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6th International Conference on Sustainable Development in the Minerals Industry, 30 June 3 July 2013, Milos island, Greece

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Water resources management, risk assessment, and mitigation: A 5-year program for Titan Cement in Zlatna Panega Plant, Bulgaria
K. Dragasakis and J. Mastoris
Titan Cement Company, Greece

E. Shilegarska, A. Pophristova and M. Dimitrov


Titan Zlatna Panega Cement, Bulgaria

ABSTRACT Water is increasingly recognized as a critical issue for sustainable development. Although the cement industrys overall water footprint is relatively small compared to other sectors, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development / Cement Sustainability Initiative (WBCSD / CSI) member companies have recognized the importance of Water and the need to take actions to reduce the industrys water consumption, mostly at local level where individual facilities and activities have a direct impact, by starting with developing standardizing practices and by employing a risk-based assessment approach and alternative methodologies. Titan Cement, being a core member of CSI, has since long time taken water-related actions and initiatives, and as part of the Groups Environmental Policy, has set targets and developed a vision with regards to Water Management in its Group Operations for Cement, Aggregates and Ready Mix. These actions have resulted in significant reduction in the overall and the specific water consumption (L/ton cement) in all Group Cement Plants, meeting cement industrys benchmarks. Water risk assessment is one of the major components of Titans water road map for the following years, with the application and road testing of available tools such as Global Water Tool (GWT) and Local Water Tool (LWT), as well as conducting detailed water modeling and studies at site-specific level. The Zlatna Panega Cement Plant, in Bulgaria, is considered Titan Group pioneer in achieving remarkable reduction in the specific water consumption - five to six times less consump-

tion compared to 2007 - thanks to efforts and initiatives undertaken over the last five years, towards an efficient water management system applied in the plants operations. Further actions in the last two years focused on the assessment of water risks in the general area of the local watershed, including the plant and nearby quarry operations and taking into account the water needs and uses of the local communities. A Hydrogeological Study was concluded, after a 2year period of survey, and also the GEMI Local Water Tool (LWT) was applied, helping finally the Zlatna Plant develop a management plan and road-map for water, with the target to mitigate impacts and risks. 1. INTRODUCTION The future of business and society depend on the sustainability of water resources, which are increasingly under pressure. Globally, per capita availability of freshwater is steadily decreasing and the trend will inevitably continue as the worlds population swells towards 9 billion, emerging economies increase consumption levels and climate change unfolds. Many regions of the world are reaching a point of water stress, where water resources can no longer support the demands of human populations (WBCSD Water for Business, 2010 & 2012). On the basis that every business depends and impacts on water resources, the global business community increasingly recognizes and has begun to address the water challenges, in order to meet the stakeholder high concerns and expectations of corporate water management. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) has been actively working on

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6th International Conference on Sustainable Development in the Minerals Industry, 30 June 3 July 2013, Milos island, Greece common reporting, water management measures and risk assessment, in order finally to answer stakeholders expectations. The TF has so far established a common matrix for companies water performance measurement (Key Performance Indicators - KPIs) that includes a set of internationally recognized indicators, referring to: Water withdrawal by source. Water discharge by quality and destination. Water consumption. Percentage of sites with water recycling system.

water issues for over 10 years and has produced a set of tools, guidelines, standards, reporting indicators etc., intended to help member companies integrate water issues in their strategic planning, map their water use and assess risks relative to their global operations and supply chain. This paper explains the framework of actions - within the Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI) - for Water, which is seen as a major sustainability issue in the cement industry, and describes Titan Groups policy, vision, and initiatives for water management and risk assessment, with focus on the Zlatna Panega Cement Plant in Bulgaria, where certain planning and actions over the last five years have had considerable results in water consumption rates and in the overall efficient water resources management. 2. TITAN GROUP WATER MANAGEMENT INSIDE THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT 2.1 Cement Sustainability Initiative The Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI), which is an industry-specific initiative under the WBCSD and representing 24 member cement companies, coincides with the opinion that water conservation, water foot-printing and water management are having a growing importance on many businesses sustainability agendas. The cement industrys overall water footprint is relatively small compared to other sectors. Cement production requires water for cooling heavy equipment and exhaust gases, in emission control systems such as wet scrubbers, as well as for preparing slurry in wet process kilns. The wet process is now being progressively being phased out and replaced by modern, more efficient dry processes, thus significantly reducing water usage. Water generally evaporates in the process, while recycling may largely be applied. The aggregates business and also ready-mix require significant quantities of water. Acknowledging the need to take action to reduce the industrys water footprint, CSI set up a dedicated Task Force (TF) for Water, with the scope of understanding the water issue in the cement sector, and setting the framework of

