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# Chapter 1 Introduction

1

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1

Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers 1.2

Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review 1.3

Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction 1.4

Failure Criteria of Materials 1.5

Review

Chapter 1 Introduction

Section 1.1 Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers

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Section 1.1

Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers

Problem Description

[2] A single ﬁnger is studied in this case. [1] The pneumatic ﬁngers are part of a surgical parallel robot system remotely controlled by a surgeon through the Internet.

Chapter 1 Introduction

Section 1.1 Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers

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5 [3] Geometric model. 4 Stress (MPa) 3 2 1 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 [4] The strain-stress curve of the PDMS elastomer used in this case.

Strain (Dimensionless)

[6] Undeformed shape. [5] As air pressure applies, the ﬁnger bends downward.

[2] Create geometric model.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. [3] Generate ﬁnite element mesh. [6] View the results. . [4] Set up loads and supports. [5] Solve the model.1 Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers 4 Static Structural Simulations [1] Prepare material properties.

[7] Displacements.1 Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers 5 [8] Strains.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. .

Usually occurs in slender columns. .. [1] If we apply an upward force here.e. Buckling: phenomenon when bending stiffness reduces to zero.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. Purpose of a buckling analysis is to ﬁnd buckling loads and buckling modes. guitar string.. i. [2] The upper surface would undergo compressive stress. the structure is unstable. e. thin walls. It in turn reduces the bending stiffness. The opposite also holds: bending stiffness decreases with increasing axial compressive stress. etc.g...1 Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers 6 Buckling and Stress-Stiffening • • • • Stress-stiffening: bending stiffness increases with increasing axial tensile stress.

it is called a dynamic simulation. • When including these dynamic effects.1 Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers 7 Dynamic Simulations • When the bodies move and deform very fast. inertia effect and damping effect must be considered.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. .

• • It is called a modal analysis.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. . the vibrations of a structure without any loading.1 Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers 8 Modal Analysis • A special case of dynamic simulations is the simulation of free vibrations. Purpose of a modal analysis is to ﬁnd natural frequencies and mode shapes.

When the solution deviates from the reality. topology changes. [2] Solution of the linear simulation pf the PDMS ﬁnger. etc. nonlinear stress-strain relationship. Deflection (mm) 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 0 40 80 120 160 200 [1] Solution of the nonlinear simulation of the PDMS ﬁnger. Structural nonlinearities come from large deformation.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. a nonlinear simulation is needed. Pressure (kPa) .1 Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers 9 Structural Nonlinearities • • • Linear simulations assume that the response is linearly proportional to the loading.

. strains.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. • • • The bodies are described by geometries and materials. Responses can be described by displacements. Structural simulation: ﬁnding the responses of bodies subject to environmental conditions.2 Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review 10 Section 1. Environment conditions include support and loading conditions.2 Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review • • Engineering simulation: ﬁnding the responses of a problem domain subject to environmental conditions. and stresses.

Y X [2] The body after deformation. [5] The displacement vector {u} of the particle is formed by connecting the positions before and after the deformation. before the deformation.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. Z).Y. [1] The body before deformation. the particle moves to a new position. [4] After the deformation. .2 Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review 11 Displacements {u} = { uX uY uZ } [3] An arbitrary particle of position (X.

2 Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review 12 Stresses { } ⎧ σ X ⎪ ⎪ σ = ⎨ τ YX ⎪ τ ⎪ ⎩ ZX τ XY σY τ ZY τ XZ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ τ YZ ⎬ ⎪ σZ ⎪ ⎭ [3] This face is called negative X-face. since the X-direction is normal to this face. [6] The Z-component of the stress on X-face. [2] This face is called X-face. . τ ZY Z σZ τ ZX τ XY = τ YX . τ YZ = τ ZY . τ XZ = τ ZX {σ } = { σ X σY σZ τ XY τ YZ τ ZX } [5] The Ycomponent of the stress on X-face.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. X Y [1] The reference frame XYZ. τ XY σX τ YX τ XZ τ YZ σY [4] The X-component of the stress on X-face.

