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Engineering Encyclopedia

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Road Design And Construction

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramcos employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Civil File Reference: CSE11101

For additional information on this subject, contact A.M. Al-Khunaini on 8732653

Engineering Encyclopedia

Civil Road Design and Construction

CONTENTS

PAGE

Road Terminology, Standards And Materials..................................................1 Material Properties.........................................................................................15 Road Layout And Design...............................................................................36 Drainage.........................................................................................................63 Pavement Design ...........................................................................................83 Road Construction Techniques ....................................................................113 Work Aid 1 ..................................................................................................133 Work Aid 2: Determining Peak Runoff (Discharge)...................................134 Work Aid 3: Ditch Design Nomograph ......................................................136 Work Aid 4 ..................................................................................................137 Work Aid 5 ..................................................................................................138 Glossary .......................................................................................................139

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ROAD TERMINOLOGY, STANDARDS AND MATERIALS This lesson addresses the common terminology used in road construction, it describes the components of the road, it discusses the pertinent Saudi Aramco standards for road construction, and it reviews some of the common materials encountered in road construction in Saudi Arabia. Pavement Types Rigid Rigid pavements are seldom used in Saudi Arabia, and therefore their discussion will be limited. A rigid pavement has a portland cement concrete (PCC) surface. Rigid pavement is typically supported by a granular base material that is porous enough to allow water that gets under the pavement to drain quickly away. The granular base material rests on compacted soil (subgrade). Freshly-placed concrete cools quickly and loses a large amount of water in the first hours after construction. These events cause concrete to contract, resulting in cracks. Transverse contraction joints are sawed every 4-12 m (12-40 feet) in the rigid pavements soon after construction. This causes cracks where they can be controlled and maintained. The area between joints is termed a slab. Each PCC slab is considered to be "rigid", as the deflection of the slab under the load is very small. Concrete pavement is designed thick enough that the traffic loads are almost uniformly distributed along the top of the granular base. This stress is small enough so that the base and subgrade are only lightly stressed by the tire loads. The base under a PCC pavement performs primarily as a drainage layer instead of a structural layer. Figure 1 shows the distribution of stresses and the typical layers present in a rigid pavement roadway. Rigid pavements have higher construction costs than asphalt (flexible) pavements. However, rigid pavements may be preferred in the following instances: For heavily-traveled roads in large cities. Rigid pavements last longer before major maintenance is required (20-30 years). This means fewer maintenance caused traffic interruptions will occur compared to the shorter life of flexible pavements (10-20 years). For pavements in fueling areas and chemical processing areas. PCC pavements generally will not be harmed by spilled fuel or chemicals, but asphalt is dissolved by petrochemicals and will deteriorate.

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STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN RIGID PAVEMENT

Tire

Tire Contact Stress

Uniform Stress Distribution

PCC Slab

BASE (SUBBASE) Subgrade (Foundation Soil)

FIGURE 1

STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT


Tire Contact Stress

Tire

Surface

Base

Subbase

Subgrade

FIGURE 2
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Flexible A flexible pavement has an asphaltic concrete (AC) surface consisting of aggregate bound by asphalt cement. Below this surface, the pavement structure consists of several AC or unbound granular layers which rest upon the compacted subgrade soil. Because AC is much more flexible than the PCC (rigid) pavement, the vehicle loads spread out much more slowly through the AC pavement structure. Thus, the layers beneath the AC surface may need to be stronger than layers beneath a PCC surface. Figure 2 shows the general distribution of stresses and typical layers present in a flexible pavement. In a flexible pavement layers typically decrease in strength from surface to subgrade since the amount of stress decreases as the depth below the load increases. The pavement structure should be thick enough so that the stress at the top of the subgrade is small and does not affect it. Asphalt concrete is the most commonly used road building material: it is found in over 75% of pavements. Because of cost factors even PCC pavements are routinely "overlaid" by 2.510.0 cm (1-4 inches) of AC when they require major maintenance. Unpaved Unpaved roads are often constructed when the expected volume of traffic is low, as in remote locations. They consist of one or more granular layers resting on compacted subgrade. Loads are distributed through the layers of an unpaved roadway in much the same manner as flexible pavements. Because none of the layers contain an added binder (such as asphalt cement), the unpaved road depends upon a natural binder (usually clay) to hold the larger aggregate together. The combination of clay and large aggregates give the unpaved structure several desirable properties: Stability: The type and quality of fines (binder clay) should be sufficient to bind the large aggregate but not cause it to lose the aggregate-to-aggregate contacts which carry the load. Abrasion resistance: The larger aggregate should provide necessary surface roughness so that friction at tire/surface contact points will allow a vehicle to stop and turn curves safely. Watertightness: Rainfall should drain off the surface quickly and not permeate the pavement structure. Water retention: Some moisture must be retained so that air-borne dust caused by traffic will be kept low. This may require application of an admixture, such as calcium chloride or sodium chloride, in dry regions.
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Civil Road Design and Construction

Road Cross-Sections/Components Once the road project has been designed, a set of plans and specifications are developed to instruct the project contractor in the details of the project. One important part of these plans is the typical section. The typical section gives information on pavement layer thicknesses and materials, side slopes, side ditch dimensions, and many other important details. Figure 3 shows a typical simple cross-section for a roadway with its components. Information regarding these components is generally given in a set of plans. Non-Pavement Cross-Sections/Components The pavement cross-section is different for the three types, but the remaining cross section components are similar for all pavement types. Items such as shoulder slope and pavement slope are specified so that the pavement will drain properly. The slopes outside the shoulder in fill areas, the fore and back slopes in cut areas, and the shoulder widths are specified so that the roadside will be safe for any errant vehicle that may leave the traveled way. Ditch widths and types, although set by the drainage needs, must be considered along with the side slopes when evaluating roadside safety. Flexible Pavement Cross-Sections/Components Flexible pavements have four basic layers, as shown in Figure 4b. Subgrade The subgrade is the soil upon which the pavement structure is constructed. It is sometimes referred to as the foundation soil. It may be material which is brought to the project site and placed (for fill sections) or material found in place (for cut sections). Subgrade materials range from weak clays to strong sands and gravels. These materials affect the pavement design thickness, with weaker subgrades requiring a thicker pavement structure than stronger subgrades. The top portion of a weak subgrade may be strengthened by mixing it with better aggregates or with a stabilizing material, which changes the chemical composition of the subgrade, and then compacting it to a greater density.

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fill fore shoulder slope ditch existing ground slope shoulder traveled way

pavement side back

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slope

slope slope slope slope slope

( not to scale )

GENERALIZED ROADWAY CROSS SECTION

FIGURE 3
base slope subbase (if desired) subgrade

slope

existing

ground

typical

typical cut

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fill

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PAVEMENT LAYER TERMINOLOGY

PCC Surface Granular Base (Subbase) Subgrade

a) Rigid

AC Surface Base (Granular or AC) Subbase (Granular or AC) Subgrade Note: subgrade can be stabilized if desired.

b) Flexible

Granular Surface with Some Clay Binder Granular Base Subgrade

c) Unpaved

FIGURE 4

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The subgrade is not designed to carry much load. The layers above the subgrade are designed to spread the load out so that the pressure caused by traffic is very small when it reaches the top of the subgrade. Very little consolidation or settlement of the subgrade should occur under these small loads. Subbase/Base The subbase is sometimes omitted from the pavement structure. If present, it is placed immediately above the subgrade. This layer consists primarily of an untreated aggregate (coarse sand or lower quality stone) with a small amount of clay to add stability to the layer. Subbase material should be locally available, strong enough to carry some load, and inexpensive. The base layer is located between the subbase and surface layers. It is similar to the subbase except that the aggregate particles are stronger than those found in the subbase. Base materials may have to be shipped from a distant location to the project site. This can significantly increase the cost of constructing the base layer. On pavements supporting heavy loads, the base layer may consist of an AC mixture to provide necessary added strength. Surface The surface of a flexible pavement is constructed of asphaltic concrete and must be able to resist the high stresses encountered near the roadway surface. The AC consists of a strong aggregate that is held together by asphalt cement to give the aggregate the required stability. It must also provide a safe, smooth riding surface with good skid resistance. A surface layer is often divided into two layers with two distinctly different purposes. Both layers are made of asphaltic concrete. The lower surface layer is called the binder layer. It is made of relatively large pieces of aggregate held together by asphalt cement, and it provides the strength necessary to resist the large surface loads. The upper surface layer is the wearing course. Its primary function is to provide skid resistance. The aggregate size in the wearing course is typically smaller than that found in the binder. It also contains more asphalt cement to help repel water. Unpaved Road Cross Section Components Low traffic volume roadways often are not paved. The unpaved surface layer is similar to the base layer found in a flexible pavement in both its construction and performance. Figure 4c shows the layers found in an unpaved road. Sometimes a granular base of lower-quality materials is placed between the surface and subgrade, but often a thick layer of surface material is placed directly on the subgrade.

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The surface must also have the right combination of clay fines and aggregate to achieve the stability, abrasion resistance, watertightness, and water retention properties previously mentioned in the section describing "Pavement Types."

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Rigid Pavement Cross Section Components Rigid pavements have some of the same layers that are found in flexible pavement. However, the function of the pavement is different. Figure 4a shows the typical cross section of a rigid pavement. The surface consists of portland cement concrete which carries virtually all of the applied loads. Little stress is transferred to the base, which serves primarily as a drainage layer for removing water from under the pavement. The subgrade will carry little additional load, because the pavement structure spreads the load out over a large area at the subgrade surface. Summary There are three main types of pavements: rigid, flexible, and unpaved. Flexible pavements are the type most frequently built by Saudi Aramco. They consist of a top surface of asphalt laid directly over an aggregate layer called the base. Another aggregate layer of lower quality material called the subbase is frequently placed beneath the base. The soil on which the pavement layers rest is called the subgrade. Drainage The construction of a road across an existing piece of land causes special drainage problems. The roadway, including the pavement, shoulders, and side slopes, must be properly drained. Drainage across the land where the road is built will be disrupted, so flow of water from one side of the road to the other side must be allowed. When a road is constructed, one of the primary concerns is to get water off the pavement quickly so that standing water will not create a driving hazard. Some of this water may seep through joints or cracks in the pavement and infiltrate the lower pavement layers, which can soften and weaken the subgrade. Water that falls on the shoulders and cut and fill slopes must be drained as well. Figure 5 illustrates some of the typical drainage techniques for roadways:

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existing ground (cut)

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shoulder intercepting channel (not to scale)

pavement

granular base/subbase

ROADWAY DRAINAGE COMPONENTS

FIGURE 5
roadside channel cut section fill section

existing ground (fill)

toe-of-slope channel

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Toe-of-slope channel: Sometimes used at the bottom of fills, this channel collects water from a fill slope and carries it to the nearest drainage area. Intercepting channel: Water from the existing ground slope drains into this channel in a cut at the top of the back slope and is deposited in the nearest chute for transport to a drainage area. Chutes: Chutes carry water runoff from existing ground at the top of cut, down the side of the hill in the cut area, and into the nearest drainage area. They may be lined with PCC or riprap to prevent erosion.

When a road is built across a strip of land, the natural drainage pattern of the land is interrupted. The design engineer should insure that water can collect on the uphill side of the roadway, drain from that side to the other, and disperse on the downhill side, without negatively affecting the land on either side of the highway. Depending upon the amount of water to be carried, bridges, box culverts, or pipes may be placed so that water may flow properly without disturbing the roadway traffic or weakening the ground on which the roadway is placed. Additional details will be covered later in the section of this module titled "Drainage".

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Saudi Aramco Standards/Design Practices Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards (SAES) set forth the minimum requirements for design, construction, and testing of various components found on a road or highway project. Saudi Aramco Design Practices (SADP) expand upon and explain the information provided in the Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards. When applicable, SADPs provide detailed, stepby-step design procedures or background explanations on computer programs used for design. Several SAES and SADPs are directly applicable to road and highway design, construction, testing, and analysis: SAES-Q-006 Asphalt Concrete Paving SAES-Q-006 prescribes the minimum mandatory requirements governing the design and installation of asphalt concrete paving. It is based on three well known pavement design documents which are listed below. SAES-Q-006 does not contain those documents; instead it lists exceptions and additions to them. Some of those changes will be discussed in the module. Document Guide for Design of Pavement Structures MS-1 General Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction Source American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Asphalt Institute Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Topic Structural Design of Pavements Traffic Analysis All roadway construction

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SAES-S-030 Storm Water Drainage Systems This standard establishes the minimum requirements for storm water drainage systems under the operation and maintenance of Saudi Aramco. Stormwater drainage design is applicable to roads because the road often interrupts natural drainage basins. This necessitates the specification of box culverts, bridges, and pipe culverts for transporting storm water from the upstream to the downstream side of a drainage basin. Secondly, the road alignment creates a new area with different drainage characteristics. This area must be drained for traffic safety and to ensure the structural integrity of the pavement. In the design of storm water drainage systems, determinations must be made of time of rainfall concentration (using the Kirpich Formula) on the drainage area, frequency of storm return used in design of various facilities, rainfall intensity, rainfall quantity (using the Rational method), and flow velocity (using Manning's Equation) in both pipes and open channels. These items can then be used in determining the type and size of the drainage structure and the type of protection required at the ends of a pipe or culvert. The standard also specifies minimum pipe sizes, headwall requirements at pipe ends, manhole sizes and locations, shape and protection of open channels, and materials from which storm drains and road crossing culverts shall be constructed. Installation and testing of pipes and culverts is not covered in detail in this standard. The following standards are specified for installation and testing: SAES-S-020 for storm drains that are part of an oily water sewer system. SAES-S-070 for general storm drains and culvert crossings. SAES-Q-001 for construction of concrete structures used in the road drainage system.

Simple calculations for determining the quantity of flow used in storm water drainage system design will be covered in a later section of this module. Saudi Aramco Design Practice SADP-S-030 provides a detailed description of and several example problems using the formulas discussed in SAES-S-030. It also describes in some detail the applications and limitations of these formulas.

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MATERIAL PROPERTIES The materials which comprise the pavement layers are very important in design. The following paragraphs will describe design properties of the subgrade, aggregate, and asphalt layers of a pavement. Subgrade The subgrade is the supporting soil that the pavement lies on. In cut sections, subgrade consists of the naturally occurring soil exposed when the topsoil is removed. The surface of the material is then compacted. In fill sections, soil is brought in to form the subgrade. It is compacted in 6" (15 cm) layers. Subgrade soils are described in descending order of grain size. They are composed of sand, silt, and clays. Sand makes the strongest subgrade, and it is least affected by water. If sand can be prevented from blowing, it is the preferred subgrade material. Most Saudi Aramco subgrades are sands. Clay is the least desirable subgrade because it is the weakest and most affected by water. Water causes clay to lose strength, and it causes some clays to swell, leading to cracking of the paved surface. Several other terms are used to describe soils. Clay is called a cohesive soil because it sticks together naturally. Sand and silt are not cohesive. They are called cohesionless soils. Sand is composed of large particles. It is called a granular material, as are the bases and subbases above it. Silts and clays are composed of small particles that cannot be individually identified without a microscope. They are called fine-grained soils, or "fines." Subgrade Classification In the field, a subgrade soil is not usually composed of only one soil type. It is a mixture of sand, silt, and clay. Classification systems group together soils which exhibit similar properties. Once a soil has been classified, the road designer or road builder can predict the performance of that soil because he knows what to expect from soils in that classification. Gradation Analysis Two laboratory tests are used to help classify soils. They are Gradation Analysis and Atterberg Limits. Gradation Analysis gives the particle size percentage breakdown of the soil being tested. This is achieved by sifting the soil through sieves with various sized openings. The #200 sieve (75 micron opening size) separates sand particles from silt and clay particles. The lower the sieve number, the larger the particle size. Figure 6 shows the results of a Gradation Analysis test. The percentages of the soil passing certain sieve sizes are joined by a smooth curve.
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TYPICAL GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION CURVE

Sand Gravel Coarse to medium Silt Fine Clay

U.S. Standard Sieve Sizes

No. 100 0.150

100 90 80 70 Percent Finer 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 19 0.850 0.420 0.075 0.010 0.002 0.001 4.75 2.00 0

Grain Diameter (mm)

FIGURE 6

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No. 200

No. 10

No. 20

No. 40

No. 4

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Atterberg Limits The Atterberg Limits laboratory test is also used in the soil classification process. Water is added to a mass of dried subgrade soil in small increments. The percentage of moisture at which the soil changes from a dry solid to a liquid consistency is noted. Figure 7 shows the relationship of the Atterberg Limits. For classification, the two most important moisture content points are the plastic limit and the liquid limit. The plastic limit (PL) marks the % water where the soil changes from the semisolid state to the plastic (easily deformable) state. The liquid limit (LL) marks the % water at which the soil changes from the plastic state to the liquid state. The plasticity index (PI) is defined as LL-PL. AASHTO Classification System Several different systems can be used to classify soils. For road-building purposes, AASHTO M-145 is most often used. Figure 8 gives the classification criteria. There are 12 classification groups: A-1-a through A-7-6. Looking from left to right on Figure 8, the particle sizes of the soils decrease. The soils go from very good (strong) soils at the left side to poor soils on the right side. The A-1-a is the best soil to build on; the A-7-6 is the worst to build on. Most Saudi Aramco soils are A-1 and A-2 soils. Use the following procedure to properly classify subgrade soils: Assemble Atterberg Limit and Gradation Analysis test data. Start in either column A-1-a or A-4 to determine if the soil fits the requirements in that column. Start in column A-4 only if more than 35% of the soil is smaller than (passes) the No. 200 (0.075 mm) sieve. Move one column to the right if the soil does not satisfy the requirements of the first column, then try again. Stop as soon as the soil meets the requirements given in one of the columns.

In Figure 8, N.P. stands for "non-plastic." That means the soil has a P.I. of 3 or less.

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Plasticity Index (PI) Increasing moisture content Solid state Semisolid state Plastic state Liquid state

ATTERBERG LIMITS

FIGURE 7
Shrinkage limit (SL) Plastic limit (PL) Liquid limit (LL)

w=0

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Granular Materials (35% or less passing No. 200) A-1 A-2 A-7 (More than 35% passing No. 200)

Silt-Clay Materials

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General Classification A-7-5, A-1-a A-1-b A-3 A-2-4 A-2-5 A-2-6 A-2-7 A-4 A-5 A-6 A-7-6

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50 max ... 36 min ... ... ... ... 36 min ... ... ... ... 36 min 36 min ... ... ... ... ... 30 max 50 max 51 min ... ... ... ... 15 max 25 max 10 max 35 max 35 max 35 max 35 max

Group classification

Sieve analysis, percent passing:

No. 10 (2.00 mm) No. 40 (425 m) No. 200 (75 m)

Characteristics of fraction passing No. 40 (425

m):
... ... N.P. Fine Sand Silty or Clayey Gravel and Sand Silty Soils Clayey Soils 40 max 41 min 6 max Stone fragments, gravel and sand 40 max 41 min 40 max 41 min

AASHTO SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

Liquid limit

Plasticity index

10 max 10 max 11 min 11 min

40 max 41 min A 10 max 10 max 11 min 11 min

Usual types of significant

constituent materials

General rating as subgrade

Excellent to good

Fair to poor

A Plasticity index of A-7-5 subgroup is equal to or less than LL

minus 30. Plasticity index of A-7-6 subgroup is greater than LL

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minus 30.

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EXAMPLE PROBLEM #1 AASHTO SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Given: For a given soil, LL = 12, PL = 7, PI = 5 The gradation analysis of the soil follows: Sieve % Passing No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 Find: Classification Solution: Try A-1-a. More than 50% passes No. 10 sieve, so it does not fit this classification. Try A-1-b. It fits this classification Answer: A-1-b 60 40 20

The soil classification by the AASHTO Soil System.

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Strength Characteristics

In general, sand is stronger than silt, and silt is stronger than clay. Stronger subgrade soils will allow a thinner pavement to be designed. The strength of subgrade soils can be measured in three major ways. California Bearing Ratio - The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test rates soil strength on a numbered scale. Zero means no strength; 100 or greater is a high strength rating. The CBR of most soils falls in the range of 1 to 30: The typical CBR range for clay is 1-15. The typical CBR range for silt is 1-15. The typical CBR range for sand is 10-30.

