Change Detection 

Prepared by: Oluwafemi Opaleye

Objectives
• • • • • • • Introduction What is Change Detection? Pre‐processing / Requirement  Change Detection Techniques Application Areas Practical Example Further Readings
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Introduction
Remote Sensing (RS) methods try to answer four basic q f questions:

How much of What is Where? 
• What:  Type, Characteristic and Properties of Object.     e.g. g  Water, Vegetation, g  Land etc. • How Much: determine by simple Counting,  measuring Area  covered or percentage of  total area  coverage. • Where: Relate locations and area covered to either a  standard map or to the actual location on the  ‘ground’ ground  where the object occurs. occurs 04/07/2013 Note: Where also refers to a moment in time 3

• What is the SHAPE and EXTENT of ... ? (Area, Boundaries (Area Boundaries, Lineaments Lineaments, ...) ) • This extends the ‘WHERE’ to be a completely  GEOMETRIC problem. bl – Identification and Delineation of Boundaries

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• What at is s t the e MIX o of Objects? The surface Th f  of f th the Earth E th i is covered d by b  objects bj t  lik like  Soil, Water, Grass, Trees, Houses, Roads and so on.  ‐ Landuse/Landcover ‐ Classification

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• Has it CHANGED?

CHANGE   may occur with progress of TIME. Change may be detected through comparison of  observed states at different moments in time. ‐ CHANGE DETECTION
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What is Change Detection?
• Change detection is the process of identifying  differences in the state of an object or phenomenon  by observing it at different times.  • It is the detection of class transition between a pair  of co‐registered images images. • The main goal is to use remote sensing to detect  CHANGE on a landscape (landuse and landcover)  over time.
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• Change detection algorithms analyze multiple images of the same scene – taken at different times – to identify y regions of change. • Changes on the earth surface could be directly caused by natural forces, by the activities of animals and human i d d induced. • Ti Timely l and d accurate change h d detection i of f Earth’s E h’ surface f features provides the foundation for a better understanding of the relationships and interactions between human and natural phenomena in order to better manage and use resources.
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• It can be performed with raw remote sensing bands or thematic land cover maps classified from them. • G Good d Change Ch D t ti research Detection h should h ld provide id the th following: • • • • area change g rate of change spatial distribution of changed types accuracy assessment of change detection results

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Pre‐processing / Requirement
• Geometric Correction – Georeferencing ‐ precise  coregistration between multitemporal images • Radiometric Correction ‐ precise radiometric and  atmospheric calibration or normalization between  multitemporal images • Region/Area /  of f Interest – same geographic h  location l • Remote sensing system consideration – spatial,  spectral, radiometric and temporal
– whenever possible, select images acquired from the same  type of sensors, with the same spectral and spatial  resolutions, and at the same seasonal timeframe in order to  minimize i i i  unwanted t d variances. i
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• Free of clouds in the area of analysis • Select time periods – what is change detection  period? • Select Landcover scheme – they must be classified in  accordance with the same classification scheme scheme.
– classes must also be defined identically

• Cl Classification ifi ti  – choose h  classification l ifi ti  algorithm l ith • Choose change detection method • Change detection accuracy assessment 
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Major steps involved in a typical change analysis  process change p g  detection p procedure

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Change Detection Techniques
• • • • • Visual Analysis Image Differencing Image ratioing Post Classification Comparison Statistical analysis

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Visual Analysis
• It is the first place to start • Visually comparing multi‐images g g changes g  in multi‐images g  is often  • Manual digitizing used to both identify and classify change between  images g • Elements of image interpretation combined with the  knowledge of the area of study are often used used.

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Drying up of Lake Faguibine ‐ Mali
1974 2006

▪ It covered area of about 590km2 ▪ Water level have fluctuated widely since the beginning of 1980 ▪ An extended period of reduced precipitation led to a complete drying of the lake
Source: Africa: Atlas of Our Changing Environment , UNEP
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Declining Water Levels in Lake Chad (1972‐2007)
1972
A Area (12 (12,797sqkm) 797 k )

1987
Area (1,563sqkm)

2007
1987 Image g show that lake Chad reduced to about one-tenth of what it was in 1972 image. 2007 image show some improvement but the extent of the lake is still smaller to what it was 2-3 decades ago.
Area (1,753sqkm) (1 753sqkm)

Lake Chad, located at the junction of Niger, Nigeria, Chad and Cameroon, was once the sixth largest lake in the world. Persistent drought and increased agriculture irrigation have reduced the lake’s extent

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Image g  Differencing g
• It requires selection of corresponding bands from two dates imageries of the same study area • Uses software algorithm to identify and quantify the changes between two temporal images • The difference image is created by subtracting the brightness g values of one image g from the other on a p per‐ pixel basis. • Unchanged g areas will have values at or nearer zero; ; while areas with significant change will be progressively positive or negative.
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Example of image differencing  procedure