Now CC ′′′ is the amount of stretch of ABC in Y-face. εX = BD DB ′′′ . The new conﬁguration is AB ′′′C ′′′ . [3] After deformation. [6] The vector BD describes the stretch of ABC in X-face. .Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. A′ B ′′′ B′ Y A X B D Strain on X -face = BB ′′′ AB [7] And the vector DB ′′′ describes the twist of ABC in X-face. C′ C ′′′ C B ′′ [1] The reference frame. C ′′ [4] To compare with original conﬁguration. rotate A′B ′C ′ to a new conﬁguration A′B ′′C ′′ . γ XY = AB AB [2] Original conﬁguration ABC.2 Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review 13 Strains [5] Translate A′B ′′C ′′ so that A′ coincides with A. ABC moves to A′B ′C ′ .

2 Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review 14 • • Physical meaning of strains: • The normal strain ε X is the percentage of stretch of a ﬁber which lies along X-direction. We can deﬁne other strain components in a similar way. {} ⎧ ε X ⎪ ⎪ ε = ⎨ γ YX ⎪ γ ⎪ ⎩ ZX γ XY εY γ ZY γ XZ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ γ YZ ⎬ ⎪ εZ ⎪ ⎭ γ XY = γ YX . • The shear strain γ XY is the angle change (in radian) of two ﬁbers lying on XY-plane and originally forming a right angle. γ XZ = γ ZX {ε } = { εX εY εZ γ XY γ YZ γ ZX } . γ YZ = γ ZY .Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1.

2 Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review 15 Governing Equations {u} = { {σ } = { σ {ε } = { X uX uY uZ } τ YZ γ YZ τ ZX γ ZX σY εY σZ εZ τ XY γ XY } } εX Totally 15 quantities • • • Equilibrium Equations (3 Equations) Strain-Displacement Relations (6 Equations) Stress-Strain Relations (6 Equations) .Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1.

Young's modulus (E) and Poisson's ratio ( ν ) can be used to fully describe the stressstrain relations.2 Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review 16 Stress-Strain Relations: Hooke's Law σX σ σ −ν Y −ν Z E E E σY σZ σX εY = −ν −ν E E E σZ σX σY εZ = −ν −ν E E E τ τ τ = XY . γ ZX = ZX G G G εX = • For isotropic. γ XY • • The Hooke's law is called a material model. G= E 2(1 + ν ) .Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. γ YZ = YZ . The Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio are called the material parameters of the material model. linearly elastic materials.

. γ YZ = YZ .2 Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review 17 σX σ σ − ν Y − ν Z + αΔT E E E σY σZ σX εY = −ν −ν + αΔT E E E σ σ σ ε Z = Z − ν X − ν Y + αΔT E E E τ τ τ γ XY = XY . the mass density must be included.g. (CTE. . α ) must be included. γ ZX = ZX G G G εX = • If temperature changes (thermal loads) are involved. • If inertia forces (e. dynamic simulations) are involved.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. the coefﬁcient of thermal expansion.

and all the equilibrium equations are solved simultaneously The elements are assumed to be connected by nodes located on the elements' edges and vertices.3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction 18 Section 1. called elements. .3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction Basic Ideas • • A basic idea of ﬁnite element methods is to divide the structural body into small and geometrically simple bodies.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. so that equilibrium equations of each element can be written.

.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. • Since the displacement on each node is a vector and has three components (in 3D cases). the number of total unknown quantities to be solved is three times the number of nodes.3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction 19 • Another idea is to solve unknown discrete values (displacements at the nodes) rather than to solve unknown functions (displacement ﬁelds). The elements are connected by 17142 nodes. There are 3x17142 unknown displacement values to be solved. • The nodal displacement components are called the degrees of freedom (DOF's) of the structure. the structural body is divided into 3122 elements. In case of the pneumatic ﬁnger.

then [K] is the spring constant. The matrix [K] is called the stiffness matrix of the structure. and {D} as the deformation of the spring. {F} as external force. the system of equilibrium equations has following form: ⎡ ⎣K ⎤ ⎦ D = F { } {} The displacement vector {D} contains displacements of all degrees of freedom.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. . The force vector {F} contains forces acting on all degrees of freedom.3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction 20 • • • • In static cases. In a special case when the structure is a spring.