Soil Support Value - SAES-Q-006 specifies soil support value (S) as the soil strength parameter for designing asphalt concrete pavements. It is a dimensionless number which ranges from 1 to 10. The higher the number, the stronger the soil. Most Saudi Aramco soils will have S values between 3 and 7. There is no laboratory or field test for soil support value. It is found by first performing another test (such as CBR), then correlating the two values. Saudi Aramco correlates CBR and S using Figure 9.

CORRELATION OF S WITH CBR

SOIL SUPPORT VALUE (S) 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

10

20

30 40 50

100

200

CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR)

FIGURE 9

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Modulus of Subgrade Reaction, k - The modulus of subgrade reaction, k, is only used to describe soil strength when designing a PCC pavement. The typical range of k value is 7004000 kPa (100-600) psi. The higher the value, the stronger the soil. Soil Compaction Road subgrades are compacted for two primary reasons: Increased density results in increased strength. Increased density leads to less settlement under wheel loads.

There are three main types of compaction equipment called rollers: Vibratory rollers. Vibration is the best way to compact granular soils such as those found in most of Saudi Arabia. Sheepsfoot rollers. Projections (feet) on the rollers allow this type of compactor to work especially well in clays or silt-clay mixtures. Pneumatic tire rollers. Rows of closely-spaced rubber tires roll over the subgrade. Pneumatic tire rollers are used to compact both granular and cohesive soils.

Compaction Requirements - A laboratory "moisture density test" (AASHTO T99 or AASHTO T180) is performed on a soil to determine how well it can be compacted in the field. T99 is usually called the "Proctor Test." T180 is usually called the "Modified Proctor Test." The test gives two results: the maximum dry density and the optimum moisture content. Maximum dry density is given in kg/m3 (pcf). It represents the density of the dry soil particles if a good job of compaction is done in the field. The optimum moisture content is given in percent. It represents the moisture content at which compaction of the soil will be easiest. The construction crew is usually required to compact the soil to "95% of Modified Proctor." For example, if the laboratory Modified Proctor test results for a soil are 1,700 kg/m3 (106 pcf) dry density and 8.7% optimum moisture content, the soil must be compacted to at least 3 3 95% of 1700 kg/m = 1615 kg/m . If the actual field compaction is 1650 kg/m3 or 1675 kg/m3 3 3 or 1725 kg/m , those results are acceptable; 1610 g/m is not acceptable. The compacted soil does not have to meet a specification for moisture content. The crew tries to reach a moisture content near optimum by spraying water onto the soil, but only because it makes the compaction work easier. If the crew can achieve the required dry density at a low moisture content, that is acceptable.

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Dry density and moisture content are checked at the job site by an inspector. He takes a small sample of the soil and determines the dry density and moisture content according to AASHTO T191. Bases and Subbases The next layer above the subgrade is the base or subbase. Bases and subbases are granular materials such as sand and gravel which provide support for the asphalt concrete (AC) or Portland Cement concrete (PCC). In some cases, the granular materials also drain rainfall away from the pavement. Subbases and bases are made of similar materials, but the quality of the subbase material is usually lower than that of the base. Both layers are not always present in a pavement. Some pavements have only one granular layer. The subbase may not be present if the subgrade soil is firm. SAES-Q-006 states: "Where existing subgrade materials have a CBR of 5 or less, a subbase with a minimum CBR of 15 shall be provided with a minimum thickness of 20 cm (8 in)." The typical thickness range for a layer of base or subbase is 10 cm (4 in.) to 30 cm (12 in.). They are placed in compacted lifts of 15 cm (6 in.) thickness or less. If the available granular material is of low quality, strength can be improved by adding approximately 2% asphalt cement. The resulting material is called "asphalt treated base." It is like a low-quality asphalt concrete. Strength Any base material with a CBR greater than 40 is a good quality base. Standard SAES-Q-006 gives four classes of base materials: MOC Class A - CBR 100 MOC Class B - CBR 50 MOC Class C - CBR 50 Lime Treated MOC Class C - CBR 50 Portland Cement Treated

Because most treated bases are "asphalt treated base," MOC Class C Lime Treated or Portland Cement Treated will almost never be used.

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Aggregate Sand, gravel, and crushed stone are called aggregates. They are the materials most used in road construction. Unpaved roads are composed entirely of aggregate (often with an additional small amount of clay to bind the aggregate together.) Portland cement concrete and asphalt concrete are both more than 85% aggregate. The aggregates used in granular bases and subbases, unpaved roads, and rigid and flexible surfaces share a common characteristic: dense gradation. Dense gradation means that big aggregate particles and little aggregate particles are both present in sufficient quantity to give the aggregate mix a high density. The holes between the big particles are filled by little particles (see Figure 10). In general, the denser the aggregate mix the stronger the base, subbase, unpaved surface, or asphalt concrete. For those uses, try to employ3 a densely graded aggregate. For example, a compacted subbase with a density of 2,200 kg/m (137 pcf) is usually a high density granular material. In road construction, the maximum size of aggregate rarely exceeds 3.2 cm (1.25 in.). When larger aggregate pieces are used, the aggregate mix is hard to work with. Fines (material smaller than a #200 sieve) are usually not desired. However, because it is almost impossible to exclude fines, a small amount (3-5% by weight) of fines is usually acceptable.

AGGREGATE GRADATIONS

(a) dense graded

(b) open graded

(c) excessive fines

FIGURE 10

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Asphalt Concrete Asphalt concrete is composed of aggregate held together with a black-colored cementing agent called bitumen. The proportions of materials in asphalt concrete are approximately 5% bitumen and 95% aggregate. The thicknesses of the asphalt concrete portions of roads vary widely, ranging from approximately 5 cm (2 in.) to 25 cm (10 in.), depending on the expected traffic on the roads. Bituminous Materials The black material which holds flexible pavements together is called a bitumen or a bituminous material. Saudi Aramco uses two kinds of bituminous materials: asphalt cements and cutbacks. Asphalt Cement - Asphalt concrete is usually made out of asphalt cement and aggregate. Asphalt cement is a petroleum product which comes directly from the refinery. It is almost solid at room temperature. Asphalt cement and aggregate are both heated to 250-325 F (120163 C) then mixed together. The various types of asphalt cement are graded on the basis of their viscosity. The typical grades of asphalt cement are listed below: AC-5 AC-10 AC-20 AC-30 AC-40

The number associated with the name describes the viscosity. AC-5 has low viscosity; AC-40 has high viscosity. The most important characteristic of bituminous materials is that their viscosity changes as the temperature changes. If the temperature goes up, the asphalt cement becomes softer. In a hot country such as Saudi Arabia, roads should be built with hard (viscous) asphalt cements so that the road will not become soft and weak at high temperatures. Thus, most roads in this climate will be built using a high viscosity asphalt such as AC-40. Cutbacks - Asphalt cements must be heated to make them mix with aggregate. Sometimes, there is a need for bituminous materials which do not have to be heated to be useful. For these purposes, Saudi Aramco uses cutbacks. Cutbacks are asphalt cements which have been diluted (cut) with a solvent such as gasoline or kerosene. The resulting material can be sprayed onto surfaces or mixed easily with aggregate at relatively low temperatures.

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Cutbacks are usually used for two purposes: as prime coats and tack coats. In both uses, the cutback is sprayed onto a surface. In a short time after being sprayed, the solvent evaporates, leaving a thin, sticky layer of asphalt cement. The process of evaporation is called "curing." Curing can take from minutes to days to occur. A prime coat is sprayed onto the granular base material before the asphalt concrete is added. The prime coat fills voids at the top of the granular base layer and helps the asphalt concrete bond to the granular layer. Tack coats are sometime used between layers of asphalt cement. They help one asphalt concrete layer bond to another. SAES-Q-006 specifies four types of cutbacks. Cutback RC-250 and cutback RC-800 are used for tack coats. MC-70 and MC-250 are used for prime coats. The "C" in the designation indicates a cutback. The "R" stands for "rapid curing," that is, the solvent will evaporate rapidly after spraying. The "M" stands for "medium curing." The numbers indicate the viscosity of the cutback, with a higher number indicating higher viscosity. Cutbacks are much more dangerous than asphalt cements because cutbacks contain explosive solvents such as kerosene. They must be kept cool, and cigarette smoking near them is prohibited. Specifications - Bituminous materials used in pavement construction must meet product specifications. Figure 11 presents typical specifications for a bituminous material, in this case RC-250. The specifications in Figure 11 are divided into two areas. Tests run on the cutback itself are shown on the top half of the figure. The bottom half of the figure shows tests run on the RC-250 after the solvent has been boiled (distilled) away. The asphalt cement that is left after the distillation process is called the "residue from distillation." The distillation specifications ensure that the proper type and amount of solvent has been used in the cutback. Flashpoint is important. If the cutback is not stored at temperatures below the flashpoint, any spark can cause its fumes to ignite. (The flashpoint is usually well below the temperature where spontaneous combustion occurs.) Viscosity is measured at a standard temperature, in this case 140 F. The unit of measure is centistokes (cST). Note that minimum viscosity for an RC-250 is 250 cST. Penetration value is another measure of viscosity. The test is performed at a standard temperature by allowing a sharp needle of known weight to sink vertically into a sample of bituminous material for five seconds. The depth of penetration is measured in units of 0.1 mm. An asphalt cement of low viscosity has a high penetration value.

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SAUDI ARAMCO STANDARD A971 CUTBACK ASPHALT RC-250

TEST DISTILLATION Distillate, % by Volume of Total Distillate to 680 F to 437 F to 500 F to 600 F Residue from Distillation to 680 F, % volume by difference. Flashpoint, (Tag Open Cup), F Viscosity, Kinematic @ 140 F, CST TESTS ON RESIDUE FROM DISTILLATION: Penetration @ 77 F 100G, 5 Sec. Ductility at 77 F, CM Solubility in Trichloroethylene, % Water, Vol. %

GUARANTEE

METHOD ASTM D-402

35 Min. 60 Min. 80 Min. 65 Min. 80 + Min. 250 Min. 500 Max. ASTM D-3143 ASTM D-2170

80 - 120 100 Min. 99.0 Min. 0.2 Max.

ASTM D-5 ASTM D-113 ASTM D-2042 ASTM D-95

FIGURE 11

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An asphalt cement must be flexible, so its ductility is measured. The ductility test involves stretching a sample of asphalt cement at a known rate of speed in a tank of water at 77 F. For RC-250, the residue must stretch at least 100 cm before it breaks. The test for solubility in trichloroethylene checks for impurities. Pure bitumen dissolves 100% in trichloroethylene. If 1% of the residue from RC-250 does not dissolve, it is 99% pure. Bitumen is allowed to contain only a very small amount of water. If much water is present, when the bitumen is heated, the water will boil and cause foam. Foaming is unacceptable, therefore only 0.2% water is allowed in RC-250. Figure 12 gives the test specifications for MC-250 as opposed to the RC-250 of Figure 11. In many respects, the two cutbacks are alike. For example, they have the same viscosity (250500 cS) and ductility. However, the "medium curing" MC-250 is less volatile than the "rapid curing" RC-250, making its flashpoint higher (150F compared to 80 + F). Figure 13 presents Saudi Aramco Standard A-970 for penetration grade paving asphalt cement. It includes specifications for ductility, flash point, penetration, and solubility in trichloroethylene. The only item in Figure 13 not previously discussed requires that some of the tests are run "after the thin film oven test." The thin film oven test is a procedure designed to simulate the harmful effects of being in the heat and sun for several years. A small sample is heated in the oven, and then the residue is tested. Exposure in the oven makes asphalt cement harder and more brittle, decreasing ductility and penetration.

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SAUDI ARAMCO STANDARD A-974 CUTBACK ASPHALT MC-250

TEST DISTILLATION Distillate, % by Volume of Total Distillate to 680 F to 437 F to 500 F to 600 F Residue from Distillation to 680 F, % volume by difference. Flashpoint, (Tag Open Cup), F Viscosity, Kinematic @ 140 F, CST TESTS ON RESIDUE FROM DISTILLATION: Penetration @ 77 F 100G, 5 Sec. Ductility at 77 F, cm Solubility in Trichloroethylene, % Water, Vol. %

GUARANTEE

Min. -15 60

Max. 10 55 87

67 Min. 150 Min. 250 Min. 500 Max.

120 - 250 100 Min. 99 Min. 0.2 Max.

FIGURE 12

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SAUDI ARAMCO STANDARD A-970 PENETRATION GRADE PAVING ASPHALT


TEST Ductility at 77 F, cm Ductility after thin film oven test Flash Point, C.O.C., F Penetration at 77 F (100 g, 5 sec.) Retained penetration after Thin Film Oven Test, % Solubility in trichloroethylene, wt. % GUARANTEE 100 Min. 50 Min. 450 Min. 60 - 70 52 Min. 99.0 Min.

FIGURE 13

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Geosynthetics Geosynthetics is a general term for a wide variety of materials being used in road construction. These materials are usually man-made polymers derived from petroleum products. Geosynthetics are used in several ways in road construction: To "bridge" a weak subgrade soil so that the soil can support the load applied by a road embankment. To reinforce an earth embankment. To serve as a filter or partition between two dissimilar materials.

In any application, the lifetime of the geosynthetic can be affected by various chemical, biological, or climatic conditions. Prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun can also reduce the expected life of the material. These conditions should be carefully studied before specifying a geosynthetic for a particular purpose. Geogrid and geotextile are two primary types of geosynthetics that are commonly used in road construction. The geogrid is a fairly recent innovation which is being used in many reinforcement applications. The geotextile is the oldest of the geosynthetics and has been used successfully as both a reinforcing and a filter/separation material. Geogrids A geogrid is a flat polymer material with horizontal members that are typically orientated longitudinally (in the major stress direction) and transversely (perpendicular to the major stress direction) within a soil mass. These longitudinal and transverse members enclose openings, called apertures, which aid in the geogrid performance. Geogrids are used primarily for reinforcement of soil layers; thus, they are applicable for two of the three common uses for geosynthetics mentioned previously. The soil is reinforced by 1) soil/polymer friction on the horizontal members and 2) soil bearing between soil in the apertures and the transverse members. When the reinforced soil mass moves, the members are tensioned and begin to support the load.

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Bridging Weak Subgrade Soils - Often when a weak soil is encountered in the field, it is removed and replaced to a specified depth, usually at great expense, so that a suitable foundation can be provided for a proposed highway embankment. By placing geogrids in several layers throughout the lower portion of an embankment on top of a soft soil, the stresses can be distributed more uniformly through the embankment to the soft soil instead of being concentrated under the highest (and heaviest) portion of the fill. As the embankment begins to settle under the heavy portion of the fill, the geogrid becomes tensioned, and stresses are transferred through the geogrid from the embankment center to the embankment edges. The highest stress is significantly reduced so that embankment settlement will decrease. The weak soil will also then be strong enough to support the distributed embankment stress so that a failure is avoided. Reinforcing Earth Embankment Slopes - Slipping failure on earth embankment slopes is a concern on many road projects. Sometimes soil in the embankment is not strong enough to support its own weight at the side slopes. Geogrids may be used to anchor the soil so that it will be unlikely to fail at the embankment edges. Figure 14 shows how the geogrids perform in the embankment slope. The geogrid material is placed in layers in the embankment, embedded well past the location of a potential failure plane. If the soil begins to move along the failure plane, the geogrid becomes tensioned. The portion of the geogrid buried well into the embankment will help to support the wedge of soil that has begun to slip. Soil friction (s) along the potential failure plane also helps to support the soil wedge so that the entire load is not carried by the geogrid. Geogrids may be used to help achieve a steeper embankment slope where necessary. They can also be used with concrete or similar panels to provide a vertical face on a fill. In either case, the geogrid reinforcement decreases the amount of space needed for a road embankment.

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GEOGRID REINFORCED SLOPE

1 T2 T 3 T4 T

S S S S 5 T S 6 T 7

Geogrids

Embankment

Potential Failure Surface

FIGURE 14

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Geotextiles Geotextiles are composed of polymeric fibers which have been bonded either by weaving (woven fabrics) or by heat treatment, chemical treatment, or needle punching (nonwoven fabrics). Unlike the geogrid, geotextiles can be made so that they have only very small openings in the fabric. Thus, geotextiles can not only be used for reinforcement of soil layers but also as a filter or separation material between two dissimilar layers. One advantage of using geotextiles to bridge weak foundation materials is that they can separate the poor foundation soil from the good embankment material. As traffic begins to use the road constructed on the embankment, it can cause the embankment to deflect under load. This repeated deflection can cause finer particles from the poor material to move up into the pores of the good material, causing the good material to be weakened. A tightly woven geotextile placed between the two layers can act as a filter to prevent this movement and preserve the integrity of the good embankment. Geotextiles can generally perform many of the same reinforcement functions as previously described for geogrids. The primary difference is that geotextiles reinforce the soil using the soil/geotextile friction to cause tension in the geotextile upon movement of the soil. The interlocking component is not very pronounced, so the granular base reinforcement would not likely be as successful with the geotextiles as with the geogrids. Geotextiles can be used successfully, however, to bridge weaker materials and to reinforce embankment side slopes. Summary Lesson I introduced road terminology, road design standards, and typical roadbuilding materials. Pavement layer names and layer construction materials for rigid, flexible, and unpaved roads were emphasized. SAES-Q-006 on asphalt concrete paving and SAES-S-030 on storm water drainage were described as important engineering standards. Soil, aggregate, and asphalt concrete were all described in detail as the most important road construction materials for Saudi Aramco.

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ROAD LAYOUT AND DESIGN This section contains basic information on factors that affect the layout of a roadway, a parking lot, or a loading area. It will emphasize design elements such as sight distance, horizontal and vertical alignment, roadway cross section, and design controls such as design vehicles, driver performance, and highway capacity. Designing safety into a facilities will be stressed in each of these areas. Geometric Design and the Roadway Cross Section Stations Stations are fundamental units used in designing and constructing a roadway. One station is a unit of length equal to 1000 m or 1 km. A project that is 10.8 stations long is 10,800 m or 10.8 km long. Distances between exact station numbers are noted by adding "+xxx" or "+xxx.xxx" to the lower station number. For example, the station exactly halfway between station 5 and station 6 on a project is 500 m from both station 5 and station 6. The correct notation for this station is 5 + 500. As an additional example, if a point between stations 5 and 6 is to be located 740.30 m "up-station" from station 5, then the station number would be 5 + 740.30. (Note that this same point could be found if it was defined as the point 250.62 m "down-station" from Station 6.) When it is necessary to find the distance between two stations, simply subtract the lower station number from the upper station number after dropping the "+" sign. For example, if a curve begins at station 219 + 018.13 and ends at Station 225 + 078.32, the length of the curve is: 225078.32 - 219018.13 = 6060.19 m On highway projects, stationing is generally labeled along the centerline of the project. On east/west roads, stations increase from west to east; on north/south roads, stations increase from south to north. Often the position of an object that is off the centerline must be addressed. This is done by giving the station or range of stations for the object and then the perpendicular distance left or right of the centerline to the object. To establish "left" and "right", face in the up-station direction. For example, on the roadway plan view shown in Figure 15, a 300 mm diameter concrete pipe is placed under a driveway for drainage. The pipe happens to be parallel to the centerline of the roadway, making it the same distance from the centerline at all points. The notation shown in the figure is typical and can be interpreted as "There is a 300 mm diameter concrete pipe running from station 5 + 023 to station 5 + 041 that is 35 m to the right of the centerline."
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Stations are affected by the horizontal distances along the roadway. Vertical changes in elevation do not affect the stationing on a project.

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LOCATING POINTS OFF THE CENTERLINE


edge of pavement

centerline 5 6

35 m

driveway

+ 023 to +041, 35m Rt. 300 mm concrete pipe

FIGURE 15 Plan and Profile Views In a standard set of highway plans, plan and profile views of a roadway section are shown on the plan and profile sheets. Each sheet shows plan and profile details for a portion of the roadway. Stations are used to match the sheets and provide continuity. The plan view shows the roadway and all related elements as if the observer was above the roadway looking down. The horizontal dimensions of a project can be easily observed. Items such as direction of the centerline, horizontal curves, drainage culvert lengths and locations, work limits, right-of-way limits, and many other features can be defined. The profile view shows the roadway and all related elements as if the observer was looking at a vertical slice taken out of the roadway at the centerline. The vertical dimensions of a project can be easily observed. Items such as the slope of the centerline, vertical curves, areas where soil is removed (cut) or added (fill) to obtain the desired elevation, elevations of various roadway elements, and many other features can be defined.

