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Sources of Food
Learning Objectives
To know about
food and its need. what animals eatherbivores, carnivores and omnivores. sources of foodplant parts and animal products.

There is an old saying which states, You are what you eat. But what exactly do we eat? The material or substance which we eat is called food. Why do we need food? Let us compare our body to a car. What happens to a car if there is no petrol in its tank? It stops running. Petrol is the fuel which runs the car. Similarly food is the fuel which living organisms require to keep functioning. Organisms require food for the following purposes: to provide energy for various activities of the body for growth and development of the body to protect the body from diseases and keep it healthy for repair of injured body parts for reproduction

What is food?
The material or substance which we eat Substances from which an organism derives energy and materials for growth and development

Why do we need food?


Food contains materials which provide us energy required for: various activities to stay alive growth and development protection from diseases body repair and reproduction

1.1 FOOD VARIETIES


See Fig. 1.1. It shows the different types of food eaten by us.
rice, chapati/roti, dal, vegetable, curd, kheer dosa, idli, sambar, chutney

fruits

milk, egg, bread

samosa, burger, pastry

fish, chicken, mutton

Fig. 1.1: Different types of food and food items

1.1.1 Certain Facts about Food There is a lot of variety in the food we eat. We eat different food items at different times of the day. Food eaten at breakfast, lunch and dinner is different. People from different states in India eat different kinds of food.
Fig. 1.2: Food eaten in some of the states

To know more about the varieties of food eaten by us, let us perform the Activity 1.1.

Activity 1.1 (gather and tabulate information)


To find out the varieties of food eaten by us. Collect information from your friends in school, coming from different states of India, about the food items they have eaten for lunch. List this information in Table 1.1. Also make the same list in MS Excel. Table 1.1: Food items eaten by us
Name of the friend 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. State Food items eaten for lunch

1.2 FOOD INGREDIENTS


bananas apple mango

Fig. 1.3: Fruitsfoods with only one ingredient

Food items which we eat may consist of a single material or many materials. For example, fruits like banana, apple or mango consist of single material (Fig. 1.3). Think of food items like rice, dal, chapati/roti, kheer and idli. These food items consist of two or more materials (Fig. 1.4). Materials which are used to prepare food items are called ingredients.

Food Ingredients
Materials which are used to prepare food item

Examples of ingredients in some food items Food item 1. Chapati/Roti 2. Rice 3. Dal 4. Vegetable curry 5. Kheer 6. Idli 7. Chicken curry Ingredients Atta (flour) and water Rice grains and water Pulses, water, salt, oil/ghee and spices Vegetable, salt, oil, spices and water Milk, rice and sugar Rice, urad dal, salt and water Chicken, oil/ghee, spices, vegetables and water

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Classroom Discussion

List the vegetables we use in chicken curry.

paneer, spinach, salt, water, oil, spices Fig. 1.4: Food item containing more than one ingredient

Activity 1.2 (investigate and compile data)


To find out the ingredients in different food items. Enlist five food items you have eaten today. Find out the ingredients in them. You may take the help of your mother/class teacher. Enter the information in Table 1.2. Table 1.2: Food items and their ingredients
Food item 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ingredients

1.3 FOOD EATEN BY ANIMALS


All living things need food to remain alive. Do you know how living things get food? Most plants can prepare their own food. Animals including human beings, on the other hand, cannot. They either eat plants or other animals. Have you seen animals like a cow (or buffalo), cat, dog, crow, squirrel, goat, lizard and lion eating food? They all eat different kinds of food.

Fig. 1.5: A squirrel eating food

Activity 1.3 (tabulate information)


To find out the food eaten by different animals. Complete the table to show the food eaten by 15 different animals given below:
cow elephant (a) Herbivorous animals

Table 1.3: Food eaten by animals


Animal 1. Cow (or buffalo) 2. Horse 3. Goat 4. Lion (or tiger) Food eaten

tiger

lion

5. Cat 6. Dog 7. Crow 8. Squirrel 9. Lizard 10. Human beings

(b) Carnivorous animals

cockroach

crow

11. Cockroach 12. Butterfly 13. Elephant 14. Deer 15. Spider

(c) Omnivorous animals Fig. 1.6: Categories of animals based on food eaten

Types of Animals Based on Food Habit


Herbivoreseat only plants Carnivoreseat only animals Omnivoreseat both plants and animals

Based on the food eaten, animals can be classified into three groups or categories: herbivores, carnivores and omnivores (Fig. 1.6). (i) Herbivores or herbivorous animals (Herbi = plant, vore = eater) eat only plants or plant products. Cow, buffalo, horse, deer, goat and elephant are herbivores. (ii) Carnivores or carnivorous animals (Carni = meat, vore = eater) eat other animals. Lion, tiger, dog and jackal are carnivores. (iii) Omnivores or omnivorous animals (Omni = all, vore = eater) eat both plants and animals. Human being, crow, cockroach and squirrel are omnivores.

