dinar. SHver.000.000. The country is mountainous. cattle. amounting (in 1882) to $8. Pu])lic debt. its area was increased to 18.820. swine. . Coin.288 SERVIA. 3 is a piece of 50 Paras.315.000. is a kingdom of Eastern Europe. The chief trade is with Austria and Turkey. AN'allaBulgaria. one-half of which was contracted for railroad. fine. 1 Dinar or a ^ Dinar. No. No official financial reports ])ublished. from wbieli last named comitry it is separated by the Danube. said to be ricli in minerals. . XIXL cents No. Capital. Gold. . equal to about 10 cents . wine and timber. grain.473. XlXf.

COIN. . 1 Silver. PERIOD OR SECTION. XIXI No.289 GREECE.

290 Silver. .

XX T.291 HAYTI. Silver. .

. HOLLAND.'^'^^ . No. c^"^ f%r*^' Gold.

293 HOLLAND. Gold XXII. .

294 Silver. .

29i

HOLLAND.
1

Silver,

xxn.

/-^:;x|ir

296

Silver.
No.

HOLLAND.
PERIOD
WEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

OF
Coin.
I

PURE
Silv-r

VALUE.

1.

297

HOLLAND.

Silver.

XXII.

298

Silver.
PERIOD

HOLLAND.
OR SECTION.
COIN.

COLONIES.

2t0

HOLLAND

EAST INPIES.

Silver.

XXTT.

300

.iiiiiiiiiiljiiiiiiiilililiniililil!

Silver.
No.

HOLLAND.

COLONIES.

301

HOLLAND.

EAST INDIES

Silver.

XXII.

302

Silver.
No.

HOLLAND.

COLONIES.

303

HOLLAND.

I'-^'^T

i^'piE^.

JAVA.

Silver.

XXIT.

,

304

SHver.305 ITALY. XXIIl .

o06 Silver. .

.307 ITALY. Silver. XXIII.

No. ITALY.308 Silver. .

309 ITALY. Silver. ''« III H l>* ' iii«' . XXIIT.

i OR SECTION. Goi. do Benoist XIV.OGXE. Tius VI. No. ITALY. 4 COIN.p. Coin. PERIOD BOI. Pistoles. fine. . Gregcry.310 Gold. weight grains of pure i VALUE.

ITALY. XXIIL >1P # . BOLOGNE ITALY. BOLOGNE Silver. ^' .

312 .

XXIII. II UR Silver. .313 ITALY.

314 Silver. ITALY. PERIOD LUCCA. 8. Felix an Coin. 11. 10. i). PURE Silver VALUE. FINE. No. . OF I OR SECTION. WEIGHT GRAINS COIN.

315 Silver.. ... XXKI .

PARMA. ITALY. . Gold. No.XXIII.

. Silver. P^RMA. XXllI.S17 ITALY.

318 J Gold. PERIOD ROME OR SECTION. . No. COIN. ITALY.

Ro IE Gold. . XXIII.319 ITALY.

No. .320 Silver. ITALY. ROME.

. XXlir. Ro • :f Silver.321 ITALY.

ROME. .322 Silver No. ITALY.

523 ITALY. Silver. XXIII. . ROME.

No. . COIN. FINE. PERIOD ROME VVEIGHT GRAINS OR SECTION. ITALY. OF I PURE Silver VALUE Coin. 1.324 Silver.

„ . XXIII. Silver.325 ITALY.

x.Silver.>. ROME. ITALY. .

XXIII. . I OME Silver.. .32< ITALY.

. SARDINIA.. No.328 Gold. ITALY.

. XXIII. . Gold.•}29 ITALY.. SARDINIA. .

^ ^-^^ <^.•"'^ ^/»s..330 . No. /*?>__ Gold. OR SECTION. . ITALY. PERIOD SARDINIA. COIN.

.

^82 Silver. .

XX in.383 ITALY. SARDISn.. 177^ . . SUver.

4.07 7. Coin.14 . . 385 900 385 385 Emanuel II. PERIOD WEIGHT COIN.72 New Scudo. 1. 2 Lire. SARDINIA. i Lire. 903 901) 270 38 243 34 69 . i Scudo. OF I PURE Silver ^16 VALUE. Lire. No. Scudo. 540 154 1. III. Piemont. Charles Felix. do do 346 900 906 346 489 138 . Victor Amedee III. 3.28 5. Charles-Felix. Charles Albert. 9U0 . Emanuel I. 5 Lire. Victor Victor FINE.S OR SECTION.N. 8.3d4 Silver.50 . Charles Felix. 2.02 . 6.Scudo. 900 Victor Amedee Piemont. GRA1.

. ^<. XXIII.335 ITALY. SARDINIA.. .0""""T'ffl. . SUver..

. OR SECTION. FINE. No. 1.336 Gold. COIN. PERIOD SICILY. Coin. ITALY. WEIGHT GRAINS OF PURE I VALUE. Gold.

. SICILY Gold.337 ITALY.. . XXIIT.

SICILY Gold.338 ITALY. No. . COIN. PERIOD OR SECTION. XXTTT.

1. XXIII. .339 ITALY. Silver. SICILY.

SICILY.:M0 Silver. ITALY. No. .

. XXIII. .841 ITALY. SICILY Silver. .

SICILY Ferdinand lY. II. Don Carlos. Ferdinand 10. Ferdinand IV. 8. ITALY. 9. Charles II. 4. 5. 7. Ferdinand IV. Charles III. 6. No. do 3.342 Silver. Cliarles III. . Ferdinand II.

xxiii. SICILY Silver.343 ITALY. .

]4l Silver. ..

. SICILY Silver. xxill.345 ITALY.

.346 Silver.

347 ITALY. SICILY Silver. XXlll. .

I'LRIUD TUSCANY FINE. . OR SECTION. ITALY. WEIGHT GRAINS PURE OF Cjin. COIN.us Silver. VALUE. Silver 1. No.

. 1.349 ITALY TUSCANY. Silver..^. XXIII .

No. . TUSCANY. ITALY.350 .'9^ V/:. Silver.

351 ITALY. M. TUSCANY Silver.^iui-"^'-*' Published by A. .Smith. '\ ^"^ c/^ M' 4^ ^^'^^ "••^m. xxiil. post Office Box 754< Fkil'^ ' a.

352 J^U£tu^j. TUSCANY . ITALY.iM •'*-^C«ft^i>d^ Silver.

1 . TUSCANY Silver. XXIII.353 ITALY.

Ludovicus Manin. 3. . 1. LOMBARDY-VENICE. 2. 4. No. ITALY.) 6. (Thelastof the Doges.354 Silver.

. 5 ITALY. vEMc] SHver. XXIII.3/.

No. VENICE.356 Silver. ITALY. .

SUver.357 ITALY. XXIII. . VENICE.

Gold. JAPAN. Gold. . No. XXIV.o58 JAPAN.

XXIV.359 JAPAN. . Gold.

360 Silver .

JAPAN .

4 and 5 are stamped. 559 854 557 pure Gold. 503 VALUE. XXIV. and No. 21. Value about 18 .'urface having on it waived line?. Nos. ink. These pieces are large. of very thin oval-shaped gold' the . weight grains fine. do Ncw Cobang. II If do Xi-Shoo.80 ceuts. ^ew Old Cobailg. 900 900 900 900 4.] ' of i Coin.362 JAPAN. 5.65 33. 768 501 486 437 18. 5 is part Silver.06 21. Gold. The value is written on each in Ind.57 1. o 3.

No. COCHIN-CHINA.363 CHINA. . Silver. XA Silver.

VALUE. No. . COIN. XV. PERIOD WEIGHT GRAINS OR SECTION.364 CHINA. CHINA. Gold. FINE. Ingot Money. PURE Gold. Gold. OF I Coin.

365 CHINA. Gold. XV .

COCHIN-CHINA. No.366 Silver. .

Silver. 3 .367 CHINA. XV.

368 Silver.68 . FINE. EMPIRE OF CHINA.-. No.16 /C' ^. 179 PURE Silver VALUE. OF I Coin. PERIOD WEIGHT GRAINS OR SECTION. Impossible to give purity and value.84 Native Dollar. 4078 571 509 60 115 956 345 329 . do do do do do Native Dollar. Fineness varies in all Ingot Money. 980 990 414 565 404 560 1... . (Private coinage. Ingot Money. COIN. Tael.

36!) CHINA. .

:i7i)

Silver.

371

Gold.

PORTUGAL.

No.

372

Gold.
No.

PORTUGAL.

373

PORTUGAL.
^.,»»"""':"'""'".„„

Gold.

XXXVI.

.

^N**'

S,/752,,..

374

Silver.
No.

PORTUGAL.
PERIOD

OR SECTION.

COIN.

PORTUGAL.

Silver.

XXXYT.
i,„nniiminm/»^^_

.•57G

Silver.

PORTUGAL,

SHver XXXVI.

378

V.,.

Sil\

PORTUGAL.

AFKic

SUver. XXXVI.

RUSSIA.380 Gold. . No.

::h I RUSSIA. . Gold. . XXXVII.

No. RUSSIA. Peter the Great. Silver i Nicholas 1. do do do . iweight grains pure fine. (Several Types . PERIOD OR SECTION. COIN.382 Silver.i of Coin. Rouble.

XXXVIT. AV>"" .o8o RUSSIA Silver.

RUSSIA. Ale. I. Rouble 5 Kopeks. OR SECTION. Nicholas I. PERIOD WEIGHT GRAINS COIN. Nicholas I. 868 OF I PURE Silver VALUE. do do do do do 5 Kopeks. Alexander Nicholas I.xander I. 10 do do 10 . Coin. Kouble. FINE. Alexander I. Nicholas I.

Silver.386 RUSSIA. 4 . XXXYIT. .

No. RUSSIA. .386 Silver.

Silver. XXXViii. .387 RUSSIA.

No.388 Gold. SPAIN. .

XXXVIII. v^% Gold. * '"" ^2 ."'.^^ "^'^- = ' """.V. /^ « '^ H 3 ^-x- .i7.389 SPAIN.'Im". .9 >" to <) > .

situate on the south-west of Europe. with 30. making a total of 320. 53. 000. maize. Leon. 2. and all the bullion of this metal is obtained from abroad. and is now $1. The country is fertile and tropical fruits flourish.902.2. There are no cold mines in Spain. Trade olive oil. 70.a share. quicksilver.435 scjuare miles. cork. Andalusia. and occupying the It was formerly divided into 14 larger portion of the great Iberian Peninsula. and from the remelting of old Spanish money. There is no floating debt. To tliese must be added Cuba and Porto Rico. the African jiossessions in the Gulf of Guinea. oats. and these are still SPAIN. Estremadura. Murcia. dry and green fruit. etc.000 inhabitants. Home trade is rigidly protected by high customs duties. Catalonia. with the Canary and Balearic Isles. Aragon. grain. was for many years confined to France and Great Britain. Old Castile. Exports: silk. The vine is cultivated in every province. with a population of (in 188B). The national debt has been consolidated.021. comprising an area of 195. 1. refen-ed to. . copper and lead.001. Valencia. Area. seeds and salt.775 square miles. La Mancha.290. vegetables. wines.914. the Philipl)ine Islands in Asia and Oceanica.975 square miles. viz New Castile. hemp and flax of tlie best quality. wool. called the Ancient Provinces. wines are produced. 10.299 square miles.000 population. Spain is rich in minerals. also wheat." Exports in 1883 amounted to $127. Fernando Po.050. barley..19:j.000 at 4 per cent.390 a kingdom. The only paper currency is that of the "Bank of Spain. and 24. G. Galicia. rice.400 square miles. but the United States and Germany are now competing for . provinces (now subdivided into 49). iron ore and other metals. and superior best known and most : Asturias.010 population.]2 population. especially iron.846. Basque Provinces.