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Horizontal Curves Horizontal curves on a roadway are used to allow vehicles to smoothly change horizontal directions from a straight line (tangent) in one direction to a tangent in another direction. Generally, the horizontal curve is circular--the curve has a constant radius--and it begins and ends at points tangent to the tangent lines. These curves are shown on the plan views. Figures 16 and 17 show the basic components of a horizontal curve. P.I. = Point of intersection. The P.I. is the point (station) where the two tangents on either side of the curve intersect. The P.I. is s point on a line that bisects he arc of the curve. Point of curvature. The P.C. is the point (station) where the roadway changes from a straight-line section to a curve section. Also sometimes called beginning of curve (B.C.) Point of tangency. The P.T. is the point (station) where the roadway changes from a curve section to a straight section. Also sometimes called end of curve (E.C.) Tangent length. For a circular curve, T is either the length along the back tangent from the P.C. to the P.I. or the length along the ahead tangent from from the P.I. to the P.T. Curve radius. R is the radius of the circular curve. A smaller value of R indicates a sharper curve. Most curves are designed with integer values of R. Degree of curvature. D is a very common way to refer to the sharpness of a curve. If a 100 m length of curve is drawn and if a radius is placed through each end of and extended to the origin of the circular curve, the angle formed at the intersection of these radii is called the degree of curvature (Figure 17). This nomenclature is losing favor with modern highway design. Curve length. L is the distance along the curve from the P.C. to the P.T. Interior angle. This angle is formed by the P.C., the centerpoint O, and the P.T. (Figure 17 and Figure 16).

P.C.

P.T.

R D

= =

= =

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HORIZONTAL CURVE NOTATION

P. I.
T T

P. C.

Circular curve

P. T.

Back tangent

Ahead tangent

FIGURE 16

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HORIZONTAL CURVE NOTATION (CONT'D)

if L = 100 m then = D

FIGURE 17

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When a circular curve is encountered on a roadway, the P.C. marks the beginning of two types of stationing (Figure 18). Curve stationing measures stations of the curve along the centerline of the project. This is the standard used throughout the design and construction of a roadway to identify points on the roadway.

CURVE AND TANGENT STATIONING

tangent station

P.I. tangent stationing tangent stationing

stationing curve = tangent Curve stationing P.C. P.T.

curve station

FIGURE 18

Tangent stationing is often used by location surveying crews in intially laying out the roadway, since straight lines are easier to plot than curves. The tangent stations are measured along the tangents from the P.C. to the P.T. This technique allows survey crews to locate the proposed line of the roadway as quickly as possible near the completion of the design stage. The P.T. station is always defined using the curve stationing method.

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Superelevation Superelevation involves tilting the roadway toward the inside of a horizontal curve. It is sometimes required to allow a vehicle to safely negotiate the curve at the design speed of the highway. As the vehicle enters a horizontal curve, its tendency is to keep going in a straight line. However, the friction between the tires and the pavement will resist this tendency and keep the car on the pavement. If the maximum friction between the tires and pavement is exceeded, the driver will lose control of the vehicle, and it will leave the road. Figure 19 shows a normally crowned pavement (which is sufficient for drainage) and a superelevated pavement. Superelevation tilts the car so that gravity works with friction to hold the vehicle on the road. Superelevation should be great enough so that the driver feels comfortable going around the curve at the design speed. Superelevation must be limited so that a slow-moving or stopped vehicle does not slide to the inside of the curve. Typically, the maximum superelevation is 0.1 foot (meter) of vertical rise for every foot (meter) of horizontal distance across the pavement. Because of this limit in the amount of superelevation, the allowable degree of curvature must also be limited for each design speed. Usually, the pavement is rotated gradually around either the pavement centerline or pavement edge on the tangent approach to a curve so that full superelevation is obtained on the curve itself.

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SUPERELEVATION

Normal section

Superelevated section

C L

Cross slope C L

Origin Lanes Lanes

FIGURE 19

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Grades Because roadways are sometimes constructed in hilly terrain, they must rise and fall to generally conform to the terrain. Usually, the rate of change in elevation remains constant for some length of roadway before a vertical curve is needed to allow a vehicle to go over the top of a hill or to change from one slope to another. This constant rate of change in elevation is called the roadway grade. Grades are usually expressed in percent. The grade is defined as the vertical rise in the roadway divided by the horizontal distance over which this rise occurs. This quotient is then multiplied by 100 to obtain the percent grade. For example, if a highway rises 3 m (9.84 ft) over a horizontal distance of 100 m (328 ft), the grade is calculated as (3/100 x 100) = 3% (see Figure 20). The grade is positive if it is uphill and negative if it is downhill looking up station. Because heavy vehicles tend to slow down on a grade, a maximum allowable grade must be set so that the roadway can continue to carry a certain number of vehicles per hour past a given point. For example, the maximum allowable grade would be lower on a freeway than on a two-lane service road at an oil refinery because the speeds are expected to be much higher on the freeway. Figure 21 shows maximum allowable grades for a) local streets and b) freeways. Grades are shown on the profile portion of the plans. DEFINITION OF "GRADE"
B 3 % Grade 3m A 100 m

FIGURE 20

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MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE GRADE __________________________________________________________


Design Speed (mph)____________ 40 50 60 Grades (percent) _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Level 8 7 7 6 5 Rolling 11 10 9 8 6 Mountainous 16 14 12 10 -_____________________________________________________________________________________________ a) Local Streets Type of Terrain 20 30

_________________________________________________________
Design Speed (mph)____________ 50 Type of Terrain 60 Grades (percent) 70____

Level Rolling Mountainous b) Freeways

4 5 6

3 4 6

3 4 5

FIGURE 21

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Vertical Curves Vertical curves are used for transition when the roadway grade changes. These transitions occur in three situations: At the top of a hill, where the grade changes from positive to negative. These are called crest vertical curves. At the bottom of a valley, where the grade changes from negative to positive. These are called sag vertical curves. At a change in steepness of the grade, either uphill or downhill.

The vertical curve is generally a parabola, which simplifies the calculations and layout procedure for the construction surveyor. Half the curve is on one side of the P.V.I. and half on the other. The details are shown on the profile views of the plans. Figure 22 shows the basic components necessary for understanding roadway design and construction of a vertical curve. Note that although a crest vertical curve is shown, the notation is the same for other vertical curves. P.V.I. = P.V.C. = P.V.T. = L = Point of vertical intersection. The P.V.I. is the point (station) where the two grades on either side of the curve intersect. Point of vertical curvature. The P.V.C. is the point (station) where the roadway changes from a constant grade to a vertical curve. Point of vertical tangency. The P.V.T. is the point (station) where the roadway changes from a vertical curve to a constant grade. Length of curve. The length of the vertical curve is the horizontal distance from the P.V.C. to the P.V.I. Stationing on the curve length is also based upon the horizontal distance.

The elevation of the P.V.I. is usually shown on the plans, so any other point on the curve or grade may be calculated from that value.

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VERTICAL CURVES
( 1/2 ) L P.V.I. ( 1/2 ) L

grade

P.V.C. L

P.V.T.

grade

FIGURE 22 Earthwork Earthwork calculations are used to determine the amount of embankment, or fill, material required to build up the road to the required grade, and to determine the amount of excavation, or cut, needed to cut the road to the necessary grade. Fill can be obtained from either embankment locations on the site or from a nearby borrow pit. Cut may have to be hauled away from the site if it is not required at some location on the project. An economic analysis is required to determine how the earthwork quantities should be handled. Locations of cut and fill can be easily recognized on the centerline profile sheets. Usually, the existing ground lines are shown as dashed lines and the required highway grade lines are shown as solid lines. Elevations of each are often shown every 50 m. When the existing ground is higher than the proposed, then the area will likely be cut. When the opposite occurs, the area will likely be fill. "Built-in" Safety When designing a facility, the safety of roadway users should be kept foremost in the engineer's mind. The geometric design, traffic engineering, cross section elements, and actual facility construction all should allow for the safety of vehicles and their occupants. The safety techniques that are used are too numerous to mention in their entirety, but several have proven to be quite effective.
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Clear Zone Concept - The clear zone is the area from the edge of the pavement to the closest obstruction or hazard. The farther the distance from the pavement edge to the hazard, the better chance the driver of an errant vehicle has to recover. Flat Side Slopes - When possible, the side slopes should be 6:1 (6 length units horizontally to 1 vertically) or flatter to allow the driver a chance to recover. Coordination of Horizontal and Vertical Curves - These two curve types should be coordinated so that unexpected geometrics do not occur. For example, a horizontal curve should never be placed just over a sharp crest vertical curve because vehicles may be unable to negotiate the curve and will run off the road. Cross Slope on Pavement - Water is not only a hazard to the pavement structure but also to vehicles if it is allowed to stand on the pavement. The vehicle could hydroplane, or lose contact with the pavement, if it is going at a high rate of speed when it hits this water. Proper pavement cross slope helps to rid the pavement of water. The shoulders must also be well maintained so that water can run off the pavement, onto the shoulders, and away from the roadway. Intersections An intersection is an area where two or more roads or streets cross, with vehicles on each street or road competing for movement through the intersection area. Since many of these movements tend to cross, traffic control devices are often used if traffic volumes are high enough so that these crossing conflicts regularly occur. There are two types of intersections from a traffic control viewpoint. The first is the unsignalized intersection. Control methods for unsignalized intersections may vary from no control at locations with extremely low traffic volumes to a stop control on all approaches to the intersection for higher volumes of traffic. The signalized intersection is typically one which has volumes that are high enough to meet some minimum standard of traffic volume. An intersection may also require a signal because of pedestrian volume, accident experience, or excessive delays to the user. The signal is used to force the sharing of movement time by all vehicles on all approaches to the intersection and to serve all vehicles whose drivers desire to go through the intersection. In intersection analysis, the intersecting streets are divided into the major and the minor movements. The major movement occurs on the street with the highest traffic volume.

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Capacity The capacity of an intersection is the maximum hourly rate of vehicles which can be reasonably expected to proceed through the intersection. The capacity varies depending upon a number of factors: Number of lanes. The number of lanes for each movement affects the number of vehicles which can pass through the intersection. For example, if one movement has one lane, then a maximum of X cars can make that movement in one hour. If another lane is added, then a maximum of 2X cars might be expected to make the movement in the same hour. Clearance from the edge of the pavement. If a concrete wall or a line of parked cars isextremely close to the traffic lane, drivers will move more slowly because of the perceived hazard. Thus, capacity is reduced. Grades. Starting from a stopped position on an uphill grade affects both passenger cars and big trucks. Because it takes longer to start and establish a constant flow of vehicles through the intersection, capacity is decreased in comparison to a level grade. Conversely, capacity increases slightly if vehicles start on a downhill grade. Heavy vehicles. Because heavy vehicles (semi-trucks, buses, and recreational vehicles) take longer to accelerate, the capacity decreases as a greater percentage of the total traffic consists of heavy vehicles. Traffic control devices. Highway sections with flow that is interrupted because of some external control such as a stop sign or a traffic signal, has lower capacity than highway sections with uninterrupted flow. This is because time is lost during the starting and stopping movements. Right turning and left turning traffic. Turning traffic will often block a lane that might otherwise be used by vehicles that have movements which are free to flow. Right turning vehicles may have to wait for pedestrians to cross before the turn can be completed. Left turning traffic also may have to wait for pedestrians, but, more importantly, will have to wait on the opposing through and right-turn traffic.

Highway capacity on a facility with uninterrupted flow is generally 2,000 passenger cars per hour per lane (pcphl). At signalized intersections under ideal conditions, capacity will be around 1,800 passenger cars per hour of green per lane (pcphgpl). However, traffic flow at capacity is very slow and congested, so the design engineer generally prefers that an intersection operates at some volume less than capacity.

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Unsignalized Intersections The capacity analysis at an unsignalized intersection depends on the concept of how the driver reacts to traffic gaps that allow him to make his desired movement. There are four movements that drivers may have some difficulty in making at an unsignalized intersection. They are listed below from easiest to most difficult. The order of difficulty was based primarily on the number of gaps available to make each movement. Figure 23 lists these movements and illustrates the traffic conflicts for each. Right turn from the minor street. Conflicting movements are one through and one right turn movement on the major street approach. Left turn from the major street. Conflicting movements are all movements on the opposite major street approach to the intersection. Through movement from the minor street. Conflicting movements are all the movements on both approaches to the intersection of the major street. Left turn from the minor street. Conflicting movements are all through movements on the major street and the through and right turn movements on the opposing minor street approach to the intersection.

As traffic becomes heavier on the approaches to the intersection, the delays experienced by drivers making these movements will increase because of the decrease in available gaps in the traffic. Intersection capacity will decrease. Once the delay reaches a certain level, and once capacity is reached or exceeded by the traffic demand, signalization will become necessary.

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MOVEMENT HIERARCHY AT UNSIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS

a) right turn from minor street

b) left turn from major street

c) through movement from minor street

d) left turn from minor street

conflicting mvt. desired mvt.

FIGURE 23

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Signalized Intersections The saturation flow rate (S), or the number of vehicles that can get through a signal during all available green time, determines what the capacity of that intersection will be. Saturation flow rate is affected by heavy vehicles, grades, and all other factors listed previously. The ideal saturated flow rate is 1,800 vphgpl, as mentioned earlier in this section. This rate is adjusted for each factor which is different from the ideal. For example, for heavy vehicles, the ideal situation is 0% heavy vehicles. No adjustment to the ideal saturation flow rate would be required if no heavy vehicles were present at an intersection. For 4% heavy vehicles, the correction factor is 0.98 (multiply the ideal saturation flow rate by 0.98 to get the equivalent vehicles per hour of green per lane); for 10% the adjustment is 0.95. Tables of adjustment factors have been developed from experience over the years. The ideal saturation flow rate is adjusted by all factors that are different from ideal. For example, assume all conditions at an intersection are ideal except for heavy vehicles and grade. The adjustment factor for 4% heavy vehicles (fHV) is 0.98. The adjustment factor for a 2% downhill grade at the intersection (fg) is 1.01. The actual saturation flow rate (S) is calculated by S S = = = 1800 x fg x fHV 1800 x 1.01 x 0.98 1782 vphgpl

This value is the capacity of the intersection. As long as the sum of the major volumes which must pass through the intersection during signal green times does not exceed this total volume, the intersection should function properly. Generally, the traffic design engineer wants the per lane traffic to be substantially less than this saturation value so the signal will function without major congestion. The traffic engineer develops critical lane volumes. This is the heaviest lane volume for a particular traffic movement. It helps to determine how long the traffic signal should be green for each approach. Each time the light turns green for a traffic movement, the length of that green time will have been determined by the critical lane volume. In this way, all traffic that needs to pass through the signal will be able to get through the signal.

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Intersection Geometrics The size of an intersection and the turning radii required at an intersection are controlled by the design vehicle. The design vehicle is the largest vehicle that is expected to regularly use an intersection. Typical design vehicles can range from a passenger car (type P vehicle) to a semi-truck pulling two trailers (type WB-60 vehicle). Figure 24 shows turning dimensions of a WB-50 vehicle, the standard 18-wheel single trailer semi-truck. Other figures are available for additional design vehicles, such as a passenger car, a bus, a recreational vehicle, a single unit truck, and two other design trucks. The design engineer is responsible for making the appropriate selection before the design process begins. The vehicle turning radii affect two aspects of intersection design. First, the minimum truck turning radius affects the radius of the pavement edge or curb found at the intersection corners. When a truck turns right, it should be able to complete the turn in the proper lanes if this minimum radius is used. It is not desirable for the truck to swing into another lane when making a wide turn or to "jump" the curb with its tires. From Figure 24, the minimum radius at the intersection corners should be 19.8 feet (6.0 m) to accommodate a WB-50 truck as the design vehicle. Second, the maximum turning radius is used in setting the width of the intersection. If two design vehicles make opposing left turns at the same time, both should be able to turn with several feet of clearance between them as they pass in the intersection. If the design vehicle is the WB-50 shown in Figure 24, the maximum turning radius of 46.2 feet (14.1 m) for all left turn movements will allow two vehicles making opposing left turns to complete the turns by just touching. By using a design radius of, say, 50 feet (15.2 m), there will be about 7.5 feet (2.3 m) of clearance between the two trucks. Summary: Geometric Design and Roadway Cross Section This section has introduced the terminology and concepts for geometric design and roadway cross section. Knowledge of such items as stationing and vertical and horizontal curve terminology will be useful when reading road construction plans. Knowing how roads and intersections are planned to ensure they will carry adequate traffic volumes aids in understanding the design process. However, the treatment of these subjects has not been in sufficient depth for the participant to design such facilities himself.

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WB-50 TRUCK TURNING RADII

46.2 Ft.

19.8 Ft. minimum

WB-50 Semitrailer

FIGURE 24

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Parking and Loading Parking and loading areas are associated with almost every Saudi Aramco facility. Careful design of these facilities may be overlooked when attention is focused on other areas. The following sections describe the basic design of these facilities, with emphasis on parking. Thickness Design SAES-Q-006 provides excellent guidelines for the thickness design of parking and loading facilities. Unless a special design has been performed, use the thickness design information provided in Figure 25. DESIGN FOR PARKING LOTS AND LOADING FACILITIES

Pavement Category

Minimum Thickness of Base Course __________________

Maximum Thickness of Combined Binder and Surface Course ____________________________ With Class B or C base material cm (in) With Class A base material cm (in)

cm

(in)

Parking and Storage Lots Sedans and Small Trucks

15

(6.0) 23 (9.0)

(3.5) 14

6 (5.5)

(2.5) 12 (5.0)

Parking and Storage Lots Heavy Traffic (Truck Terminals, etc.)

FIGURE 25

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Drainage Most roads are built with a 0.5% longitudinal slope to keep rainfall from standing in the road. The minimum slope for parking and loading areas increases to 1.0 or 1.5%. This slope will prevent large accumulations of water. Parking Lot Layout There are four important criteria to remember when laying out a parking area: Use rectangular areas if possible. Make the long sides of the parking area parallel. Place parking spaces (not traffic lanes) along the perimeter. Place traffic lanes so that they serve two rows of parking spaces.

The number of parking spaces in the parking lot will be maximized if you use those four rules.

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Traffic Lanes in parking lots should be a minimum of 24 feet (7.2 m) wide for two-way traffic. Large circulation lanes that lead from one part of the parking lot to another should be a minimum of 30 feet (9m) wide. The minimum entrance for two-way traffic into a parking lot should be 25 feet (7.6 m)wide. The minimum radius of the entrance curb is approximately 10 feet (3 m). See Figure 26 for a picture of these typical facilities. Parking Spaces - A typical minimum parking space size is 19 feet long by 9 feet wide (5.7 m by 2.7 m). There are three main ways to arrange parking spaces: at a 90 angle, at a 60 angle, and at a 45 angle. Figure 27 shows those parking arrangements. The 90 arrangement is the most efficient use of space; it places more parking spaces in a given area of land. However, the 90 arrangement is hardest for the driver to use; it requires a sharper turn to drive the car into the space. Thus, the 90o arrangement is used when the people who park there will usually stay the entire day. If many people enter and leave each parking space every day, the 60 arrangement is the most often used because it is easier for people to park their cars. However, this arrangement has a lower car capacity than the 90 arrangement. The 45 arrangement is not often used. Its car capacity is the lowest. Figure 28 shows the required dimensions for lots using any of the three parking angles. The "single unit" parking lot has one-way traffic, and there are no other rows of additional parking spaces on both sides. The "overlapping units" parking lot has rows of other parked cars on either side of the row shown. Figure 28 is extremely helpful in laying out a parking lot on a given area of land. The value 'M' can help you determine how many rows of parked cars can fit into the given area. The value 'a' tells the smallest width for a one-way traffic lane that can be used in the facility. The value 'c' allows you to calculate the number of parking spaces that can be put into each row of the parking lot.

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PARKING PLAN--90 PARKING

62'-0" Wall to Wall 19'-0" 2'-0" 6" Raised curb line 24'-0" 19'-0"

90 9'-0" Typical Wall or property line Painted parking lines

..

.. Entrance

.
R = 10'-0" min.

