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Lightning Protection of Transmission and Distribution Lines

Design Report
Project: Dec04-04 Client: Alliant Energy Advisor: Dr. V. Vittal Team Members: Tim Conrad David Dieterich Sam Muhindo Eric Nelson REPORT DISCLAIMER NOTICE
DISCLAIMER: This document was developed as a part of the requirements of an electrical and computer engineering course at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. This document does not constitute a professional engineering design or a professional land surveying document. Although the information is intended to be accurate, the associated students, faculty, and Iowa State University make no claims, promises, or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, quality, or adequacy of the information. The user of this document shall ensure that any such use does not violate any laws with regard to professional licensing and certification requirements. This use includes any work resulting from this student-prepared document that is required to be under the responsible charge of a licensed engineer or surveyor. This document is copyrighted by the students who produced this document and the associated faculty advisors. No part may be reproduced without the written permission of the senior design course coordinator.

4 May 2004

Table of Contents
DefinitionofTerms...........................................................................................iv Introduction..........................................................................................................1
ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................................1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...................................................................................................................1 PROBLEM STATEMENT...................................................................................................................1 OPERATING ENVIRONMENT...........................................................................................................2 INTENDED USERS AND USES..........................................................................................................2 ASSUMPTIONS................................................................................................................................3 LIMITATIONS..................................................................................................................................3 EXPECTED END PRODUCT..............................................................................................................4

ProposedApproach.............................................................................................5
DESIGN OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................................5 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS........................................................................................................5 DESIGN CONSTRAINTS .................................................................................................................5 TECHNICAL APPROACH CONSIDERATIONS AND RESULTS ...........................................................6 TESTING APPROACH CONSIDERATIONS.........................................................................................7 RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING PROJECT CONTINUATION OR MODIFICATION ........................7

DetailedDesign.................................................................................................8 FinancialBudget................................................................................................11 PersonnelEffortBudget...................................................................................13 ProjectSchedule.................................................................................................14 ProjectTeamInformation................................................................................15 Summary..............................................................................................................16 References...........................................................................................................17

Figures

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Tables

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Definition of Terms
Arrester: A protective device for limiting surge voltages on equipment by divertingsurgecurrentandreturningthedevicetoitsoriginalstatus. Conductor: Awireorcombinationofwiressuitableforcarrying anelectrical current.Conductorsmaybeinsulatedorbare. Distribution line: Electric power lines which distribute power from a main sourcesubstationtoconsumers,usuallyatavoltageof34.5kVorless. Direct stroke: A lightning stroke direct to any part of a network or electric installation. Flashover:Adisruptivedischargethroughairaroundoroverthesurfaceofsolid andliquidinsulation,betweenpartsofdifferentpotentialorpolarity,produced bytheapplicationofvoltagewhereinthebreakdownpathbecomessufficiently ionizedtomaintainanelectricalarc. Insulator: A nonconductive material used on a conductor to separate conductingmaterialsinacircuit. Lightning strike: The complete lightning discharge, most often composed of leadersfromacloudfollowedbyoneormorereturnstrokes. Outage:Atemporarysuspensionofoperation,especiallyofelectricpower. Overheadgroundwire(OHGW): Groundedwireorwiresplacedabovephase conductorsforthepurposeofinterceptingdirectstrokesinordertoprotectthe phaseconductorsfromthedirectstrokes. Shieldwire:Groundedwire(s)placednearthephaseconductorsforthepurpose ofprotectingphaseconductorsfromdirectlightningstrokes,reducinginduced voltagesfromexternalelectromagneticfields,loweringtheselfsurgeimpedance of an OHGW system, or raising the mutual surge impedance of an OHGW systemtotheprotectedphaseconductors. Standard: Thatwhichisestablishedbyauthorityasaruleforthemeasureof quantity,extent,value,orquality. Transmission line: A power line carrying highvoltage electricity between regions.Mosttransmissionlinesoperateatvoltagesbetween69and765kV. iv

Introduction
Abstract In todays technologydriven society, the need for reliable electric power for thousandsofconsumerelectronicproductsandsensitivemanufacturingprocesses is growing more today than ever before. Minimizing the effects oflightning strikestopowertransmissionanddistributionlinesisakeygoalforeveryutility. AlliantEnergyhasaskedforreviewandrecommendationsregardingtheabilityof their existing transmission and distribution structures to withstand lightning strikes. UsingAlliantEnergysstandardsandinformation(suchasgroundflash densitydata)gatheredfromotherlocalutilitiesandIEEE,thegroupisattempting toadvisetheclientastowhetherornottheyareinlinewithprevailingindustry practices. ThefindingswillbesummarizedforAlliantEnergyattheendofthe project, in a report on the groups conclusion. Such findings will provide credibilityofAlliantspracticestotheircustomers.