The TF is developing a Protocol for Water Reporting to help members better understand the boundaries, definitions and methodology behind the suggested KPIs and also a Guidance on Good Practices for Water Accounting in order to share effective good practices that can assist member companies in improving their water performance. Further, performance reporting, together with risk assessment, requires a dedicated tool: The Global Water Tool developed by the WBCSD and CH2MHill, is currently being customized for the cement sector. This tool establishes relative water risks in companys portfolio for action prioritization and it reports water indicators set by CSI and other organizations as well. The TF is also looking into different tools available in the market for answering to a more bottomup or site-specific risk assessment, like: The GEMI Local Water Tool or the WWF Water Risk Filter etc. 2.2 Titan Cement Water Management Titan Cement has for long time been sensitive about and paid serious attention to water, and there are plenty examples of initiatives and investments made in the Groups Cement Plants towards efficient water management: replacement of any old wet-process production lines with a dry-process modern method, rain water harvesting, water treatment facilities and water re-use, closed circuit water recycling systems for cooling equipment purposes etc. As part of the Groups Environmental Policy, Titan has recently set targets and developed a vision with

6th International Conference on Sustainable Development in the Minerals Industry, 30 June 3 July 2013, Milos island, Greece regards to Water Management in its Group Operations for Cement, Aggregates and Ready Mix, in order to increase awareness, improve efficiency, assess, decrease and manage/mitigate water risk, and align with WBCSD/CSI on reporting and best practices, while leading by example. Under this frame, an Integrated Water Management System was developed, during the last four years, on corporate level, for use in the Cement Plants and Ready Mix Units. Components of the system include for each site: mapping of the water sources and flows, development of the Water Flow Diagram, and creation of the External Water Balance and Water Quality databases. Group-level guidelines were also developed to incorporate in the respective environmental management systems of the sites. All these actions have reflected a continuous improvement, and led to the decrease of the total water consumption and the specific water consumption (L/ton cement) in the Groups Cement Plants, reaching 300 L/ton in 2012, and meeting cement sector benchmarks (Figs 1, 2) (Titan Group CSR Reports, 2007-2011). Water risk assessment is one of the major components of Titans water road map, under the concept of the three levels of risk assessment (Fig. 3): (1) Global Risk Assessment of Portfolio, (2) Local Risk Assessment of Specific Site, and (3) Detailed Water Modeling of Specific Site. The initial top-down approach for water risk assessment in our companys portfolio (first level) was made in 2012 with the road test of the Global Water Tool in Titan Cement Plants.
TITAN Group Cement Production and Cement Grinding Plants Total Water Consumption(1,2)

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TITAN Group Cement Production and Cement Grinding Plants Specific Water Consumption(1)

Specific water consumption [lt/tcement]

1000,0 800,0 600,0 400,0 200,0 0,0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
809,4

569,3 447,8 362,2 340,1 300,0

(1) Specific consumption is calculated based on the equity held by TITAN Group in each specific year

Figure 2: Titan Group Cement Plants & Grinding Plants Specific Water Consumption 2007-12 (L/ton cement).