Streetcurb Street

25'-0"

FIGURE 26

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PARKING ANGLES

60

45

90

Traffic

FIGURE 27

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PARKING LAYOUT DIMENSIONS

M s a s s'

M' a' s'

Single unit

Overlapping units

n 90 60 45

s 19'0" 21'0" 19'10"

a 24'0" 18'0" 13'0"

c 9'0" 10'5" 12'9"

M 62'0" 60'0" 52'8"

s' 19' 18'9" 16'7"

M' 62'0" 55'6" 46'2"

a' 24' 18' 13'

FIGURE 28

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Loading Facilities It is not possible to give general rules for the design of loading facilities because of the large variety of commodities to be loaded and the variety of design vehicles to be docked. When designing those facilities, the individual characteristics of the design vehicle will largely determine the design. Parking and Loading Summary It is not easy to design a useful and efficient parking facility. However, following the guidelines in Figures 25-28 and the four criteria listed below will help the designer attain his goal: Use rectangular areas if possible. Make the long sides of the parking area parallel. Place parking spaces (not traffic lanes) along the perimeter. Place traffic lanes so that they serve two rows of parking spaces.

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DRAINAGE You may be asked to design road facilities that will be subjected to rainfall. These facilities will include ditches and culverts. The land upon which rain falls is broken into drainage areas. Each small area of land which drains into one channel is called a watershed. Each watershed may send a stream of water toward the road. When it reaches the road, it is diverted by one of two means: The stream of water is channeled under the road through a culvert, or The water is channeled into a ditch which runs beside the road.

Several types of calculations are important when dealing with drainage. First, the maximum rate of water expected to flow toward the road must be quantified. Second, the ditch must be designed to be big enough to hold the water without flooding. Third, the culvert must be made large enough to carry the water under the road without flooding. Simple calculations for the first two items will be covered in this module. Culvert design is too complicated to be adequately covered here. Peak Runoff SAES-S-030 specifies use of the Rational Method as the way to calculate peak runoff. Peak runoff is the highest flow rate of water expected to come from a watershed. The value is expressed in cubic feet per second (cfs) or cubic meters per second (cms). If structures are designed for peak runoff, then they will not flood during most storms. The Rational Method only works for watersheds smaller than 500 acres (202.3 ha). The main sources of additional information concerning it are SAES-S-030 and SADP-S-030. This module will describe only the simple case of one watershed flowing directly toward the road. If more complicated situations occur, the participant may check the references in the previous paragraph or consult a more experienced engineer.

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The Rational Formula The Rational Formula is the equation used to calculate peak runoff. Q = 0.002755 CIA where: Q C I A = = = = Runoff quantity in cubic meters per second Runoff coefficient Rainfall intensity in millimeters per hour Area in hectares

The Rational Formula works on the principle that peak runoff occurs when all areas of the watershed (drainage area) are contributing to the runoff at the point of discharge. Runoff Coefficient C - The runoff coefficient is a measure of the percentage of rainfall which eventually flows down to the stream, ditch, culvert, or other point of discharge. The coefficient accounts for rainfall infiltration into the ground, type of vegetation, land use, and other factors which either absorb part of the rainfall or which prevent it from becoming runoff. Figure 29 gives suggested values for C under various land use conditions. The higher the C value selected, the higher the calculated value of runoff in cubic meters per second. RUNOFF COEFFICIENTS Character of Drainage Area Pavement, roads and parking lots Compacted marl or open rocky areas Commercial or Community Services areas Residential areas School sites Parks and open sandy areas C 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.3

FIGURE 29

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In the event that a watershed is composed of several types of drainage area, C is a weighted coefficient depending on the relative sizes of the subareas within the watershed. The designer divides the large area into small subareas of each drainage area type. The weighted coefficient C is then determined by dividing the summation of the product of each subarea times its appropriate C value by the total area of the watershed. This calculation will be demonstrated in Example Problem #2. Area of Watershed A - In the Rational Method equation, A stands for area of watershed in hectares (ha). The value can normally be obtained from a topographic map. First, identify the boundaries of the watershed (see Figure 30). Then, either use a planimeter to calculate the area, or use an engineer's scale to measure the lengths of the boundary edges in order to calculate the area by hand. Often a field trip is necessary to adequately define the boundaries of the watershed; this is especially true in urban areas.
WATERSHED AREA

Watershed boundary

Outlet

FIGURE 30

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Rainfall Intensity I - Rainfall intensity I is given in millimeters per hour. It is determined from the following formula which is given in SAES-S-030.

(A + B Tc) I = (1 + C Tc)
where: A, B, and C are given in Figure 31. Tc is calculated as described below. VARIABLES FOR INTENSITY EQUATION Return Frequency 5 years 10 years 25 years 50 years

A 166.148 202.151 248.192 291.948 FIGURE 31

B 0.519 0.570 0.662 0.732

C 0.119 0.111 0.107 0.106

A, B, and C vary depending on how often the facility will be allowed to flood. A flood so large that it occurs on the average of once every twenty five years is called the 25-year flood. The 25 year value is called the return frequency or design frequency. The appropriate value to be used with Figure 30 for ditch or culvert design is ten years. Time of concentration is the longest amount of time required for runoff from any remote point of a flow path of the drainage area to arrive at the outlet. It is expressed in minutes and varies with the size and shape of the drainage areas, the slope of the land, and many other factors. It is directly dependent upon "L," the distance in meters along a flow path between the most remote point in the drainage area and the discharge point, and "H," the difference in elevation in feet between the two points. Notice that L is measured along the path of flow, even if this is not a straight line. The relationship is expressed by the empirical formula: Tc = K(L2/H)0.2 where: Tc = K L H Time of concentration (minutes) = Constant value given in Figure 32 = Length of drainage path (meters) = Difference in elevation of drainage area (meters)

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VALUES OF K FOR Tc CALCULATION Character of Drainage Area Pavement, roads and parking lots Compacted marl or open rocky areas Commercial or Community Service area Residential areas School sites Parks and open sandy areas K 1.11 1.25 1.43 1.67 2.00 3.33

FIGURE 32 Sometimes there are two or more flow paths in a drainage area which could give a time of concentration. When that occurs, both are checked and the one that gives the longest time is used. The minimum value for Tc which can be used is 10 minutes.

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EXAMPLE PROBLEM #2 PEAK DISCHARGE BY RATIONAL METHOD Given: Watershed area is 4.7 ha. 0.7 ha of the area is a residential area 4.0 ha of the area is a school site L = 100 m, H = 7 m Peak runoff for a 10-year return period.

Find: Solution:

Coefficient C: C residential = C school = C (weighted) = Time of Concentration: From Figure 32, K = 2.00 Tc = = = Intensity: From Figure 31, A, B, and C = I = = = Peak runoff: Q = = = 0.002755 CIA 0.002755 (0.51) (98.5) (4.7) 0.65 cms 202.51, 0.570, and 0.111 respectively K (L2/ H)0.2 2.00 (1002/7)0.2 = 8.6 minutes use the minimum of 10.0 minutes 0.6 0.5 0.6(0.7) + 0.5(4.0) = 0.51 4.7

(A + B Tc)/(1 + C Tc) 202.15 + 0.57 (10) 1 + 0.111 (10) 98.5 mm/hr.

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Ditch Design Ditch design has two major objectives. The first is to make the ditch large enough to carry the flow rate expected for the 10 year flood. This means setting values for B and d (see Figure 33). After depth of water d has been set, the total height of the ditch must be increased by 18 inches (0.46 m) as an added safety factor. The extra 18 inches is called freeboard. Where ditches are required, they normally run beside the road on the same longitudinal slope. Saudi Aramco requires (SAES-S-030) that the ditches be trapezoid-shaped. Ditches may be lined with natural soil only, or they may be lined with Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) or riprap. Riprap is solid stone or broken concrete. The PCC or riprap linings are added to prevent erosion of the ditch by the water flowing through it. If the ditch sides and bottom are natural soil, the maximum water velocity V allowed in the ditch is 2.5 fps (0.76 m/s). If the ditch is PCC or riprap lined,the maximum allowable V increases to 5.0 fps (1.52 m/s). If the ditches are not lined, side slope Z must be 3:1. If the sides are lined with PCC or riprap, the side slope is set at 2:1.

TRAPEZOIDAL DITCH

d Z B

FIGURE 33

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Establishing Ditch Dimensions The Irish engineer Manning formulated the basic equation for dealing with flow in open channels such as ditches. An easy method to solve the Manning equation for trapezoidal ditches is found in Figure 34 on the next page. To use the figure, you must know or approximate the following data: Q S Z B n = = = = = Flowrate (cfs). Longitudinal ditch slope (ft/ft). Side slope ratio (2:1 or 3:1). Bottom ditch width (ft). For roadside ditches, 2 ft - 10 ft are typical values. Manning's roughness coefficient for the lining material of the ditches (see Figure 35).

Figure 34 allows you to determine d, depth of water in the ditch. Add 18 inches (0.46 m) of freeboard to arrive at the total depth of the ditch. Example Problem #3 will demonstrate this process. MANNING'S ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENTS
Surface n _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Vitrified clay or RTR pipe 0.013 Concrete or steel pipe 0.015 Paved streets with curb and gutter 0.015 Concrete lined open channels and box culverts 0.016 Constructed open channels with concrete side slopes 0.019 Constructed open channels with earth side slopes 0.023 Constructed open channels with rip-rap side slopes 0.027 Smooth natural stream channels 0.040 Rough or rocky natural stream channels 0.050 _____________________________________________________________________________________________

FIGURE 35 Checking Velocity After preliminary ditch dimensions are established, check that the design does not violate maximum flow velocity limits. Those limits are 2.5 fps for unprotected ditches and 5.0 fps for lined ditches. Use the following equation to find the velocity associated with the preliminary ditch dimensions: V = Q/A where: V Q = = Velocity (fps) Flowrate (cfs)
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Cross-sectional area of flow (sq. ft.)

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DITCH DESIGN NOMOGRAPH

FIGURE 34

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If the velocity is below the limit, the design is acceptable. If the velocity exceeds the limit, increase B and repeat the procedure. Example Problem #3 demonstrates the calculation. EXAMPLE PROBLEM #3 DITCH DESIGN Given: Q = 10 cfs S = 1% = 0.01 Z = 2:1 Lining material is rock riprap. Find: Solution: Appropriate ditch dimensions From Figure 35 n for rock riprap is 0.027. Assume B = 3 ft as a "typical" ditch width. Enter Figure 34 with S = 0.01 and Qn = (10)(0.027) = 0.27. Connect S and Qn and mark a point on the turning line. Connect the turning line point with B = 3 ft and place a mark on the Z = 0 scale. Read horizontally to the Z = 2 line to find that d/B = 0.22. d/3 = 0.22, so d = 0.66 ft of water depth, or 0.7 ft. Add 1.5 ft (18 inches) as freeboard. 1.5 + 0.7 = 2.2 ft as total ditch depth. Check for V:
2 1

0.5' 1.4' 3'

0.7' 1.4'

(3 + 5.8) 2 x [0.7] = 3.1 sq ft A= Q 10 = 3.1 = 3.2 fps V= A 3.2 5.0, so velocity checks.
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Culverts The function of a culvert is to carry surface water underneath a road. This module will describe the shapes of culverts and the materials culverts are made from. It will describe the proper placement of culverts and some aspects of culvert construction. However, culvert design is too complicated to be described completely here. Only the parameters affecting design will be described. Materials of Construction Portland cement concrete is the most common construction material for culverts. Figure 36 shows common culvert shapes. Both circular culverts and box culverts are used by Saudi Aramco, but the box culvert is used much more frequently. Both culvert types may be pre-cast construction, that is,they are made in advance and hauled to the site. This technique provides low cost, fast, simple construction. Box culverts that are quite long or of large size may also be cast-in-place.

COMMON CULVERT SHAPES

circular

box (rectangular)

box with 2 barrels

FIGURE 36

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Location Culvert location deals with the horizontal and vertical alignment of the culvert with respect to the stream and to the highway. Figure 37 shows how to locate the horizontal alignment of a culvert. In each example in the figure, notice that the downstream end of the culvert discharges water which is traveling in the same direction as the natural streambed. This practice reduces erosion at the culvert outlet.

PROPER HORIZONTAL LOCATION

Channel

Channel

Channel

Highway Centerline

FIGURE 37

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Figure 38 shows two common ways to establish the vertical alignment of the culvert. In Figure 38a, the designer has aligned the culvert on the same slope as the natural channel. In this way, the velocity of the water leaving the culvert is approximately the same as was the velocity of water in the channel before the culvert was built. This approach helps prevent erosion at the culvert outlet. Alignment should be done this way when possible. Figure 38b shows a culvert with its inlet depressed below the level of the natural channel bed. Thus, the slope of the culvert is not as steep as the slope of the natural channel. Exit velocity is kept low, avoiding erosion at the outlet. However, the presence of erosion protection on the steep slope just before the inlet is very important. Water will flow faster down that steep slope. If protection is not present, the slope could erode badly.

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PROPER VERTICAL LOCATION OF CULVERT

Road surface Culvert

Natural streambed

a) Streambed location

Road surface

Natural streambed

Concrete or riprap erosion protection required on this slope

Culvert

b) Depressed inlet

FIGURE 38

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Headwalls SAES-S-030 specifies that all culverts will have headwalls at the inlet and outlet. Figure 39 shows a culvert with a headwall. The headwall holds the fill material in place behind the culvert mouth. It also acts as an anchor when the rushing water exerts lift on the culvert. Cut-off walls are required at each end of the culvert. Cut-off walls are cast-in-place concrete walls attached to the bottom of the headwall. They extend vertically down into the ground a minimum of two feet (0.6 m). Their purpose is to help prevent erosion.

CONCRETE HEADWALL

Road

Headwall

FIGURE 39

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Erosion Erosion at the culvert inlet and outlet have already been described. Erosion at the outlet is called scour. The type of inlet erosion prevented by the slope protection in Figure 38b is called headcutting. SAES-S-030 attempts to limit both types of erosion by requiring a minimum of 3 m (10 feet) of solid grouted riprap in the stream channel both upstream and downstream of concrete box culverts. The riprap absorbs the erosive energy of the flowing water and prevents it from eroding the soil. The same measures can also be used for circular pipe culverts (see Figure 40). Culvert Design Parameters Figure 41 illustrates the important parameters affecting the performance of a culvert. To deliver the flowrate Q through the culvert, the culvert barrel has diameter D and slope S. The roughness n of the pipe wall and the length L of the pipe determine the amount of friction force which slows the flow. The levels of headwater HW and tailwater TW also affect how rapidly water will flow through the culvert. SAES-S-030 specifies that those factors must combine to give the flow a velocity between 0.9 m/s to 3 m/s (3 fps and 10 fps). Velocity below 3 fps will allow sand and earth to collect in the culvert and decrease or stop flow. This is called siltation. An exit velocity above 10 fps could cause erosion. SAES-S-030 specifies two more requirements for culvert design. First, the minimum diameter must be 0.3 m (12 inches). Second, the cross-sectional area of the pipe must be 50% greater than the area required from hydraulic calculations. This increase is made to compensate for siltation. Pipe or box culvert strength is another important design consideration. Two situations can cause large stresses in the culvert. The first is a culvert close to the road surface, where large axle weights put high stresses on the culvert. The second situation is when a culvert is placed at the bottom of a high fill. The weight of all the earth above the culvert places high stresses upon it. Strength calculations are too complicated to be explained here, but examples may be found in the Concrete Pipe Design Manual published by the American Concrete Pipe Association, 1987.

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EROSION AT CULVERTS

Road surface

Headcutting

Scour Culvert running full

FIGURE 40

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CULVERT DESIGN PARAMETERS

D = Dimensions of the culvert HW = Headwater depth at culvert entrance L = Length of culvert n = Surface roughness of the pipe wall S = Slope of the culvert pipe TW = Tailwater depth at culvert outlet

HW TW

S L n

FIGURE 41

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Construction Several aspects of proper construction have already been discussed. The slope must be appropriate to maintain a water velocity of 0.9 - 3.0 m/s (3-10 fps). Headwalls and cut-off walls are required for all culverts. Ten feet of riprap is required at the entrance and exit of concrete box culverts. Another important item is bedding and backfilling. Bedding is the material the culvert rests on. Ideally, bedding should be granular material such as gravel or sand. If the culvert is to be placed on rock, it is best to over-excavate the rock by 10 - 15 cm (4 to 6 inches) and add 4 to 6 inches of bedding before laying the pipe. Backfilling concerns compacting the fill material around and over the pipe. Good compaction around the sides of the pipe is particularly important because the pipe is strengthened by lateral support from the soil. If a trench has been dug to place the pipe, good backfill is very important. If the fill is not well-compacted, it may settle, leaving a depression in the road surface. Drainage Summary Drainage considerations for Saudi Aramco will generally involve using the Rational Formula to calculate rainfall runoff amounts. The trapezoidal ditches and rectangular culverts which carry the runoff are then designed according to principles listed in this section. Erosion must be constantly guarded against through such techniques as minimizing slopes and placing rock riprap in areas of potential erosion.

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PAVEMENT DESIGN Pavement design involves the determination of materials of construction and layer thicknesses for the road. The principle Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard concerning asphalt concrete (AC) pavement design is SAES-Q-006, Asphalt Concrete Paving. SAES-Q006 specifies use of the AASHTO Interim Guide for Design of Pavement Structures (published in 1972) for AC pavement design. A more recent version of the AASHTO guide (1986) has been published, but its pavement design method is far more complicated and has not been adopted by Saudi Aramco. This module will use procedures from the 1972 version. Data must be gathered before design can begin. The two most important types of data concern the size and number of trucks which are expected to travel on the road and the strength of the subgrade soil. The amount of truck traffic is very important because the road must be thicker and stronger as the number of trucks or the weight of trucks expected to use the road increases. Subgrade strength is important because the pavement must be thick if the subgrade strength is low. Truck Traffic Data The total number of automobiles (trucks and passenger vehicles) which are expected to travel the road each day is called the average daily traffic (ADT). ADT includes the vehicles which travel in both directions on the road. However, a vehicle only travels on one side of the road, so the road only has to be thick enough to carry one-half of the ADT. Therefore, divide ADT by two when calculating the amount of traffic to be used in design. Passenger automobile traffic is unimportant when calculating the amount of traffic expected on a road. Only the number and weight of trucks, which are much heavier than cars, usually need to be considered in design calculations. The number of trucks on the road is often expressed as a percentage of the ADT.

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Truck Axle Loads Each truck has two or more axles. The weight which is carried by each axle is very important. If the axles are loaded very heavily, only a small number of trucks traveling over the pavement will break (fail) it. For that reason, trucks are counted by the number of axles they have and the load on each axle. There are two types of axles: single axles and tandem axles. See Figure 42a for a drawing of a truck with two single axles. In Figure 42a, the rear axle carries 15,000 pounds (67kN) and the front axle carries 6,000 pounds (27 kN). Figure 42b shows a drawing of a truck with three axles. Two of the axles are tandem axles. A tandem axle has two axles so close together that they are considered to be only one axle. The tandem axles in the figure each carry 34,000 pounds (151 kN). The steering axle in the front is a single axle which carries 12,000 pounds (54 kN).

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SINGLE AXLES AND TANDEM AXLES

67 kN 15,000 Lbs.

27 kN 6,000 Lbs.

a) Truck with two single axles

151 kN 34,000 Lbs.

151 kN 34,000 Lbs.

54 kN 12,000 Lbs.

b) Truck with 2 tandem and one single axle

FIGURE 42

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Equivalent Axle Loads Because there are so many types of vehicles and weights of axles, all the different axles which are expected on a road are converted to a standard: the 80 kn (18-kip) equivalent axle load (EAL). Then, the road is designed to carry that much traffic before it wears out. The conversion factors for the different axles are given in Figure 43. The figure is given in two sections--one for single axles and one for tandem axles. Multiply the appropriate Load Equivalency Factor by the number of axles expected in that category to arrive at 80 kn (18kip) EAL. The number of EAL's which travel on the road during its life is the traffic data used for road design. This number is called the design EAL. Design EAL Saudi Arabian roads are designed to last 20 years before they must be rehabilitated. Twenty years is called the design life. It would seem correct to multiply EAL/day x 365 days/year x 20 years to arrive at design EAL. However, traffic usually increases as time goes by, usually at the rate of 2% to 10% per year. Thus, when calculating design EAL, multiply by a factor somewhat larger than 20 years. The appropriate growth factors are given in Figure 44. As a pavement thickness designer, you may obtain the design EAL in several ways: The planners may give you the design EAL value to use. If a traffic analysis has not been made by the planners, use the values from Figure 45. The figure comes from SAES-Q-006. The planners may give you a list of the number and type of axles they expect to travel on the pavement per day. You must convert that list to 80 kn (18-kip) EAL. The procedure is shown in Figure 46.