^y No. PERIOD WEIGHT GRAINS OR SECTION. XXXVITI. . VALUE. Gold. OF I PURE GOI. Coin. FINE. COIN. 1.391 SPAIN.D.

WKIGHT GRAINS PURE OF I VALUE.392 Gold. PERIOD OR SECTION. . SPAIN. Coin. . For COIN. No. Gold. FINE.

393 SPAIN Silver. Pa. Philadelphia. XXXVIII. . .

394 .

Smith. XXXVIII.. Philadelphia. Post Office Box 754. M. ate I.:>^ Published by A. Gold.395 SPAIN. "^^^Si^^ '\X. S. . U. A. Pa.

306 Silver. .

'^ © |'~ A. Fenn . XXXVIII. . M. 0. Silver.Pbilaaelplua. P. Numismatist. SMITH.397 SPAIN. All correspondents requiring answers must enclose stamps. \i Bos 754.

398 Silver. . SPAIN. No.

399 SPAIN. XXXVIIl. . Silver.

.

XXXVIII. ^ Post Office Box 754.Philadelphij)l 25 .401 SUver.

.402 Silver.

. Silver. XXXViii.403 SPAIN.

. PINE. I PURE Silver VALUE. OF Coin. COIN. No.40i Silver. 1. PERIOD WEIGHT GRAINS OR SECTION. SPAIN.

. Silver. XXXVIII.405 SPAIN.

.401) Silver.

SUver.. . XXXVIII. .407 SPAIN.

No. . SPAIN.408 Silver.

Silver. . „ ^^^A^ A. XXXYIII./ ^-" l^m--^.409 SPAIN.

410 Silver. No. SPANISH AMERICA. .

411

SPAIN.

AMERICA,

Silver.

XXXYIIT.

:

412

OEIEKTAL XUMEKALS AND CHARACTERS.
The opposite plate is given as a guide in distingnisliing coins marked with Oriental Characters. These are generally in Arabic, with \ariations, l)eing very
rude in Java and Morocco, somewhat precise in Turkey, Egypt and Persia, in
the latter country they are in the flowing taleek which is to the strict Arabic, what our Italics are to tlie Roman. Tlie dash resembling a 2 with elongated base, found on nearly all these coins means in or ai, and the characters beneath gives tlie name of the city whereat the coin was struck. On the plate tlie figures i, G and 10 in the column, represent Constantinople and distinguish the coin as of Turkey ; tigure 2, means Cairo, and is on the pieces of Egypt figure 3 is Tunis ; ligures 4 and 5, Tripoli ; 7, 8 and 9, Algiers, and Xo. 11 is Morocco. That there should be variations in the inscriptions is not strange as the coins are all engraved and those who do this work use the freedom which would be taken by penmen in WTiting the same name. The numerals here shown were written according to European order (fi-om left to right, but figures, letters ami words in Arabic run in the ojiposite direction. Most Ottoman coins bear two dates, that of the Hegira and of the Sultan's The year of the Hegira in which the ruler ascended the throne is on each reign. coin of Turkey and upon another portion the year of his reign will be found the two added gives the date of the coin according to the ye<ir of the Hegira and this be readily transformed to the Christian date. The " Hegira " or flight of Mohammed from Mecca was on July 16th, A. D. 022. and from that date time is recorded by his followers
;
;

A. H. 1143., A. D. 1730. A. H. IIC.B., A. D. 1754. Mustapah III., A. H. 1171., A. D. 1757.
I.,

Mahmond
Othman

III.,

As the Mohammedan year is Inner, it is shorter than ours by about eleven days, and they thus have thirty-four years in the time we have but thirty-three.; Morocco dates its coins by the Oriental rule, but uses the European figures. Ilindostan, Java and Persia use the Arabic or Persian characters, but they do not bear the peculiar marks of the Turkish coins. The date is frequently omitted The money of in coins of Persia, and when engraved is in very minute figures. Hindostan, except in a few instances is issued by the British East India Company from the mints at Madras, Calcutta and Bombay, the Madras coins are stamped from Arcot, Calcutta's bear the name of Morshedabad, a neighboring city and Surat is on those of Bombay ; some of these are with, some without dates, the figures, even Avhen on, are not reliable ; Java's coins (Dutch East India Co. ) prior to the restoration in 1816 were marked with Arabic characters, but had the Christian date in European figures.

41S

Oriental

Numerals and Characters.

XXVII.

123
1.

4567890
\ajjE^c5

COXSTAXTIXorLE.
CAIEO, EGYPT.
TUXIS.

2.

3.

4.

TRIPOLI.

'•'

5.

6.

COXSTAXTIXOPLE.
ALGIERS.

7.

9.

"

Ot^VJiO

10.

COX^STANTIXOPLE.

11.

MOROCCO.

c2

.

414

Gold.
1.

AFGHANISTAN.

2.
3.

4.

415

AFGHANISTAN.

Gold.

XXVI.

.

416

Silver.
1. 2. o.

AFGHANISTAN.
of about A. D. 300.

Buddhist, coin, Hindu. Sassaxian " Indo-Sassanian.

"

"

5. a. 7.

King Eukratides, Greek, B. C. 181. Didrachni, Rajput coin, Hindu, about A. D. 1192.
Sassanian,

^(luare.

8.
9.

10.

11.

King Philoxenes, Greek, B.
]ndo-Sassanian.

C. 130.

Hemidrachni, Square.

12.

13. 14.
15.

King
"

Lysias,

Greek,

B. C. 147.

Antimacbus, GREEK, B. C. Indo-Sassanian.

Hemidrachra. 140. Obeus.

417

AFGHANISTAN.

Silver.

XX vi.

2G

418

Silver.
1.

AFGHANISTAN.

419

AFGHANISTAN.

SUver.

XXVI.

420

Gold.
No.

ALGIERS, TRIPOLI, TUNIS.
PERIOD
WEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

OF
I

PURE
Goi.-n.

VALUE.

Coin.

1,

421

ALGIERS, TRIPOLI, TUNIS.

Gold.

ALGIERS

SUver.

XXTX.

422

Gold.
No.

TURKEY AND EGYPT.

423

TURKEY AND EGYPT,

Gold.

XXX.

424 .

.425 EGYPT. . XXX. Silver.

PERIOD OR SECTION. HINDOSTAN. .426 Gold. No. COIN.

Gold. HINDOSTAN. .42. . XXXI.

PERIOD OR SECTION. MOROCCO. Silver I VALUE. WEIGHT GRAINS OF PURE Com.428 Silver. FINE. . Spanish COIN. No.

Silver. . XXXII.429 MOROCCO.

OF I OR SECTION. VALUE.430 Gold. . PERSIA. 1. Coin. PURE Gold. FINE. PERIOD WEIGHT GRAINS COIN. No.

XXXTII. .431 Gold. .

432 Si] .

3 Silver.i'. n. . XXXIII.

4. No. TURKEY.. .4 Gold.

.435 TURKEY.

.43G Silver. No. TURKEY.

XXXV. .4.i7 TURKEY. Silver.

i38 Silver. .

'. XXXV.) TURKEY.4. Silver. .

. TURKEY.440 Silver. No.

XXXY. .441 TURKEY. . SHver.

sr> Gold.4-12 i5?'i£>. .

443. XXV. Gold.102. Vicio NORWAY and SWEDEN. .

furs and ice. it retains its own and Sweden. or "auits. part of tlie area of 122. the rest is naked. herrings. public debt same istration j-ear. Exports: timber. population 1." comprising an Ship building and timber ducts are similar to.853. one-thirtieth of the countrj^ is cultivated. incurred mostly in constructing railways. but less than those of Sweden.818. . uninhabitable.791. dressing are the chief industrial arts. forests cover one-fourth. of that from distinct entirely Xorway is laws. Silver. conjoint peninsuhi. ot" The admin$28. cod fish and its oil. minerals. No. salmon. occupies the westL'iu and northern It is divided into 20 provinces. NORWAY.240. Mineral proland.415.154. lobsters. amounting in 1883 to $34. mountainThe cod and herring fisheries employ most of the inhabitants.414 Norway. with Sweden since 1814.869 square miles.

•?l"l t^^'p^^ . Silver.445 NORWAY and SWEDEN. XXV 1^ ii^I .

446 Silver. PERIOD OR SECTION. . Xo. SWEDEN. COIN.

XX7. . Silver.447 NORWAY and SWEDEN.

448 Gold. SWITZERLAND. . No.

449 SV/ITZERLAND. XXXTX. Gold. .

''^ >) ^.^t^ ^-^1 (^ ^'^•^_ - Gol .1 4o0 ^^.

XXXIX. Gold.451 SWITZERLAND. .

SWITZERLAND. .452 Gold. No.

Gold. . XXXIX.453 SWITZERLAND.

SWITZERLAND. .4^)4 "11 iP^B Silver.

45."> SWITZERLAND. SUver. . XXXIX.

456 Silver. . SWITZERLAND. No.

4.J7 SWITZERLAND. XXXIX. . Silver.

458 )^SK 15:4/51 w"'\c:j3^/ --9?. SWITZERLAND. ..' '*-" Silver. No.

.45^ SWITZERLAND. . Silver. XXXIX.

.460 Silver. No. SWITZERLAND.

. Silver. XXXix.461 SWITZERLAND.

Cambodia. or Camhoja.B0. or Cambodge. by Cochin Chia. and the magnificent remains of ancient glory are of greatest interest. 900 fine. 900 fnie. by the Frencli Colony. The French assumed a protectorate over it in 1804. S. It is the remains of a once powerful and \\<'althy nation. worth about ??1. 154 grains weiglit— 28 cents.462 CAMBODIA. Silver. 2. by Siani. and Kami)ot is its tlie oidy port. caoutchouc. 3-^5 grains weight 72 cents. Coin equal to 5 Francs. Tiie Cai)ital is Penmipeuh. IS'o financial statistics are to be obtained. 3 Ticals. ]^o. Chief products and exports gamboge. E. . XXVin. cardamous. 3 Equal to 4 Francs. Camhodia. is bounded IS". — — . Elephants and rhinoceroses abound. ]S\). Xol. . and has a sea board ot 200 miles on tlie Gulf of Siani. Silver Coixs. spices and fish.

restored. cuaipletes lier graud record. — . I'roves History's trutli. l!y tariiislicd cdiii. tir loiiK-liidden I'ast.4G3 - ^ < )lil Tiiiif yields lip his iirt'cidus liciards Caliu Sicieuces gives her just awards.