The assessment helped us identify which of our plants operate in water stressed areas (based on the Annual Renewable Water Supply per person), and thus indicating where a more indepth evaluation is seen necessary. A similar assessment with the GWT will continue with Titan Group Aggregates Quarries and Ready Mix Plants in the following years. Local risk assessment of specific site (second level) was made for the Zlatna Panega Cement Plant in Bulgaria, by applying the LWT, as will be discussed next. Focus hydrogeological studies and detailed water modeling (third level) have been conducted in several of our Cement Plants, and thus water risks and associated actions for sustainable water management have been identified. 3. ZLATNA PANEGA WATER MANAGEMENT AND RISK ASSESSMENT The Titan Zlatna Panega Cement Plant and nearby Quarry are located in Zlatna Panega, Lovech District, Bulgaria, and are in proximity with environmental sensitive water bodies (Fig. 4): - the Glava Panega Lake, which is the main source of freshwater for Plant operations and is fed by an underground natural spring and

Total water consumption

12.000.000
10.460.939

10.000.000
8.198.847

8.000.000
6.230.055

6.000.000 4.000.000 2.000.000 0 2007 2008 2009

5.249.864 4.400.326 3.881.686

2010

2011

2012

(1) Total consumption is calculated based on the equity held by TITAN Group in each specific year (2) From 2011 onwards, WBCSD/CSI definition for water consumption was adopted. Before 2011 water withdrawal was equal to water consumption

Figure 1: Titan Group Cement Plants & Grinding Plants Total Water Consumption 2007-12 (m3/y).

Figure 3: Three Levels of Water Risk Assessment.

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6th International Conference on Sustainable Development in the Minerals Industry, 30 June 3 July 2013, Milos island, Greece

Figure 4: Water bodies in the vicinity of Zlatna Panega Cement Plant and Quarry.

- the Zlatna Panega River that in turn is fed by the Lake and is the receptor of Plants water discharges. The lake and the river are within the Karlukovo karst NATURA 2000 protection area. The lake is also source for drinking water for the local communities, which makes the operation in its vicinity more complicated and underlines the importance of controlling the freshwater quality and consumption. The Plant has been conscious about waterrelated issues, respecting the local stakeholders water needs and uses, and for this reason has undertaken initiatives and made investments, over the last five years, that had very positive results in improving efficiency and the overall water management in the Plant operations. Further, under the frame of sustainable water management, a Study on Hydrology-Hydrogeology over the general area of the Cement Plant and Quarry was completed in end 2012, and was followed by water risk assessment with the application of the Local Water Tool. The outcome of the Study and the water risk assessment will help the Plant develop a plan and road-map for the sustainable water management, by mitigating impacts and risks. 3.1 Zlatna Panega Water Management System The actions undertaken by Zlatna Panega Plant, under a 5-year plan for improving performance efficiency and setting a water management system for its operations, included: - Installation of a closed recycling system for the water used for mechanical cooling of the

equipment, reducing the freshwater withdrawal and consumption (recycling water is not considered consumed water). Upgrade of the water distribution network inside the plant to minimize water losses. Installation of waste water treatment facility and sedimentation ponds to treat water before discharging to Zlatna Panega River. Part of the treated water is reused for irrigation and other environmental purposes. Installation of flow meters in the withdrawal points and in the major consumption positions inside the Plant for accurate monitoring of water flows. Development of Water Management System, integrated under the overall ISO 14000 EMS of the Plant, assigning roles and responsibilities for a reliable monitoring, data collection and reporting of the Cement Plant water balance and quality.

All these efforts and actions resulted in the significant decrease in the water consumption rates: the specific water consumption (L/ton cement) has decreased by 5-6 times since 2007 (Fig. 5). 3.2 Hydrological & Hydrogeological Study The Hydrological and Hydrogeological survey of surface water and groundwater was a 2-year program and covered the local watershed of Zlatna Panega, including the Cement Plant, the nearby Quarry, and the surrounding residential areas. The objective was to understand the hydrogeological conditions in the scope areas and identify potential risks, in order to finally supTITAN Group Zlatna Panega Cement Plant Specific Water consumption
3.000

Specific water consumption

2.706

2.500 2.000

1.500
1.000 500 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
1.022 725 723 438 523

Figure 5: Zlatna Panega Cement Plant Specific Water Consumption 2007-12 (L/ton cement).