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LOAD EQUIVALENCY FACTORS

Gross Axle Load lb 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000 18,000 19,000 20,000 21,000 22,000 23,000 24,000 25,000 26,000 27,000 28,000 29,000 30,000 31,000 32,000 33,000 34,000 35,000 36,000 37,000 38,000 39,000 40,000

Load Equivalency Factors Single Axles 0.00002 0.00018 0.00072 0.00209 0.00500 0.01043 0.0196 0.0343 0.0562 0.0877 0.1311 0.189 0.264 0.360 0.478 0.623 0.796 1.000 1.24 1.51 1.83 2.18 2.58 3.03 3.53 4.09 4.71 5.39 6.14 6.97 7.88 8.88 9.98 11.18 12.50 13.93 15.50 17.20 19.06 21.08 Tandem Axles

Gross Axle Load lb 41,000 42,000 43,000 44,000 45,000 46,000 47,000 48,000 49,000 50,000 51,000 52,000 53,000 54,000 55,000 56,000 57,000 58,000 59,000 60,000 61,000 62,000 63,000 64,000 65,000 66,000 67,000 68,000 69,000 70,000 71,000 72,000 73,000 74,000 75,000 76,000 77,000 78,000 79,000 80,000

Load Equivalency Factors Single Axles 23.27 25.64 28.22 31.00 34.00 37.24 40.74 44.50 48.54 52.88 Tandem Axles 2.29 2.51 2.75 3.00 3.27 3.55 3.85 4.17 4.51 4.86 5.23 5.63 6.04 6.47 6.93 7.41 7.92 8.45 9.01 9.59 10.20 10.84 11.52 12.22 12.96 13.73 14.54 15.38 16.26 17.19 18.15 19.16 20.22 21.32 22.47 23.66 24.91 26.22 27.58 28.99

0.00688 0.01008 0.0144 0.0199 0.0270 0.0360 0.0472 0.0608 0.0773 0.0971 0.1206 0.148 0.180 0.217 0.260 0.308 0.364 0.426 0.495 0.572 0.658 0.753 0.857 0.971 1.095 1.23 1.38 1.53 1.70 1.89 2.08

FIGURE 43

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GROWTH FACTORS

Annual Growth Rate

No Growth

2%

4%

5%

6%

7%

8%

10 %

Growth Factor

20.0

24.3

29.8

33.1

36.8

41.0

45.8

57.3

FIGURE 44

DESIGN EAL'S IF TRAFFIC IS NOT KNOWN

EQUIVALENT PAVEMENT CATEGORIES

TRAFFIC AND LOAD

18 KIP LOADS

Residential Streets

Typical Subdivision

2 x 10**4

Access Roadways

Sedans to trucks up to 20 tons/axle Sedans to trucks up to 20 tons/axle Sedans and small trucks

1 x 10**5

Main Roadways

Traffic count required 1 x 10**5

Parking & Storage Lots

Parking & Storage Lots

Heavy Traffic (Truck Terminals etc.)

2 x 10**6

Plant Areas

Occasional Heavy Loads

1 x 10**6

FIGURE 45

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EXAMPLE PROBLEM #4 TYPICAL DETERMINATION OF DESIGN EAL

Given:

100 6-Kip single axles and 200 34-Kip axles are expected to travel on the road every day in the first year. These numbers are for one direction of traffic only. Traffic will increase 2 % per year.

Find:

Design EAL

Solution:

(1) Axle Group

(2) Axles/Day

(3) Load Equivalence Factor (Fig. 43)

(4) Days/Year

(5) Growth Factor (Fig. 44)

(6) EAL (2 x 3 x 4 x 5)

Single Axle 6-Kip

100

0.01043

365

24.3

9,250

Tandem Axle 34-Kip

200

1.095

365

24.3

1,942,500

Design EAL =

1,950,000

FIGURE 46

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Subgrade Strength The AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures uses resilient modulus, Mr, as the subgrade strength design parameter. Mr is expressed in psi (kPa). Mr is very similar to modulus of elasticity (Young's Modulus), except that the test is performed dynamically rather than statically. Values typically range from perhaps 1,000 psi (7,000 kPa) for a weak clay to perhaps 20,000 psi (140,000 kPa) for a strong sand subgrade. Most agencies do not have the devices capable of measuring resilient modulus, so a variety of conversion charts and equations are used to convert another strength value (such as CBR) to Mr. One estimate of Mr is frequently used when CBR is 10 or less. Mr (in psi) = CBR x 1500 The equation given above sometimes overestimates Mr. Thus, a potentially superior second method of estimating Mr from CBR is to use Figure 47. The resilient modulus of a subgrade soil can change during the seasons of the year. For example, if a geographic area receives much rain during one month of the year, but little rain during the other 11 months, the subgrade will be weakened during the rainy month because water has saturated the subgrade. Figure 48 shows how the "effective resilient modulus of the subgrade" (a value to show the average Mr for an entire year) is calculated. The "effective" Mr value is the one to be used during design. In Figure 48, the year can be divided into as many as 24 units or as few as 2 units. For our example, it is divided into 12 equal time periods. The monthly Mr values are placed in the first column. The values in the "Relative Damage" column of the chart are found by matching the Relative Damage value on the scale at the right side of the page with the corresponding value of Mr on the scale. Be careful when using the scale: it is a log scale, and values may be difficult to read. The sum of the Relative Damage values is placed at the bottom of the column. It is then divided by the number of units into which the year was divided (12 in this case). The average Relative Damage is then plotted on the scale, and the corresponding Mr is the effective subgrade resilient modulus. This value will be used for that soil in that climate area. Figure 49 is a blank chart to be used in future subgrade strength calculations. Please note that the average value for subgrade samples is used. For example, if 15 samples of one type of soil are taken along the proposed centerline of the road, after all 15 have been tested, the average of those 15 values should be used. No factor of safety is added.

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METHODS TO ESTIMATE SUBGRADE Mr

FIGURE 47

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EFFECTIVE SUBGRADE RESILIENT MODULUS EXAMPLE

FIGURE 48
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EFFECTIVE SUBGRADE RESILIENT MODULUS FORM

FIGURE 49

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Other Design Inputs Traffic and subgrade strength are two very important inputs to pavement design. The following paragraphs describe some additional parameters which must be used in the AASHTO flexible pavement design process. Reliability Design reliability refers to the degree of certainty that a given design will last throughout the analysis period. If a road is designed for Reliability = 50%, then there is a 50:50 probability that the road will last as long as it is intended to last. The reliability value is selected by the designer from the values in Figure 50. If the road will have a relatively low volume of traffic, it is not extremely important that the road last for the analysis period of 20 years. In that case, a value from the lowest row in the table (50% - 80%) would be selected. If the road to be designed is an important one, perhaps a multiple-lane divided highway, then a value from one of the top two rows might be selected. The higher the reliability selected, the thicker the resulting pavement will be. Often, a value in the middle of the range on the row is selected. For example, a value for a rural, collector road might be 85%. GUIDELINES FOR DESIGN RELIABILITY Functional Classification Interstate and Other Freeways Principal Arterials Collectors Locals Urban 85 - 99.9 80 - 99 80 - 95 50 - 80 FIGURE 50 Overall Standard Deviation Overall Standard Deviation So, is a number that accounts for the variability in materials and construction, the chance variation in the traffic prediction, and the normal variation in pavement performance for a given number of EAL applications. The range of possible values runs from 0.40 to 0.50. The higher the value selected, the thicker the resulting pavement will be. If a designer is very certain of his traffic prediction and is very certain that the construction crew can build the road exactly to specifications, a value of 0.40 might be used. However, a designer is almost never in that position: there is almost always uncertainty and variability in design and construction procedures. Thus, a value of So= 0.49 is recommended for use by Saudi Aramco. Rural 80 - 99.9 75 - 95 75 - 95 50 - 80

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Design Serviceability Loss The serviceability of a pavement is defined as its ability to serve the type of traffic for which it was designed. The primary measure of serviceability used in the AASHTO design procedures is the Present Serviceability Index (PSI), in which the pavement condition is subjectively rated from 0 (impassable) to 5 (perfect). The AASHTO design procedure requires an input called PSI, which is the difference between the initial PSI when the pavement is first constructed and the terminal PSI when it is worn out and requires rehabilitation. The initial serviceability index (po) is a function of pavement design and construction quality. The terminal serviceability index (pt) generally varies with the importance or functional classification of the pavement. New pavements are usually assigned a po of 4.2, not a "perfect" 5. SAES-Q-006 states that pt is 2.5. Thus, PSI = 4.2 - 2.5 = 1.7. AASHTO Design Procedure Once pavement design inputs have been obtained, the design procedure from the AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures is used to design the road. In this case, design means to select the materials used to build the road and the thickness of each material. The top layer is asphalt concrete. It is usually made of approximately 3.8 cm (1.5 in.) of surface mix asphalt plus a layer of binder asphalt beneath it. The next layer down is granular base material. The subbase is usually omitted if the CBR of the subgrade material is greater that 5. If the existing subgrade has a CBR of 5 or less, Saudi Aramco specifies that a subbase with a minimum CBR of 15 will be provided, with a minimum subbase thickness of 20 cm (8 in.). Design Chart SAES-Q-006 specifies the use of the design chart in Figure 51 to design the pavement. Start at the left side of the nomograph and use the values of R, So, traffic, effective subgrade resilient modulus, and design serviceability loss as shown on Figure 51. The result is a value for SN, structural number. Structural number expresses how strong the pavement must be to last for 20 years. If the SN is high, the road must be quite thick and strong. If the SN is low, the road does not need to be as thick. Once an SN value has been found from Figure 51, the designer specifies a road which has a strength of SN or greater.

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AASHTO DESIGN NOMOGRAPH

FIGURE 51
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Achieving SN How do you achieve the required SN? The SN of the materials and layer thicknesses you specify is found using the following equation: SN = aD+aDm+aDm where: D1, D2, D3 a 1 , a2 , a3 m2 and m3 = = = Actual thicknesses of surface, base, and subbase layers, respectively (in.) Layer coefficients for the surface, base, and subbase, respectively (see Figure 52) (unitless) Drainage coefficients for the base and subbase respectively (see Figure 53) (unitless).

The layer coefficients give a relative measure of the strength of the material in the pavement layer. SAES-Q-006 specifies the use of the layer coefficient values given in Figure 52. That figure shows that the asphalt concrete in the surface is much stronger that the MOC Class B CBR 50 base material (0.16 compared to 0.04). SAUDI ARAMCO LAYER COEFFICIENTS

PAVEMENT COMPONENT Hot mix Asphalt (High Stability) MOC Class A - CBR 100 MOC Class B - CBR 50

Coefficient Per cm 0.16 0.06 0.04 0.41 0.14 0.11

Per inch

FIGURE 52

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Drainage coefficients provided in Figure 53 provide the means to adjust layer coefficients to take into account the effects of varying drainage conditions on pavement performance. Guidance concerning the design or effectiveness of various drainage approaches is not provided by AASHTO, however. The design engineer must identify the level or quality of drainage that will be achieved under the design drainage conditions. Figure 54 provides definitions for the various level or quality of drainage. RECOMMENDED DRAINAGE COEFFICIENTS Percent of Time Pavement Structure is Exposed to Moisture Levels Approaching Saturation Less than 1% Excellent Good Fair Poor Very Poor 1.40 - 1.35 1.35 - 1.25 1.25 - 1.15 1.15 - 1.05 1.05 - 0.95 1 - 5% 1.35 - 1.30 1.25 - 1.15 1.15 - 1.05 1.05 - 0.80 0.95 - 0.75 FIGURE 53 5 - 25% 1.30 - 1.20 1.15 - 1.00 1.00 - 0.80 0.80 - 0.60 0.75 - 0.40 Greater than 25% 1.20 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40

Quality of Drainage

QUALITY OF DRAINAGE FOR PAVEMENT DESIGN Quality of Drainage Water Removed from Pavement Structure Within Excellent Good Fair Poor Very Poor FIGURE 54 2 hours 1 day 1 week 1 month Water will not drain

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To use Figure 53, the designer must also know "percent of the time pavement structure is exposed to moisture levels approaching saturation". If the water table in the area is quite high, the percent of saturated time may be high. If the pavement structure is saturated only when it rains, then the percent approaching saturation may be calculated in the following manner: % Approaching Saturation = (Days of rain per year) *100 365 The application of an mi is only valid for nonstabilized materials; that is, the values in Figure 53 apply only to the effects of drainage on untreated base and subbase layers. Although the effects of drainage are certainly beneficial for stabilized layers, the effects of drainage for flexible pavements are not as pronounced as for unbound materials. Final Design Since the layer coefficients, the drainage coefficients, and the value of SN which must be met or exceeded are known, the only remaining part of the design is to establish D1, D2, and D3, the thicknesses of the layers. Many combinations of layer thicknesses are possible. However, D, is usually 0 if the subgrade CBR is above 5. If you set D2 at 30 cm (12 inches), which is a common base thickness, then only one variable remains in the equation: D1. Solve the SN equation for D1, and you have an acceptable design. However, your set of layer thicknesses is only one of many sets which will give the desired value for SN. You may wish to make other designs, then choose the best one. If good granular base material is scarce, you might set the base thickness at 10 cm (4 inches). Solving the SN equation for D1 would then yield a different design which also satisfies the strength requirement for the road. To decide which is the better design, you may wish to choose the one which costs less to build.

If a road has 10 cm of asphalt, 15 cm of Class B base, and the m2 value is 0.90, what is SN? SN = 10(0.16) + 15(0.04)(0.90) = 2.24

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Design Check Figure 55 presents the AASHTO Guide guidelines on minimum pavement layer thicknesses. It is generally impractical to build layers of lesser thickness for economic or structural reasons.

MINIMUM PRACTICAL THICKNESSES FOR PAVING MATERIALS

Traffic, EALS Less than 50,000 50,000 - 150,000 150,001 - 500,000 500,001 - 2,000,000 2,000,001 - 7,000,000 Greater than 7,000,000

Minimum Thickness, mm (in) Asphalt Concrete Aggregate Base 25 (1.0) 51 (2.0) 64 (2.5) 76 (3.0) 89 (3.5) 102 (4.0) FIGURE 55 102 (4) 102 (4) 102 (4) 152 (6) 152 (6) 152 (6)

What should you do if your design includes layer thickness values smaller than those in Figure 55? For example, you are designing a road with design EALs of 60,000. Your design includes 12 in. (30 cm) of base and 0.75 in. (2 cm) of asphalt concrete. You can tell from Figure 55 that the surface asphalt must be at least 2 in. (5 cm) thick. You should do two things: Reduce subbase thickness to 10 cm (4 in.), because more than the minimum thickness will probably not be required. Re-calculate D1, the thickness of the surface layer. If it is still less than 5 cm (2 in.), you must still specify 5 cm.

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Default Designs SAES-Q-006 gives a table of default designs (Figure 56). If a design cannot be completed before the project is built, use the layer thicknesses given in Figure 56.

DEFAULT DESIGN THICKNESS Minimum Thickness of Combined Binder and Surface Course With Class B or C cm (in) 8 9 (3.0) (3.5) With Class A cm (in) 5 6 (2.0)

Base Course

cm Residential Streets Access Roadways (2.5) Main Highways Parking and Storage Lots Sedans and Small Trucks Parking and Storage Lots Heavy Traffic (Truck Terminals, etc.) Plant Areas Occasional Heavy Loads 15 23 23 15 15

(in) (6.0) (6.0)

TRAFFIC COUNT REQUIRED (6.0) (9.0) (9.0) 9 14 14 (3.5) (5.5) (5.5) 6 12 12 (2.5) (5.0) (5.0)

FIGURE 56

Alternative Design Method Pages II-35 to II-37 of the AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures presents an alternative method for pavement design. The method uses the same design chart and layer coefficients as the method previously described. However, it is more complicated and will not be described here.

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Pavement Design Summary Pavement design includes several steps. First, the volume of traffic which will travel on the road must be calculated. Then, the strengths of the various paving materials to be used (including the subgrade) must be obtained. Finally, the structural number SN which the road must have is determined from an AASHTO design chart. The required SN is then converted into required layer thicknesses through an equation of the form SN = a1D1 + a2D2m2 + a3D3m3.

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EXAMPLE PROBLEM #5 AASHTO FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN Given: - Proposed urban 4-lane flexible pavement on sandy clay subgrade. For 3 months of the year, the subgrade is wetted by rain, and its Mr is 5,000 psi. For the remaining 9 months, the subgrade is dryer, and Mr is 10,000 psi. - No subbase is used because CBR is above 5. Base is MOC Class A Surface is asphaltic concrete - Design Traffic: 3,500,000 18-kip EAL - Pavement drainage is "fair", and the pavement will be saturated about 20% of the time during the year. Find: Solution: An acceptable pavement thickness design. - Reliability: from Figure 50, use 90% - Standard deviation:0.49 - Effective subgrade resilient modulus: using Figure 48 find that Mr (effective) = 7,500 psi. - Change in PSI = 4.2 - 2.5 = 1.7 - From Figure 51, SN = 4.4 - From Figure 52, a3 = 0.11; a2 = 0.14 ; a1 = 0.41

- From Figure 53, drainage coefficients m2 and m3 = 0.85 - From Figure 55, use minimum surface asphalt thickness of 3.5 inches and use minimum base material of 6 inches. - 4.4 = 0.41(3.5) + 0.14(6)(0.85) + 0.11(D )(0.85) D = 24 inches - Thus, a possible solution is 3.5 inches asphalt, 6 inches 3 3 aggregate base, and 24 inches subbase. However, you may want to reduce the subbase thickness and increase the other layers for practical reasons.

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Overlay Design During the life of a pavement, routine maintenance such as crack sealing and pothole filling is performed. When the PSI of a road deteriorates to 2.5, rehabilitation is required. This rehabilitation usually takes the form of 1 inch to 5 inches (2.5 cm to 12.5 cm) of asphalt concrete laid on the old surface. This new layer is called an overlay. When More Must Be Done There are several instances when the pavement may be so deteriorated that overlaying is insufficient to repair the road. In these cases, reconstruction of some or all the pavement layers may be required: When the amount of high-severity alligator cracking is so great that complete removal and replacement of the existing surface is dictated. When excessive rutting indicates that the existing materials lack sufficient stability to prevent recurrence of severe rutting. When an existing granular base must be removed and replaced due to infiltration of and contamination by a soft subgrade. Stripping in the existing surface dictates that it should be removed and replaced.

The 1993 edition of the AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures presents three different methods of designing the thickness of asphalt overlays of asphalt pavements: Nondestructive Test (NDT) Method. This method involves the use of an expensive falling weight deflectometer (FWD) device which is currently unavailable to Saudi Aramco. Remaining Fatigue Life Method. This method is the least reliable of the methods because it requires an accurate estimate of the number of EALs which the road has already sustained. It is also not directly applicable to any road which has already received one or more overlays. Condition Survey Method. This method involves observations of distresses on the surface of the pavement and visual observations (and sometimes laboratory testing) of materials samples taken from the existing pavement.

Only the Condition Survey Method will be presented in this text.

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Condition Survey Method The 1993 edition of the AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures lists seven steps to design flexible overlays of flexible pavements using the Condition Survey Method. Step 1: Existing Pavement - Obtain the thickness and material type of each pavement layer from cores, construction records, etc. Also obtain as much subgrade data as possible from construction records or from sampling. Step 2: Traffic Analysis - Predict the future EALs in the design lane during the life of the overlay. (Traffic calculations were described earlier in the Pavement Design section.) Step 3: Condition Survey - A condition survey involves the determination of the type, quantity, and severity of distresses visible on the surface of the existing pavement. Sampling along the project in the heaviest trafficked lane is used to estimate the quantity of distresses. The following distresses should be measured during the condition survey: Percent of the surface area covered with alligator cracking. Observe the percentage of the road surface which is covered by alligator cracking of three types. Low-severity alligator cracking exhibits longitudinal, disconnected hairline cracks running parallel to each other. The cracks are not spalled. Initially there may only be a single crack in the wheel path. Medium-severity cracking exhibits further development of low-severity alligator cracking into a pattern of pieces formed by cracks that may be lightly surface-spalled. Cracks may be sealed. High-severity alligator cracking occurs when cracking has progressed so that pieces are more severely spalled at the edges and loosened until the cells rock under traffic. Pumping may exist.

Percent of the road surface which is covered by transverse cracking (cracks which run transverse to the centerline of the road). Record the amount of cracking for the following three types.