to the end of the Atlienian supremacy. and the artist or medallist see before him models of perfection. C. Date about B. to the Christian Era. Phocaic stater. 478. 3. TOO. A gold Daric. &c. 520. B. c"^:c. 400-. 9. 100-100. and to do duty as sentinels. 500. The skill of the most eminent artists and engravers has been called into re(piisition in the ]>reparation of these beantiful plates from authentic. Northern and Central Greece. who died B. Period of Transitional and Early Fine Art. the metrologist will hiid nuicii to command attention in comparison of the various systems and standards. This is of electrum. 404. the southern shores of the Mediterranean. Iteverse. and bull. 700480. about B. or Persian stater.464 ANCIENT GREEK COINS. C.cnse square. B. capital of Lydia. I. 470. original coins. Teos. C. The i)lates present specimen coins of Syria. Iberian. looking backwards. DoTT. C. Asia JSIinor. exhibiting tlie Period of Archaic Art. the punch-mark divided into compartments. and punchmark of very early date on Reverse. an Euboic stater of Sardis. 2. Italy. B. Date B C. 280-190. and giving reliable evidences of political changes and histories of the many autonononious cities jiiid states of the then civilized world. lieverse. the Peloponnesus and islands of the ^Egean. Age of the Attalids.. &c. about the end of the together with the staters of Cyzicus. the punch mark.. Obverse..' records and studies in mythology through the presentation ot the gods and heroes as imagined by their worshipers. A foreparts of lion 4. a. The means A C "LAHiPSACEisrE stater. 480-400. and the results of their efforts. (freek. Reverse. DiniiACiiM of ^Egina. shown. C. on observe. B. seal on 7. that for elegance of design and excellence of linish defy the genius and skill of the present day to equal or even approach. C. An incuse coin of tlie city of Sybaris. the paleographist will have examples of the ancient alphabets. Pl.oeiiiciaii. Dat(. in dilTerent stages of development. C. 510. of Leshos. read from right to left. comprising as they do. 1. Age of Mithradates tlie trreat and of Iloman dominion. 500. T). Obverse. Obverse. C. lleverse. Lion with fish below. 500. C. 33(5-280. the Obverse. the first A A A letter tiu-ned partly over. Period of the Decline of Art. Age of tlie Spartan and Theban supremacies. covering a period of from B. Date about B. Egy])t. ceding the reform of the courage by Croesus. AVestern Europe. B. Period of Later Fine Art. and mark of punch on the lleverse. of Darius ITystaspes.LE Stater of Phocea. rather numerous plates devoted to Greek coins of past ages are by no tlie least valuable or iuterestnig in this work. About B. bull is 10. in history presenting what nuist be accepted as authentic portraits of sovereigns and princes from Alexander to Augustus. 131 . destroyed B. C. Pliny states that the 6. double stater of Ci/zicus. 508. and Period of the late Decline of Art. a coin of a dog standing upon a fish. C. electrum metal. superior though it is. 750. hardly does justice to the elegant models fi'om which they copied. Latin. a lion's head. Age ot the Epigoni. the King kneehng with bow and javelin. Age of Alexander and the Diadochi. Probably belonging to the period immediately preReverse.. The initial letters. The sea horse is a symbol of lifTli century a gold Poseidon. C. 100-1. C. C. incuse square. face to face. Colophon. C. an island in the Saronic gulf. a gold coin of head of the fabulous griirin on Obverse. coinage was introduced. B.33G. an Ionian city in Asia INfinor. B.ycian and Cyprian. B. tortoise. an ir. Sicily. ending with the Persian wars. Period of Finest Art. punch-mark. indicating great antiquity. Period of continued Decline of Art. &c. people of this city trained their dogs to assist in war. C. Obverse. a land 8. Phoenicia. Early gold coin." siich as is mentioned in Attic inscriptions. B.

465 ANCIENT GREEK COINS. .

480. typifying the three-cornered island of Sicily. 28. Reverse. Reverse. a male head. Obverse. About B. Head of Demeter. B. a IS. Reverse. in punch mark. 500. B. Po. abiga driven towards the observer's right. a hare. Obverse.JU. Bronze coin of Syracuse. dolphins. laureated. a quadriga i)assing a cohnnn. the products her hair. Obverse. Head of Janus. of Zancle. with lowered head. with a victory above and a crab beneath. 480. a lion's scalp. enclosed in a wreath of olive leaves. Obverse. 22. a fine head of Pallas. head of Jupiter Ammon. 27. Reverse. B. Obverse. advauci. Obverse. 400. 21. Date. B. Tetradrachm. name of the city around it. 48U. Revei'se. Yery early coin of Selinus. B. Dale B. of Panomfins. Bronze coin of Panormus. A bronze coin of Mamertini. lleverse. of Sicily. of the tield in B. of Catana. C. a fine head of Apollo. 400. Tetradrachm. C. about B. with thun13 Early coin of Syracuse in Sicily. punch mark with owl and the initials of the city. laureated. laureated. Obverse. indicating the fertility of the country. three spears of wheat. a victory Hying above. a car 23. 480. 26. an eagle standing on a support and having a serpent trodden under his Date. Obverse. Obverse. Obverse. a bid). C. Bronze coin of Mamertini. C. 29. cules with lion's skin. a city in Sicily. Sicily. 24. the Greek letter Psi in the exergue. Obverse. who Avon a victory at Olympia with the mule car. a (juadriga. 480. of Messana. Reverse. C. Obverse. Tetradraciim. left claw. oOC. a horse head between a head of wheat and a palm branch. C. by dolphins. Obverse. a quadriga. Reverse. drawn by mules. a dolphin curved. laureated. C. the sacred Silphiuni plant lleverse. a town on the south coast of Sicily. . . of Catana. horse head and the trinacrin. head of Athena 12. the sacred symbol of the city. . Obverse. Head of Hercules in a lion's skin. an elegant licad of Artemis. now Messina. C. ahorse s^iHoping pasta palm tree. fancifully subdivided by two series of parallel lines. full-lace fronting. C. laureated. the most important in Obverse. 25. 400. Tetradrachm. 450-4. Tetradrachm. B. about B. Obverse. Tetradrachm. Bronze coin of Panormus. Reverse. Reverse. aud who introduced hares into Sicily. 15. head of Arethusfe. Obverse. 10. at right angles to each other. 400. a helmeted male head. 480. leaf of wild parsley. Reverse.ig towards the observer's left. Date. etc. courant. derbolt behind the shoulder. Bronze coin of Panormus. about B. C. Date. flying above. 1 1. Reverse. (Minerva). These peculiar types were first adopted on coins by Anaxilaus. a line head of Ai)ollo. C. a serpent beneath. holding crown. holding a legend. C. of Panoruuis. Peverse. 14. a laureated male head. Bronze coin of Panormus. Date. C. C. Obverse. a south-westerly district of Peloponnesus. 500. B. 400. Obverse. head of a calf. surronnded with victory above. looking toward tlie observer's left. a male head. with victory. In the central space is a shell. An electmm coin of the city of Syracuse. Reverse. B. are two R(!Verse.466 ANCIENT GREEK COINS. Of the Spartuu colony of Cyrene in Africa. Reverse. a male head. C. 17. 450. TBTRADRAcnM. B. B. li. R-^verse. fine head of Apollo. Tetradrachm. of Messenia. head of Jupiter. 19. a city of Sicily. C. i)robably in the lime of Pericles. Obverse. below 30. of Syracuse. 400. Head of Her20. Of Athens. C.

.467 ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

club of Hercules.-^ns in his left hand. 39. a lion walking past a palm lice. Bronze coin of Agrigentnm. surrounded by four grains of wheat. C. 45.ACHM. 470. B. B. head of Pallas. meted head beneath it. 500. of Syracuse. B. a city of Plispania. Obverse. 37. aroimd the border and one on the crab. Obver. an eagle. with dolphin on either side. C. a cornucopia in front and star over the 40. Bronze coin of Ilimera. plow. 49. Obverse. Re3(3. B. 500. Bronze coin of Tauromenium. elegantly ornamented 46. with silver coin of Leontini. one of the most powerful and celebraObverse. 480. a city of Sicily. Tetradrachm. Tauromenium was a city on tlie east coast of Sicily. a fine male head. 500. B. the hair confined with 3S. verse. Obverse. Iliero I. driving a quadriga. C. a pegasus in motion. standing with left foot resting on a hound and his riglit leg touching a second dog. 500. C. stamiied on the helmet. Reverse. head of Pallas. Reverse. 500. C. Head of Ceres. stamped D. of Syracuse. Obverse. tlie left holding an animal by the head. Eeverse. behind a bunch or . Tetradrachm. a town in Sicily. Bronze coin of Agrigentum.urapes over a Avine cup. 35. bull's 32. 400. 44. Bronze coin of Syracuse. a city in Sicily. with a head dress. B. 300. Obverse. Reverse. a crab with animalcule above and sea-plant beneath. Obverse. Three glolndes verse. C. Reverse. Obverse. C. C. B. C. lamp beneath. Tetradrachm. a 34. C. . lient coiled romid a staff. a bull butting. of Agrigentnm. an ornamented trident. don. head of a lion. 400. a pair of 47. Reverse. About 300 B. a city in the centre of Sicily. laureated. Reverse. an eagle standing with extentled wrings. a laureated and bearded head of Zeus. a pe^rasus yallnninir. 41. C. a lion walking towards the observer's right. a young head of Apollo. Obverse. bearded and laureated head of Posi42. the right hand elevated. running. Reverse. B. Bronze coin of Mendenum.se. in his left hand. B. A Obverse. B. V>. Obverse. a shepherd with thyr. Tetradraciim. of Cephalcedium. open mouth. a biga. Eeverse. 450. a fillet. a serB. About. D. Reverse. ReObverse. 500. Bronze coin of Emporise. Bronze coin of Syracuse. a pegasus. Obverse.. Bronze coin of Leontini. of Syi'acuse. i3. About B. Reverse. a bearded head. of Syracuse.468 ANCIENT GREEK COINS. a crab. Reverse. Bronze coin of Syracuse. Bronze coin of Enna. fore-part of a pegasus galloping towards the observer's lefi. Reverse. About B. Obverse. 480. anil helted of the Greek cities in Sicily. Obverse. Obverse. Aesculojiius standing upon a serpent and holdhig something in his right hand. 450. lielmeted. the 33. head between the head and border. witli ^ice crowning the horses. Tetradkachm. a female head. Reverse. 400. DiDP. C. a head with 43. C. Reverse. left wing. a helmeted head. C. an eagle devouring a hare. Bronze coin of Agrigentum. Ilead of Gelon. a bearded and laureated heail. a man standing and holding a long slalf B. serpents harnessed to a. Head of Pallas. C. 500. winged female standing. a head of Apollo. C. lielmeted. D. Reverse. dividuig the legend. and holdhig a branch in his left hand. About B. 0. and ol. verse. Re48. Obverse. Obverse. female standing with Ivre in left hand and wreath in right.

