lobalization (or globalisation—see spelling differences) is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products

, ideas, and other aspects of culture.[1][2] Put in simple terms, globalization refers to processes that increase world-wide exchanges of national and cultural resources. Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the telegraph and its posterity the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.[3] Though several scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European age of discovery and voyages to the New World. Some even trace the origins to the third millennium BCE.[4][5] In the late 19th century and early 20th century the connectedness of the world's economies and cultures grew very quickly. This slowed down from the 1910s onward due to the World Wars and the Cold War [6] but has picked up again since neoliberal policies began in the 1980s and especially since the Post Cold War era started in the early 1990s.[7] The term globalization has been in increasing use since the mid-1980s and especially since the mid-1990s.[8] In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge.[9] Further, environmental challenges such as climate change, cross-boundary water and air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization.[10] Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment. Humans have interacted over long distances for thousands of years. The overland Silk Road that connected Asia, Africa, and Europe is a good example of the transformative power of translocal exchange that existed in the "Old World". Philosophy, religion, language, the arts, and other aspects of culture spread and mixed as nations exchanged products and ideas. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Europeans made important discoveries in their exploration of the oceans, including the start of transatlantic travel to the "New World" of the Americas. Global movement of people, goods, and ideas expanded significantly in the following centuries. Early in the 19th century, the development of new forms of transportation (such as the steamship and railroads) and telecommunications that "compressed" time and space allowed for increasingly rapid rates of global interchange.[11] In the 20th century, road vehicles, intermodal transport, and airlines made transportation even faster. The advent of electronic communications, most notably mobile phones and the Internet, connected billions of people in new ways by the 2010s.

Eastern Telegraph Company 1901 chart of undersea telegraph cabling. both terms began to be used as synonyms by economists and other social scientists. which refers to the emergence of an international network of social and economic systems. Airline personnel from the "Jet set" age. By the 1960s. corporate giants.[12] One of the earliest known usages of the term as a noun was in a 1930 publication entitled. Etymology and usage The term globalization is derived from the word globalize. circa 1960. It then reached the mainstream press in the later half of the 1980s. the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and .[13] A related term. was coined by Charles Taze Russell in 1897[14] to refer to the largely national trusts and other large enterprises of the time. An example of modern globalizing technology in the beginning of the 20th century. Since its inception. where it denoted a holistic view of human experience in education. Towards New Education.

It pertains to the increasing ease with which somebody on one side of the world can interact. intensity. at the other end lie social and economic relations and networks which crystallize on the wider scale of regional and global interactions.. with somebody on the other side of the world.. national and regional. Globalization can be taken to refer to those spatialtemporal processes of change which underpin a transformation in the organization of human affairs by linking together and expanding human activity across regions and continents. Without reference to such expansive spatial connections. study the definition of globalization: Although in its simplistic sense globalization refers to the widening. research projects..[15] Due to the complexity of the concept. Anthony Giddens uses the following definition: Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa.. there can be no clear or coherent formulation of this term. . things moving closer.. articles. et al. states that globalization: is the process of world shrinkage.. deepening and speeding up of global interconnection.[16] Sociologists Martin Albrow and Elizabeth King define globalization as: . and political forces had permanently changed the world. of distances getting shorter. such a definition begs further elaboration. an early writer in the field.. in his book The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalization..all those processes by which the peoples of the world are incorporated into a single world society. At one end of the continuum lie social and economic relations and networks which are organized on a local and/or national basis. with antecedents dating back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onwards.[19] The journalist Thomas L. and discussions often remain focused on a single aspect of globalization..[1] Roland Robertson. Friedman popularized the term "flat world". Globalization can be located on a continuum with the local. for .[2] In The Consequences of Modernity.interpretations. . professor of sociology at University of Aberdeen.[17] In Global Transformations David Held.[18] Swedish journalist Thomas Larsson. supply-chaining. to mutual benefit. velocity and impact. A satisfactory definition of globalization must capture each of these elements: extensity (stretching). outsourcing.the compression of the world and the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole. arguing that globalized trade. defined globalization as: .

beliefs. The ideological dimension. the newly industrialized economies (NIEs) of Asia prospered. The migration and movement of people can also be highlighted as a prominent feature of the globalization process. . Other of his usages included "ideological globalization".[22] Manfred Steger. developing countries increased their share of world trade. political. However. cultural. Private capital flows to developing countries soared during the 1990s. Manufactured goods exports soared. "Cultural globalization". "technological globalization" and "social globalization". while African countries as a whole performed poorly. from 19 percent in 1971 to 29 percent in 1999. ecological. and narratives about the phenomenon itself.[21] In 2000. the proportion of the labor forces migrating approximately doubled.[20] Economist Takis Fotopoulos defined "economic globalization" as the opening and deregulation of commodity. capital and investment movements can be highlighted as another basic aspect of globalization. For instance. capital and investment movements. replacing "aid" or "development assistance" which fell significantly after the early 1980s. falling sharply in the wake of the financial crisis of the late 1990s. identifies five dimensions of globalization: economic. He asserted that the pace of globalization was quickening and that its impact on business organization and practice would continue to grow. Most migration occurred between developing countries and Least Developed Countries (LDCs). such as food and raw materials were often produced by developing countries: commodities' share of total exports declined over the period. migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge. In the period between 1965–90. is filled with a range of norms. claims.[9] With regards to trade and transactions. according to Steger. and ideological. Both portfolio investment and bank credit rose but they have been more volatile. Commodity exports. dominated by developed countries and NIEs. capital and labor markets that led toward present neoliberal globalization. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) became the most important category. professor of Global Studies and research leader in the Global Cities Institute at RMIT University. the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions. He used "political globalization" to refer to the emergence of a transnational elite and a phasing out of the nation-state. Following from this. there is great variation among the major regions.better and worse. The makeup of a country's exports is an important indicator for success. he used to reference the worldwide homogenization of culture.

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