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Military Uses of Social Scientists in P.O.W.

Camps during World War I & World War II

By Susan Cavin, Ph.D. (Adjunct) Professor of Sociology New York University Abstract
The military roles that psychologists, sociologists and anthropologists play today at Guantanamo is a subject with a long psychological line that dates at least as far back to Carl Jungs work in a Swiss camp for British POWs in WW I. The U.S. military

utilized Henry A. Murrays Harvard Psychological Clinic at the Office of Strategic Services (O.S.S.) S School which later became known in CIA lore as The Farm. Henry Murray was Erik Homberger Eriksons mentor at Harvard 1934-36 and brought Erikson to study German POW camps in North America. Alexander Leighton and a

team of sociologists and anthropologists worked in Japanese relocation camps in World War II. The work of American social scientists today at Guantanamo POW camp is not so new as the popular media implies, but may, in fact, be related to this earlier work of Erikson and Leighton in WW II.

Military Authorities Used Jung in WW I

Eugen Bleuler coined the term schizophrenia at the Burgholzli Asylum in Zurich, Switzerland. Just before Carl Jung joined Bleuler as his assistant at Burgholzli at the tunr of the twentieth century, Jung was commissioned as an officer in the Swiss corps. From 1900 through World War I, Jung served in the Swiss military for three weeks every summer. In 1907, the year he met Freud, Jung served his compulsory three

weeks of military service, in the Lausanne medical corps, where he worked from 5 AM to 8 PM as a "medical jack-of-all trades, anointing feet, cutting out corns, treating diarrhea...He also took parades at which the he had to inspect the genitals of 500 men.1 On August 3, 1914, Germany declared war on France, the same year Freud declared war on Jung. Hayman suggests he suffered a psychotic break over the loss of both Sabina and Freud,

from which he miraculously cured himself during World

War I. At age 42, Jung was appointed commandant of a camp for British POW's at Chateau d'Oex near Lausanne from 1917-18, and was there for six weeks at a stretch until the end of W.W.I. "The Geneva Convention of 1864 and revised 1906 ruled that prisoners of war who escaped into Switzerland must be interred in camps." 3 It was at this British POW camp that Jung began to draw the mandala as his symbol of the self. Around the time of World War I, Jung was used by Swiss military authorities in three ways: 1) during the pre-war period, he was recruited annually as a doctor for Swiss troops; 2) during W.W. I, he was appointed commandant of a POW camp in Switzerland for foreign troops; and indirectly 3) his ideas and published work on the word association-reaction time test took on a military and legal significance that grew exponentially around World War I.

Erik Erikson Studied World War II German POW Camps for the U.S. Military
In 1936, Erik Homburger Erikson left Harvard and went to Yale 4 just before his dramatic productions test was published in the Psychoanalytic Quarterly (1937). Henry Murray continued to use Eriksons dramatic productions test at Harvard Psychological Clinic for the next twenty years. Eriksons dramatic production test and Jungs extraversion and introversion questionnaire were listed as part of the battery of

tests given to a Harvard College student named Grope in Murrays 1955 article, American Icarus.

In Childhood and Society, the book that made Erikson famous, he

thanked :"Henry A. Murray and his co-workers at the Harvard Psychological Clinic gave me my first intellectual home in this country."6 In 1938, Erik Homburger was listed along with Walter C. Langer as one of the Harvard Psychological Clinic co-authors in Henry A. Murray's book Explorations in Personality: A Clinical Experimental Study of fifty men of College Age (1938).7 In 1939, Erikson left Yale for the University of California, and spent the next ten years on the West Coast. Meanwhile, Henry Murray, Eriksons Harvard mentor, went on to become Chief O.S.S. Psychologist during WW II. The O.S.S. was the Office of Strategic Services 1941-1945; O.S.S. was renamed C.I.A. in 1947. While Erik Homburger was being reborn in California as Erik Erikson, 8 Sigmund Freud died in London in the autumn of 1939. Thereafter, Homburger became known as Erik Erikson, the man who would later coin the term,identity crisis.