.469 ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

a female head. Reverse. of Bronze coin of Tyndaris. verse. belinid him is a lyre and in trout a musical uistrument all emblems of Apollo. an inland city of Sicily. an important Greece colony in Sicily. the other driving. a laureated. and in front a statue of Priapus. Ares advancing. a laureated head of Apollo. Ob61. Silver coin of Abacrenum. bearded head of Dionysus. a city of Sicily. Obverse. C. Reverse. tlivrsus and ivy. with cup in his left hand. laureated. Obverse. 450. 06. Obverse. 500. 450.yrsus in the left. Head 4J0. a bunch 450. a bearded head. Reverse.C. Tetradraciim. 57. Tetradrachm. 500. Oljverse. B. B. Bi<>a and Nice with wreatli. with wine cup. an ivy brancii. a parsley leaf inverted. Reverse. juvenile head. 300. two fishes in front thereof. the letters S. of Camarina. Obverse. C. head of the minotour. a cock in a cage. Nice Hying above. 53. 300. Tetuadraciim. B. C. Obverse. Bronze coin of Gela. a do-55. with a serpeut below. B. Bronze coin of Morgantia. B. shield and cloak in the left.O. 450. Obverse. C. Obverse. C. 550. 52. Silver coin of with a fish Camarina. two i)crsons in a biga. etc. this fabled monster typifying the river Achelous upon the bank of which the town was built. Obverse. B. 66.470 ANCIENT GREEK COINS. Demeter. C. C. suiTuounted by two horns. . Reverse Leda seated on a swan. B. behind. bearded old head. Reverse. walking past three heads of wlieat which stand side by side. fillet 58. 550. holding an 64. much decorated ami on either side. B. About B C f. Reverse. Obverse. Obvei-se. ui the angles. Bronze coin of Ars-yrina. a city in Sicily. las. Reverse. Obverse. of Selinus. -ioO. 550. a fish below. silver coin of Segesta. 450. 07. having in cacii of tlie angles two letters of the city. of grapes hanging between two leaves. 500. a tine head of Palliel meted and ornamented. Reverse. the hair confined with a tillet or l)and. an eagle standing by a branch of frnit. one with bow and arrow. a parsley leaf in a sunken square. a female crowning a minotaur. Bronze coin of Ilalaesae. and a bull liehind. Tetradrachm. with ivy leaves. a swan tlying below. 51. the Erymauthian boar. with spear hi right hand. Tetradrachm. C. Reverse. verse. a town in Acarnania. an important towni in Sicily. of Xaxos. Reverse. a parsley leaf bcliind. 60. A 54. B. E. a nude male standing. C. Sileiuis seated. Tetradrachm. B. Kevcrse. Bronze coin of Menaenum. with erect bristles. Reverse. a thyrsus in the right hand. C. l)(>arded and laureated head of Zeus. 03. C. a thuuderbolt dividing the legend. 500. of Selinus. 450. laurel leaf behind it. 65. Obverse. B. 56. 01)verse. a dog scenting the ground B C. Bronze coin of Centoripa. a city of Sicily. offering in the right hand and a th. Obverse. a lion standing. B. Reverse. B. I. C. of Xaxos. of Segesta. head of Hercules in a lion's skin. Silenns seated. an ancient city of Sicily. Re- Obverse. Castor and Pollux on horseback. C. a female head. Ares driving a (piadriga. Reverse. C. Bronze coin of Oenidae. B. B. B. a man standing. a cross patonce. 300. Reverse. head of Zeus. galloping. in his right hand an ornament. a city on the north coast of Sicily. C. L. of Xaxos. a male head. Reverse. a city in Sicily. 62. Tetradrachm. a Greek city in Sicily. Obverse. juvenile head. similar — to Xo. 59.

.471 ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

plKestiis seated on tripod. Eros decorating •the front. Bronze coin of loeta." Date. Reverse. Obverse. B. Reverse. 550. an island in the ISIediterranean Sea. a city on the nortli coast of Sicily. Reverse. Obverse. a liead with the hair erect. Reverse. beautiful female head of Philistis veiled. Reverse. King of Syracuse. 480. 220. Bronze coin of Panormus. C. Obverse. the letter s'ujiua below. a triquetra in the field. region. head of the 72. 450. left holding a club. C. a nude man standing. 500. 480. dividing the legend. a tlmnderbolt dividing the legend. Obverse. a Reverse. head of 70. 74. B. King of Epeirns. a Silver coin of Syracuse. a handsome female head. Obverse. a biga driven by IsTice. Bronze coin of the city of Catana. veiled. a horse running. B. the letter A. of Ilieron II. Reverse. Reverse. B. Obverse. C. standing. 400. Gold coin of Pyrrhtis. head of J^iuebus Apollo. a small island in the Mediterranean. six globules surrounded by the legend. Ilr. C. 79. fine head of Persephone. Obverse. 280. TKTRADKArirM. 220. Ares B. Obverse. C. Tetradrachm Tetradrachm Obverse. a fine head of Pallas. a towai in the island of the same name. the hair confined by in the field. Bronze coin of Liparia. holding in his extended left hand a cautharus. two bearded head. 85. . Nice driving a quadriga. tlie letter A the horse. B. . 280. Reverse a wlieat near the border. B. 77. . jugata. C. Phoenician legend enclosed with a laurel wreath. 01)verse. 5U0. Nice driving a quadriga. Reverse. Nice marching. B. crowned. Obverse. a gi'ain of 88. tliree globules. B. head of Ceres. flue head of of Hieron II. B. Indications of the fertility of tlu. Rhea. of Gelon. head of Pallas. B. 500. right hand extended. Bronze coin of Panormus. Bronze coin of Calacte. C. Obverse. C. a sun above. Obverse. a thunderbolt in the field. driving a biga. Nice laying a wreath on an altar. a female head. a man Obverse. Queen Philistia. C. Gelon. phins. C. head of A rethusa^. hair confined with a fillet. beardea and laureated. C. 68.472 ANCIENT GREEK COINS. Bronze coin of Aetna. 73. Obverse. 76. King of Syracuse. 78. Nice crow^ning a trophy. man Obverse. male head. half way between Sicily and Africa. 4C0. 69. 87. Nice crowning the horses. surrounded by doldriving a (juadriga. B. C. 500. Reverse. head of Persephone. t 83. in the right a malleus. fronting the neck of a band. his lyre dividnig the legend. In the exergue. with radiated crown. 80. C. a soldier. C. B. Bronze coin of Panormus. with speur and shield. wreathed. horse's head in front of a palm tree. a pegasus. li- denl belnnd. a town in the interior of Sicily. Reverse. Silver coin of Agathocles. C Obverse. B. an important city in Sicily. C. 75. an ornamented tripod dividing the legend. an old 82. Reverse. Bronze coin of Cossura. three globules in tlie field. tyrant of Syracuse. of Philistis. head of a horse. C. a female head. 71. a Reverse. a turret ed head of 84. 300. Bronze coin of Syracuse. B. head Observe. standing. of Apollo. C. B. 500. B. 500. Zeus Reverse. head of Artemis. Tetradrachm filleted. Obverse. Reverse. B. Reverse. bull. 86. a city in Sicily at the foot of the mountain of same name. C. Bronze coin of Pyn-hus. Reverse. Reverse. C. helmeted . B. Bronze coin of ^lelita. tyrant. B. C. Bronze coin of Gela. Obverse. supposed queen of Ilieron. Reverse. 280. 01)verse. B. 220. in Sicily. below. Legend 81. Reverse. 550. Gold Stater of Pyrrhus. 500.

» 473 ANCIENT GREEK COINS. .

Obverse. 97. Gold Stater of Alexander III. and canthorus. Bronze coin of Cyzicus. 500. B. ated. Obverse. Zeus seated with hasta and in his right hand. a city in Lucania. 102. a city in f>iciiy. Bronze coin of ]STegara. C. his bo^vand club in tlie field. C. emblems and inscrip- Gold Stater of Selencus. C. a pan- B. an octopus. Ob101. C. a sim in front. C. a city in Crete. liead of Apollo. C. a town of great importance in Crete. Bronze coin of Eleutheraa. Xice running with a crown in lier right and a trophy in iier left hand. Obverse. Obverse. an eagle standing Ob103. tions similar to those on the gold stater No. C. laureB. Obverse. dividing the legend. two 96. who died B. Obverse. a hehneted liead in a crescent. verse. who died B. Bronze coin of Gaulos. a city in Sicily. B. Bronze coin of Paropi. tlie neck ornamented with a string of pearls. Tetradrachm of Oluntiuni.se. G. "Re50U. Obverse. with bust draped. Bronze coin of Caena. Hercules strangling a lion. C. Avith lion's skin over it. the tiipod of Apollo. Gold Stater of Lysiniochus. Obverse. 320. head of the king in the character of Apollo. armor. DiDRAcnMof Terina. Nice seated. Tetradraciim of Lysimachas. King of Syria. a wreath of leaves and liowers. Silver coin of Ileraclea. This coin bears lOG. 500. Reverse. Apollo seated on a lyre. Reverse. Obverse. a squill with three globules on and tlnee globules under it. Reverse. skin. C. Pallas holding Nice in her outstretched hand. verse. with two globules above. Reverse. 95. Reverse. who died B. head of Hercules in lion's 91. 280. B. Reverse. Apollo standing with a bow in his left hcind and an arrow in the right. Nice holding a trident and a crown for the victor. Reverse. 500. a toT\Ti in Sicily. head of Pallas. witli tiiyrsus Bronze coin of Hybla. Reverse. Obverse. a city of Bruttium. female head. 105. liead of Pallas in 100. tlier erect Obverse. C. a city in Sicily. B. Reverse. 107. Reverse. ijclobules above. Reverse. head of Apollo. head of Hercules. C. 118. C. Obverse. head of Pallas. a soldier standing with sword and buclder. 474 ANCIENT GKEEK COINS. Bronze coin of Affrigentnm. B. two glolndes behind it. a city of Sicily. in the field a caduceus. oUO. Reverse. who died B. Bronze coin of Siolus. The Great. 550. Obverse. a city on the^ Propontis in Mysia. C. 104. Zeus seated with basta and holding an eagle in his hand. Pmiic C inseriptiou below. Jie\er. Reverse. 500. 500.. 92. 500. a hare. 281. and a marine liorse below. 500. Obverse. Gold Stater of Philip II. holding on the back of her right hand a bird with extended wings. fine head of Persephone. 323. :>:]('>. 90. Bronze coin of "Messana. holding in his B. running. B. Obverse. Tetradraciim of Alexander The Great. a head. C. laureated. head of Diana 98. the king driving a biga. the hair bound by a stalk of wheat. head of the king in the character of the Amnionian . Reverse. a bee behind it. 500. Reverse. head of Apollo. B. the present Gozzo. a tine female head. 500. King of Thrace. Reverse. 89. B. a 99. an island in the Mediterranean Sea. 93. 500.Iui)iter. King of JSIacedonia. Dionysus standing. B. C. before Iillu. right hand a globe. C. devcurriis: a bare. B. . a caduceses surroimded by a ^^reath. 94. Obverse. and three wheat ears around it: B. a city in Sicily. a crab. verse. an ea^le with expanded wings.

47. .3 ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

Eagle on fulmen. head of the king. 125. 119. C. who died B. Reverse. 210. 110. Eagle on fulmen. Bronze coin of Ptolemy II. an eagle standing on a fuhnen. head of Ptolemy. who died B. a pegasus dividing the legend. 118. C. B. f)4. Obverse. King of Egypt. Soter. King of Eg\iit. 124. King of Bithynia. Tetradrachm of Antlochns I. Bronze coin of Tigranes. siu-named Euergetes. C. Pallas with spear in one hand and Xice in the other. 285. the hair confined witli a fillet. who died B. 112. Eevei-se. wife of one of tlie Ptolemys of Egypt. year 103 of Seleucid Era. Reverse. Obverse. Eagle date. Reverse. struck at Tyre. Kins: of E^ypt. who died B. portrait. who died B. prow and fore part of a ship. Xice driving a (pjaih-iga. Obverse. Reverse. Reverse. Tetradrachm of Seleucus YI. Zeus discharging a thunderbolt from his left hand and holding basta in hi. 63. Gold Stater of Phamaces. dividing tlie legend. Reverse. Tetradrachm of Antlochns lY. Jupiter driving aquddiigaof elephants. of Ptolemy YII. 203. liead of tlie king. a wreath. club of Hercules dividing the legend. Reverse. Obverse. 108. both encircled by a wreath. Ob122. head of tlie king. 110. his portrait. 123. Obverse. Gold Stater of Cyrene. Reverse. Gold Stater ol: Obverse. Soter. Obverse. who died B. who died B. head of tlie king wearing a tiara. B. About B. head of Artemis surrounded Macedonian shields. B. Apollo seated on a Cortina. King of Pontus. Tetradrachm of ISIithridates YI. 109. C. 149. Tetradrachm of Phileta-rus. and surrounded with a wreath. 104. Tetradrachm died B. B. Obverse. C. Apollo seated. Tetradrachm of Xicomedes III. a city of great imiiortance in northern Africa. C.Zeus standing with hasta aiitl liolding a patera over an altar. Reverse. 152-144.<e.476 ANCIENT GREEK COINS. with club of Hercules in front. Reverse. Reverse. known as Physcon. founder of the Kingdom of Pergamus. head of Jupiter Amnion. C. C. 181. f ulinen. Pallas seated. C. i)ortrait of the king. Obverse. C. who Obverse. Philopator. who died about B. 111. Reverse. Obverse. Reverse. a lyre behind and a tripod in front of him. dividing the legend. 121. King of Pontus. . holding a corn ucopise in one hand and a wreath in the other. 400. Tetradraciim who died B. head of the king. his head. 113. Obverse. C. 175. Tetradkaciim au eagle standing on a V)y of Ptolemy. Reverse. C. Reverse. C.. who died B. in the field a sword. Reverse. offering died B. r)00. GO. who 120. 283. surnamed Epiphanes. 117. head of the king. . C. 114. Obver. C. King of S^Tia. Obverse. a female seated. head of the king. King of Syria. Bronze coin of Berenice. Euergetes II. Reverse. a verse. surnamed Epiphanes. C. of Ptolemy Y. C. head of the king. died B. Tetradrachm of ]Sracedonia. King of Armenia. right. head of the king. 117. Obverse. Tetradraciim of Alexander I (Balas). 74. 115. Obverse. C. Obvei-se. or tliunderbolt. head of the queen. king. 222. with covering extending over tlu^ bust cornucopise surromided by the legend. 170. Bronze coin of Seleucus TV. an eagle on a ful- men^the Ptolemaic emblem. holding in one hand a bow and in the other an arrow.