6th International Conference on Sustainable Development in the Minerals Industry, 30 June 3 July 2013, Milos island, Greece port the Plants decisions for sustainable water management and use, with respect also to local communities. The study investigated the surface and groundwater flows, the infiltration of precipitation water in the Plant and the quarry areas and potential sources of water contamination. The results of the survey showed that there is very low risk for the plant and quarry operations to have a negative effect on quality and quantity of both the groundwater (karstic water flowing beneath the quarry area and feeding the Glava Panega Lake) and the surface water (leading to Zlatna Panega River), whereas greater risk for water pollution present the other human activities in the surrounding areas. The study concluded with the recommendation to apply a program for monitoring the quality and level of groundwater through a cluster of piezometric holes in both the Plant (already installed) and the Quarry (Benderev and Chukoev, 2012). 3.3 Water Risk Assessment Based on the results of the Study, Zlatna Panega took one step further and applied the GEMI Local Water Tool (LWT) that is a free-ware tool for water risk assessment helping in identifying the external impacts, business risks, and opportunities related to water use and discharge at a specific site or operation. After identifying the water natural bodies that are related with the Plant operations (water intake and discharge), it was possible through the tool to assess the local external conditions for each one, covering twenty water issues in the categories of: physical source characteristics and supply reliability, ecosystems, regulations, economics and social context. The combination of the external conditions with the importance level of each water body for the operations determined the risk level for our business, meaning the potential business liabilities as a result of external water-related drivers and constraints. In the similar way, the sites external impacts on the influent sources and the receiving water bodies were identified and ranked, in order to assess the extend to which the volume and/or quality of water used or discharged by our operations affect the availability of that water for other uses from local communities, or

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harms human health or ecosystems in any other way. Results of the water risk assessment through LWT showed that there is a moderate risk to our business and low impact from our operations to the water bodies, as outlined in Figure 6. It should be noted that Glava Panega Lake is assumed as indirect receptor for the Quarry. There is no defined discharge point in the quarry, neither are the Plants water effluents connected with the quarry, but an indirect connection is considered through infiltration of quarry surface water and through the karstic system, directed finally to the Lake. 3.4 Mitigation of risks and impacts towards sustainable water management The outcome of the Study and the water risk assessment help the Zlatna Panega Plant develop a plan and road-map for water sustainable management, by mitigating impacts and risks, even though they were evaluated at low to moderate levels. Actions for the way forward in the coming years, among others include: local stakeholders and water-relevant NGOs awareness, engagement and partnership, further improvement in performance (i.e. increase the quantities of recycled and reused discharge water or apply rain water harvesting), efficient water and overall environmental management in the Plant and Quarry, and monitoring of groundwater quality through piezometric holes.

Figure 6: Water Risk Assessment in Zlatna Panega Plant and Quarry.

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6th International Conference on Sustainable Development in the Minerals Industry, 30 June 3 July 2013, Milos island, Greece

4. CONCLUSIONS The future of business and society depend on the sustainability of Earths water resources, which are increasingly under pressure. Corporate water management is a complex, iterative process that requires companies to assess the water situation, evaluate their impacts, and determine the best course of action on a continual basis. In order to grasp the importance of water management, the range of associated risks must be first understood. Water risks are different from water impacts for a company, since one companys risks can depend as much as what happens outside their fence line as what happens within it. In this respect, it is crucial that businesses, communities, and other stakeholder groups work together to manage the water resources effectively. The global business community increasingly recognizes and has begun to address the water challenges, and the cement sector, through CSI, has included water in the Agenda for Actions towards sustainable development. Inside this international context and trends, Titan Cement has set targets and takes actions for the sustainable water management in its Group Operations, with a view to increase awareness, improve efficiency, assess, decrease and manage/mitigate water risk, and align with CSI on reporting and best practices. Zlatna Panega Cement Plant in Bulgaria is a perfect example of how the strategy and dedication towards a target, combined with proper assessment and understanding of water issues (risks and impacts), planning and implementation of actions, can lead to improvement in the water performance efficiency and to the overall sustainable water management that meets the expectations and needs of all stakeholders. REFERENCES
Benderev, A. and P. Chukoev, (2012). Hydrological and Hydrogeological survey of surface and underground water in the Cement plant, quarry Zlatna Panega and hinterlands areas. Sofia. Titan Group. Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability Reports (2007-2011). Athens. WBCSD & IUCN (2010 and 2012). Water for Business: Initiatives guiding sustainable water management in the private sector, Versions 2 & 3.