Erik Erikson Was Consulted by Military Intelligence Agencies (COI/O.S.S./O.W.I.) in 1940-44

After Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, France and England

declared war on Germany. World War II began on September 3, 1939. In Identitys Architect, a biography of Erikson (1999), Lawrence Friedman wrote: In the fall of 1939, the Committee for National Morale (CNM) was organized as a scholarly association dedicated to investigate psychological dimensions of warfare and propaganda. Several CNM members were Eriksons friends and acquaintances, including Margaret Mead and her husband, Gregory Bateson, Ruth Benedict, Henry Murray, and Kurt Lewin.9 The Rockefeller Foundation underwrote research for Erik

Erikson, Henry Murray, Hadley Cantril, and Archibald MacLeish during this period.

In 1941, Arthur Pope, chair of the Committee for National Morale, asked Erikson to take a 3 month leave from the Institute of Child Welfare to work with Mead and Murray on an investigation of American attitudes and values.11 For a newly arrived immigrant, Erikson quickly became well connected to the academic power elite in the United States. In 1941, Erikson did research for Archebald MacLeishs Coordinator of Information (COI)

in the Library of Congress before it was renamed Office of

Strategic Services (O.S.S.) in 1942. 13 In Secrets, Spies Scholars, CIA historian Ray Cline traces the origin of the CIA back to the first thing General Wild Bill Donovan did as COI was to consult Archibald MacLeish, the Librarian of Congress. MacLeish taught Donovan that: "a mine of data was in the Library in books, magazines, newspapers, maps, if it could be exploited by research scholars familiar with such sources. He offered the facilities of the Library of Congress and suggested some scholars who might be willing to help. In fact, many new employees of the CIA / later OSS went to work initially in an annex of the Library. Eventually Donovan got some space for most of his scholars in an old apartment house at 23 rd E streets, NW, an annex of the State Department, which became the habitat of nearly 2,000 research analysts with an astonishing array of foreign-area expertise." From the earliest beginnings of O.S.S. at the Library of Congress in 1941 with Archibald MacLeish, Erikson was a consultant for COI. Robert Coles describes Erikson's warwork in a vague- but- true way: " With the onset of the Second World War he undertook several additional research projects--this time for the government and for committees working closely with the government. The titles of the reports he wrote told their own story: "On Submarine Psychology," "On the Feasibility of Making Psychological Observations in Internment Camps," and "Concerning the Interrogation of German Prisoners of War." 14 What Coles did not say ( in the text, but buried in footnotes) was that Erikson Wrote these three reports for the Committee for National Morale in 1940 which were consumed by COI Military Intelligence in 1941: "On Submarine Psychology." Written for the Committee on National Morale for the Coordinator of Information. Unpublished ms. (1940).

"On the Feasibility of Making Psychological Observations in Internment Camps. Committee on National Morale (for the Coordinator of Information), 1940. Unpublished. "Concerning the Interrogation of German Prisoners of War. Committee on National Morale (for the Coordinator of Information), 1940. Unpublished.
Coles summarized Eriksons warwork on Hitler and Germany in this way: and when the war continued because of desperate, suicidal Nazi opposition, he turned his attention to a Germany he perhaps could understand better now that he was no longer one of its young citizens, but a distant observer ("Comments on Hitler's Speech of September 30, 1942," and "Hitler's Imagery and German Youth")." 15

Coles : During the Second World War Erkison put to use the knowledge that enabled him to analyze Hitler's imagery. He consulted with a number of government officials on a variety of problems. He scrutinized Nazi propaganda. He looked at the material obtained from interrogation of German war prisoners and prepared an advisory memorandum that examined in detail the reasons why -- but under what conditions, and with what legal limitations -- observation of war prisoners would be useful. He did studies for the U.S. Navy by talking casually with officers and sailors. He went to the Library of Congress and read the international conventions that presumably determined the way prisoner of war camps were set up He monitored Hitler's speeches over short-wave radio. "16 Although all of Erik Homburger Eriksons warwork falls under the Psychology of War, his 2 studies of the interrogation of German prisoners of war (POWs). yielded important prototypes for the intelligence community. Erikson also worked for the Office of Wartime Information (OWI) 17 in 1942, while it was originally part of O.S.S. However, O.W.I. and O.S.S. split after a fight

between General Donovan, Director of COI/O.S.S. and the playwright Robert Sherwood,18 Director of OWI, similar to the one brewing in military intelligence circles

