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Presentation to WWCC Faculty and Staff March 14, 2011 Presenter: Kelly Thelen MS Ed.

What Is Motivation?

Andragogy and Learning


Adults learn differently depending on experience,

aptitude, and attitude. These include their individual characteristics, the perceived value of the learning task, and how much experience the learner has had with the topic in the past.

Five Assumptions of Andragogy According to Knowles


1. Self-concept: adult learners are directing their own

learning plan. 2. Experience: adults learners bring a reservoir of experience and knowledge to the table. Tabla rasa or blank slate does not apply to the adult learner. 3. Readiness to learn: adults are focused and ready in a highly pragmatic way. 4. Orientation to learning: problem-centered vs. subject centered. 5. Motivation: adult learners are learning for a reason.

Motivation
Process of instigating and sustaining goal-directed

behavior. Motivation plays an important role in learning. Rather than quit when they encounter difficult material, motivated students expend greater effort.

Motivation and Drives


Motivation can be driven by either primary or

secondary drives. Primary Drives: motive is based on innate, biological and survival needs; i.e. air, food, and water Secondary Drives: motive based on learned needs that have been acquired through the steps of the learning process

Motivation Cycle

Model of Motivated Learning


Cognitive model that views motivation arising from

thoughts and beliefs. Model encompasses three phases: pretask, during task, and posttask. Pretask: goals, values, affects, needs, and social support. During Task: instructional variables, contextual variables, and personal variables. Posttask: attributions, goals, values, and needs.

Theories of Motivation

Drive Theory Conditioning Theory Cognitive Consistency Theory Need Based: Maslow (Hierarchy of Needs) McClelland: Acquired Needs Theory Reward Based: Herzberg Hygiene/Motivation Environmental Based: ARCS, Behavioral Theory Perception Based: Bandura-Self-efficacy, Attribution Theory Alderfers ERG Theory

Drive Theory
Woodworth (1918) defined drives as internal forces

that sought to maintain homeostatic body balance. Drive was the motivational force that energized and prompted people into action. Behavior that obtained reinforcement to satisfy a need resulted in drive reduction. Need---Drive---Behavior Learning represented ones adaptation to the environment to ensure survival.

Conditioning Theory
Explains motivation in terms of responses that are

elicited by stimuli. In classical conditioning, the motivational properties of an unconditioned stimulus are transmitted to the conditioned stimulus through repeated pairings. In operant conditioning, motivated behavior is an increased rate of responding or a greater chance that a response will occur in the presence of a stimulus.

Cognitive Consistency Theory


Assumes that motivation results from interactions of

cognitions and behaviors. Balance theory: Heider (1946) proposed that a tendency exists to cognitively balance relations among people, situations, and events. Balance theory predicts when people will attempt to restore balance, but not how they will accomplish it.

Cognitive Dissonance
Festinger (1957) postulated a theory that individuals

attempt to maintain consistent relations among their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Dissonant cognitions exist when one follows from the opposite of the other. Dissonance can be reduced by: qualifying cognitions, downgrading the importance of the cognitions, and altering behaviors.

Humanistic Theory
Emphasizes cognitive and affective processes.
Humanistic Theory assumes that the study of persons

is holistic. Humanists emphasize individuals selfawareness. Human choices, creativity, and self-actualization are important areas to study. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

Hierarchy of Needs

Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow believed that human actions are unified by

being directed toward goal attainment. Most human action represents a strive to satisfy needs. Needs are hierarchial. Lower-order needs have to be satisfied before higher-order needs can influence behavior. At the highest level is the need for self-actualization, or the desire for self-fulfillment.

Humanistic Motivation leads to Self-Actualization


Pinnacle of human achievement
Realistically perceptive Autonomous in actions and thoughts

Self-acceptance
Problem-centered Sympathetic to others Future success

Educational Experiences
Growth: They will be comfortable (physiological) They will be safe (security) They will belong to a group (acceptance) They will be known (esteem) Deficiency: They will desire to learn (cognitive) Gain appreciation for world around them (aesthetic) Gain a sense of who they are (self-actualization)

Achievement Motivation
Expectancy-Value Theory: Atkinson (1957) believed

that behavior depends on how much individuals value a particular outcome and their expectancy of attaining that outcome as a result of performing given behaviors. Atkinson postulated that achievement behaviors represent a conflict between approach and avoidance tendencies.

Acquired Needs Theory


McClelland proposed that an individuals specific

needs are acquired over time and are shaped by ones life experiences. These needs are classified as achievement, affiliation, or power. Achievement: Those with a high need for achievement seek to excel and avoid both low risk and high risk situations. Affiliation: Those with a high need for affiliation seek harmonious relationships with others and need to feel accepted.

Acquired Needs Theory


Power: Those with a high need for power can be

classified as one of two types: personal and institutional.