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Advantages
• It is relatively y easy y to understand and to implement. p • This method of analysis involves only subtraction with minimal human intervention. • So long as the two images have been sampled to the same ground resolution and projected to the same coordinate system, the subtraction can be carried out very quickly. quickly • The results of change detection are not subject • to the inaccuracy inherent in classified land cover maps.
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Limitations
• this method is limited in that it fails to reveal the nature of a detected change (e.g., the class from which a land cover has changed). • identify threshold values of change and no‐change in  the resulting images. • direct use of raw spectral data in change analysis makes the detected change highly susceptible to radiometric variations caused by illumination conditions and seasonality.
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Image Ratioing
• Similar to Image differencing conceptually and in its simplicity. • This method uses one temporal image to divide image of another date. • Values near to 1.0 indicate – no change greater or less than 1.0 indicate changes g • Values g • Usually used for vegetation studies • All other advantages and disadvantages of image differencing apply to image ratioing.
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Example of image ratioing procedure

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Post Classification Comparison
• Most popular method of change detection • In post classification comparison, each date of  rectified imagery is independently classified to fit  common landtype. • Landcover maps are overlaid and compared  pixel by  pixel p e  bas basis. s • The result is a map of landtype change • The change map display acreage of each change  class
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Advantages
• Many classification algorithms can be directly used.  It can provide detailed matrix of change information  and accuracy assessment is easy. • Easy to quantify the area of change and rate of  c a ge change • It also attribute changes e.g.

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Limitations
• Classification accuracy directly influences the  accuracy of change detection. • It is time‐consuming to create classification results  and a professional operator is necessary. • It is difficult and expensive to obtain appropriate  multi u ‐temporal e po a  ground g ou d reference. e e e ce

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Sources of Error in Change Detection
• • • • • • • Errors in data – image quality Atmospheric error Mis‐registration between multiple image dates Seasonal variability Processing error  Radiometric error – due to sensor drift or age Error in Classification

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Application Areas
• • • • • • • • • landcover/landuse l d /l d changes h mapping urban growth rate of deforestation urban sprawl desertification di t  monitoring disaster it i agriculture coastal change environmental impact p  assessment
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Practical Example: xample:
Geospatial Assessment of Amanawa Forest  Reserve, Sokoto State, Nigeria

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1996 Landcover Map of Amanawa Forest Reserve  Area

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2008 Landcover Map of Amanawa Forest  Reserve Area

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Landcover Type

1996 A  ( Area (sqkm) k )

1996 P Percentage t  (%)

2008 A  ( Area (sqkm) k )

2008 P Percentage t  (%)

Farmland Rock Outcrop Bare Soil Forest Reserve Dam Total

30.627 4.6449 3.537 2.0133 0.171 40.9932

74.71 11.33 8.63 4.91 0.42 100

30.772 4.0734 4.1517 1.89 0.1053 40.9932

75.07 9.94 10.12 4.61 0.26 100

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Change Detection Map showing transition of  L d Landcovers  (1996‐2008)

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Landcover Type

Area ( (sqkm) q )

Difference  (sqkm) 1996 ‐ 2008 0 145 0.145 ‐0.572 0 572 0.615 ‐0.123 ‐0.066 0 066

Increase/Decline (%) 1996 ‐ 2008 0 473 0.473 ‐12.304 12 304 17.379 ‐6.124 ‐38.421 38 421
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1996 Farmland 30 627 30.627 Rock  Outcrop Outc op Bare Soil Forest  Reserve Dam
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2008 30 772 30.772 4 073 4.073 4.152 1.890 0 105 0.105

4 645 4.645 3.537 2.013 0 171 0.171

Prediction Analysis y

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Markov Probability of Change in Landcover (1996 – 2008)
Bare Soil   Dam  Bare Soil  Dam Farmland Forest 0.7646  0.2765 
0.3212

Farmland Forest 0.1726  0.1098 
0.6097 

0.0382  0.6137  0.0680  0.0000  0.0000 

0.0233  0.0000  0.0011  0.6676  0.0000 

Rock  Outcrop 0.0012  0.0000  0.0000  0.0000 
0.6393

0.1849 

0.1475  0.0231 

Rock Outcrop 0.3376 

2018 Projected Landcover Map of Amanawa Forest  Area

Area and Percentage of 2018 Projected Landcover of  Amanawa Forest Area
Landcover Type Farmland Rock Outcrop Bare Soil Forest Reserve Dam Total Area (sqkm) 27 5877 27.5877 3.9555 7.6527 1.71 0.0873 40.9932 Percentage (%) 67 3 67.3 9.65 18.67 4.17 0.21 100

Reading g for further information
• J.R. J  Je Jensen se  ( (2005)Introductory 005) t oducto y Digital g ta  Image age  Processing, A Remote sensing perspective.  467‐492 • R. R. Jensen, J. D. Gatrell and D. McLean  (2007) Geo‐Spatial Technologies in Urban  y, Practice, , and Pixels. 145‐ Environments Policy, 167

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Thank You for Listening

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