in the Iraqi War between black and white propagandists.19 Donovans O.S.S. wanted to use the mass media for psychological warfare, to spread false information to throw the enemy off balance. Sherwoods O.W.I. rejected this as undemocratic misuse of the media. Sherwood wanted the democratic free press to maintain its integrity and send out only truthful information, following the BBC theory that the truth will set people free in authoritarian countries. Erikson did research for both Donovans COI/O.S.S. and Sherwoods OWI in the early forties, both before and after the Donovan/Sherwood split. In Identitys Architect (1999). Friedman described Eriksons military intelligence work for the Office of Wartime Intelligence (OWI) under Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead: from the Office of War Information in Washington, Ruth Benedict commissioned Erikson to study children of foreign backgrounds in the United States to build up a backlog of knowledge of what different civilized nations want in life and how they go after it. Throughout the war and immediately after, Mead involved Erik in a variety of projects, especially several dealing with German character and German war prisoners...Benedict asked him to study Dutch childhood and wartime conditions... 20 Erikson never refused Ruth Benedicts OWI requests nor Margaret MeadGregory Batesons COI/O.S.S. requests. In a letter Erikson wrote to Mead and Bateson, ...he confessed to an acute case of frigidopedosis nervosa, or cold feet over how the Office of War Information would evaluate certain of his reports. 21

Henry Murray, Chief O.S.S. Psychologist Pioneered Psychological Interrogation Techniques of Enemy Agents during WW II
By early 1942, one third of all psychologists in America had volunteered for the war effort. By wars end, a quarter of U.S. psychologists--a total of 1,700--were serving in the military. 22 What did they do? Alston Chases fascinating book, Harvard and the Unabomber, tells of Henry Murrays Harvard Clinics experiments on Ted Kaczynski, and lists the jobs psychologists performed for U.S. military/ intelligence agencies: Many helped conduct psychological evaluations of the 15 million military recruits, to determine their suitability for combat, using, among other things, the TAT as a screening tool. Others became so-called sykewarriors of the Psychological Warfare Division under General Eisenhowers command....others went to work for the Sociological Research Project at the Japanese-American Relocation Center...23 Friedman noted that the O.S.S. Psychological Division, ...directed by Robert Tryon ...conducted surveys, polls, and interviews to enhance understanding of American, German and other national characters and to determine the elements that shaped civilian morale. The division also called on psychologists like Murray and Donald MacKinnon to select potential American intelligence agents....

In 1941, Murray received a large Rockefeller grant to verify Harvard Psychological Clinics original TAT studies by repeating them with a new batch of subjects. In the fall of 1941, they (Harry & Christiana) returned to the clinic. Morgan to start work on an alternative series of TAT cards, which drew on many of her vision symbols...She also devised and administered one of the more valuable measurements in the new study, the Argument Completion Test, in which two people argued opposing view points of various story situations, the subject being required to fill in both their dialogues...Morgan and Murrays TAT was again at the center of a test battery.25

Murray later used Christianas Argument Completion Test in his Stress Interview at O.S.S. S School . 26 The personality tests of Murrays Harvard Psychological Clinic formed the core of his O.S.S. program.

Chart 1. Some Psychological Tests Used by Murray at Harvard Psychological Clinic for Army & O.S.S. S School
Test Date 1st Inventor Psychological Test published _______________________________________________________________________ Jung Jung H. A. Murray Morgan & Murray Word Association/Reaction Time Test Introversion-Extroversion Questionnaire Fear Test of Daughter/Murder Mystery Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) 1905-1910 1921 1933 & 1948 1935-1951 1937-1938 1941 1937-38

Erikson Dramatic Production Test Christiana Morgan Argument Completion Test Gordon Allport 27 Ascendance-Submission Test Allport & Vernon 28 Values Test

Murray left Harvard ... to head the assessment staff at the Office of Strategic Services (O.S.S.). Sent to Washington in late 1943, he was given the rank of major and a large estate for his work, the testing of men and women for their suitability for counterespionage. 29 Many of his clinic staff 30 accompanied Murray to O.S.S. S School in Fairfax, Virginia, now legend in CIA lore as The Farm. In The Voice of Genius: Conversations With Nobel Scientists and Other Luminaries, Denis Brian noted that: Harvard psychologist Henry Murray who developed the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) used it during World War II to test would be members of the O.S.S. (forerunner of the CIA)

Murray also used the TAT

on Army recruits. Specifically, 5,391 recruits were studied intensively over three days by Murrays staff for O.S.S.32

Not every O.S.S. agent who passed through The Farm remembered Dr. Murrays tests fondly as Elizabeth McIntosh in Undercover Girls.