3.1 Construct the [K] matrix. however. according to the support conditions. Divide the bodies into elements. are known.3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction 21 Basic Procedure of Finite Element Method 1.3 Most of components in {D} are unknown. material properties. Some component. according to the loading conditions.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. Given the bodies' geometries.2 Most of components in {F} can be calculated. 3. according to the elements' geometries and the material properties. 3. Establish the equilibrium equation: [K] {D} = {F} 3. and loading conditions. 3. .4 The total number of unknowns in {D} and {F} should be equal to the total number of degrees of freedom of the structure. 2. support conditions.

{u} = [N] {d}.2 Calculate strain ﬁelds according to the strain-displacement relations. For each element: 5. 5.1 Calculate displacement ﬁelds {u}. Now. .3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction 22 4. 5. the nodal displacements {d} of each element are known. Solve the equilibrium equation.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1.3 Calculate stress ﬁelds according to the stress-strain relations (Hooke's law). 5. using an interpolating method. The interpolating functions in [N] are called the shape functions.

the interpolation must be linear and thus the shape functions are linear (of X. allowing the calculation of displacement ﬁelds (functions of X.Y.3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction 23 Shape Functions • Shape functions serve as interpolating functions. Z). Y. d3 d1 [2] This element's nodes locate at vertices. Z) from nodal displacements (discrete values).Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. [1] A 2D 4-node quadrilateral element d6 d8 d7 Y d5 {u} = ⎡ ⎣N ⎤ ⎦ {d } d4 d2 X • For elements with nodes at vertices. .

Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1.3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction 24 • • • • For elements with nodes at vertices as well as at middles of edges. ANSYS Workbench supports only ﬁrst-order and second-order elements. . the interpolation must be quadratic and thus the shape functions are quadratic (of X.Y. ﬁrst-order elements. Elements with linear shape functions are called linear elements. second-order elements. or lower-order elements. Elements with quadratic shape functions are called quadratic elements. or higher-order elements. Z).

[1] 3D 20-node structural solid.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. [3] Quadrilateralbased pyramid.3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction 25 Workbench Elements 3D Solid Bodies [4] Tetrahedron. Each node has 3 translational degrees of freedom: DX. . DY. and DZ. [2] Triangle-based prism.

Each node has 2 translational degrees of freedom: DX and DY. [6] Degenerated Triangle.3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction 26 2D Solid Bodies [5] 2D 8-node structural solid. .Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1.

DZ. RY. and RZ. RX. DY. Each node has 3 translational and 3 rotational degrees of freedom: DX. RZ. RY. Each node has 3 translational and 3 rotational degrees of freedom: DX. DY. RX. 3D Line Bodies [9] 3D 2-Node beam.3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction 27 3D Surface Bodies [8] Degenerated Triangle [7] 3D 4-node structural shell. .Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. DZ.

4 Failure Criteria of Materials Ductile versus Brittle Materials • • • A Ductile material exhibits a large amount of strain before it fractures.4 Failure Criteria of Materials 28 Section 1. .Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. The fracture strain of a brittle material is relatively small. Fracture strain is a measure of ductility.

Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1.4 Failure Criteria of Materials 29 Failure Points for Ductile Materials • • Mild steel is a typical ductile material. the failure is accompanied by excess deformation. for these materials. Strain [3] Yield point. σy Stress [1] Stress-strain curve for a ductile material. there often exists an obvious yield point. • Therefore. For ductile materials. . [2] Fracture point. beyond which the deformation would be too large so that the material is no longer reliable or functional. we are most concerned about whether the material reaches the yield point σ y .

Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. and we are concerned about their fracture point σ f .4 Failure Criteria of Materials 30 Failure Points for Brittle Materials • • Cast iron and ceramics are two examples of brittle materials. there usually doesn't exist obvious yield point. [1] Stress-strain curve for a brittle material. For brittle materials. σf Stress [2] Fracture point. Strain .

4 Failure Criteria of Materials 31 Failure Modes • • The fracture of brittle materials is mostly due to tensile failure. The yielding of ductile materials is mostly due to shear failure .Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1.

[6] Point of maximum normal stress. The corresponding normal stress is called a principle stress. τ XY ) τ XY τ XY [1] Stress state. τ XY ) σ (σ Y . (σ X . Y σY [5] Mohr's circle.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. [7] Point of minimum normal stress. [9] Another Point of maximum shear stress.4 Failure Criteria of Materials 32 Principal Stresses • • A direction in which the shear stress vanishes is called a principal direction. [8] Point of maximum shear stress. [4] Other stress pairs could be drawn. τ [2] Stress in the base direction. X σX τ XY τ XY σY σX [3] Stress in the direction that forms 90o with the base direction. .

The medium principal stress is denoted by σ 2 . there are three principal directions and three principal stresses. The minimum normal stress is called the minimum principal stress and denoted by σ 3 . the minimum principal stress is often a negative value.4 Failure Criteria of Materials 33 • • • • • At any point of a 3D solid. a tension. The maximum principal stress is usually a positive value. The maximum normal stress is called the maximum principal stress and denoted by σ1 . a compression.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. .

it will fail.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. a brittle material fractures because its tensile stress reaches the fracture strength σ f . if the maximum principal stress reaches the fracture strength of the material.4 Failure Criteria of Materials 34 Failure Criterion for Brittle Materials • • • The failure of brittle materials is a tensile failure. In short. a point of material fails if σ1 ≥ σ f . In other words. We may state a failure criterion for brittle materials as follows: At a certain point of a body.

• It is easy to show (using Mohr's circle) that τ max = σ1 − σ 3 2 σy 2 • We may state a failure criterion for ductile materials as follows: At a certain point of a body.4 Failure Criteria of Materials 35 Tresca Criterion for Ductile Materials • The failure of ductile materials is a shear failure. it will fail. a ductile material yields because its shear stress reaches the shear strength τ y of the material.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. the material yields if σ1 − σ 3 ≥ σ y (σ1 − σ 3 ) is called the stress intensity. a point of material fails if τ max ≥ τ y . if the maximum shear stress reaches the shear strength of the material. In other words. τy = • • Thus. • In short.

Richard von Mises proposed a theory for predicting the yielding of ductile materials. i.4 Failure Criteria of Materials 36 Von Mises Criterion for Ductile Materials • In 1913.. w d ≥ w yd • It can be shown that the yielding deviatoric energy in uniaxial test is w yd = 2 (1+ ν )σ y 3E • And the deviatoric energy in general 3D cases is wd = 2 2 2 1+ ν ⎡ σ1 − σ 2 + σ 2 − σ 3 + σ 3 − σ1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 6E ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) ( ) .Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1. The theory states that the yielding occurs when the deviatoric strain energy density reaches a critical value.e.

and denoted by σ e . the criterion reduces to that the yielding occurs when 2 2 2 1⎡ σ1 − σ 2 + σ 2 − σ 3 + σ 3 − σ1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ≥ σy 2⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) ( ) • The quantity on the left-hand-side is termed von Mises stress or effective stress. in ANSYS.4 Failure Criteria of Materials 37 • After substitution and simpliﬁcation. σe = 2 2 2 1⎡ σ1 − σ 2 + σ 2 − σ 3 + σ 3 − σ1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 2⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) ( ) . it is also referred to as equivalent stress.Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1.