Acknowledgements Thefollowingcompaniesandindividualswillcontributetotheproject. Alliant Energy Marlon Vogt Provide the group with construction standards,outagedata,andmostofthefinancialresources,ifrequired. IowaStateUniversityDr.VijayVittalProvidedirection,resources,and advicethroughouttheproject.

ProblemStatement AlliantEnergyisseekingtoprovideasreliableelectricservicetoitscustomersasis realistically possible. Lightning is a natural threat to power transmission and distribution lines. The line height and exposure makes them exceptionally vulnerableduringthunderstorms.Lightningstrikescancausemomentaryoutages and power quality problems. These outages cause disruptions for modern electronicdevicessuchascomputersanddigitalclocks.Likemanyotherutilities, AlliantEnergyislookingtominimizemomentaryoutagesduetolightningthrough betterlineprotectiondesign.

TohelpAlliantimprovelineperformanceduringthunderstorms,thegroupwill researchstateoftheartlinedesignpracticesandprovidethefeedbacknecessary forsuchimprovements.Twoformsofprotection,arrestersandshieldwires,help eliminatetheeffectsofdirectstrokes,flashovers,andshieldingfailures. Further enhancementscanbeachievedbyimprovinginsulationlevelandgrounding.

Figure1TypicalShieldWireConfiguration

OperatingEnvironment Theendproductoftheprojectisareportsummarizingthefindingsofthegroups research.Theendproductwillbealettersized,boundreportdurableenoughto withstandthenormalofficeuseassociatedwithmultiplereviewsandreviewers.

IntendedUsersandUses Becauseofconfidentialityrequirements,AlliantEnergywillbethesoleuserofthe endproduct.Likelyprimaryusersincludemanagersandengineersresponsiblefor system planning, design, protection, and reliability activities. Secondary users mightincludedraftersandtechnicians. The end product will be used for updating and improving Alliant Energys standards.Itisexpectedthatfuturedecisionsregardinglinereplacement,retrofit, new construction, or upgrades will result from the usage of the groups end product. The end product is not expected to provide a set of rules regarding performance,butratherasuggestedbenchmarkforsystemenhancements.

Assumptions Attheonsetoftheproject,severalassumptionshadtobemadeinordertoproceed towardsaccomplishingthenecessaryobjectives.Theseassumptionsmaybestated asfollows: Dataisreadilyavailableforgroundflashdensityandearthresistivity. Standardsfromotherrepresentativelocalutilitieswillbeaccessible. Recommended system performance criteria will be available from IEEE, EdisonElectricInstitute,EPRI,oranotherauthorityonlightningprotection. Calculations will be possible without the assistance of a commercial computersoftwarepackage. Additional unavailable information can be provided by the client as necessaryorsuitablealternativescanbeestablished. Financialobligationoftheprojectwillbepartiallyfundedbyteammembers equally.

Limitations Additionally, several limitations will be encountered. The limitations are as follows: AlliantEnergywouldprefertoincuralimitedamountoffinancialresources tocompletetheendproduct. AlliantEnergyhasspecifiedthescopeoftheprojecttoexamineonlytheir linedesignsfor69kVandbelow. Thedeadlineforcompletion/terminationoftheprojectis17December2004. Practices and standards examined should be limited to utilities in the Midwestforgeographicalandmeteorologicalconsiderations. Theteamwillnotrequest,normakeavailable,sensitiveinformationfrom anyutilitythatwouldputthecompanyincompetitivemarketdisadvantage withotherneighboringutilities. 3

TheresultantreportwillbesuitedforuseintheMidwestonly. Anyproposedorrecommendedsystemorfacilitychangesmustadhereto allcurrentsafetycriteria.

ExpectedEndProduct Theendproductwillbeawrittenreportcompilingtheresultsofthegroupswork. Thereportwillincludeastudyofcurrentdesignpracticesbyotherlocalutilities. Considerationswillincludethegeometry ofthestructuresuchastowerheight, conductorspacing,andshieldwireplacement.Calculationofprobabilitiesorrates (such as flashover rate or its probability) will be incorporated. Protection equipmentsuchasarresters,shieldwire,insulators,andstructurematerialswillbe discussedintheendproduct. Additionally,recommendationswillbemadefor anynecessarychangestoAlliantEnergyscurrentlightningprotectionpractices.