Murray himself described

how some of his recruits broke under the Stress Interviewand the Post-Stress Interview:34 One refugee from Europe, who had had a brush with the Gestapo...became very much disturbed in the Stress Interview. In Post-Stress he asked to be released from S and from any commitments to the O.S.S.. Attempts to quiet him were of no avail. The emotion stirred in him by Stress kept him awake that night; and the next morning his anxiety had reached the point where, in another situational test, he fainted. 35 Reminiscent of Murrays 1933 fear test of his daughters friend, Murray played a version of his favorite fear game, Murder Mystery, with O.S.S. candidates on the

Third Day of their tests, at S School from 1943 to 1945. At noon the candidates were assembled and given copies of the mythical Fairfield Chronicle, announcing in some detail the discovery of the dead boy of a woman on a road not far from S.36 Given Murrays sadism in the Tower with Christiana Morgan, one wonders if Murray took pleasure at the suffering of his O.S.S. recruits at The Farm. Ahab was now in charge of The Farm. In Assessment of Men: Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services, Murray wrote: The mere instructions for the Stress Interview could serve as a most revealing projective test, as indeed they did strikingly on one occasion when a man, after reading the instructions, insisted that he could not go through with the test. A little later the director of S found the candidate in his bedroom, sitting on the edge of his cot, sobbing. Upon reading the instructions he had imagined that on reporting to the basement he would be beaten by the staff, and he was overcome with fear that under this provocation he might commit some extreme act of violence. As he talked with the director about some of his early experiences...the anxiety aroused by his fantasy continued to increase...37 (See Stress Interview Illustration, next page.)

Murray is credited as having developed the first personality assessment center in the United States at Harvard and at O.S.S. S School, although assessment centers were invented by German military psychologists after World War I.

In Secrets, Spies and

Scholars, Ray Cline called Henry A. Murray as " a leading O.S.S. psychologist." "Some very distinguished psychologists gathered together in O.S.S. to do research on the testing assessment of men and women as suitable candidates for intelligence work, particularly clandestine assignment. Leaders in this new field were Dr. John W. Gardner, later a Cabinet officer director of Common Cause, Dr. (Colonel) Henry A. Murray of Harvard... Another psychologist, Walter Langer, a brother of Bill Langer, supervised the publication of an extraordinarily insightful personality profile of Adolph Hitler, published as a book many years later, which pointed the way to similar sketches of foreign leaders by CIA's psychiatric staff."39

Hayman, op. cit., p 93. Ibid., p. 102-107 and pp. 134- 154 for the breakup of Sabina and Jung. See also Haymans Chapter 15-16. Jung does not mention Sabina in his autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections recorded and edited by Aniela Jaffe (New York: Vintage, 1963), p. 180. But he does tell of a bloody dream where he kills Siegfried (the fantasy name for Sabina and Jungs unborn son) on December 18, 1913, which is around the time of his breakup with Sabina and Freud, and his breakdown. Then Siegfried appeared high up on the crest of the mountain in the first ray of the rising sun. On a chariot made of the bones of the dead he drove at furious speed down the precipitous slope. When he turned a corner, we shot at him, and he plunged down, struck dead. Filled with disgust and remorse for having destroyed something so great and beautiful, I turned to flee, impelled by the fear that the murder might be discovered. But a tremendous downfall of rain began, and I knew that it would wipe out all traces of the dead. I had escaped the danger of discovery; life could go on, but an unbearable feeling of guilt remained. 3 Ibid., p. 212. See pp. 212-213 for a discussion of his time at the POW camp. 4 Coles, op. cit. "In 1936, shortly before his research at Harvard was published (in the Psychoanalytic Quarterly and thereafter in Henry Murray's book Explorations in Personality) Erikson left Cambridge for New Haven. He had been offered a position in the Yale University Institute of Human Relations... " He was made an instructor in the Yale Medical School, and in a short time an assistant professor. Again, as at Harvard, he was in a medical setting, but in close contact with sociologists and anthropologists as well as psychiatrists. Eriksons Indian Footnote: Erikson told Richard Evans: "In the middle thirties, I met an anthropologist, Scudder Mekeel (you probably never heard of him; he died very young), who was field representative of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. He suggested that I went with him to the Sioux Indians..." Evans, p. 60 "After visiting a Dakota reservation with (Scudder) Mekeel in the summer of 1937, Erik Erikson suggested that the traditional practice of cradle boarding, often used to immobilize an enraged infant, produced a reservoir of unchannelized energy displaced in adulthood in warfare against external enemies.
1 2