.477 ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

478 ANCIENT GREEK COINS. .

.479 ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

480 ANCIENT GREEK COINS. .

481 ANCIENT GREEK COINS. .

D. Galba 149 Ser. to the Extinction of the Western Empire. D. 13. a grand general. originally L. C. 54. afterwards Germanicus. D. tact. or Junior. D. 14. Germanicus Csesar. first Emperor of the Roman Empire Born B. soned by his wife A. 22. 7. Emj^eror A. born B. 10. to death in banishment by Tiberius A. C. 19. Cains Julius. Tyrants and Kings. D. liis by D. Born B. 15. C. B. C. born B. 12. jNIurdered by Pompey and Senators. D. :grandson Caligula A. A Tiberius. 3. Smothered by order of Caligula A. Ca?sar A. history. D. D. A noble prince. Declared Emperor B. A noble woman. C.C. son of Germanicus and Agrippina. 14. March loth of same year. a chaste. D. Died A. OS. 38. Julia. Nero Claudius. A beast in human form. 70. 37. Domitius Aiienobarbus Born A. Lepidus. Naturally noble but degraded by gross jjassions. D. C. who adopted Nero and changed his name to Claudius Ctcsar Drusus Germanicus. C. D. good and brilliant man. D. 476. 100. Drusus Nero Germanicus. bom 15. 15. 15 and 21. Drusus Csesar. Caesar. virtuous and unfortunate. 42. D. Born B. One of the most noted characters in history. wife of Germanicus Ciesar. Caius. Antonia. 4. 41. 64. 41. Starved A. p^^ror A. soldiers avaricious. or Caligula. Agrippina. Killed but over severe and . D. 10. Emperor Claudius. Caius Octavius Csepeas. D. 32. Cesar B. Augustus. Born Emperor A. 2. Tiberius. Tribunica Potentas A. Nero. Emperor A. A man of excellent qualities. distinguished by extraordinarj'' genius and attainments in the most diversified pursuits. Poisoned A. but a failure through want of judgment and 11. 4. 29. C. Killed A. 4. Claudius I. His reign exhibits every variety of detestable actions. Poisoned Beautiful. C. 9. D. 5. Sulpicus. Claudius Nero Csesar. D. Agrippa. Coins rei)resent him with Julius Caesar. son of Tiberius. Son-in-law of Augustus Ciesar A. 4. lU. 44. B. C. monster. born B. 37. 63. a Poisoned A. 33. temperate and much beloved man and Consul. Em- Industrious and diligent. 37. wise and moderate ruler. D. D. Pieces of all Emperors. Born B. Poi6. born B. Made Perpetual Dictator 1. Empresses. Poisoned A. A. D. A • 12. Caius and Julius and Germanicus. 3. A great soldier. 37. xV. Wife of Drusus Senior. His mother afterwards n)arried her uncle. Consul A. Ciesar A. D. C. 68. by her High honors were paid to Iier memory.482 HISTORICAL COIN ATLAS OF THE From Julius ROMAN EMPIRE. D. Younger son of Cmeus Domitius Anenobarbus and Agripjiina. D. 09. Drusus. born B. son of Nero Claudius Drusus. C. 8. Emperor A. i)robably the vilest character in Killed himself A.

. Tyrants and Kings. Pieces of all Emperors. Empresses.483 HETOEICAL COIN ATLAS OF THE ROMAN EfflPIEE.

Died A. D. liorn A. Marciana. . Ca?sar. D. Titus. 17. and debauclieries. A noble character of strong will and great administrative power. T. D. He had a little le. Plotina. born A. Oocceius. born A. Aelins. Flavius Domitianus Augustus. D. Antonius. 15. he imitated all the vices of that tyrant. born A. D. Hadrianus. 137. Flavins Sabinus. M. Nerva M. but too avaricous. 81. . the first wife of Vespasianus. A. 76. with the name of Died A. Sole Emperor A. honored in life and death. Emperor A. D. 86. A good ruler and successful soldier whose virtues overbalanced many defects in his character. Nerva A. A. Adopted by Trajan and 26. 18. born A. Ulpius. Wife of Trajan. She died before her husband became Emperor. wife of Hadrian. D. D. D. daughter of Marciana. drinking. deified which occurred in the reign of Antonius. Otho. 117 and heAvas declared Emperor the same year. D. debts 15. Casar and Emperor with 22. One of the most distinguished of Ronjan rulers. 115. tyrants that ever disgraced a throne 20. temperate and Domitilla. and the coins bearing her portrait were struck after her death. he killed himself the same year. She committed suicide about A. 161. 98. bore A. 27. 136. 96. born A. D.484 ANCIENT ROMAN COINS. but unhappy in her matrimonial relations. Honored in her life-time. D. 9. D. Little record and that not good. 19. Bein^ conquered by Vitellius. 138. 29. statesman. By birth of mean condition. Domitia Longina. Sabina. D. 69. he rose by merit Emperor 69. son of Emperor Vespasianus and Domitilla Flavia. Pompeia. A woman 23. Trajanus M. Died 16. bom A. Flavius Sabinius Vespasianus. after her death. 52. D. 40. died A. He was frugal. 28. D. Died A. Adopted by Hadrian and declared EmDied A. D. D. 00. 32. whose assassins she urged on to their murderous work. 25. D. justly honored for her extraordinary merits and high character. A companion of Nero. He received the honor of deification.^lius. 24. his :jon-in-law. D. a man of learning and a ruler of peculiar as a soldier amiable. D. Matidia. D. 97. and excellence. Killed by Vespasinnus' soldiers the same j^ear. 98. in early life Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antonius. 138. 117. virtues and talents. Trajan adoi)ted him A. Julia. Assassinated A. Pius. Emperor A D. Salvius. Emperor A. lo. P. D. Vespasianus. D. D. Died A. 129. 32.irning. After her death slie was enrolled among the gods. private and public life. Emperor A. daughter of Titus. 79. A brave general. Emperor A. Died 21. D.Aulus. D. Remarkable for her Sister of Trajan. died A. 138. born A. 96. but great ' talent for eating. 52. whose record as a equals her worthless husband's. 79. D. 14 Vitellius. A most exalted and wise character ia peror. Domitianus T. One of the most cruel woman the wife of Domitianus. 81. Plavia. adopted by Hadrian about A.

.485 ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.qOO0""°°OOO( .

217. Junior. D. Helvius. Julianus. A. Verus. Named Csesar A. B. Marcus Aurolius Antoninus. His original name was L. Born A. 153 only known . 34. 180. Born A. Assasinated after reigning 66 days. or DecimusClodius Ceionius Septimus. good no statesman. D. he loaded her with honors before and after her death. Assas36. in Syria. 38. occasional coins. banished to Capreae and put to death. Annia Galeria. afterwards M. M soldiers. D. D. Commonly distinguished as the Philosopher. 146. wife of Commodus. in Albinus. divorced. Julia. but notwithstanding the utter profligacy of her life. Didius Commo37. Clara. son of Marcus Aureand Faustina. D. A. unfaithful. 41. L. daughter of Julianus. . sinated after a reign of 87 days in consequence of his firmness in insisting upon reforms in the army and State. D. A " wise. Jr. cruel. 35. D. 169. Emperor 193. 161. D. and son-in-law of Antonius Pius. learned and just man. She was married A. CriSpina. Ccionius Commodus. corrupt and dissolute. Died by poison. BornA. Born Africa named Ca'sar l)y Septimus Severus A. lius 176. Didia. Lucius Aurelius. ignored her vile acts. D. 126. defeated and killed by Septimus great general and man of some learning. son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius and associated with him in the empire A. Annia. Declared Emperor by the army soldier. Severus. 161. Declared Emperor A. or rare Born A. through her 39. Adopted by 31. and abandoned to ill deeds as washer mother. Emperor A. 194. Born A." of Faustina. Associated in empire A. rebelled and took . Born A. D. D. Named Augustus 177. 161 169. D. 105. A good soldier. Faustina. A C Pescennius. An Domna. D. 141. 193. 33. 121. D. Senior. 130. Died from strangulation and poison 192. She was in everyway unworthy of her great husband. 193. dus Severus Julianus. Died 30. . D. D. and vast ambition. upon loss of power. sole emperor 180. A miserable man and ruler. D. but unscrupulous and amHe bought the supreme power by promises of money to the bitious. Senior.486 ANCIENT ROMAN COINS. Septimus. BornA. D. L. daughter as thoroughly death in 175. 193. Faustina. Master admirable general and reformer. Commodus. D. Emperor A. of the whole Empire 197 but cold and ungenerous. 166. 145 or" 14(3 to Marcus Aurelius. D. 198. who either through good nature or blindness. he could not secure the power. Died A. wife of Septimus Severus. Aurelius. Pertinax. A. to death as a rebel A. D. 133. intellect 42. A of Britain and Gaul 196. During his life he shared the honors worthily of Marcus Au- — relius. Clodius. died 211. DidiuS Salvius. title of Emperor Severus 197. A Avoman of powerful Starved herself to death A. cherished her living and honored her after 32. Niger. Bom A. effigy. was put 40. Son of ^lius Cicsar.