Figure1Telescope Proposed Approach

Itisveryimportanttothegroupthatthecorrectapproachistakentoensureallof therequestsoftheclientarefulfilled. Thissectionpresentsalistofthegroups necessarycomponentstoconfirmhighprobabilityofprojectsuccess.Itoutlinesthe functionalrequirementsoftheendproductaswellasmanagingriskandtracking progressthroughoutthedurationoftheproject. DesignObjectives The main objective is to produce a written report compiling the results of the groupswork.Thereportwillincludeastudyofcurrentdesignpracticesutilized by other localutilities. Analysisofthisdatawillthenbe manipulated using a commercialcomputersoftwarepackageandcomparedtoAlliantEnergyscurrent designpractices.Lastly,recommendationswillbemadeforanynecessarychanges toAlliantEnergyscurrentlightningprotectionpractices. FunctionalRequirements The proposed projects main requirement is to provide a recommendation to Alliant Energy regarding lightning protection standards and practices. This conclusionwillbemetthroughanalysisofotherlocalutilitiesdesigntechniques; however,thegroupwillnotdiscloseanyconfidentialinformationownedbythese utilitiestotheclient.Thefinalrecommendationsshouldimprovethereliabilityof serviceforAlliantEnergyscustomers. DesignConstraints Foreseeableconstraintsthataffectthegroupsendproductareasfollows: Limited budget: As with any senior design project, the budget for completionislimited.Thegroupisallotted$150forexpenses,butasthe projectprogresses,thegroupmayencountertheneedtopurchasedataor maps(similartothegroundflashdensity mapshownin Figure2 below) fromoutsidesources. Asoftwarepackagemayalsobedeterminedtobe helpfulinobtainingcertaincalculations.Anyoftheseexpenditures(because theyarelikelytobemorethan$150)willneedtobeapprovedandfunded bytheclient.

Geography:Duetothefactthatthegroupsclientislocatedovertwohours away, it may be difficult to use Alliant Energys commercial computer softwareorobtainotherdesireddata. Time:Successoftheprojectdependsheavilyonefficientscheduling. Quality of data: Accurate calculations and meaningful correlations are directlyrelatedtothequalityofthedataused.Inshort,thebetterthedata obtained,themoremeaningfulthegroupsconclusionwillbe.Therefore,it isimportantforthegrouptoobtaindatafromacreditablesource,suchas Alliant Energy or another local utility, to increase the quality for later calculations.

Figure2GroundFlashDensityMapoftheUnitedStates

TechnicalApproachConsiderationsandResults AlliantEnergywillprovidethegroupwithaccesstoEPRIsTFlashprogram,which will allow the group to examine the lightning performance of different transmissionanddistributionpowerlinestructures. Researchwillbeconducted through IEEE to find structure design standards as well as benchmarks for lightningperformance.Designstandardsfromlocalutilitieswillalsobeobtained andstudiedalongwiththeAlliantEnergyandIEEEstandards.Theresultsofthese studies will determine which structure has the best lightning performance and wouldbebestforAlliantEnergytouse. 6

Figure3TFlashApplicationScreenshot

Ifthegroupisunabletoobtaindesignstandardsfromotherutilities,thegroupwill makearecommendationsolelyonAlliantscurrentpracticesandIEEEstandards. Thegroupisoptimisticinbeingabletocontactotherutilitiesandobtaindesign standards. TestingApproachConsiderations Becausetheendproductisareport,notestingwillberequired.Validationofthe endproductwillcomefromadvisorreviewandclientsatisfactionwiththeresults rather than from actually performing tests. The final test of the information contained within the end product will come only after implementation of the recommendationsbytheclient.Afterthis,yearsofdatacollectionarerequiredand suchtimeiswellbeyondthescopeoftheproject. RecommendationsRegardingProjectContinuationorModification Thegroupdoesnotrecommendanymodificationsregardingthedirectionofthe project. Theprojectwillbeperformedasstatedintheprojectplan. Someslight modificationsmaybeimplementedifneeded.Anyandallchangeswillneedtobe approvedbyboththeclientandtheprojectadviser. Shouldthecoursecoordinatorsdecidethattheprojectrequiresorwouldlenditself nicelytocontinuationbyanotherseniordesignteam;certainaspectsoftheproject couldbeexpanded.Thescopeoftheprojectcouldbeextendedtoincludehigher 7

voltagelevelfacilities. Specificstudiescouldbeperformed onAlliantEnergys existing facilities to examine the performance of designs older than current standards.