Henry A. Murray, American Icarus, in A. Burton and R.E. Harris (eds) Clinical Studies in Personality 2nd edition (New York: Harper & Row, 1955, pp. 615-641) reprinted in Schneidman, op. cit.,,p. 535-556. In American Icarus, Murray lists which tests were administered at Harvard to Grope, the hero of this story, was one of an aggregate of college students who volunteered to serve as subjects in a series of experiments and tests conducted at the Psychological Clinic, Department of Social Relations, Harvard University. The enterprise was financed by grants from the Rockefeller Foundation and from the Laboratory of Social Relations. p. 535 1st ftn. to American Icarus in Schneidman. Murray had a penchant for giving the students odd nicknames. Procedures: Autobiography and Interviews...interviewed 3 times (each for an hour) ...items in this document serving as starting point for special lines of interrogation 2. Questionnaires and Inventories. Grope filled out the following forms: a)Inventory of Overt Behaviors; b) Inventory of Abilities; c) Extraversion-Introversion Questionnaire (Gray after Jung); d) Four Functions Questionnaire (Gray after Jung); e) Ascendance-Submission Test (Allport); f) Study of Values (Allport and Vernon); g) Literary Knowledge and Interests (Wilson); h) Psychosomatic Inventory (McFarland). 3. Projective Procedures. The unhappily named projective tests administered to Grope included: a) MAPS (Schneidman); b) Four Pictures (van Lennep);c) Tri-Dimensional (Twitchell-Allen) d) Dramatic Productions (Erikson); e) Standard TAT (Murray) f) TAT No. 2 (Murray); g) Rorschach; h)Musical Reveries; I) Sentence Completion (modified); j) Sentence Construction; k) Similes; l) Draw-AFamily; m) Szondi; n) Mind-Reading; o) Psychodramatic. Schneidman, Endeavors in Psychology, op. cit.,p. 536. In 1938, Murray wrote in Explorations in Personality, Exploration of Covert and Unconscious Themas: Projection Tests: In an attempt to discover the covert (inhibited) and unconscious (partially repressed) tendencies of normal persons, a number of procedures were devised.. (p. 529) Ibid., p. 530: The procedures which have been used in our exploration of personality are the following: 1, Thematic Apperception Test (Morgan and Murray); Beta Ink Blot Test (Wheeler); 3, Similes Test (Wheeler); 4, Ministers Black Veil Test (Wheeler); 5. Musical Reverie Test (Kunze); 6, Rorschach Test(Beck),; and 7, Dramatic Productions Test (Homburger).

Childhood and Society 1950, p. 17-18. Erikson also writes in Childhood and Society: " Over the years I had the privilege of long talks with anthropologists, primarily Gregory Bateson, Ruth Benedict, Martin Loeb, Margaret Mead. Scudder

Mekeel Alfred Kroeber introduced me to 'the field' ..It would be impO.S.S.ible to itemize my over-all indebtedness to Margaret Mead. My comparative views on childhood developed through research to which I was first encouraged by Lawrence K. Frank in the completion of the manuscript I was counseled by Helen Meikeljohn, also by Gregory Bateson. I owe certain data reported in this book to my work on the following staffs: Veterans' Rehabilitation Clinic--Emanuel Windholz, M.D." (1950, p. 17-18) 7 Explorations, op. cit.,title page 1938. Murray dedicated the book to Morton Prince, Freud, Henderson, Whitehead, and Jung. Murray did thank Erikson first in a long line of people in Preparation for A Comprehensive System, ftn, p. 27 in Schneidman, op. cit., 8 Coles, op. cit.,p. 58. 9 Friedman, p. 164-165. Mead and Bateson recruited CNM activists and others for... the Council on Intercultural Relations (CIR), to apply anthropological and related methods to the international crisis in ways that would facilitate Allied military efforts. When war broke out in Europe in 1939, federal government agencies sought advice from many of Eriksons friends and colleagues on the cultures and personalities of the German and eventually of the Japanese adversaries... 10 Chase, op. cit., pp. 256-257. 11 Friedman, op. cit., p. 165. 12 Stevens, op. cit.; Cole, op. cit.;Friedman, op. cit. 13 Ray Cline, Secrets, Spies and Scholars, Blueprint of the Essential CIA, (Washington, D.C.: Acropolis, 1976), p. 41-42.