487 ANCIENT ROMAN COINS. .

Julius Verus. Verus. devoted to her son. She 51. and afterBorn A. 56. 45. He became conspicuous in the army and rose to be Emperor A. Her advice caused the revolt in the iirmy. Opelius. 53. strong character. D. Brother of Caracalla. ISO. BI. Julia. A woman of 52. Celebrated for his remarkable beauty. 173. ElagabaluS. D. A brute in every respect. just man. D. Killed A. 205. (or Macrinus M.488 ANCIENT ROMAN COINS. Plautilla. the honors gained by his father. Killed 219. Killed 222. D. Caracalla or Caracallus. usually called Alexander Born A. Of immense strength and gigantic stature. Killed 235. bad Lis brother Geta 211 sole Emperor 212. diTorced the next year. Julius. Born A. but loo much under control of his mother. liim A. D. INIarried to Elagabalus A. shared was Uiurdered with A 57. (over 8 feet). 158. Ca'sar 198. declared Emthat M'as bestial. or P. son of MacBorn A. Born A. Born A. 235. . mother of Elagabalus. but unable to quell a revolt. guards peror passed into a jiroverb. A glutton and all 218. D. 47. M Antonius. inhumanly cruel coward. Julia Soaemias. Born A. D. He C "\vas assassinated with his son. Killed 218. of low parentage. C. L Named 46. Maesa. mother of Alexander Severus. 188. Born A. Orbiana. 54. man whose life is stained with all crimes. D. 48. 222. . Named Ca>sar 19G. Marcus Aurelius Antonius. 55. and was acknowledged by the Senate. 205. Proclaimed Emperor 218. Her life was not pure and her body was subjected to every indignity after death. one of the three wives of Alexander Severus. Geta. he killed himself after a reign of about forty days. D. called M. A haughty. left destitute and finally murdered by order of her husband. surnamed Africanus. . a pure. blood-thirsty. l^cverus. . Emperor with Caracalla 211 and assassinated by him. D. rinus. D. and when adopted by 8everus. . -43. Paula.. A brave soldier. 238. son of in a lesser degree. D. Named Ca\sar and Augustus 217. was the first woman who took a place in the Roman Senate. 212. 238. 208. Septimus. 202 soon banished. A far better character than his murderer though with many vices.eror in Africa 238. One of the n:i<)st able and strong minded women of history ambitious and unscrupulous but wise and polite. Augustus 209. 44. his name has 49. D. Sallustia Barbia. in which both mother and son were killed. Mama>''a. grandmotherof Elagabalus and Alexander Severus. Maximinus I. Julia Cornelia. Married to Caracalla A. while in the arms of his mother. Severus. 235. Aurelius Alexander. Maximus Maximinus. Opelius 1G4. Augustus 198 Emperor with Assassinated 217. He was the instigator of tlie murder of Caracalla. D. Aurelius Antoninus which last name he retained ever after. Known only through effigies on coins. D. Caesar. Died in j^rivate life. Julia. 219. Diadumenianus or Diadumenus M. Proclaimed ]^aii}. Gordianus I. A. and promising young man. Fulvia. 50. originally called Yarius Avitus Bassianus. also Bassianus. A bold. A. Opilius) Macrinns.

489 ANCIENT ROMAN COINS. .

Trebonianus. and killed with him when but twelve years of age. Known son of only by her coins. D. Ca>sar A. wife of Decius. Born A. 63. by his soldiers. claiiued to have I. An amiable young wife of Gordianus III man. 68. grandson of G. great soldier. Ca'^lius. Killed Born A. AssoII. Known Named only from hiT coins. son-in-law or nephew of Decius [authorities difAssociated in the pur[)le with Trebonianus Gallus. purjjle Born A. D. 251. D. An excellent combination cf an able general and sagacious statesman. . 61. . He accepted the the army under threats of death if he refused. Killed in battle the same year. Julius.I. 237. Mariniana.DeciinUS Killed three months Gordianus III. 62. Born A.. son of Gallus. Philippus ciated 67. fer. 253. 71. by his soldiers 254. 222. 70. 251. 252. Associated with his father in the })urple and perished in battle against the rebels on the same day. A. EtruSCUS. wife of Philippus ancient writers to have been a Christian. Emperor 249 drowned in a bog. A warrior and ruler. Proclaimed Augustus 238. 251. C»sar 244. captured by the Persians 26 263. Hostilianus. After death his skin was stuffed and preserved as a trophy by his '. 2o8. Furia. Both father and son bear noble characters in history. 201. Emperor 2<4. 75. Gallus. Born A. 69. Sabnia. Born A. Augustus Aemilianus. D. M. 178. Herennius. 249. D. called upon to rule on account of his high merit. I. Valerianus. Volusianus. 190. 64. Named Ca3sar 208. A. . Born A. Bora A. Tranquillina. A. 247. D. A. P. 73. 164. D. Made Emperor with ]>albinus 60. M. Killed By some authors. Pupienua Maximus. Aemilius. Etruscilla^ Herennia. Gordianus Africanus II. sister or daughter of Valerianus. son Augustus 251. after. 249. successful been a Christian. 204. wife. D. C. Llcinius. Reported to have died the same year and also to have reigned two years. He and his brother ruler perished by assassination three months alter their elevation to supreme power. Emperor 253. from 67. D. Believed by many 65. eldest son of G. Licinius Valerianus Egnatius.. D. with his father as Augustus. 253.] of Decius. Philippus I. Decius. M. No record. He was and died in captivity from cruel treatment. Gallienus. 58. Marcia. 74. Antonius. 59.490 AIMCIENT ROMAN COINS. Killed with his father. Born A. Otacilia Severa. D. 72.A. Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius. C. or Sabnia. D. Marcus Clodius. Killed Avith his son. P. Assassinated 244. D. son. A enemies. Associate Emperor with Pupienus. and daughter of Misitheus.Joint ruler with Hostilianus. Proclaimed Emperor in Maesia. deservedly well beloved. Julius. Vibius. Balbinus. 192. 238.

.491 ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.

492 ANCIENT KOMAN COINS. 267. M. A superior general and statesman. Salonia. Pravvonius. and captured by Aurelia. 274. Flourished during 85. He was a strict but just ruler while he reigned. A. was 80. 90. 76. but a slave to his passions. XJlpia. Pesuvius Pivesus. Severina. Born A. D. where he was proclaimed Emperor. Pesuvius. the history of his reign is most brilliant. Athenodorus. when he was assassinated. son Ctcsar 253. mother of Sa- lon inns. and })rove that she survived her huslKUid. 1). or L. . Emperor A. 268. 2()8. Assassinated 268. Aurelianus. dier. half brother of Gallienus. M. Pie bears a high character in history. D. 253. The last of the Thirty Tyrants who governed in Gaul. I). Cornelia. 258. Vabalathus. Born A. Aurelius Claudius. C. Killed 267. and a happy Assassinated A. shared his power and met with the same fate M. Pcstumus. 262. 270. Emperor A. QuintilluS. A brave sol84. His coins must have been minted before he assumed power. son of Zenobia. Put to death 25y. 86. Treacherously killed A. opposite in character. and soon after retiring to private life he died at a very C advanced age. son and successor of C. Valerianus by his first wife. child. associated with Postumus in the purple. A victorious soldier and able ruler. of Gallienus. one of the Thirty Tyrants. by betraying his army in battle to that rulpr. Proclaimed Cwsar while a 83. 77. A great warrior. D. 82. Valerianus. until con(|uered by Aurelian. 270. Tetricus. 242. Claudius II Died 270. and these are designated as The Tfiirtv Tyrants. defeated and killed in battle by Aureolus. 27088. endeavored to re-establish honest coinage and issued money of copper. Rebelled against Gallienus. VictorinuS. A contemptible character. A. who ruk'd from A. few Aveeks. deserted by his soldiers he killed himself. 78. Senior. Tyrants. He Etni)eror A. Saloninus. D. I). Macrianus. of the Thirty Tyrants who ruled Gaul. Certain of his coins bear the face of Aurelian on the obverse. D. seems to have been worthy her great spouse. One of the Thirty Tyrants. when. son of the preceding. 89. Aurelius. 214. and proclaimed himself Emperor in Gaul A. 266. wife of Gallienus. The fourth 81. Emperor in Gaul. D. D. He restored the provinces to Aurelian in 273. Augusta. Queen of Palmyra. Aurelius. D. the latter years of his father. D. 267. Medals and coins were struck in her honor. D. a wise ruler. Valerius. It Avas during tliis reign that the many generals declared themselves Eaiperors. D. One of the Thirty Tyrants. Gothicus. about A. Pesuvius Tetricus. Macrianus. Cassianus Latinius. Junior. reigned but a 87. Domititus. Junior. A. D. D. Emperor with his father A. plated or silvered over. Assassinated A. He was made Emperor in Syria A. Born A. Licinius Cornelius.n 273. 267. . 275. One of The Thirty 79. 267. His reign lasting for forty-eight hours. M. D. P. M. IVTarius. wife of Aurelianus. Tetricus.

.493 ANCIENT KOMAN COINS.

Aurelius. M. D. Born A. 93. he rose by merit. brilliant peror 283. 101. ArriusAper. Emperor in England A. for 105. noble lady and true Christian. Tacitus. profligate and wasteful wives. D. A vile character. Valerius. Born A. Numerianus. and well deserved all the honors he gained. 287. Emperor in England 102. Cfpsar 282. Born A. M.v7as A wise and much beloved ruler. A. 230. 293. Died 313. 100. Aurelias. Flavia Julia Born about A. 104. Wife of . 276. whom he rejiudiated Helena. shepherd. second wife of Constantinus Chlorus. The son of a 98. D. Britain and Spain. Sonof Maximus. 92. . Born A. M. Of most obscure j^arentage. she died in 328. ConstantiusI surnamed Chlorus. . 103. ruler. who married and repudiated nine Successful in war. Augustus 283. wdio rose from most lowly beginnings. 250. Associated in the Empire with Diocletian in 286 abdicated 305 retook the Empire. Killed 296. 248. 2-50. Em- most 94. M. D. 245. Avas cont^uered and killed 285. Emperor A wise arts. D. 91. but probably murdered. 232. Adopted and named Augustus and Emperor 305. Born A. His father-in-law. ful in war than peace. Diocletianus. and honors A were showered upon her memory. D. D. Born A. She was divorced through State Policy. Killed 284. Born A. 97. Aurelius. . Allectus. D. from Sept. Born A. Julianus. His whole reign was a series of achievements in peace and war. Carinus M. Probus. Maximianus Galerius Valerius. Caesar b^^ Dioceletian. M peror from 276 to 2S2. hand. at Annius. I3ut he terribly j^ersecuted the Christians. a relentless persecutor of the Christians. killed on suspicion of murdering him. A. Half-brother of Tawhose death he assumed supreme power. Aurelias. Helena. Claudius. He was a wise and just ruler and treated Pagans and Christians with impartiality and toleration. Emperor 305 with Galerius. More successSome coins represent him with Carinus his son. Usurj^ed the Imperial power A. 232. Carausius. strangled himself. D. and in all acts showed the greatest vigor and prudence. 254. D. M. Died 311. abdicated 305. Successor to ProbusKeported killed by lightning 283. A distinguished general and bad man. 96. Marcus Aurelianus. . D. Died 284. D. 292. ruler. D. Carus. Emperor 284. . Flavia Maximiana. Emwhen murdered. Aurelius Valerius. IKTaximianus II. and mother of Constantinus the Great. He forced his powerful enemies to become his allies. Theodora. 284. eldest son of Cams. Died 306. 306 abdicated again 308 proclaimed himself Emperor once more. A. 309. Flavius Valerius. by his murder of Carausius. brother of Carinus. 310. Assassinated 293. but a promoter of all peaceful citus.Constantius I. 249. the Ibrmerbting placed over Gaul. ruling i'rom April to June or July 267. D. 99. 275 to April not ambitious of military glory. Hercules. A remarkable man. Adopted Galerius 292.40 4 ANCIENT ROMAN COINS. 95. II. a cruel. when he was killed either by the revolting soldiers or his own Florianus. (iovernorofVenitia in Italy.