Detailed Design
Thegrouphasobtainedconstructionstandardsfortransmissionanddistribution powerlinesfromAlliantEnergy.Thesedesignswillbecomparedtothestandards thegrouphasfoundfromIEEE.Constructionstandardsfromotherlocalutilities willalsobelookedattodeterminewhatthemostoptimalstandardis.TFlashwill beusedtocomparethesestructureswitheachother. EachtypeofstructurewillbemodeledusingtheTFlashsoftwareandanalysiswill be performed to determine which structure will perform the best. The group wishes to see howa single structure willperform alone, aswell as agroup of multiplestructures,perhapsuptotwentymiles.Thiswillhelpdeterminehowthe placementofotherlightningprotectiondevicesaffectstheperformanceofapower line. Otherformsoflightningprotectionbesidesstructuredesignwillbestudied.The effectofarrestersandshieldwiresonlightningprotectionisveryimportant. It shouldbedeterminedifitwillbemorebeneficialtoAlliantEnergytoinstallthese devicesonexistingstructuresratherthancompletelyreplacingthestructureswith anewerstandard.

Figure4SectionalViewofaLightningArrester Thegroupwillstudylightningperformancesuchasflashoverrates,groundflash density,andgroundingofcertainstructures. Aperformancebenchmarkforthis datawillbedeterminedeitherbyAlliantEnergyorfromexistingIEEEStandards. Careful analysis will be performed and reviewed to determine the best overall recommendationstobegiventoAlliantEnergy. AdetailedreportdocumentingthegroupsfindingswillbedeliveredtoAlliant Energy. This report will include all calculations performed and structures analyzed.Itwillincludeadetailedrecommendationofwhichstandardisthebest optionandsupportingevidencewhythatparticularstandardisbest,andwhythe otherstandardsweredecidedagainst. BelowisaroughoutlineforthedocumentthegroupintendstodelivertoAlliant Energyatthecloseoftheproject: I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Introduction OverviewandSummaryofSolutionApproach PerformanceCriteriaandJustification AssumptionsandChoiceofVariables/Parameters Simulation/CalculationResults Simulation/CalculationBreakdownandInterpretation 9

VII. VIII.

ProposedSolutions(alongwithpossiblepoorerchoicesolutions) MiscellaneousChanges/Proposals/Recommendations

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Figure2SpiralGalaxy

Financial Budget
Thissectionwillbrieflyoutlinethefinancialbudgetfortheprojectthusfar.Ascan beseenfromthetablebelow,thevastmajorityofthebudgetcomesintheformof labor. A breakdown of the hours used to calculate labor costs is examined in greaterdetailinthenextsectiononpersonaleffort.Becauselaborisnotafactorin theproject,theonlyotherexternalcostsarethoseincurredfromprintingexpenses.

Table1OriginalFinancialBudget Without Item Labor Parts and Materials Document Printing $20 Poster Printing $70 Subtotal $90 Labor at $10.00/hr Conrad, Tim Dieterich, David Muhindo, Sam

With Labor $20 $70 $90 $1,970 $1,990 $1,890

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Nelson, Eric Subtotal Total $90

$2,140 $7,990 $8,080

Table2RevisedFinancialBudget Without Item Labor Parts and Materials Document Printing $15 Poster Printing $67 Subtotal $82 Labor at $10.00/hr Conrad, Tim Dieterich, David Muhindo, Sam Nelson, Eric Subtotal Total $82

With Labor $15 $67 $82 $2,060 $2,030 $1,830 $2,350 $8,270 $8,352

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Personal Effort Budget


Thissectionwilloutlinethecurrentestimatesforthepersonaleffortrequiredof eachgroupmember.Becausetheprojectishighlyresearchintensive,themajority ofthetimewillbefocusedonsuchactivities.Itisalsoverylikelythateachgroup memberwillendupputtinginaverycomparableamountoftimeinmosttask categories.Inthetablebelow,eachgroupmemberscontributionislisted.