Key Fact
Some carnivores and omnivores consume dead bodies of animals and thus help to keep the environment clean. Such animals are called scavengers. Examplescrows, vultures and jackals

Activity 1.4 (classify data)


To classify the animals on the basis of the food they eat. Based on what you have studied about the three different types of animals, classify the animals given in Table 1.3 as herbivores, carnivores and omnivores and complete Table 1.4. You may find out and add the names of some other animals. Perform the activity in groups of three students each. Table 1.4: Categories of animals based on food eaten
Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores

Answer Orally (Formative Assessment)


1. Define the following: (a) Food (c) Herbivores (e) Omnivores (b) Food ingredients (d) Carnivores

2. Give two examples each of herbivores, carnivores and omnivores.

1.4 SOURCES OF FOOD


Food is obtained by living things from both plants and animals. 1.4.1 Plants as Source of Food You know that green plants can prepare their own food. For this reason, they are known as producers. They prepare more food than what they need themselves. This extra food is stored in different parts of the plant body.

Producers
Living beings like plants, which can prepare their own food

Different plant parts from which food is obtained are the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, seeds and fruits. Do you know which part of the plant are you eating when you eat potato, cabbage, onion, radish, carrot or mango?
rice wheat

The plant parts which are eaten are called edible parts. For example, the edible part in a mango is the fruit; in onion and potato, it is the stem while in radish and carrot, it is the root, and leaf is the edible part in cabbage. Food Items Obtained from Plants (Fig. 1.7) (i) Cereals (wheat, rice, maize) (ii) Pulses (pea, bean, soyabean, gram, groundnut) (iii) Vegetables (carrot, radish, potato, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato) (iv) Fruits (banana, apple, mango, grape, orange, pineapple) (v) Sugar (sugarcane) (vi) Oils (mustard, groundnut, coconut, soyabean, cotton seed, sunflower) (vii) Spices (turmeric, chilli, ginger, saunf or fennel, elaichi or cardamom)

apple

sunflower

mango

sugarcane

Fig. 1.7: Food-giving plants

Edible Parts Plant parts which are eaten

Let us find out which plant parts provide us these food items (Fig. 1.8). Food from stems

potatoes

onion

ginger

garlic

Food from roots

carrot

radish

turnip

sweet potatoes

Food from leaves

spinach

fenugreek

cabbage

mustard

Food from flowers


Rose petals are used to make essence and gulkand.

rose

cauliflower

broccoli

Food from seeds

green gram (moong)

kidney beans (rajma)

corn

wheat

Food from fruits

banana

apple

mango

grapes

orange

pineapple

Fig. 1.8: Food items from different plant parts

Sprouts Have you ever seen your mother buying sprouted seeds from the market or preparing them at home? How does she prepare them at home? Perform Activity 1.5 to prepare sprouted seeds. Activity 1.5 (process and observe)
To prepare sprouts. Take some dry seeds of gram (chana) or green gram (moong). Soak the seeds in water for a day in a container.

Sprouts/Sprouted Seeds
Small white structures which come out of the seeds Seeds which have germinated

dry green gram

germinated green gram

Fig. 1.9: Germinating seeds (sprouts)

Next day, drain the water completely and leave the seeds in the container for another day. What do you find now? You will find small white structures coming out of the seeds. The seeds have germinated or sprouted (Fig. 1.9).

S HOT

Classroom Discussion

Activity 1.6 (collect data and classify)


Making a scrapbook of food plants. Collect photographs or pictures and specimens of different plants that give us food. Classify them according to the plant part used and paste them in a scrapbook.

Discuss the names of some water plants that we eat.

Dairy Products
Products made from milk

1.4.2 Animals as Source of Food A variety of food products are obtained from animals. These include milk and milk products, eggs, meat and honey. Food product
butter cheese

Source Hen (Fig. 1.11), duck Sheep, goat, chicken, fish Honeybees [honey is stored in the beehive (nest of bees; Fig. 1.12)] Cow, buffalo, goat

Eggs Meat Honey

cream

curd

Milk

Dairy products (Fig. 1.10) are made from milk. Some dairy products are paneer, cheese, butter, ghee and curd.
paneer Fig. 1.10: Milk products

Animals which provide meat and egg are called poultry (Fig. 1.11). Poultry products are rich in proteins.

Mind Scrambler
Unscramble each of the following to form a word or term: (a) ROEDUPCRE _________________ (b) ERHVOBIRE _________________ (c) ARVOCNIER _________________
Fig. 1.11: Hen with eggs

Honey is a sweet liquid produced by honeybees from the nectar (sweet juice produced by flowers). It consists of sugar, water, minerals and enzymes. Honey is stored in beehives.
Answer Orally (Formative Assessment)
1. Define the following: (a) Producers (b) Sprouts (c) Edible (d) Beehive 2. Name the plant parts that are our sources of food. 3. Name four animal products we eat.