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Low-severity cracks have either minor spalling or no spalling, and cracks can either have been sealed or still be nonsealed. If nonsealed, cracks have a mean width of 1/4 inch (6 mm) or less; sealed cracks are of any width, but their sealant material is in satisfactory condition to substantially prevent water infiltration. No significant bump occurs when a vehicle crosses the crack. Medium-severity occurs when one of the following conditions exists: (1) cracks are moderately spalled and can either be sealed or nonsealed of any width; (2) sealed cracks are not spalled or have only minor spalling, but the sealant is in a condition so that water can freely infiltrate; (3) nonsealed cracks are not spalled or have only minor spalling, but mean crack width is greater than 1/4 inch (6 mm); (4) lowseverity random cracking exists near the crack or at the corners of intersecting cracks; or (5) the crack causes a significant bump to a vehicle. High-severity occurs when: (1) cracks are severely spalled and/or medium or high-severity random cracking exists near the crack or at the corners of intersecting cracks; or (2) the crack causes a severe bump to a vehicle.

The percentage of transverse cracking is determined as follows: (linear feet of cracking) 100 ft2 of pavement or (linear meters of cracking x 0.3048) 100 m2 of pavement Mean rut depth. Evidence of pumping at cracks and at pavement edges.

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Step 4: Coring and Materials Testing - This step is optional, but it does provide additional information to the design procedure. Subgrade samples obtained by coring or augering may be re-molded and tested for CBR. Figure 47 can be used to convert CBR to resilient modulus. This data will be very helpful in step 5. Samples of granular bases and subbases are visually examined. A gradation analysis is also performed to assess degradation and contamination by fines from an adjoining layer. Either event produces a decrease in the load carrying capacity of the material. Asphalt concrete layers and stabilized base layers are visually examined to assess asphalt stripping and degradation. Asphalt stripping is a process which takes place at the bottom of the asphalt layer. Water sometimes "strips" asphalt cement away from the aggregate, leaving only a gravel material instead of good asphalt concrete. Step 5: Determination of Required SNY for Future Traffic - The required Structural Number (SNY) is computed using the flexible pavement nomograph found in Figure 51. Use the design method described in the Pavement Design section to design a new pavement which will carry only the traffic expected to be carried by the overlay. Use Mr of the existing subgrade. Step 6: Effective SN of the Existing Pavement - The condition survey method uses the structural number equation which we learned earlier to estimate the remaining effective "strength" of the existing pavement, SNeff: Sneff = a1D1 + a2D2m2 + a3D3m3 where: D1, D2, D3 a 1 , a2 , a3 m2 and m3 = = = Actual thicknesses of surface, base, and subbase layers, respectively (in.) Layer coefficients for the surface, base, and subbase, respectively (see Figure 52) (unitless) Drainage coefficients for the base and subbase respectively (see Figure 53) (unitless).

Layer thicknesses are known from the previous steps, and drainage coefficients can be determined from Figure 53. The layer coefficients are assumed to have decreased over time, and they are determined from Figure 57. The only exception to the loss in layer coefficient value over time might be for unbound base and subbase materials that show no signs of degradation or contamination.

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Step 7: Determination of Overlay Thickness - The thickness of the asphalt overlay is computed as follows: Do1 = where: SNo1 ao1 Do1 SNY SNeff = = = = = SNo1 (SNY - SNeff ) = a o1 a o1

Required overlay structural number Structural coefficient for the asphalt overlay Required overlay thickness (in, cm) Required structural number for future traffic determined in Step 5 Effective structural number of the existing pavement determined from Step 6

The overlay thickness determined from the seven-step procedure should appear reasonable to the designer. However, the method used -- selecting from pre-established ranges of layer coefficients -- could result in unreasonable overlay values. If so, the designer may choose to modify his design. Remember, there is no substitute for engineering judgment. Please note that if the calculated overlay thickness is above approximately 5 cm (2 inches), it may be placed in more than one layer. For example, a 10 cm (4 inch) overlay may consist of 3 cm of surface asphalt and 7 cm of binder asphalt.

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SUGGESTED LAYER COEFFICIENTS FOR EXISTING AC PAVEMENT Material Surface Condition Little or no alligator cracking and/or only low-severity transverse cracking < 10 percent low-severity alligator cracking and/or < 5 percent medium- and high-severity transverse cracking > 10 percent low-severity alligator cracking and/or < 10 percent medium-severity alligator cracking and/or > 5-10 percent medium- and high-severity transevrse cracking > 10 percent medium-severity alligator cracking and/or < 10 percent high-severity alligator cracking and/or > 10 percent medium- and high-severity transverse cracking > 10 percent high-severity alligator cracking and/or > 10 percent high-severity transverse cracking Little or no alligator cracking and/or only low-severity ransverse cracking < 10 percent low-severity alligator cracking and/or < 5 percent medium- and high-severity transverse cracking > 10 percent low-severity alligator cracking and/or < 10 percent medium-severity alligator cracking and/or > 5-10 percent medium- and high-severity transverse cracking > 10 percent medium-severity alligator cracking and/or < 10 percent high-severity alligator cracking and/or > 10 percent medium- and high-severity transevrse cracking > 10 percent high-severity alligator cracking and/or > 10 percent high-severity transverse cracking No evidence of pumping, degradation, or contamination by fines Some evidence of pumping, degradation, or contamination by fires FIGURE 57 Notes: Patching all high-severity alligator cracking is recommended. The asphalt concrete and stabilized base layer coefficients selected should reflect the amount of high-severity cracking remaining after patching. Coefficient 0.35 to 0.40 0.25 to 0.35 0.20 to 0.30 0.14 to 0.20 0.08 to 0.15 0.20 to 0.35 0.15 to 0.25 0.15 to 0.20 0.10 to 0.20 0.08 to 0.15 0.10 to 0.14 0.00 to 0.10

AC Surface

Stabilized Base

Granular Base or Subbase

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Besides evidence of pumping noted during the condition survey, samples of base material should be obtained and examined for evidence of erosion and degradation and contamination by fines. The base material should also be evaluated for drainability, and the layer coefficients reduced accordingly. Other types of distress may exist that, in the engineer's opinion, would detract from the performance of an overly. This distress should be considered through an appropriate decrease of the structural coefficient of the layer exhibiting the distress (e.g., surface raveling of the AC, stripping of an AC layer, freeze-thaw damage to a cement-treated base.) Coring and testing are recommended for evaluation of all materials and are strongly recommended for evaluation of stabilized layers.

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Pre-Overlay Repair The following sections present the types of distress that should be repaired before placing an asphalt overlay. Failure to repair these distress types can greatly reduce the service life of the overlay placed. Alligator Cracking All areas of high-severity alligator cracking must be repaired. Localized areas of mediumseverity alligator cracking should be repaired unless a paving fabric or other means of reflective crack control is used. The repair must include removal of any soft subsurface material. Linear Cracks High-severity linear cracks should be patched. Linear cracks that are open greater than 6 mm (0.25 in) should be filled with a sand-asphalt mixture or other suitable crack filler. Cracks that are open less than 6 mm (0.25 in) and cracks that do not experience substantial opening and closing do not require any preoverlay repairs. Rutting Rutting is removed by milling or placement of a leveling course. If rutting is severe (greater than 6 mm [0.25 in]), an investigation into which layer is causing the rutting should be conducted to determine whether an overlay is feasible. Failure to correct the cause of the problem can lead to premature failures in the overlay. Surface Irregularities Depressions, humps, and corrugations require investigation and treatment of their causes. Usually, removal and replacement will be required. Surface Milling If the asphalt pavement is milled before overlaying, the depth of the milling should be reflected in the SNeff analysis. SNeff may be reduced by an amount equal to the depth milled times the layer coefficient of the asphalt.

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EXAMPLE PROBLEM #6 ASPHALT OVERLAY ON ASPHALT PAVEMENT Given: An asphalt overlay is being designed for a collector street. The existing pavement consists of a 110-mm (4.25-in) asphalt surface course and a 200-mm (8-in) granular base course. The proposed overlay is expected to handle 2.4 million flexible pavements EALs in the design lane. Materials recovered from the existing subgrade showed CBR = 6 in laboratory testing. A condition survey showed only 3% low-severity alligator cracking and 4% low-severity transverse cracking. There was no evidence of contamination or degradation of the aggregate base. The required thickness of the asphalt overlay using the conditon survey method. Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: 4.25 inches of asphalt 8 inches of granular base course Predicted overlay traffic is 2.4 million EALs See condition survey data above. Mr of subgrade = 6,600 psi (from Figure 47) SNY = 4.5 from Figure 51 using: R = 90%, So = 0.49, PSI = 1.7, traffic = 2,400,000, and Mr = 6,600 psi From Figure 57, choose a1 = 0.35 and a2 = 0.14 Because no information is given concerning drainage conditions, choose m2 = 1.00 SNeff = a1D1 + a2D2 m 2 = 0.35(4.25) + 0.14(8)(1.00) = 2.61 SNY SNeff a o1 = = 4.5 - 2.61 0.41 4.6 inches

Find: Solution:

Step 6:

Step 7: Do1

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ROAD CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES Previous chapters contain information on pavement layers, the materials which comprise these layers, and the properties of these materials. Neither the finest construction materials nor the best pavement design will support the design traffic if the pavement has not been properly constructed. This chapter explores current construction practices for subgrades, bound and unbound subbases and bases, stabilized pavement layers, and flexible (asphalt concrete) surfaces. Subgrade Function The purpose of the subgrade is to support the pavement structure. The pavement structure in turn prevents stresses caused by traffic loads from significantly loading the subgrade, thus avoiding subgrade compaction. This compaction would likely show up in the surface as ruts. Weak subgrades can withstand only small loads before this compaction occurs; strong subgrades might support fairly large loads before any compaction results. Weak subgrades thus require a much thicker overlying pavement structure than strong subgrade in order to prevent excessive stresses at the top. It follows, then, that the subgrade should be constructed of high quality subgrade materials using proper construction techniques before the pavement structure is placed on top of it. General Material Requirements A subgrade can consist of virtually any type of material. In a fill area, where soil is transported from a borrow pit or from another part of the roadway where soil is removed (cut), the quality of subgrade can be fairly well controlled. A soil with a high amount of organic material in it should never be used, since the organics tend to decompose and cause pavement settlement. Topsoil must first be removed both in the area to be filled and in the area from which the fill material is obtained. In a cut area, excess soil is removed down to approximately the proposed subgrade elevation. If the soil at that elevation is unacceptable (containing organic material or material likely to swell when moisture is added), then it is removed and replaced with good material. Otherwise, the soil is mixed and recompacted to an acceptable density.

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Hauling and Placing Much of the hauling of earth is done using equipment specifically designed for that purpose. Scrapers, or "pans", are able to move large quantities of earth fairly rapidly. The soil is scraped up from the bottom of a large holding area in the center of the scraper. Once the holding area is full, the bottom is closed, and the scraper transports the soil to the fill location. It is deposited there in a fairly uniform layer by raising the holding area and opening it from the bottom. The soil is deposited as the scraper moves slowly forward. Spreading After the material is roughly in place, the layer is made more uniform using a bulldozer or a motor grader before the soil layer is compacted. The motor grader allows better control of the spreading operation, so it is generally used in the top portion of the fill. Layers should not exceed 1 foot (0.30 m) in thickness or they may not compact to the required density using standard compaction equipment. Compaction Soil with a good proportion of clay materials can be compacted using a roller. The sheepsfoot roller consists of a steel wheel with metal protrusions or feet, equally spaced around the wheel. As the roller turns, the feet sink into the soil and compact the bottom of the layer first. As more passes are completed and the soil is compacted, the feet sink less and less into the layer of soil. The soil is compacted when the feet "walk" on the surface of the layer, with little protrusion into the layer. Soil with little or no clay particles will be better compacted with a smooth, steel-wheeled roller. A vibrating device can also be used to aid in the densifying process. The vibrator will cause the wheel to move up and down on the soil very rapidly, resulting in the movement of soil particles into a denser pattern. In cut sections, a motor grader or a rotary mixer is used to prepare the subgrade for the pavement structure. Generally, the top 2 feet (0.61 m) to 3 feet (0.91 m) of existing soil is reworked in this manner to assure proper uniformity of materials and adequate density directly under the pavement. After grading, the soil is then compacted as described previously.

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Density Testing Compaction tests are conducted in the lab using materials that will be placed under the pavement. The density required in the field is based upon that obtained in the lab, and a target water content is identified to allow this density to be achieved. After compaction of a layer in the field, the density of the layer will be measured using one of several accepted methods and compared to the required density. If it meets the minimum density requirements, the next layer can be applied and compacted. If not, the layer must be reworked so that the desired density is obtained. Density Deficiency and Correction Sometimes the required density is not obtained on the first try. This situation can occur if any one of the following problems are encountered. Moisture content is incorrect. If the soil is too dry or too wet, the required density cannot be obtained. If too dry, water should be added to the soil and mixed using harrows, motor graders, or rotary mixers, and the soil recompacted. Soil that is too wet, such as after a rainfall, should be aerated by working with a harrow, motor grader, or rotary mixer. The soil is recompacted after the moisture content has been uniformly adjusted throughout the layer. Improper roller weights. If the roller is too light, it will not apply enough compactive effort to achieve the required density. If too heavy, the soil may be pushed and shoved by the roller instead of being compacted, so that required density cannot be obtained. Incorrect tamping foot size (sheepsfoot roller). If the feet are too large, the load of the roller will be spread over a large surface area, causing the stress at the contact between the soil and the feet to be too small to compact the soil properly. If the feet are too small, the stress at the soil/foot contacts will be very large, causing displacement of the soil instead of compaction. Soil layer too thick. If the layer of soil is too thick, the roller cannot compact the entire depth. Density requirements can be met at the top of the layer, but not at the bottom. Surface crusting. Sometimes the top of the layer will compact quickly and bridge over the bottom portion of the layer. This results in low density in the lower portion.

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Whenever the density is too low, the contractor should usually rework the layer by breaking it up, modifying the water content if necessary, and recompacting. Sometimes, the contractor may be able to achieve the density simply by rolling the layer a few more times with the same device, or by compacting a layer of inadequate density with a heavier roller. Finishing After the subgrade has met all density requirements, it can be cut to final grade. This is done using a motor grader with a very experienced operator or, on large projects, an automatic grade control trimming machine. Proof-rolling After the subgrade has been compacted to the required elevation, proof-rolling may be required to locate soft areas. A heavy roller will ride the compacted subgrade. In areas where the roller tends to sink into the soil, the subgrade must be reworked and recompacted before the pavement is placed. Sealing If the subgrade is not to be immediately covered by the first pavement layer, it should be sealed in some manner to keep the moisture in the soil so that its consistency can be maintained until the end of the subgrade preparation. A prime coat of asphalt cement is commonly used for this purpose. Unbound Subbases and Bases/Unpaved Roads Function The subbase is located just above the subgrade and is designed to support the traffic load after it has been distributed through the surface and base materials. The base is located just above the subbase and just below the surface. It should support larger loads than the subbase because of its location nearer the pavement surface. The major requirement of a subbase, or a base, in a flexible pavement is to add structural support to the pavement.

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General Material Requirements Subbases, which are often omitted on roads with lower traffic volumes, are constructed of fairly low quality, locally available materials. They consist primarily of granular particles but often contain some clay particles to aid in stability. Bases are similar to subbases except they often contain higher quality aggregate particles which must often be transported from a quarry and hauled some distance to the project site. Figure 58 shows three potential soil/aggregate mixtures that can be used. The soil in (a) contains little or no fines and is very difficult to handle during construction because of its instability and high aggregate friction. Water can move easily through it because of the voids between the aggregates. In (b) the voids between the aggregate are filled with clay, which binds the particles together to maintain layer strength and substantially reduce the ability of the soil to drain. This material is difficult to compact because of the friction developed between aggregate particles. When the amount of clay is increased, the soil in (c) results. As in (b), this soil is difficult to drain. It also has lost much of its strength because the aggregate now "floats" in the clay, and little contact occurs between aggregate particles. This mixture is very easy to handle and compact during construction.

FIGURE 58 Soil (a) is the most desirable for bases under rigid pavements, soil (b) is good for bases under flexible pavement and possibly for the surface of unpaved roads, and soil (c) is undesirable for any road construction.

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Hauling and Placing This operation is crucial in order to assure proper performance of the subbase or base. Subbase and base materials must be transported from a rock quarry, sand or gravel pit, usually by dump truck. The truck is loaded either from a pug mill, if final mixing of aggregates is required just before hauling to the site, or from a carefully constructed stockpile at the quarry. The material is then hauled directly to the roadway site and immediately placed in position. Segregation of the aggregate (the separating of large aggregate from the small aggregate, resulting in lower material strength and different compaction requirements) can become a major problem if it is dumped in stockpiles at the project site and then reloaded for transport to the road bed. The less a material is handled in the hauling and placing process, the better the chances of placing a properly graded mix into the road bed. Spreading Once the subbase and base materials arrive on the site they must be spread before being compacted. In most projects the materials are loaded directly into the hopper of a spreading machine. This machine uses automatic grade control to evenly spread the granular materials in a consistent thickness ready for compacting. The "Tailgating" method of base placement is not recommended, because the base materials are dumped into a pile on the roadway and the material is then spread with a motor grader resulting in segregation of aggregates. This segregation is most common when base materials are spread over a long distance by a motor grader. Compacting The subbase and base can be compacted using either a vibratory steel-wheeled roller or a pneumatic-tired roller. Because of the energy produced by the vibratory roller, thicker layers of up to 25.4 cm (10 inches) can be compacted. The operator must be careful not to over vibrate these layers or segregation of the aggregate will result. The smaller particles will tend to rise to the top while the larger ones will settle to the bottom. Layer thicknesses compacted by the pneumatic-tired rollers should not exceed about 15.3 cm (6 inches). Each layer should be compacted from the center of the roadway pavement to the edge. This will allow any horizontal stresses produced in the pavement to be released at the open edge. Each pass of the roller should overlap the previous pass by about one-third.

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Density Testing Pavement layers that are comprised primarily of granular materials gain most of their strength from particle-to-particle contact and friction. Denser materials will typically have more contacts between particles and, thus, more strength. It is important that strict density requirements be maintained in pavement construction or the layer strength, and ultimately pavement life, may be impaired. Trimming After the base is compacted and tested for density, the final trimming occurs using a motor grader or mechanical trimming machine. Special Construction Problems Parking and loading areas may require special handling and compacting of subbase and base materials. Long straight-line distances are not common except in some of the largest of these areas. Hand placement and compaction of materials may be necessary. Many parking areas carry only light vehicles with an occasional heavy truck. In these cases, a lower layer density may be acceptable and smaller equipment could be used. Hand operated vibratory tampers may be required. Loading areas carry primarily slow-moving or stationary trucks, so the strength of the subbase and base are particularly important when having to carry traffic loads for longer periods of time. In all cases, concrete sidewalks, curbs, and similar structures should be carefully avoided during use of heavy equipment, or damage to these structures could result. Surface Treatments If light-weight vehicles (passenger cars) are the main type of traffic, a surface treatment of the roadway might be considered. A surface treatment does not add strength to the pavement but adds stability and provides a better wearing surface. It also seals the pavement to prevent water from getting into and weakening the pavement. If properly constructed and vehicle weight and volume does not increase, a surface treated roadway can reduce the amount of maintenance required.

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There are six basic steps required for construction of a single layer surface treatment (seven steps if multiple layers are required). The job specifications should be used to determine exact construction procedures. 1. Repair all damaged areas. Damage can usually be related to excess moisture. Make sure that these areas are dried to a water content that will allow proper compaction. The surface must be smooth and properly compacted before the surface treatment is applied. Sweep the surface. If the base material is held in place with a small amount of clay, it can be lightly broomed to remove all loose particles. Apply the asphalt cement. The application rate of asphalt cement can vary from a minimum of 0.45 liters per square meter (0.10 gallons per square yard) for a sand aggregate to a maximum of 2.26 l/m2 (0.50 gal./yd2) for a 19 mm aggregate. The rate of application also depends upon the type and grade of asphalt cement used. The height of the spray bar, the setting of the nozzles, and the speed of the asphalt cement distribution truck should be checked so that a uniform application is obtained. Uniformity is critical to the performance of the surface treatment. Spread the aggregate. Rates of aggregate application vary from 5.43 kilograms per square meter (10 pounds per square yard) for sand to 27.2 kg/m2 (50 lb/yd2) for 19 mm top-sized aggregate. Aggregate can be spread from a spreader box or from a dump truck moving at a constant rate of speed to achieve the desired rate of application. Aggregate should be applied in the same direction as the asphalt cement. Compact the aggregate. Immediately after the aggregate is placed, it should be compacted with a pneumatic-tired roller. A steel-wheeled roller can be used, but is not as effective. Roll from the outside edge to the inside edge. Overlap each pass about 1/3 to 1/2 the width of the previous pass. Continue compacting until the aggregates are embedded in the underlying asphalt. Apply the next surface treatment layer. Sometimes multiple layers of surface treatment courses are used. Repeat the previous three steps for each treatment layer. The aggregate size of the current layer should be about half the size of the previous layer so that a smooth, consistent surface can be obtained. Sweep the surface. After the treatment has cured overnight, the loose aggregate should be swept aside with a power broom before traffic is allowed to use the new surface. Early morning is the best time for sweeping because the asphalt cement will be harder and will hold aggregate better.