Table3OriginalPersonalEffortBudget Member Conrad, Tim Dieterich, David Muhindo, Sam Nelson, Eric Group Total Task 1 7 7 6 9 29 Task 2 100 105 95 110 410 Task 3 21 20 22 25 88 Task 4 14 17 16 15 62 Task 5 55 50 50 55 210 Member Total 197 199 189 214 799

Table4RevisedPersonalEffortBudget Member Conrad, Tim Dieterich, David Muhindo, Sam Nelson, Eric Group Total Task 1 11 13 9 15 48 Task 2 100 105 95 125 425 Task 3 21 20 22 25 88 Task 4 14 17 16 15 62 Task 5 60 48 41 55 204 Member Total 206 203 183 235 827

Thechangesshowninthetablesabovereflecttheprogressofthefirstsemesters work.Task1tookmoretimethananticipatedtocomplete.Thegroupalsoexpects anincreaseintheamountoftimeitwillrequiretocompleteTask2(Researchand development).Asmallincreaseintheamountoftimespentonprojectreporting wasalsomodeledinthetableabove. Sincelaborisnotincludedinanyofthe actualcostsforthisproject,theincreaseinhoursisnotasignificantdeviationfrom theoriginalplan.

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Project Schedule
Thissectionbrieflyexaminesthecurrentschedulefortheproject. Becauseexact dates(suchasthoseforclasspresentation)arenotexplicitlyknown,aprojected date has been scheduled with flexibility for future rescheduling. While the originalschedule hasbeen slightly modified,flexibilitywasincorporated which willallowthegrouptostayontrackforcompletion.Itshouldalsobenotedthat thegroupsclasspresentationslothasbeenmoveduptomoreaccuratelyreflectthe presentationtimenextfall.

ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 53

Task Name Dec Project Definition Project Definintion Completion Goal Establishment Source Identification Research and Development Data Acquisition Mathematical Calculation Correlation End Product Development Report and Data Compilation Review, Revision and Submission End Product Demonstration Demonstration Preparation Peer and Course Coordinator Demonstration Industrial Review Panel Demonstration Project Reporting Project Plan Project Poster Design Report Final Report and End Product Weekly Email Project Website

2004 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

2005 Jan

Feb

2/24 3/2 5/5 12/17

Figure 5 Original Gantt Chart for Entire Project

Figure 6 Revised Gantt Chart for Entire Project

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Project Team Information


Thissectionprovidesgeneralcontactinformationfortheprojectgroupmembers, facultyadvisor,andclient. Client: AlliantEnergy MarlonVogt 200FirstStreetSoutheast CedarRapids,IA52401 319.786.4399 marlonvogt@alliantenergy.com Facultyadvisor: Dr.VijayVittal 1126Coover Ames,Iowa50011 515.294.8963 vvittal@iastate.edu Teammembers: TimConrad[Com.Coordinator] 108ColoradoAvenue Ames,Iowa50014 563.590.1608 conrad81@iastate.edu ElectricalEngineering SamMuhindo 246NorthHylandAvenue Ames,Iowa50014 773.575.4703 sa6m@iastate.edu ElectricalEngineering DavidDieterich 2316FrederiksenCourt Ames,Iowa50010 515.572.7759 mooo452@iastate.edu ElectricalEngineering EricNelson[ProjectLeader] 219SouthSherman#6 Ames,Iowa50010 515.451.3839 esnelson@iastate.edu ElectricalEngineering

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Summary
Eachyear,thousandsofbriefoutagescausedbylightningstrikesoccuronelectric transmission and distribution lines across the country. While most of these momentaryoutagesarecausedbytheoperationofprotectionequipment,evena short interruption in service becomes a nuisance and a source for customer dissatisfaction.Tomeetanincreasingcustomerdemandforhighlyreliableelectric power, Alliant Energy is seeking to validate or improve its current lightning protectionpractices.Thegroupsmaingoal,throughvariousresearchactivities,is to establish a benchmark for good lightning performance of transmission and distributionlines. Alliantspursuit ofexceptionallightningprotectionpractices willdemonstratetheircontinuedcommitmenttotheirelectricservicecustomers.

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References
Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book , 5th ed., ABB Power T&D CompanyInc.,Raleigh,NorthCarolina,1997. Falkenberry,L.M.,andCoffer,W., ElectricalPowerDistributionandTransmission, PrenticeHall,Columbus,Ohio,1996. Fink,D.G.,andBeaty,H.W., StandardHandbookforElectricalEngineers ,McGraw Hill,NewYork,NewYork,2000. http://www.epri.com/eprisolutions/lightning/TFlash4%20Features.pdf, April 4, 2004. IEEE Guide for Improving the Lightning Performance of Electric Power Overhead DistributionLines,IEEEStd14101997. IEEE GuideforImprovingtheLightningPerformanceofTransmissionLines ,IEEEStd 12431997.

Figure4 EarthsMooncapturedby FickObservatoryTelescope The yellow perimeter outlines the equivalent view as seen from the Hubble telescope .

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