eyes brigade' in the Research and Analysis Division. But O.S.S. academics worried no one was really reading their writings or influenced by it. This is probably why most quit after the war! The academics were discouraged by this work. Who in O.S.S. went to Yale? Norman Pearson, Robin Winks, James Jesus Angleton, Pearson was Angleton's professor. Pearson, Angleton Winks all ended up in O.S.S.-London in Counterintelligence (X-2) where I met them. Sherman Kent, the historian who wrote the Report for the President from 1960 on, Jack Sawyer, Seymour & Seymour's daughter in North Africa all came from Yale. " 3b Princeton: David Bruce, Allen Dulles, John C. Hughes (Hughes reported on Allied bombings of Germany: The Strategic Bombing Survey) all recruited each other from Princeton. Harvard: Professor Leach of Harvard Law, historian Arthur Schlesinger was in London O.S.S: I met Schlesinger the same day I met Bill Casey at London O.S.S., not at Harvard. I was Harvard Law, Class of 1939. Oh, we had lots of academics back In O.S.S. In Algiers, Russell Doer, son of the oldest living U.S. veteran, his father was 102 years old. " McGeorge Bundy (1964) gives a penetrating analysis of the far ranging impact of O.S.S. on carving out new academic department at U.S. universities: "It is a curious fact of academic history that the first great center of area studies in the United States was not located in any university, but in Washington, during the Second World War, in the Office of Strategic Services. In very large measure the area study programs developed in American universities in the years after the war were manned, directed, or stimulated by graduates of the OSS--a remarkable institution, half cops --robbers half faculty meeting." 2 Robin Winks writes with flair on the intimacy between intelligence agencies the big 3 Ivy's--Harvard, Yale Princeton. 4 Referring to Sherman Kent, Number 2 man in O.S.S. Research Analysis (R & A), Winks writes: "Of the first fifteen people he met in O.S.S., five were from Yale, four from Harvard, two each from Columbia Williams, one from the University of Virginia one from 'one of the mid-west university. Yale appears to have contributed more members to intelligence work in 1943 than any other college or university in the nation. Harvard appears to have been a close second." 5 Ray Cline describes his own Harvard-O.S.S. connections, how he was chosen as a 1941 Junior Fellow in Harvard's Society of Fellows along with historian Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. McGeorge Bundy (later Harvard Provost). The Senior Fellows that year included former Harvard President Abbott Lawrence Lowell, philosopher Alfred North Whitehead, historian Crane Brinton.6

Hyde: "The great contribution of O.S.S. was to intertwine U.S. academics with military intelligence. No other intelligence agency ever did that before. The British and the French didn't recruit academics. That was the American contribution, Donovan's brainchild. He liked academics. He had the kind of mind that entertained any new idea. The relationship between CIA and academics can be originally traced back to Donovan, who tapped Bill Langer to recruit academics. Donovan valued utilized 'the bad

"When a Harvard professor with an amateur's passion for cryptoanalysis convinced me that the Navy needed me for cryptanalytic work, I left for Washington on leave of absence from (Harvard) university allowed myself to be signed up for OSS, which I had heard about from friends from Harvard who turned up at Washington parties talking about a new organization that wanted people for research writing. In June 1943 I reported to 2430 E Street By mid-1943 OSS was sufficiently shaken down so that I went directly into a spot in the agency where I felt useful where I was able to observe a lot of OSS activity from a central vantage point. It was an incredibly lucky assignment for me, due to no foreknowledge or foresight on my part. Without doubt the Harvard connection was the entering wedge. Donald McKay, French history professor at Harvard, interviewed me on the recommendation of mutual Harvard friends. he was a member of the Board of Analysts whom Bill Langer, by then Chief of Research Analysis (R & A), relied on for quality control. McKay sent me to S. Everett Gleason, an Amherst professor with Harvard training, an extremely able man with a flair for bureaucratic management, who was then head of the Office of Current Intelligence in the R & A Branch. With him at the time were two staff members of my vintage from Cambridge, Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. Carl Schorske, who had been a graduate student of Langer's."7 Although Bradley F. Smith, (The Shadow Warriors,, p. 372-3) argued that "As early as the fall of 1942 (beginning apparently with Stanford and the University of California at Berkeley) a number of R. and A. research projects were subcontracted directly to university departments and individual civilian scholars....Cal Tech not only did research for the military but actually manufactured rockets for the army."