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

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Stabilization Stabilization of the subgrade, subbase, or base materials is used to obtain a variety of improvements in material properties. Soil stabilization is generally used to perform one of four functions: Cementing: The stabilizer increases the material strength. Modifying: The stabilizer reduces the potential swelling of the material. Waterproofing: The stabilizer prevents movement of water into a soil layer. Water-retainin: The stabilizer helps the soil to retain moisture.

The typical materials used in stabilization are asphalt, calcium chloride, fly ash, lime, Portland cement, and sodium chloride. General Stabilization Procedure The procedure for stabilizing a soil or granular layer is basically the same regardless of the type of stabilizing agent used. Variations occur in the specific details of the procedure. There are six basic steps in stabilization: 1. Scarifying. The layer which is to be stabilized must be uncompacted and loose so that it can be mixed easily with the stabilizing material. Scarifying involves the use of discs or spikes that dig into the ground to break up a compacted layer. The depth of scarifying should equal the depth of required stabilization. Adding new material. If more material is needed before stabilizing begins, it should be added and spread in a uniform layer over the surface to be stabilized. The new material should be similar to the material already in place. The stabilizing agent may not be as effective if new and existing material are significantly different. Placing the stabilizing agent. The stabilizing agent should be added uniformly over the project site before mixing so that the stabilized layer is as uniform as possible. Mixing. For the best possible results, the soil and stabilizing agent should be mixed immediately after the stabilizer has been placed The material may be mixed in the field using a rotary mixer or a motor grader. It may be necessary to make more than one mixing pass to obtain a well mixed product to the desired depth. The stabilizing agent may also be added and mixed at a central plant, hauled to the site, and placed by a mechanical spreader. This approach is especially useful for granular materials.

2.

3. 4.

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5.

Blading and Shaping. The stabilized material must be shaped so that it is uniformly distributed to the proper depth over the project site. This will insure that the material, when compacted, will be close to the required elevation. Care must be used not to overblade the material so that it does not segregate. Compacting. The stabilized material should be compacted using standard equipment. For fine-grained soils, a sheepsfoot roller is preferable. For coarse-grained soils, either the pneumatic-tired roller or a, smooth, steel-wheeled vibratory roller is appropriate. Specifications usually state the density requirements for the layer. The procedures for rolling and taking density measurements are similar to those found in previous sections on subgrades, subbases, and bases.

6.

Asphalt Stabilization Stabilization of pavement layers using bituminous materials, such as asphalt cements, cutbacks, road tars, and emulsions, are common when attempting to add strength to the soil or to waterproof it. Both fine-grained and coarse-grained soils can be stabilized using asphalt, but the purpose for stabilizing is different for the two soil types. Fine-grained Soils - When asphalt is used to stabilize silts and clays, its primary purpose is to waterproof the soil. If small particles of soil can be isolated and surrounded by the asphalt, then the asphalt can protect these lumps from additional moisture that can cause a loss in strength of the soil layer. Asphalt should be used only when fine-grained soils can be pulverized into very small particles. The asphalt can then be thoroughly mixed into the soil. Moisture must be present to help diffuse the asphalt throughout the mixture. Highly plastic soils are difficult to pulverize, so asphalt stabilization should be avoided unless a modifier is first added to reduce the plasticity of the soil. In general, soil should have a plasticity index (PI) of no more than 18% for asphalt stabilization to be attempted. Proper mixing becomes very difficult when the PI is that high, so a more practical and preferable upper limit might be 12% to insure that asphalt stabilization is effective. The amount of asphalt required to perform properly ranges from 4% to 8% by weight depending upon soil characteristics and asphalt type. Coarse-grained Soils - In coarse-grained soils, asphalt stabilization is primarily used to cement the particles and provide added strength. If some fine-grained particles are present in a primarily granular soil, the asphalt will also surround these smaller particles and waterproof them. Sands are probably the most common coarse-grained materials stabilized using asphalt. Depending upon the type of asphalt material used and the plasticity of fines present in the sand, the amount of asphalt added can range from 4% to 10% by weight.
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The sandy soil should have no more than 25% by weight of fine-grained particles and the PI should not exceed 12% for the asphalt to perform its function. Gravels and sandy gravels may be asphalt stabilized if they are locally available and economical but are slightly outside of specification limits for granular bases or subbases. Added asphalt can range from 2% to 6% by weight depending upon the amount of sand and fine-grained soil present in the gravel and the type of asphalt used. The PI should not exceed 12% for the asphalt stabilizer to perform properly. Asphalt Stabilization Procedure - The basic procedure for applying asphalt stabilizer is the same as the general stabilization procedure presented previously. The existing soil must be scarified and new material added, if necessary. The stabilization material is generally placed just moments before the initial mixing occurs. A tanker truck often accompanies the mixing machine and is connected to the mixer by a hose. The hose supplies the asphalt material to the spray bar that uniformly distributes the asphalt just in front of the mixing blades. The mixing must be completed before the asphalt loses its workability due to the evaporation of the solvent (cutbacks) or water and emulsifying agent (emulsions). A rotary mixer can provide final mixing to insure uniformity and allow aeration so that most of the solvent or water and emulsifier can evaporate. Blading, shaping, and compacting are completed using the general procedure discussed previously. If compaction is attempted before the majority of evaporation occurs, densities may be difficult to obtain, and the strength required for the design will not be achieved. Asphalt Concrete Pavements Pavements in which asphalt concrete is the primary structural material supporting the traffic load is referred to as an asphalt concrete, or flexible pavement. For lower volume roads, the top two inches of the pavement structure (the pavement surface) will be asphalt concrete, but the base and subbase will be granular. For extremely high volume roads, full depth asphalt concrete may be constructed, with the subbase, base, and surface layer all comprised of different asphalt design mixes. Function Flexible pavements must perform three functions. Resist vertical compressive stress which tends to cause rutting within each layer. Resist horizontal tensile stress which tends to form at the bottom of each asphalt concrete layer and can cause cracks in the pavement. Reduce vertical compressive stresses so that they are dissipated when they reach the top of the subgrade and present no danger of causing subgrade compaction.
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The surface course in an asphalt concrete pavement is sometimes divided into two components. These are the wearing course and the binder. The wearing course is a thin layer with which the vehicle tires come in contact. This course must resist the high tire contact stresses and provide good skid resistance. The binder is a transitional layer between the wearing and base courses. As with the wearing course, it must resist and help disperse the high loads that occur at the surface. When an asphalt concrete base course is used in a pavement, it is usually because the traffic loads are large and numerous. A normal granular base will not have the structural capacity to resist these loads for the entire pavement design life. The asphalt cement in this material holds the aggregate together to give it the strength needed to resist the loads. General Material Requirements A wide variety of materials can be used for construction of asphalt concrete pavements. Coarse aggregate generally consists of crushed stone, crushed gravel, or uncrushed gravel free of soluble salts and organic materials. Fine aggregate generally consists of naturally occurring sand that is predominantly quartz in composition, or of sand manufactured from crushed stone processing. All sand should be free of organic materials and large amounts of fine-grained soils. The bituminous material used in asphalt concrete is usually asphalt cement, although asphalt emulsions, cutbacks, and road tars can be used. The amount of asphalt cement needed in any asphalt concrete mix depends upon the amount of aggregate surface area and the porous nature of the aggregates in a mix. For base materials, the amount of bitumen allowed by weight can range from 3% for large aggregate mixes to 7% when the aggregates are smaller. The top size aggregate in most base mixes will generally range from 1.9 cm (0.75 inch) to 3.8 cm (1.5 inches). For surface materials, the typical asphalt content by weight can vary from 4% in larger aggregate mixes to 9% in sand asphalt mixes. The top size of the aggregate in most surface mixes will range from 0.475 cm (0.187 inch) in the sand asphalt mixes to 1.27 cm (0.5 inch) in the coarser mixes. Hauling and Placing Before the asphalt concrete is mixed and hauled to the site, it is necessary to prepare the layer on which the asphalt concrete will be placed. If this layer is soil or aggregate, it should receive a prime coat to aid in bonding the asphalt concrete. The rate of application can range from 0.9 to 2.3 l/m2 (0.2 to 0.5 gal/yd2), depending upon the absorbancy of the layer. A tack coat is placed on an existing asphalt concrete layer to insure adhesion between the new and existing layers. The tack coat is applied at a rate of 0.25 to 0.7 l/m2 (0.05 to 0.15 gal/yd2).

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Both the prime and tack coats are applied by pressurized distributers, with a spray bar located at a height that allows uniform coverage of the surface being prepared.

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Paving Machine Components - Asphalt concrete is generally hauled to the site from the plant in rear dump trucks and is placed using the asphalt concrete paver. The paver consists of two parts, the tractor and the screed. The tractor powers the paver and moves the asphalt concrete back to the screed. The screed spreads the material onto the pavement and strikes it off to the correct elevation for compaction. The tractor consists of 1) a hopper with movable sides or wings to prevent the accumulation of segregated or cold mix in the hopper, 2) a conveyor to move material from the hopper to the screw auger, 3) a screw auger to spread the asphalt concrete evenly in front of the screed so that a smooth pavement results, and 4) a motor, electrical source, and hydraulic system to operate the moving parts of the tractor and the screed. The screed components include: 1) a screed plate to smooth the pavement, 2) vibrators or a tamper bar to give the pavement an initial compaction, 3) thickness controls to adjust the placement thickness, and 4) screed heaters to make sure that the asphalt material does not stick to the screed due to cooling. The pavement is initially compacted either by vibrating the full screed or by striking the surface lightly with a tamper bar mounted just in front of the screed. At the bottom of the compaction stroke, the tamper bar extends a short distance below the screed. The mix is compacted to a level just below the screed, which can then pass smoothly over the compacted pavement. Paving Machine Operations - Several basic operations should be followed to insure that a quality pavement is placed. The paver must move continuously and the dump truck carrying the asphalt must not bump into the paver too hard when backing into the hopper to dump its load. Either situation will result in an indentation in the pavement. When the paver stops, the screed will settle slightly and cause additional compaction of the asphalt cement. When a dump truck backs into the paver too hard, the paver is jolted and the screed tends to move downward momentarily, causing compaction. Neither of these depressions can be successfully rolled out during normal compaction. The auger must be loaded properly. The asphalt concrete should be fed so that its level is about even with the shaft in the middle of the auger. Overload will cause the screed to rise and the pavement to thicken. Underload will cause the screed to settle and the pavement to become thinner.` An even distribution of asphalt concrete must be maintained in front of the auger. A good paver operator will constantly monitor the auger and make adjustments to be sure that the asphalt concrete is well distributed. Uneven distribution can result in streaks in the pavement that are too low.

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Paver speed must be checked to be sure that it is constant. If it varies, the forces on the screed will be continually changing, causing the screed to move up and down. Slowing down causes the screed to settle and the pavement to thin. Speeding up causes the paver to rise and the pavement to thicken. Joints There are two types of joints in an asphalt concrete pavement--longitudinal and transverse. Longitudinal Joint - The longitudinal joint is the most common of the two types. On many asphalt concrete projects, a paver that can place only one lane at a time is used. First, one lane is placed and compacted, then the adjacent lane is placed and compacted sometime later. The line where the two lanes meet is the longitudinal joint. This joint should be properly constructed so that it is 1) smooth and 2) tight (no void areas between the two lanes). Overlap between the two pavements should not be more than 5 cm (2 inches). Often a small amount of new material is placed on the compacted surface of the layer already in place. This material can be 1) trimmed and placed on the uncompacted material next to the joint or 2) trimmed and placed back into the hopper. The first method assumes that it is difficult to place the correct amount of new material right next to the compacted pavement, therefore, the addition of the trimming material is needed to keep the adjacent pavements level after compaction. Longitudinal joints can be avoided if the full pavement width is placed in one pass. Unfortunately, however, these large pavers are extremely expensive, and only the largest asphalt contractors tend to own them. Proper longitudinal joint construction techniques will continue to be extremely important to proper asphalt concrete pavement performance. Transverse Joint - The transverse joint is commonly found at locations where the contractor ends operations one day and begins the next. It is important to get this joint as smooth as possible, since traffic will constantly be passing over it. The bulkhead joint is one type of transverse joint. To build it, a piece of lumber about the thickness of the pavement layer being constructed is located on edge across the path of the paver and held in place. As the paver passes over it, the operator begins to ramp down to a tapered edge. This ramp provides a temporary, relatively smooth transition for traffic until the paving operation begins again. Before the next day's work begins, the lumber and the asphalt ramp are removed, leaving a vertical face on the end of the previous day's pavement. New pavement is placed, the joint is compacted by rolling on the end of transversely across it with a steel-wheeled roller, and the smoothness is checked.

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The papered joint technique is another method of forming a transverse joint. One end of a length of paper, usually a roofing felt or building paper, is placed on the compacted mat at the end of the day. The paper covers the steeply sloped face of the pavement layer just placed and extends onto the surface where the next day's paving will begin. A ramp of asphalt concrete is placed on the paper next to the new layer to provide a temporary transition for traffic. Before paving begins the next day, the paper and ramp are removed. New pavement is placed and compacted, and the joint is checked for smoothness. Compaction Compaction controls the thickness of the asphalt concrete pavement placed in any one layer. Generally, a 5 cm (2-inch) lift is the maximum allowed. In thicker layers, the effectiveness of the compaction equipment is greatly reduced in the lower portion of the layer, and the required density may not be achieved. Compaction is utilized for the following purposes: To increase stability. The pavement must be stable so that it can support the load without structural or compaction failure. To reduce air voids. By decreasing air voids, the pavement becomes less susceptible to water intrusion through the surface and into the underlying layers. To increase density. Increased density results in more particle-to-particle contact and more strength to support traffic loads. To smooth the surface. Compaction "works" the pavement so that some surface problems can be eliminated or reduced.

Temperature - The pavement should be compacted at temperatures greater than 185oF (71oC) so that the asphalt cement in the mix will be workable. If it is compacted at a lower temperature, the required density may be hard to achieve. For this reason, the pavement should be compacted immediately after placement. Initial Compaction - Asphalt concrete pavement is initially compacted using a smooth, steelwheeled roller. Vibratory action may also be used for thicker pavements. The roller first "pinches" the joint between the new layer and the previously placed layer. This pinching is done by placing most of the wheel on the existing pavement and compacting a small section of the new pavement with just the outside 6 inches (15.2 cm) to 12 inches (30.5 cm) of the roller. Pinching the joint first allows it to remain stable during the remainder of the compaction operations.

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When compacting the remainder of the pavement, about one-half of the wheel should be on uncompacted material and the other half on compacted surface each time the roller travels down the pavement. This overlap should be maintained throughout the compaction process. Three to four passes across the full pavement width is necessary to obtain the required density of the layer. Final Compaction - The pneumatic-tired roller is used to compact the pavement in the final stage. Because the tires on these rollers are made of the same material as vehicle tires, they apply the same type of compaction, called "kneading" compaction, that vehicle tires will apply. In this way, the pavement is prepared for the type of loading it will experience under traffic. The density of the asphaltic concrete is not greatly increased at this stage, but the quality of the compacted layer, particularly on the surface, is improved. Pneumatic-tired rollers also can reduce and sometimes eliminate surface irregularities that may have been left by the more rigid steel-wheel roller. This results in a smoother pavement. Tire pressure is an important factor in compaction when using pneumatic-tired rollers. Pressure should be in a range that will ensure that the force applied to the pavement is very uniform across the tire width. Low pressures will not allow the "kneading" action to work properly to reduce surface irregularities. Too high a pressure may cause ruts to develop in the pavement, and an irregular surface will again result. As with the steel-wheeled roller, three or four passes of the pneumatic-tired roller are required to achieve the desired results. The one-half roller width overlap applies to this compaction stage as it did for the initial compaction stage. Contract specifications on compaction techniques should provide specific details of the job compaction requirements. Density Testing As with all pavement layers, the density of the asphalt concrete must be checked and compared to the required density as established in the lab. Density can be checked in the field using either 1) the nuclear densometer or 2) a pavement core. Since its development, the nuclear densometer has gained increasing acceptance because it is quick and easy to use and because it does not require a portion of pavement to be destroyed in order to obtain a density reading. Density Deficiency and Correction If a required density is not achieved in the field, one of two things usually happens. If the measured density is not much less than that required, the material is allowed to remain, but the contractor is paid a reduced price. If the density is substantially lower than required, the material may have to be removed and replaced.

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Smoothness The finished pavement should also be inspected for smoothness and rideability. Certain provisions for reduced payment to the contractor can be written into the contract if certain smoothness requirements are not met. Special Construction Problems Asphalt concrete operations can be difficult when performed in parking and loading areas. These areas are generally small compared to roadway construction, so much time is spent moving equipment. Special placement and compaction problems can result around curved curbs or in corners where two sidewalks or curbs meet. Manual placement is common in some places, so segregation of the mix becomes a major concern. Hand-operated tampers may also be used in areas where normal compaction rollers cannot enter, making the required density more difficult to obtain necessitating regular checks. Special care is also required when using heavy equipment so that concrete curbs and sidewalks are not damaged. Recycling During the past 15 or 20 years, recycling of asphalt pavement materials has become popular. As asphalt supplies are depleted and costs rise, recycling will become increasingly necessary in order to maintain and replace existing asphalt concrete roads. The basic procedure for recycling an asphalt pavement generally consists of removing the old pavement using a technique such as milling. Additional steps include saving the material for use, hauling the material to a central plant for processing, adding new aggregate and asphalt cement to rejuvenate the old mix, mixing the recycled material, and hauling it to the new site for placement. Placing and compacting recycled asphalt pavement is basically the same as for a new pavement. Slurry Seals Over a period of time, an asphalt concrete pavement begins to develop surface imperfections called distresses. Small cracks begin to form, which allow water to enter the pavement. The pavement surface becomes too smooth to help vehicles stop quickly when they brake. The asphalt cement in the pavement becomes brittle due to exposure to air and sunlight. This brittleness allows individual pieces of aggregate to break loose from the asphalt cement in a process called ravelling. Applying a slurry seal to such a pavement may remedy all those situations for a period of time.

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A slurry seal is composed of water, sand, mineral filler (such as limestone dust or portland cement) and emulsified asphalt. Emulsified asphalt is made of tiny pieces of asphalt which are suspended in water with the help of a chemical called an emulsifying agent. The resulting slurry seal has the consistency of cream. When spread onto the road it fills the cracks and adds a thin, new surface to the pavement. When the slurry dries, the new surface creates added friction, is impermeable to water, and protects the old surface from the sun and air. The slurry is usually applied in a thickness of 1/8 inch to 1/4 inch (3 to 6 mm) which is the thickness of a single layer of the sand used in the slurry. Such a thin layer adds no strength to the pavement, but it can make the pavement last much longer. It is a frequent maintenance operation performed on Saudi Aramco roads. Before applying the slurry, the road should be cleaned of dirt and other foreign material. In many instances, a tack coat of diluted emulsified asphalt is sprayed on the pavement directly ahead of the slurry operation. Slurry seals are applied on one lane at a time from a truck that carries the slurry mixing equipment. Such trucks are capable of applying slurry seal to 15 lane-miles of road per day. As the slurry is made, it is dumped into a box which trails behind the truck. The box spreads the slurry onto the road surface in a thin layer. The slurry must then be allowed to dry completely before traffic is allowed to use the road again. Road Construction Techniques Summary The road construction techniques presented in this section covered subgrades, bound and unbound bases and subbases, and asphalt concrete surfaces. Thus, they are too numerous to summarize easily. However, the participant should remember that proper construction of all these layers is crucial to the success of a roadway pavement.