.495 ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.

was smothered to death in a warm bath by her husband's order. his father. by others that he was the son of Carus. Hercules. Di^d of despair or poison 313. Galeria. 335. 110. D. Valeria. 305 assumed the title of Emperor 308. Flavius Valerius Licinianus. Made Ca. A. 117. Delmatius. D307. D. which he named Constantinople. Caused the deatli of her stejvson. Spain and England 335. in 330. all other vices. of Galerius. son of Constantine A. and Augustus by Maximanus 308. In 311 he embraced the Christian religion. Constantinus I. Urbica. Flavius Claudius. 114. Gained friends and rank in the army married the daughter of Constantius Chlorus. and strangled 323. 311. Named Caesar 316. Julius. Born A. and by others to Carinus. Caesar and Augustus and Emperor with Galerius Maximianus 307. Died 115. Known only by 112. The coin is pronounced by certain authorities to be a forgery. M. 315. 300. Aurelius. 315. D. She and her mother were beheaded by order of Licinius. 113. Named. A cold blooded tyrant.. D. . daughter of Diocelitian. Killed 337. Magnia. 118. named Caesa-r 1x1.sar317. Romulus. Original name Daza. Flavius Julius. son-in-law of Maximanus Hercules. D. 107. or " The Great. 326. Ruler of Gaul. Prisoner of his brother-in-law Constantine. surnamed The Younger. Born about A. Only known by hercoins. undeserving and ungrateful maru son-in-law of Galerius. By some supposed by others. Flavius Valerius Aurelius. death 326. ROMAN COINS. 119. Born A. Maximiana. Flavia ^larricd to Constantine I. 274. A Rome OJt 0-7 . to be the wife of Maxentius. of peasant parents.496 AISICIENT 106. son of I. D. Died while a boy. 306. Named C^sar by IMaximianus Emperor 306. for Byzantium. Augustus soon after. 116. and some historians say.U2. D. Maximinus. Flavius Ctesar A. 300. Crispus. feated Emperor and Augustus 337. D. Fausta. son of Maxentius. l)ut to Licinius Licinius. It has been conjectured by some that he was the son of Alexander. Born A. A. D. Constantinus II. Publius Flavius Galerius Valerius Licinianus. . I). Named Caesar 317. cruelty and Maxentius. Roman Ctesar or Augustus. 263. at the instigation of his step-mother 326.. Severus. Nigrinianus. A. Emperor A monster of rapacity. surnamed Magnus. a ursurper of Africa A. Put Born about to death by I. assigned to Carus. his coins. Became sole Emperor 323." Born A. D. A. D. Quitted . nephew of Constantine Named 120. Flavius Valerius. D. Compelled to put an ew 108. Son of Constantius Chlorus and Helena. Gained glory in battle. son of Constantine I. 307. neph« Nan^cd Cicsar A. second wife of Maximianus II. . . Galerius Valerius. 337. Drowned in the Tiber 312. Stripped of all honors and I. 109. Junior. Proclaimed Cnesar and Augustus in Britain 306. A violent. Licinius. oOo Augustus and end to himself A. De- and killed in battle 340.

497 ANCIENT ROMAN COINS. .

136. Killed himCaesar A. first wife of Theodosius I. Born A. maintained the Catholic penalty of death. soldiers 350. Emperor"340. Magnentius. 346. Gratianus. Born A." Born A. seized upon Italy 387. Died 408. but wanting in firmness. surnamed " The Great. . D. 371. 137. D. Flavius Julius. chaste and temperate man. 124.. D. Theodosius I. Assassinated 392.D.. A thoroughly incompetent and weak ruler. A pious. 303. artful tyrant. Died 375. D. Bom about A. Constantius II. . D.. acknowledged Emperor. Julianus. son of Valentinianus A. 331. surnamed Born A.. 385. Named Cfesar 383. Emperor A. Valentinianus II. Revolted against Constans self 353. Emperor 364. 134. Valentinianus Died 364. D. Strangled himself 353. Assumed the name of Augustus in Britain A. Proclaimed Augustus at Vienna A. 328. weak and profligate man. Magnus 132. his division being the Eastern. Born A. D. D. I. Captured and decapitated 388. Put to death two years later by order of Theodosius. Professed himself a Christian and put that religion on a legal I. 8on of Julius Constantius. Killed 383. an ex- Jovianus Flavius Claudius. 130. Proclaimedhimself Emperor A. Named Augustus Born I. D. Arcadius. Named Augustus and associated in the Empire 375. 350 . 317. Constans I. 377. of all the West 383. An old General. Emperor of the East 395. D. 127. Sole EmIn talents. Flavius Julius. Clemens. son of Valentinianus I. 351. traordinary man. D. D. brother of Valentinianus I. Emperor 363. D. 125. Killed in battle 363. abdicated in ten months.49« ANCIENT ROMAN COINS. Flavius. 128. D. Proclaimed Emperor 350. Caesar 355. basis. 123. 331. 121. Died 361. .. . and was himself burned to death by Barbarians 378. 359 made Consul 366 Augustus 367 Emperor 375. Born about A. and forbade all Pagan ceremonials under 129. principles and deeds. Died A. Valens. Named "The Apostate'' peror 361. 131. Named Augustus and associated in the Empire by Gratian in 379. Flavius Popilius. 122. Persecuted the Catholics. or Junior. Named Vetranio. He faith Born A. T^ied 356. Aug. son of Maximus Magnus. third son of Constantine I. Decentius. youncest son of Constantine I. Flacilla. Victor. Flavius Claudius. brother or cousin of INIagnentius. D. Killed by revolting 320. Born A. An indolent. Named Ciusar 333. Emperor of the East 364. Eugenius. 133. 135. 383. 392. Born A. 321. Maximus. Created Consul 324. son of Theodosius I. Died 395. Emperor 350. An 126. Aelia. D. 383. Put to death 388.

.499 ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.

Born A. was pubHe was a weak ruler and his 144.. D. wife of Constantinus III. A of high spirit and possessed of great influence over her hus- 139. Leo.. original nanie Trascalisseus. Named Augustus 393. 141. D. Born A. his was a disastrous reign. woman band. Died 423. Theodosius BornA. and beheaded 413. 146. Born about A. Johannes. Died 474. son-in-law of Marcianus. Emperor A. D. 411. Died at Rome A. FrisCUS. Taken prisoner and put to death 411. Flavius. only son of Arcadius. A. Assumed the purple 455. 150. 400. surnamed The Great and The Thracian. ^lia. Empire. succeeded Leo I. 384. 138. 450. Maximus. Glycerins. 407. Made Emperor by Alaric at Rome. Emperor of the East 457. Son-in-law of Leo 1. Attalus. Eudoxia. Born about A. The last Emperor but one of the Western 153. Petronis (Anicius). Gaul A. Died after a reign of six . Created Emperor A. 391. Named 408. Emperor of the East Died 450. A Augustus in England and III. Assassinated 455. D. II. Honorius. Deprived of his title and resumed it in Gaul 410. kingdom was managed by others. Junior. A. Defeated by Adolphus. Valentinianus Placidius. 459. 401. Flavius Augustus. Born A. Born A. D. and became Bishops of iSalona. 474. D. Proclaimed Emperor at ^Nlayence a Gaulish Captain. 473.D. Abdicated 476. 395. Constaninus the island of Lipari. Leo I. the Gothic King. 147. 149. 461. 404 or 406. 474. Died 457. Emperor of the West A. second son of Theodosius The Great. Died A. Dethroned by Julius Nepos 474. 426. Julius.500 ANCIENT ROMAN COINS. 143. the East. Zsno or Zen on. Died 491. D. D. lather of Leo II. Galla. D.. Died 405. 154. D. Murdered after a reign of about three months. regained sovereignty 477. 419. and associated with the latter in the Eastern Emijire 474. Jovinus. 151. wife of Arcadius. The Tyrant. Augustus 402. Emperor brother-in-law of Theodosius II. killed 480. D. 145. D. 380. Proclaimed Emperor of the West at Ravenna. Born A. Anthemius. 467. lished the celebrated Codex Theodosianus. Emperor 425. 148. D. in Thrace. Placidia. Died 4i0. D. Procopius. Usurped the purple 423. Severus. 155. Born A. Distinguished by remarkable talents and high moral qualities.. Was deposed by Orestes and 152. Libius. weak ruler. of the East 450. A. In 438. Died in banishment on 140. 409. D. Emperor of the ^\'est 395. D. Marcianus. as Emperor of months. Nepos. 142.. Killed 473. Conquered and killed 425. D.

501 ANCIENT ROMAN COINS. .

502 ANCIENT ROMAN COINS. .

A.^^ X . The last Roman Emperor of the West157. beauty and innocence. who proclaimed him Emperor A. His ultimate -fate is unknown. Son of Orestes. and all were starved to death. D. brother-in-law of Leo I. Romulus. 476. and with his family he was imprisoned in Cappadocia.503 ANCIENT ROMAN COINS. Zeno. AugUStulus. Orestes Avas the actual ruler until he was defeated and killed hy Odoacer. Augustulus Romulus. he drove Zeno from 156. on account of his youth. BasilisCUS. after driving out Julius Nepos. the throne and declared himself Emperor of the East. D. was spared. next year conquered and captured him. 475. e?r3C' M^^?^^'^ ^^*^^. but exiled to Campania.

18. Emperor A. 1). Emperor A. Germa . 49. 41. Germany. etc. .54. 518. Hungary. 3. 5. Archduke Austria. Emperor 1255. No. No. . Maria. No. Died «1(). 2. 15. 174 . A. No. Hungary. «74. cMlled by tho Gi-eel<s ToTILLA. D. 7. Died 1222. D. I). 1291. TiiEODOTTATT'S King of the Goths in Italy. Switzerland. died 1595.. One of the f. D. 45. stantinople.. 30. No. A. 059. J^o. 504 MEDIAEVAL COINS. 14. 33. 742.ES. D. Spain. 4. 1. 39. j)f tho East. No.50. Fekdinanlus.578.30. Georgius.reatest emperors No. Died -1259. C. No.539 died 1. Germany. Bohemia. . 575. 8. reigned Irom 582 to 020. No. Emperor No. Bohemia. 4. Leo IV. Portugal.572.ssouof Albertusand 27. Alphonsu. 10. Emperor A. 21. C^SAR Rudolpiius. 1552. Henricus CoRNi. D. C. 1). :and his son Constantinus A'. No.592. No. No.tria. he was murdered by Phocas. ((ueen of Joannis. No. A.ARtTS born . 842. " Clementine rj.T. 1057. T). Emperor A.576. D.. KUled by No. died 527. MAtTKiciu. died fi41. 1.. Killed. Germany and Italy or Spain? No. His extraordinary reign marks the last epoeh of ancient Roman grandeur. etc. 38. etc. died No. etc. No. etc. elected 1575. 1519. Basijuscvs . No.57. Cakolus. 6. JiEO in. 42.VBETn. surnamed CoaiMENUS Emperor A. No.see Emperors . Joanna. -No. Albertus III. No. 26 and No. D. Nicephorus. No. 11. . of the East. No. died No. Born 15. 26. No. No. I'atriarch of Con- at Constantinople A. etc. 1067. 34. 743. ToO. No. No.. England. Holland. No. Assoeiated in the and Bohemia. Elizabeth. Boru No.iAM. sassinated 8(37 the reverse shows JNIiehael and died 1. Born 1529. 1204.s. No. D. Arch-duke Austria.. Killed in battle with Naises. 12. A. Hungary. 1590.5—. 1545. Ti«KKiiTS. No.v. a. Cesar Matthia."iryi. D. Isaacttts I. ELi. No. Maeciaxu. thunder 518. No. No. 717. abdicated 1059. MargaretumVX. Archdulce AusNo. C03S^stantinus and Adronieus. peror of Constantinople A. 491.-.'. Born 1547.'esarMaximilianusII.561. with his lirother Heraolitis. . 539. No. Born 15. 1.s. Micitaei. De•clared Enij)erer 751 died 7X0. 36. Died 741 No.. Gtjtha (uxor?) vxor. wife of Albcrtns. 1608. WiNCESLAtlS. No. A. 1203. 47.3. No. 22. T>. A.or. 1). No.\R RvDOLPHi'S II. Catiiarina Reg Portugal Joann III.ui. tria. Kinfj of the (Jotlis in Italy A. in. Joannes VI. Michael II. died 1061.s. Ferdinandtjs. A. Joanna Magni. 147. KiUed. 19. IJoni abont A. 29. No.s X. Died Archduke Austria. Daniae. Catharina vxo'-. Wir. 35. Richard. 829. Emperor of the East. D.CiiA/. No. 1356. D. !')(). Duke of Aus<:via. Born •about A. No. No. Ot the I^aurian (lj"nasty. Charles V. 48.. 37. Flaa-itts TiiiKRiiT. D.. 430. D. D. Hungary No. BADUIL1. •of Constantinop'e. D. 23. Theodorus III. Ax. Emperor A. No. Spain. France his son Constantinus. 10. 1. A. when. No. EmJoannes. D. 1. 1521. 125. No. i:L!ZABETn. Heraclu'SI. and Sicily. 820. Duchy Florentine.. named Cassar. r. 25. Bohemia. Born ii Vienna 1.. No. 24. RuDOLi'HUS nzfjs. Elizabeth. Born A.see Kniperois of the East. 1326. 43. 541. 46. Queen Frame. Born 1. 31. No. 9. with all his family. 44. 27. o3(). CiKSAR Albertus. A. . Theodokus I.vSTASTrsT. Born A. Empire with their brother I'ogonatus 008. D. king Hungary. J uSTixtTS T. D. 17. 40. As. AusAustria. 32. A. 28.A. Barbara.s. 20. Isabella Philippi Regis.