Coles, p. 43-44. Then Coles looks at Erikson's work on Hitler p. 85-98

Ibid., 43-44. Coles went on to say about Eriksons warwork: When the war's casualties began to return home he worked with them ("Plans for the Veterans with Symptoms of Instability"); 16 Coles, p. 99. He went aboard a submarine and experienced one of its dives. In what other way could he get to know how German crews and American crews lived -- and risked death? 17 Friedman, op. cit., pp. 168-170. 18 Cline, op. cit., pp. 46-47. According to Kline, Robert Sherwood & OWI refused to taint the reputation of the free press with propaganda. Sherwood reckoned that people of the world would respect American democracy more if it were a truthful source of news like the BBC; rather than a lie, like Goebbels propaganda. Sherwood turned out to be right on this point, historically. OWI later became Voice of America after the war. 19 Neil Lewis, Red CrO.S.S. Finds Detainee Abuse in Guantanamo; U.S. Rejects Accusation; Confidential Report Calls Practice Tantamount to Torture, New York Times, November 30, 2004, p. A-1 & A-19; New York Times Editorial,Abu Ghraid, Caribbean Style, December 1, 2004, p. A-30;Neil Lewis and David Johnston, New FBI Files Describe Abuse of Iraq Inmates, New York Times, December 21 , 2004. 20 Friedman, op. cit.,p. 165. She (Margaret Mead) coached him(Erikson) on how to secure adequate financial compensation from federal agencies for his efforts. 21 Ibid.,p. 165. With many of Eriksons friends and associates like Margaret Mead, Ruth Benedict and Gregory Bateson actively involved in these investigations, his participation was inevitable. 22 Chase, op. cit.,p. 257-259. 23 Ibid., p. 257. 24 Friedman, op. cit., pp. 164-165 25 Claire Douglas, p. 233. Twenty researchers administered over 40 hours of tests to each eleven subjects over a period of two months...the responses being substantially influenced by the students confrontation with Americas entrance into W.W. II. 26 Henry A. Murray & O.S.S. Assessment Staff, Assessment of Men Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services (New York: Rinehart & Co., 1948), p. 133-142. 27 Gordon Allport (1897-1967) completed his dissertation at Harvard in 1922 and published his major book, Personality: A Psychological Interpretation (1937) when he was 40 years old. Richard Evans interviewed Gordon Allport who listed his influences: William Stern, who invented the I.Q. concept...I studied with him for a semester in Hamburg...One of my German teachers, Eduard Spranger, was the source for the study of values test that I devised in the American vein....These are perhaps my mot influential teachers, but I have found a great deal of congeniality among my colleagues such as Rogers, Gardner Murphy, Kurt Lewin, and Professor Henry Murray...first cousins of my thinking (Richard Evans, Gordon Allport,


The Man and His Ideas (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1971, bookand video, p. 23 )....When I was a student...William Stern, who held that it is just merely a matter of measuring degrees of intelligence. Stern invented the I.Q. concept, which was a rating of degrees of intelligence or degrees of dominance, anxiety, and what not. 28 See Gordon Allport and W.H.D. Vernon, The Measurement of Expressive Movements in Murray in Schneidman, op. cit., p. 120. 29 Claire Douglas, op. cit., p. 233. See also Joseph Persico in Piercing the Reich, who describes Henry Murray as Donovan's O.S.S. "chief of psychology." "General Donovan was well aware of the unnatural moral environment that espionage operations produced he sought out social scientists for guidance. His chief of psychology, Dr. Henry Murray, warned of the pitfalls. 'The whole nature of the functions of O.S.S. was particularly inviting to psychopathic characters; it involved sensation, intrigue, the idea of being a mysterious man with secret knowledge." (Persico, p. 38)