Reward-Based Theory
Herzbergs two-factor theory
Motivators: provide positive satisfaction Hygiene factors: if present will not motivate; if absent

will result in demotivation

ARCs Behavioral Theory


Keller developed a theory to explain motivation.
A=Attention R=Relevance

C=Confidence
S=Satisfaction Attention Factor: Perceptual arousal Inquiry arousal Variability

ARCs Behavioral Theory


Relevance Factor: Familiarity Goal Orientation Motive Profiles Confidence Factor: Learning Requirements Success Opportunities Personal Control

ARCs Behavioral Theory


Satisfaction Factor:
Natural Consequences Positive Consequences

Equity

Self-Worth Theory
This theory assumes that success is valued and failure

should be avoided because it implies low ability. One means of avoiding failure is to pursue easy goals that guarantee success. Expending effort carries risk. High effort that produces success maintains the perception of ability, but high effort that results in failure implies low ability.

Expectancy-Value Model

Achievement-Motivation Training
Aims to help students develop thoughts and behaviors

typical of learners high in achievement motivation. The goal is to help students develop personal responsibility for their learning outcomes.

Social Cognitive Theory


Goals and expectations are important learning

mechanisms. According to Bandura (1986) motivation is goaldirected behavior that is sustained by peoples expectations concerning the outcomes of their actions and their self-efficacy for performing those actions.

Goal Theory
A central construct in goal theory is goal orientation,

which refers to the purpose and focus of an individuals engagement in achievement activities. A feature of goal theory is its emphasis on how different types of goals can influence behavior in achievement situations. A learning goal refers to what knowledge, behavior, or strategy students are to acquire; A performance goal denotes what tasks students are to complete.

Goal Theory

ERG Theory: Alderfer


Theory consists of 3 groups of core needs: Existence,

Relatedness, and Growth Existence: providing basic material requirements Relatedness: desire to maintain interpersonal relationships Growth: intrinsic desire for personal development

Conceptions of Ability
Dweck proposed two theories of intelligence: entity

and incremental. People who hold an entity theory believe that intelligence is relatively fixed, stable, and unchanging over time and with conditions. Difficulties are viewed as obstacles and lead students to ineffective strategies. People who hold an incremental theory equate intelligence with learning. Intelligence can change and increase with experience and effort. Difficulties are viewed as challenges that can lead to effective strategies.

Learned Helplessness
Phenomenon that highlights perceptions of control.

Involves a disturbance in motivation, cognitive processes, and emotions because of previously experienced uncontrollability. Compared with normal learners, students with learning problems hold lower expectations for success, judge themselves lower in ability, and emphasize lack of ability as a cause of failure. Female students are more helpless oriented than male students.

What is the Success Process?


Goal Identification
Strengthening the commitment to the goal Change Behaviors

Change Attitudes

Values
A central component of motivation that relates to self-

regulation is the value students ascribe to learning. Students who do not value what they are learning are not motivated to improve or exercise self-regulation over their activities.

Behaviors for Success


Time and energy should be devoted to staying on task.
Group study/Collaborative learning Effective use of instructors

Adequate preparation for lectures


Utilizing resources (tutoring, counseling, etc.)

Changing Attitudes
Negative Attitudes that Inhibit Success:
Unrealistic expectations Low self-confidence

Lack of self-worth
External locus-of-control Resistance to change Reluctance to collaborate with other students

Internal Factors
Needs
Wants Interests

Self-efficacy
Actual abilities Mental models Knowledge Genetics

External Factors
Relationships
Finances Access to resources

Rewards
Consequences Social Status

Motivational Processes
Step 1: Listen and empathize
Step 2: Check conflict levels Step 3: Introduce safety into the system

Step 4: Increase awareness


Step 5: Encourage choices

Motivation and Enthusiasm


Foster the expectation of success in learning.
Lead by exampleBe Enthusiastic! Minimize unpreparedness for class.

Motivation and Commitment to Student Learning


Set high expectations.
Provide immediate and concrete responses to

questions and concerns. Keep track of student progress.

Motivation and Teacher/Learner Relationships


Accept your students as they are.
Listen to your students. Show interest in their lives.

Make teaching materials relevant to their lives and

experiences. Bring humor to the classroom.

Instructors
Four cornerstones of motivating instructors:
1. Expertise: Competence, Content, Experience 2. Empathy: Meet student needs

3. Enthusiasm: Show excitement about both the

subject and the students. 4. Clarity: Power of language, Power of organization, Thinking on your feet. This is critical to developing connections with adult learners!

Tips For Motivating Students


Pay attention to the strengths and limitations of each

student. Vary your instructional strategies. Review the learning objectives with your students. Be sure they know what they are expected to learn. Make your classes relevant. Give LOTS of examples. Make sure assessments are current, valid, and reliable. Involve students in the teaching process.

References
Ames, R. Motivation and Effective Teaching.

Educational Values and Cognitive Instruction. Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1991. Collins, N. Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning. Journal of Higher Education. Vol 80, 4, 2009. Sass, E.J. Motivation in the College Classroom: What Students Tell Us. Teaching and Psychology. 16, 2, 1999.