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WORK AID 1

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WORK AID 2: DETERMINING PEAK RUNOFF (DISCHARGE) Procedure: Given watershed area, L, and H RUNOFF COEFFICIENTS 1. Select C: Character of Drainage Area Pavement, roads and parking lots Compacted marl or open rocky areas Commercial or Community Services areas Residential areas School sites Parks and open sandy areas 2. Calculate Time of Concentration: where: Tc K L H = = = = Tc = K(L /H)
2 0.2

C 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.3

Time of concentration (minutes) Constant value given below Length of drainage path (meters) Difference in elevation of drainage area (meters)

VALUES OF K FOR Tc CALCULATION Character of Drainage Area Pavement, roads and parking lots Compacted marl or open rocky areas Commercial or Community Service area Residential areas School sites Parks and open sandy areas K 1.11 1.25 1.43 1.67 2.00 3.33

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3.

Calculate rainfall intensity: Rainfall intensity I is given in millimeters per hour. It is determined from the following formula which is given in AES-S-030. I = (A + B * Tc) / (1 + C * Tc) where: A, B, and C are given below. Tc is calculated as described above. VARIABLES FOR INTENSITY EQUATION __________________________________________ Return Frequency A B C __________________________________________ 5 years 166.148 0.519 0.119 10 years 202.151 0.570 0.111 25 years 248.192 0.662 0.107 50 years 291.948 0.732 0.106 __________________________________________

4.

Calculate Peak Runoff: The Rational Formula is the equation used to calculate peak runoff. Q = 0.002755 CIA where: Q C I A = = = = Runoff quantity in cubic meters per second Runoff coefficient Rainfall intensity in millimeters per hour Area in hectares

(See Example Problem #2)

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WORK AID 3: DITCH DESIGN NOMOGRAPH

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WORK AID 4

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WORK AID 5

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GLOSSARY asphalt cement The major petroleum product that remains after all lighterweight products (gasoline, kerosene, and the like) have been distilled from the crude oil. It is primarily used as a cementing agent for aggregates in the construction of pavements. A structural material containing a mixture of asphalt cement, aggregate (sand, gravel, or stone), and possibly mineral filler. The asphalt cement coats the aggregate during mixing and holds the aggregate particles in place when traffic loads are applied.

asphaltic concrete or asphalt concrete (AC)

Atterberg limits laboratory Several tests conducted on a soil. The common Atterberg limit tests used for engineering purposes are the liquid limit test and the plastic limit. average daily traffic (ADT) The average 24-hour volume of traffic on a road. It is calculated by dividing the total traffic volume during a specified time period by the number of days during that period. Unless otherwise stated, the traffic volume is usually the total for both directions of travel. base The pavement layer above the subbase and below the surface in a flexible pavement. If thesubbase layer is not present, the base rests directly on the subgrade. A layer that provides the transition in strength between the wearing course (when used) and the base course. The binder is the bottom layer of the surface course and must resist the high stresses caused by high tire pressures. A black-colored cementing agent obtained from petroleum that holds the aggregate particles together in an asphaltic concrete pavement layer. An area generally away from but nearby a roadway construction site from which soil can be removed for hauling to a fill area in a roadway. To cross over a weak material with a stronger material so that the weak material will not have to support a large load.

binder

bitumen

borrow pit

bridge

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bulkhead joint

A transverse (perpendicular to the centerline) joint in an asphalt pavement that is formed at the end of a paving day by placing a piece of lumber across the path of the paver to form a vertical bulkhead (wall) that holds the asphaltic concrete in place. After the asphaltic concrete is compacted, the lumber can be removed when the next day's paving operations begin. The new material is placed and compacted right next to the previous day's work to form a smooth vertical joint. A large, single-engine machine used for moving and spreading soil. It operates on two metal crawlers and uses a large metal blade mounted in front to shape and spread soil. A number often used to define the strength of a subgrade soil,unbound subbase, or unbound base material and used in the design of an asphalt pavement structure. It can range from 0 (no strength) to over 100 (strong soil). The CBR of a soil can be determined from a laboratory test, and its strength is compared as a percentage to that of a standard (a high-quality crushed stone). The unit of measurement for kinematic viscosity of bituminous materials. One centistoke is equal to one square centimeter per second. A ditch that carries runoff water from the existing ground at the top of a roadway cut, down the side of the cut, and into the nearest roadside channel or drainage area. A distance measured from the edge of the pavement to the closest roadside obstruction or hazard. A curve in which the grade changes from positive to negative, as a roadway does when going over the top of a hill. The curve provides a smooth transition for vehicles traveling between the grades. The inclination of the pavement surface toward the shoulders to allow runoff from the pavement surface so that vehicle tires can maintain good contact with the pavement surface.

bulldozer

California bearing ratio (CBR)

centistoke (cST)

chute

clear zone crest vertical curve

cross slope on pavement

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culvert

An opening under a roadway generally designed to carry surface water from one side of the roadway to the other. A culvert is made necessary when a roadway fill interrupts the flow of surface runoff across a watershed. A culvert may span up to 20 feet. Spans longer than 20 feet are considered bridges. The evaporation of the light-weight component (solvent) in a cutback asphalt, leaving athin, sticky layer of asphalt cement on the surface to which it was applied. On a horizontal curve, the length of the curve is measured in stations from the P.C. to the P.T. along the centerline of the curve. An asphalt cement that has been diluted (cut) with a lighterweight petroleum product (solvent) such as kerosene or gasoline. As a result, the asphalt cement becomes thinner and can be sprayed or mixed more easily with aggregate at a lower temperature than that required for normal asphalt cement. A mixture of aggregate in a pavement layer in which many particle sizes are present so that the smaller particles fill the voids (holes) between the bigger particles and the mixture has a high density.

curing

curve stationing

cutback

dense gradation

18-kip equivalent axle load The standard axle load to which all other loads, both tandem and single, in a traffic distribution are converted before the (EAL) total traffic loadings in the anticipated pavement life can be calculated. This total is used in many of the available pavement structural design techniques. The conversion is based upon equivalent damage that an axle causes compared to that caused by the 18-kip (80 kN) axle load. emulsifying agent A soap-like material that causes asphalt cement droplets to be suspended in water by giving the droplets a positive or negative charge, causing the droplets to repel one another.

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emulsified asphalt

A mixture of asphalt cement, water, and emulsifying agent that can be placed at a temperature much lower than asphalt cement. The asphalt cement is suspended as tiny droplets in the water. The mixture is applied in a spray onto a surface. After application, the water begins to evaporate and the emulsifying agent breaks down, allowing the asphalt cement droplets to connect and form a uniform layer. A section of the roadway where the final roadway centerline elevation is greater than the natural ground elevation. Embankment or fill material must be hauled to the site and placed on the natural ground so that the road can be constructed to the required elevation. Soil particles generally smaller than 0.0029 inches (0.074 mm) and thus pass through the #200 sieve. Silt and clay soils are included in this size group. A pavement that supports traffic loads by gradually spreading the loads through a cross section of two or more structural layers that decrease in strength and stiffness from the surface to the subgrade or foundation soil. The surface is usually an asphaltic concrete material which may rest directly on the subgrade for low traffic weights or on an asphaltic concrete or granular base and subbase for high traffic weights. The speed at which water travels in a drainage structure, often expressed in feet per second. The extra height of the ditch above the expected flow level for a given design storm. It is a safety factor to help account for assumptions and estimations that are often made in calculating water runoff from a watershed. The likely number of times that a storm of a given rainfall intensity will occur over a given time period. A flat, polymer material with horizontal ribs or members that are typically orientated longitudinally (in the major stress direction) and transversely (at a 90 degree angle to the major stress direction) in a soil mass. The geogrid is commonly used in road construction to bridge weak materials and to reinforce an embankment.
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fill area

fines

flexible pavement

flow velocity freeboard

frequency of storm return geogrid

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geosynthetics

A general term for a wide variety of man-made polymers (primarily plastics) derived from petroleum products. Commonly used geosynthetics in the road industry are geotextiles and geogrids. A flat, geosynthetic fabric composed of polymeric fibers that are bonded together by weaving (woven fabrics) or by heat treatment, chemical reaction, or needle punching (nonwoven fabrics). The geotextile can be used to bridge a weak soil, to reinforce an embankment, or to serve as a filter between two unlike materials. A device used for breaking up a compacted soil surface into small lumps of earth. Many disc-shaped blades are mounted on a frame at a slight incline from vertical. A farm tractor is commonly used to pull the harrow. The blades rotate when pulled, cut into the soil, and break the soil into smaller pieces. Erosion of the approach channel on the inlet side of a depressed inlet culvert. If the approach channel is not protected with riprap or concrete, the flow will erode the channel until the flow velocity is reduced sufficiently so that further erosion is less likely. A wall, generally made of concrete, that is placed around each end of a culvert to prevent erosion of the fill material surrounding the culvert and to anchor the culvert when rushing water exerts a lift on the culvert. A ditch constructed parallel to the roadway in the natural ground at the top of the back slope in a cut section. The ditch catches the water draining from the natural ground and carries it to the nearest chute for transport to a drainage area. An area where two or more roads or streets cross, with vehicles on each road or street competing for movement through the area.

geotextile

harrow

headcutting

headwall

intercepting channel

intersection

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kneading compaction

A method of densifying a material that involves the application of the compaction force by not only pressing the material vertically but also by applying force in other directions. The layer is "massaged" into a denser configuration. This method of compaction is the type that is exerted under a rolling, pneumatic tire. The water content in a soil, expressed as a percent, at which the soil changes from the plastic (easily deformable) state to the liquid (thickly flowing) state. The highest density of dry soil particles that can be obtained in a pavement or soil layer when the soil is compacted under a given amount of effort or load, often expressed in pounds per cubic foot of soil. A laboratory test used to determine the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content of a soil by compacting it in five layers in a steel mold having a volume of 1/30 cubic foot. Each layer is hit 25 times by a 10-pound hammer falling 18 inches onto the layer. A number often used to define the strength of a subgrade soil and used in the design of a portland cement concrete pavement structure. The k is defined as the reactive pressure developed per unit deflection in a soil subjected to a surface load, often expressed in pounds per square inch per inch of deflection (or pounds per cubic inch - pci). A large, single-engine machine used for moving and spreading soil. A large steel blade that can be adjusted to many different angles horizontally and that can be raised and lowered vertically is mounted under the machine at about its middle. The device operates on two rubber-tired wheels in front of and two in back of the blade.

liquid limit (LL)

maximum dry density

modified proctor test

modulus of subgrade reaction (k)

motor grader

optimum moisture content The water content, expressed as a percent, in a soil that will allow the soil to be compacted to a certain dry density with the smallest amount of compactive effort or load. pavement slope The inclination of the pavement surface in a direction perpendicular to the pavement center line to allow for surface drainage or for superelevation.
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peak runoff penetration value

The highest flow rate of water expected to come from a drainage area (watershed) during rainfall of a given intensity. A measure of the viscosity or thickness of an asphalt cement. A sharp needle is allowed to fall vertically into an asphalt cement for 5 seconds under a 100 gram mass. The distance of fall is called the penetration value and is measured in units of 0.1 mm. The numerical difference in the liquid limit (LL) and the plastic limit (PL) for a soil. (Subtract the PL from the LL to get the PI.) The water content in a soil, expressed as a percent, at which the soil changes from the semisolid (saturated but stiff) state to the plastic (easily deformable) state. A heavy device used to compact both granular and cohesive soils. A pneumatic tire roller consists of two rows of closely spaced, air-filled rubber tires. The two rows of tires are staggered so that the soil in the spaces between the tires in one row is compacted by tires in the other row. This device can also be used to compact asphaltic concrete pavement layers. A structural material containing a mixture of hydraulic cement, water, fine aggregate (sand), and coarse aggregate (gravel or stone). The PCC, when first mixed, is easily workable and can be molded into many shapes but, when hardened through a chemical reaction between the cement and water, is very rigid and strong. A thin application of liquid bituminous material that binds the surface of an unbound aggregate or soil layer to an asphalt concrete base or surface pavement layer placed on top of it. A laboratory test used to determine the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content of a soil by compacting it in three layers in a steel mold having a volume of 1/30 cubic foot. Each layer is hit 25 times by a 5.5- pound hammer falling 12 inches onto the layer.

plasticity index (PI)

plastic limit (PL)

pneumatic tire roller

portland cement concrete (PCC)

prime coat

proctor test

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pug mill

A device used in a hot mix asphalt batch plant to mix the aggregate, hot asphalt cement, and mineral filler to form an asphaltic concrete with uniform consistency and well coated aggregate.

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rainfall intensity rainfall rigid pavement

The amount of rainfall that occurs over a certain time period, often expressed in inches per hour. Rainfall of a certain intensity begins flowing off a drainage area, often expressed in cubic feet per second. A pavement that supports traffic loads through a material that is very stiff and tends to spread the load over a very large area. It usually consists of a portland cement concrete surface resting either on the subgrade soil or on a granular or stabilized base course that may be placed between the subgrade and surface. A large stone or broken concrete ditch liner used to prevent erosion caused by flowing water. The riprap slows the velocity of flow in the ditch and thus helps to prevent small particles from being carried away. A ditch constructed parallel to the roadway in a cut section which collects water from the pavement, shoulder, fore slope, and back slope and carries it to the nearest drainage area. The constant rate of change in elevation of a roadway as it rises or falls in hilly terrain. Grade is the vertical rise or fall in the roadway divided by the horizontal distance over which the rise or fall occurs and is expressed as a percent. It is positive going uphill and negative going down when moving in the direction of increasing stations. A machine used to mix soil to achieve a uniform texture. It consists of a large, enclosed box mounted on a tractor-like machine. The box contains rotating teeth that dig into the soil and mix it. The uniformly mixed soil can then be compacted to provide firm, even support of the pavement structure. A measure of the percentage of rainfall which eventually flows to a stream, ditch, culvert, or other point of discharge. A curve in which the grade changes from negative to positive, as a roadway does when going into a valley between hills. The curve provides a smooth transition for vehicles traveling between the grades.

riprap

roadside channel

roadway grade

rotary mixer

runoff coefficient (C) sag vertical curve

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saturation flow rate (s)

The maximum number of vehicles that can get through a signal during all available green time at a signalized intersection. Erosion at the outlet end of a culvert caused by flowing water eroding the soil located in the drainage channel just past the end of the culvert. A heavy piece of earth hauling equipment. In general, a scraper consists of a soil holding area that can be filled by scraping the soil into the holding area from the bottom. Two independently powered sets of rubber-tired wheels are located one set in front of and one in back of the holding area. The soil can also be unloaded by opening the holding area at the bottom and dropping the soil into a fairly uniform layer. The part of the asphalt paving machine that spreads the asphalt concrete onto the pavement, provides the initial light compaction, and strikes the asphalt off to the correct elevation before the roller compaction. A heavy device generally used to compact subgrade soil containing many clay particles. Sheepsfoot rollers have projections (feet) on the rollers that penetrate the clay layer, resulting in a more consistent and uniform compaction of the layer than would be possible under a smooth wheel roller that only contacts the layer surface. The portion of the roadway extending outward from the pavement edge that is used to accommodate stopped vehicles and to provide side support for the pavement structure. The inclination of the pavement shoulder surface away from the pavement edge. The slope is necessary for drainage of rainfall away from the pavement. The side of an embankment generally beginning outside the pavement shoulder and inclining downward to the natural ground.

scour

scraper (pan)

screed

sheepsfoot rollers

shoulder

shoulder slope

side slopes

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signalized intersection

An intersection where traffic volumes (either vehicles, pedestrians, or both) are high enough to meet some minimum standard that indicates that traffic signals are necessary to control traffic movement into the intersection.

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Civil Road Design and Construction

siltation

The deposit of sand, silt, and clay particles in a culvert because of low flow velocity of the water in the culvert. Siltation build-up will ultimately cause pipe clogging if allowed to continue. The load transmitted by all wheels having their centers present within a 40-inch (102-cm) space measured parallel to the direction of travel and extending across the entire width of the vehicle. For most trucks, a single axle load is applied either to two sets of dual (side-by- side) wheels or to two single wheels that are located on opposite sides of the truck and connected by a rod (axle). The relatively thin, flat section of portland cement concrete pavement found between two rigid pavement joints. A failure in an earth embankment where the portion of the embankment next to the side slope (soil wedge) loses its support and begins to slide down the slope. A blend of asphalt cement and small aggregate that is often mixed on the job site and placed immediately. A slurry seal is used primarily for maintenance of existing asphaltic concrete pavements that are experiencing minor structural distress, such as small cracks and ravelling. The resistance between soil particles that helps the soil to resist movement under a load. An arbitrary number often used to define the strength of a subgrade soil and used in the design of an asphalt pavement structure. It ranges from about 1 (weak soil) to about 10 (strong soil) and is dimensionless (has no strength units). A portion of soil next to the slope in an embankment that will sometimes slide down the slope under its own weight if the soil particle-to-particle friction becomes unable to support the weight of the wedge. A fundamental unit of length used in designing and constructing a roadway. One station is equal to 100 feet.

single axle load

slab slipping failure

slurry seal

soil friction soil support value (S)

soil wedge

station

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Civil Road Design and Construction

steel-wheeled roller

A heavy, single-engine machine with two cylindrical steel wheels extending the full width of the roller, one mounted in the front and one in back. The wheels compact the soil by applying a load directly onto the surface and are effective in granular soils. An index number obtained for a given combination of traffic loads and road-bed soil strength that may be converted to thickness of various flexible pavement layers. Generally, the higher the SN, the stronger and thicker the pavement must be to support the loads. The pavement layer above the subgrade and below the base in a flexible pavement. The subbase is usually omitted on roadways with low traffic volumes. The foundation soil upon which the pavement structure is constructed. The subgrade may be either a recompacted soil fill or a natural soil. A tilting of the traveled way toward the inside of a horizontal curve to allow a vehicle to safely negotiate the curve at the design speed of the roadway. The top layer of asphaltic concrete in a flexible pavement structure. It must resist the high tire contact stresses, disperse these high stresses, and provide adequate skid resistance between the vehicle tires and the pavement. On high volume roads, it is sometimes divided into two components -- the wearing surface at the top and the binder below. A thin application of a liquid bituminous material to an existing asphalt concrete layer to provide bond with another asphalt concrete pavement layer placed above it. The load transmitted by all wheels having their centers present in a space between 40 inches (102 cm) and 96 inches (244 cm) when the space is measured parallel to the direction of travel and extends across the entire width of the vehicle. For most trucks, a tandem axle load is applied to four sets of dual (side-by- side) wheels, two sets of which are located on one side of the truck one after the other and the remaining sets are located on the opposite side of the truck. The sets are connected across the truck width by two rods (axles).
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structural number (SN)

subbase

subgrade

superelevation

surface course

tack coat

tandem axle load

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Civil Road Design and Construction

tangent stationing

When the roadway is initially located by the surveying crews after the design stage, they often lay out only the tangents of the roadway. At this stage, the horizontal curves are omitted, but the P.C. and the P.T. stations on each curve are usually located. Tangent stations are located along the tangents from the P.C. to the P.T. The time during which rain falls at a certain intensity over a drainage area. This factor directly affects the amount of water that must be drained from the area. A ditch sometimes constructed parallel to the roadway at the bottom of a fill section to collect water from the fill slope and carry it to the nearest drainage area. The part of the asphalt paving machine that supplies the power and moves the asphalt concrete back to the screed for placement on the roadway. The intersection of two or more roads or streets where traffic might travel safely through with no control when traffic volume is low. As traffic increases, it might be controlled safely by using guide and warning signs, yield signs, or stop signs. A heavy device generally used to compact granular subgrade soil or other granular pavement layers. Vibratory rollers are generally smooth, steel-wheeled rollers with vibrators that cause the steel wheels to vibrate slightly up and down on the layer being compacted, causing the layer particles to be shaken into a denser mass for greater load support. Vibratory rollers can also be used to compact asphaltic concrete pavement layers. The area of land over which drainage of rainfall (runoff) tends to collect and flow to one outlet point. A thin, asphaltic concrete layer sometimes applied as the top layer of the surface course. It allows better skid resistance between the vehicle tire and the pavement and must resist the high tire contact stresses.

time of rainfall concentration toe-of-slope channel

tractor

unsignalized intersection

vibratory rollers

watershed wearing course

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154

Engineering Encyclopedia

Civil Road Design and Construction

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