Murray took these people from his Harvard Psychological Clinic staff to O.S.S. S School: his secretary Marjorie Ingalls...Moses Stein, Nevitt Sanford, Elliot Jacques and Don MacKinnon. Douglas, op. cit.,,p. 233. See also Schneidman,op. cit., pp. 567-580, Assessment in China where Murray writes that Station S was the (center in Fairfax, VA., where O.S.S. personnel were selected and trained) p. 567. 31 Perseus, 1995, p. 214 -Courtesy of Nina Murray. 32 Assessment of Men, op. cit.,p. 3.
30 33

Cavin interviewed two O.S.S. agents who passed through Murrays Farm:

Henry B. Hyde and Elizabeth MacIntosh.Henry B. Hyde interviewed at his apartment in New York City, March 1997. Fifty years later, on his deathbed, Henry Hyde still remembered holding tight to his cover story in Murrays Stress Interview at The Farm. In her book, Undercover Girl,

MacIntosh labeled Dr. Henry A. Murray the "Dean of O.S.S. Assessment School." She liked Murray and jokingly remembered his tests: "Assessment (or S) School was a sort of mental clinic... in which a group of nationally famous psychologists and psychiatrists screened all candidates for overseas assignments in 'live' situations and examinations such as the British War Office Selection Board used at country estate parties to select officer candidates. 'What they try to do out there, is to explore your personality: What will you do under major pressure? ... What situations frighten you? Assessment School was conducted at a 118-acre estate near Fairfax, Virginia, which belonged to the Willard Hotel family in Washington. The S School staff greeted us informally--there were six students in our group... The dean of the school was Dr. Henry A. Murray of the Harvard Psychological Laboratory. On his staff were Dr. Richard S. Lyman, famous neuropsychiatrist from Duke University... Dr. James A. Hamilton and Dr. Robert C. Tryon, cofounders of the S School project which had been originally planned to remedy complaints about mental crack-ups in the field... Mass individual tests began promptly after breakfast the next morning, when our faculty began its elusive task of charting our personality attributes--our emotional stability, social relations, integrity, initiative, leadership, in a series of some thirty-two examinations. On the lawn in front of the main building was scattered a set of five-foot seven-foot poles, wooden blocks with sockets into which poles were fitted, pegs to hold the poles blocks together. With those I was said to build a five-foot cube with seven-foot diagonals on all sides. I was given two 'helpers,' Kippy and Buster, who I later learned were junior psychiatrists especially trained to obstruct. Kippy's role was to do nothing until he received a specific order; Buster's was to heckle and make clumsy mistakes.

Assessment of Men, op. cit.,pp. 133-138. See also Interrogation Test (Escaped Prisoner) and Post Stress Interview, p. 138-142. 35 Ibid.,p. 137-138. 36 Henry A. Murray & S School Staff, Assessment of Men, Selections of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services (New York: Rinehart & Co., 1948), pp. 189-196. 37 Ibid.,p. 138. 38 Trait Theory and the Psychology of Uniqueness, pp. 168-169. See H.L. Ansbacher, German military psychology, Psychological Bulletin, 38, 370-379. See also James H. Capshew, M. Ash, W.R. Woodward (Eds) Psychologists on the

March: Science, Practice and Professional Identity in America, 1929-1969 (Cambridge Studies in the History of Psychology) Cambridge University Press, 1999). See also Thomas M. Canfield, Psychologists at War: The History of American Psychology and the First World War (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas, 1969); see also...Psychology and the Military in W.W.I Journal of American History, 1968, 55: 565-581. According to Silvan S. Tomkins S Exploring Affect: The Selected Writing of Studies in Emotion.. Cambridge University Press, 1995, p. 3-4-305: Murrays research on personality assessment was continued by Donald MacKinnon (1975) at Berkeley, and there was an ...explosion of clinical training programs at the end of World War II. Personality assessment in the Freudian mode, employing a battery of the Rorschach, the TAT, and the Wechsler Intelligence Test under the creative leadership of David Rappaport (1945), supported the tradition pioneered by Murray. At Michigan, Lowell Kelly imported the Harvard methodology in his study of V.A. clinical triages. (1951). 39 Cline., op. cit.,,p. 78.