505 MEDIEVAL COINS. .

)06 MEDIAEVAL COINS. .

507 MEDIAEVAL COINS. .

Obverse. 144. and four silver shekels.''"' 8. two bundles of branches. Reverse. Obverse. 312. " llie redemption of Zion. a pitcher and palm branch legend. 5. circulated also in Judea.''^ Obverse. legend. of Israel. legend. Obverse. whicjh has been re-struck.'''' round a cluster of grapes: Reverse. legend. 2. Copper coin of Simon. a Ibundle of branches between two ethrogs legend. 3. — — A . Palm tree between two baskets of dates. Silver coin of Simon Bar-cochab during the second revolt of the Jews. 1. " Simon. the legend.. ''/n the fourth year one half. heading the revolt. initil the tyranny of Antiochus Epiphanes. jection to the possessed no positive coinage until the time of tlieir subSyria. cluster of grapes. ''Shekel 1. branches.508 170 JEWISH COINS. rear " The Jewish people Kings of 144. legend. C. the legend. copper. Sinion. same as 'No. " The Deliverance The coin was originally a denarius of of Jerusalem. about B. of the Seleueidan dynasty. 176. Sixth of a Shekel.d a vine-leaf. Obverse.'''' Reverse. of Simon Maecaboeus.'''' 7. Copper coin of Simon. and to his successor. 2. . 1 legend. Copper coin of Simon Maecaboeus.'''' B. legend. " The redemption of Zion. bearing different types. Copper coin of Simon IMaccaboeus. " Reverse. C.''^ alxivc Reverse. Prince of Israel. when his son Judas Maccabeus. was conceded by Antiochus. '*• aroun. legend. established tln-oughout the East since t'le Macedonian conquest. an ethrog. "/a the fourth year one quarter. .''^ Reverse. Israel. similar to No. either side of a palm tree.^'' Reverse. Trajan. Obverse. son of Gioras. caused the revolt of Mattathias. C. '" In the fourth year. under the first revolt of the Jews.^ around two trumpets. legend. wiien Greek currency. two. the earliest of which was issued about B. Reverse. in B. all relating to tlie ceremonial of Judaic worship. two bunches of thickly-leaved 3. " Second year of the deliverance of Israel. eventually re-established the long lost independence of Judea. C. a triple lily. a cup or chalice. a cup or clialice.''^ on Obverse. Shekel of Simon Maecaboeus. Simon. 4. same as on No. Half-Shekel of Simon Maecaboeus. . Obverse. ^ Widow's Mite. " Half-Shekel^ year 2. the right of coining national money.''"' 6. legend. " First year of the redemption of . with tlie name " Simon. the son of Demetrius. the chief priest. etc. " Jerusaltm the holy. in i)ieces of one.

s y 14. 99 .. To designate the metal in which these coins are minted.4.64 . theirnational valuation lias been fonipiled and is here given.90 10 .id Afglianistan.50 40 . Cash. r/ (Hungary).^ 2. and 4s. Levantine. . . and 3s. Maiutra. Haraf. but their coinage is regulated by its standard. s iX1. COUNTRY.20 9s.")U). 6 Dollar. their current value is dG}. 5. u 5.16d 9S.11 1 . Official Table. y " s New-Kreutzer. Mas. 1.05d 9.43 . 48d 3. Aniiain. and contain 317.7 Belgium. S. b Bavaria.56 4. The nations composing the latin union. X Maliiiiudi. Abyssinia. . * (I'or.12d 2.34d ..19 9. in England.98 6 .14 .. .. U. a loss through discounton the values here given would be sustained to buy the coins. . s Azores. Caroline. 17d 99.42a 2. Pranc. ft . s Real. S.1 Ducat. or those on the U.99 83 .86d 4.35 36 .'>. Chili and Venezuela are not of the Union. .i»iiza (isiH-iC).. . Kwau. BRIT. COUNTRY. have equalized their standard for large coins the Five Franc pieces of France. coniputeil at the standarils of the U. 2 . . Batavia.72 2.Uod 2.28 2. 2S..50d . 13s.j. . 6 Kriisli. vereins-Kroue.51 Peso Kuerte. a premium. g Baden.76 II . which latter term includes all pieces not struck in gold or sUver.227 grains of pure silver. Pataka.23 41 1. 6 Diwana.30 71 . 6 .40 0. Id 9. ".20fl i^cudo.cO^ AND THEIR VALUATION AT UNITED STATES and ENGLISH STAND/J^lDS. s i*Pe<'ies. Quaar-pl. are in conseiiuence of the calculations being made from the sources mentioned. ia this country.s- 3. Miireis. 2d. VAL. s 4. and 1000 fine .98 6.69 . s Stiver. b Africa (Portugal). g D'lil Gulden. respectively.< cts. To purchase goods with this money in the U.s ( 4s. Centavo.75d 5.85 5. Five Boliviars of Venezuela and Peso of Chili each weigh 385.50a 14s.79 3 4s.99 . Kwaii.49d 3.34 GT.95 .25 49d od . s COINS. 4 .30 9. -l^od.69 .28 . S. I2d Diieat.. . would have to be paid.111(1 81. Kial-lioudjou. ' Vereins.15a 3. <_aveer. g.75rt 8.52d .5('d 8. base. $ VAL.96 66. 1. s Mas.25fl 2.5i'(i Id 7sl 6. Kaiioii. l> u.3I><1 Asia (French). silver. and Great Britain any variation from onr plate statements. / La Y'eiitavo.23(1 j.28 . .96 1.29. in some cases very high. Belgium and Switzerland the Five Lire of Italy.8(id . S. 2(1 I. and 4s.46 Argentine Republic. s Rix Dollar.18d . and b. From the latest governmental reportsof all countries possessing metallic currency. £ COINS.75d 5. Five Drachmi of Greece. S. indicates gold s. U 2s.udwig Max (POr. .17s. are 900 fine.60 2.04 Sapeck. 2s. worth 72^8 cents.(Kid 19.34 . Five Pesetas and Twenty Reals of Spain. .? ft 66.41 2. s Piaster.13 . ft \Plaia.. !7 ft 3.' Florin.85 5.0od . <)iiza(l's:«-. s Florin. the metal being calculated at f 1 per oz. 48. 10.67d 6. English standard. Mocha.20 S3 .07(1 .3.6=.« .808 grains. per oz.25(1 7.11 . s Tlialer.20 1 Id 2.y s Sapeck. 28.34a 5. (7 Florin.. 6 Austria.16 9.52 Id 5d . Arabia.3s. s Gass.54a 28.30 1.G5d ..10 Algiers. 4.

Cent. Shilling. . s Liberia. s Persia. Karolin.s- Netlierland (Holland). g (Imperial). g Florin. s Ionian Islands. g | (180'J-4U). h round Greece. 6 Centisimo. Lepta s Phoenix. I'iaster. g Peso. s Louis d'Or " (1785). g India. g s Crown. g Japan. . s * Hanover. g J[ark. Great Britain. *• s " Tlialer. aiohur. Peso. g l>rachmas (20). g Malta. g Xtzebu. b Franc. " Sovrauo. 6 Kasbequi. . Koner. Ducat. b Pice. s Madras. Real. g Doppelkronc. b Double Ducat. b 10 Cent. s Sen. S. COIN. s Real. 'I'lialer. Grano. g Hungary. *' Guinea.v " William. I'cuni. g Hesse-I>arnistaclt. b Scudo. Ludwig d'Or. * Fartliing. Centime.? r . b Finland. VAL. Abassee. . b Pie. UunUlc Thaler. . g Hytler. g Zecchine. Doubloon. b Vereins-Ivrone. Florin. b JFraiice. g Ducat.510 COUSTHY. b Dinar. g Krone. b . '' g ASIA { '^' German Kinpii-e. s 25 Cent. b Dinar-Bistee. b Ti-ade Dollars. s Sequin. Sterling. Crown.s' .s- Taro. g Itakaue. g Stiver. g Yen. ]Nr^ikka. b Gerinaiiv. Italy. 8tar-Pagoda. b Mexico. Anna. Obolo.9 . b Crown. Cent. g Drachma. b Paraguay. b Lira. b Norway.« I'l'ennig. s Oere. s Cicntavo. s Kobang. b Rupee. g Penny. * g Sovereign.

rTlip Grnnime is the nnit of weight in tlie metric system.-r of liiuv water at its ax um density. ] GRAINS . This Table exhibits tlie Grammes (French) contained in Grains f"Fnp:lish). equivalent to the weight of one cubic . In a vacuum It is (•(]uul to 15. . 511 SMITH. 4:r grains avc liic lupois or troy . COPYRIGHTED BY A.-iitiiiH-t. that is. at a temperature of X)° Fahrenheit. M.^ FRENCH GRAMMES AND ENGLISH GRAINS.

free o^ Deeds. TWO PER CEXT. either for Building or Gardening purposes. The Bank undertakes charge. A. 1886. London. will be thankfully received Addresses of persons collecting coins. Pamphlet. Subscribers and patrons of this work will confer a favor by sending their address that they may receive notification of future supplements which may be issued. Manager. The Birbeck Building Society's Annual Receipts exceed Five Millions. O. when not drawn below £50. The BIRBECK ALMANACK. A FRANCIS RAVENSCROFT. repayable on demand. U. miitically inclined. Publisher. INTEREST allowed on CURon the minimum monthly balances. Philadelphia. Southampton Buildings. Writings. . THREE PER CENT. the Apply at the Office of Birbeck Building Societv. can be obtained post free. Chancery I^ane. March Slst. Manager. SMITH. M. with imApply at the Office of the mediate possession. or whoarenumisby A. Birbeck Free- hold Lakd Society. for its customers. with full particulars. S. INTEREST calculated RENT ACCOUNTS. piRBECK BANK. on application to FRANCIS RAVENSCROFT.— Southampton Buildings. and other and Valuables the collection of Bills of Exchange.^ ESTABLISHED 1851. the custody of Securities . HOAV TO PURCHASE A HOUSE FOR TWO GUINEAS PER MONTH. on application. Pa. with immediate Possession and no Rent to pay. allowed on DEPOSITS. P.. Dividends and Coupons and the purchase and sale of Stocks. Shares. . Chancery Lane. with full particulars. Box 754. and Annuities. HOW TO PURCHASE A PLOT OF LAND FOR FIVE SHILLINGS PER MONTH.

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