DEFINITIONS
Food: The material or substance which we eat Ingredients: Materials which are used to prepare food items Herbivores: The animals which eat only plants Carnivores: The animals which eat only animals Omnivores: The animals which eat both plants and animals Edible parts: The plant parts which are eaten Sprouts: Germinated seeds Poultry: Animals which provide meat and egg

Fig. 1.12: Beehive

QUICK ROUNDUP
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. All living organisms need food to survive and perform different activities. Plants are called the producers, as they can prepare their own food. Both plants and animals provide food to us. Different plant parts such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, seeds and fruits provide food. A number of food products like milk, curd, butter, ghee, paneer, eggs, meat and honey are provided by animals.

EXERCISES FOR FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT


A. Answer in Detail (Summative Assessment) 1. Why do we need food? 2. Do all living beings need the same kind of food? Give reasons. 3. How are animals grouped on the basis of the food eaten by them? 4. What food items do we obtain from plants? Give examples. 5. Differentiate between herbivores, carnivores and omnivores.
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B. Answer Briefly 1. Mention the variety of food products obtained from animals. 2. Name the ingredients in the following cooked food items: (a) Vegetable rice (b) Chapati/Roti (c) Vegetable curry C. Answer in One Word or a Few Words
C1. Name the parts that we eat in case of the following plants: 1. Radish 2. Carrot 3. Potato 5. Pea 6. Gram 7. Spinach 9. Apple 10. Sugarcane 11. Wheat C2. Give two examples in each of the following case: 1. Poultry 2. Dairy products C3. State whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F): 1. Number of food ingredients in a chapati/roti is two. 2. Cockroaches are omnivores. 3. Plants are herbivores. 4. An elephant is a carnivore. 5. The plant part that is eaten in a potato is the underground root. 6. Curd is an animal product. C4. Fill 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

(d) Egg curry

4. Onion 8. Mango 12. Rice

[ [ [ [ [ [

] ] ] ] ] ]

in the blanks: In case of kheer, the food ingredients are ___________, ___________ and ___________. Idli contains ___________ ingredients. (Mention the number of ingredients.) Crow is an ___________ because it eats ___________ and ___________. Deer is a ___________ as it eats only ___________. A carnivore is an animal which eats ___________. The edible plant part in spinach is the ___________. ___________ and ___________ are foods obtained from roots of plants. Honey is prepared by the bees from the ___________ of ___________. Egg and meat are provided by ___________. Sugar is obtained from the ___________ of ___________. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

C5. Give one word for each of the following: 1. Animals that eat only plants 2. Animals that eat both plants and animals 3. Animals that eat only animals 4. An edible root 5. An edible stem 6. An edible leaf 7. Germinated seeds
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C6. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs): Choose the correct answer for each of the following: 1. Herbivores eat (a) animals only. (b) plants only. (c) both plants and animals. (d) dead bodies of animals. 2. Eagle is a (a) carnivore. (b) omnivore. (c) herbivore. (d) scavenger. 3. Which of the following is a carnivore? (a) Horse (b) Goat (c) Dog (d) Deer 4. The plant part eaten in case of radish is (a) stem. (b) root. (c) flower. (d) seed. 5. Bees store _____________ in their beehive. (a) honey (b) eggs (c) curd (d) all of these

TASKS FOR FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT


A. Complete the Web Charts:
(a)
Animals (on the basis of food eaten)

Herbivores

1. 2. 3.

1. Lion 2. 3.

1. Human beings 2.
3.

(b)
Food items obtained from plants

Cereals

Fruits

1. 2. 3.

1. Gram 2. 3.

1. Groundnut 2. 3.

1. 2. 3.

1. 2. 3.

B. Field Trip Visit a zoo with your teacher and discuss with the zookeeper what different animals eat. Collect some more information on your own. You can then categorize the animals on the basis of the food eaten. Work in groups. Prepare a presentation and present in your classroom.
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C. Library Research and Project (Pair Work) Collect information on the food culture in different regions of India and hold a discussion in class. Work in pairs and prepare a map of India on a chart paper showing the food culture of different regions. D. Group Discussion
Sufficient food is not available to all people in our country. At the same time, many people waste food. Can you think of ways by which we can avoid wastage of food?
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E. Crossword Puzzle
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Solve the following crossword puzzle with the help of clues given alongside: Across 2. A living being which can prepare its own food (8) 7. Animal eating only plants (9) 9. A milk product (6) Down 1. The substance which we eat (4) 3. Animal that eats other animals (9) 4. Animal that eats both plants and animals (8) 5. Germinated seeds (7) 6. Home of honeybees (7) 8. A milk product (4)
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4 5 6

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Surf to Know More 1. Go to http://www.indianetzone.com/38/history_indian_food.htm to find out the evolution of Indian food habits in different ages such as food in Ancient India, food in Medieval India and food in Modern India. 2. Go to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food#Types_of_food to find more about different types of food. Know the Scientist
M.S. Swaminathan is known as the Father of Green Revolution in our country. He saved the people of India from starvation and famine by developing varieties of rice and wheat with much higher yield than our local varieties.

M.S. Swaminathan

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