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for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings

A Development of Network Topology of Wireless Packet Communications for Disaster Situation with Genetic Algorithms or with Dijkstra's

Isao Nakajima, Tokai University School of Medicine; Hiroshi Juzoji, Tokai University Shcool of Medicine; and Toshihiko Kitano, Tokai University

discusses the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) and Dijkstra's algorithm to optimize load network topologies in distributed packet communication systems. These algorithm is fully distributed in which information is dynamically updated at each movement of packet terminal almost realtime. Multiple distributed paradigms are adopted so that each terminal transmits information on the network topology throughout the wireless and satellite network. A GA model is effective when a network is configured with a sufficiently large number (n) of units. However, in marine applications or for use at a disaster site, the number (n) of units may be low, such as 7 or 8. In such cases, Dijkstra’s algorithm is more efficient than GA. Based on field experiments, we will seek to manage network topologies by transmitting the adjacency matrix determinant bilaterally.

Index Terms— electromagnetic propagation, telecommunication network tolopogy Abstract—This paper

applied to different optimization problems with relatively few modifications to make them suitable for a specific problem. Devendra Kumar has reported on simulations of network topology, especially low distributed network analyzed with Dijkstra[1]. The idea for the metaheuristic approach was first reported by Dorigo in 1996 based on an analysis of ant colony optimization [2]. Two years thereafter, we applied a metaheuristic approach to packet communications involving wireless devices and telecommunications satellites [3]. The use of metaheuristic approximations based on genetic algorithms has been reported in a wide range of telecommunications fields [4-15]. . B. Problems with this approach Metaheuristics are generally applied to problems for which no satisfactory problem-specific algorithm or heuristic exists, or when implementing such methods would be impractical. The most commonly used metaheuristics target combinatorial optimization problems, but can, of course, handle any problems that can be recast into that form, such as solving Boolean equations. While many scientists are enthusiastic advocates of metaheuristics, many others are highly critical of the concept and have little regard for much of the research based on this approach. Critics point out, among other issues, that the general goal of the typical metaheuristic—the efficient optimization of an arbitrary black-box function—cannot be solved efficiently, since for any metaheuristic M one can easily build a function f that will force M to enumerate the entire search space. Indeed, the “no free lunch theorem” says that over the set of all mathematically possible problems, each optimization algorithm will, on average, do as well as any other. At best, a specific metaheuristic can be efficient only for restricted classes of goal functions (usually those that are partially "smooth"). However, these restrictions tend to exclude most applications of interest or make the problem amenable to specific solution methods that are much more efficient than the metaheuristic. II. TECHNICAL DEVEOPMENTS A. Using a Genetic Algorithm to Solve the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) A genetic algorithm can be used to find a solution in much less time. Although it might not find the best solution, it can find a near-optimal solution for a 30-city tour in less than a minute. Solving the traveling salesman problem using a GA entails a couple of basic steps.

I. INTRODUCTION HE well-known ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm has Tproven successful as a metaheuristic approach to optimization for several network applications, including routing and load balancing. This paper presents some proposals related to the application of genetic algorithms and Dijkstra's algorithm for load network topologies in distributed packet communication systems. These algorithm is fully distributed in which information is dynamically updated at each movement of packet terminal almost realtime. A multiple distributed paradigm (Network topology: NET_ROM) will be adopted such that each terminal transmits the network topology throughout the wireless and satellite network. A. Metaheuristics Simulations of animal and insect behavior suggest a set of concepts that can be used to define heuristic methods for application to a wide range of problems. Metaheuristics can be regarded as a general algorithmic framework that can be

I. Nakajima is with Tokai University, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa, 259-1143, Japan (email: jh1rnz@aol.com) H. Juzoji with Tokai University, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa, 259-1143, Japan (email::uzoji@yahoo.co.jp) .T. Kitana is Tokai University, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa, 259-1143, Japan (email: toshihiko-kitano@nifty.com)

978-1-61284-231-8/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE

0. We can implement this by the following C++ code: /* depth first search of Dijkstra method */ #include <stdio.0. given the knowledge of Si. { 0.0.0}.0}.1.0. we prototyped a ROM-based packet communications board having essential arguments as programmable variables. Each packet terminal can change the signal strength transmitted by the other by sending the appropriate control signals.0.0. Implementation of Dijkstra’s To grasp the topology of a given network. or (3) the Loo function approximation between (1) and (2).0. the topological matrix can be used to create a Dijkstra table”. ROM prototyping We validated our communications algorithm via computer modeling and calculated throughput for several network configurations using a communications simulator. { 0.0.0. In other words. The new child tours are inserted into the population to replace two of the longer tours. providing either: (1) the Rice probability density function.0.h> #define N 7 int a[N+1][N+1]={ { 0. B. It does so by refining an approximation of the best shortest-path policy for all vertices with each iteration. int v[N+1]. The algorithm uses a "greedy" initial population that gives preference to linking cities that are close to each other.0.0.0.0. Based on this protocol. Let w(v. “can be used as a Dijkstra table.2. vertex to move to next).0.1. child tours are allowed to mutate.1. What is the Dijkstra’s algorithm Dijkstra's algorithm is one of the most widely used methods for finding single-source shortest paths in a simple digraph. create a group of many random tours in what is called a population.0}.0. The size of the population remains the same.0.This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings First.1. void Ikerutokoro(int).0.. where i=0 initially and S0={S}.0. 30 cities visiting with GA Technique for determining the minimal path We calculate the distance of the shortest path based on (1) GPS navigation data and (2) the signal strength of the radio wave received.0}}. the shortest path between each pair of nodes can be determined by the algorithm. terminals must obtain data such as signal intensity from the physical layer and GPS data from the application layer. until the full solution is realized. New child tours are repeatedly created and used to replace longer tours until the desired goal is reached.0. Dijkstra's algorithm is also an instance of dynamic programming.0. 2 Results of the total distance of 30 cities with GA A small percentage of the time. We apply this algorithm to determine the shortest path between packet terminals.0.1.2.1.e. (2) the Rayleigh probability density function. then the shortest overall path calculated. { 0. { 0. { 0. identified. each terminal can create a dynamic digraph that reflects the network topology.0}.0.1. This is done to prevent all tours in the population from looking identical. then seek to identify the overall network topology by exchanging data such as information on administrative traffic (equivalent to lazy ants).1.1. However.0.0. The algorithm is efficient in practice because each iteration relies on previously determined information. Let Si equal the value of S in the ith iteration of the algorithm. { 0. As the name implies. applying the survival of the fittest principle. The algorithm then finds the best path to the goal node from the data source node.0.0.3. since the relationship between the environment and wireless terminals were represented only by the Markov propagation model in computer simulations.Si)denote the weight of the shortest path from s to v. which .0. the simulated situations differed significantly from actual conditions. After determining whether this approach was effective in the simulation. Then The purpose of Dijkstra's algorithm is to determine the best policy for transforming the state of the problem (i.0.0.2.5 0.1.0. if they exist. In other words. Dijkstra's algorithm determines the shortest paths from a common vertex to all other vertices in a digraph. For example. genetic algorithms mimic nature and evolution.1}. Fig.0}.1}. { 0. Fig.0.0.

Flow control Two types (see A and B below) of flow control are used to achieve maximum throughput. vi: speed of the buoy(node) of the order n. Dijkstra’s algorithm is more efficient. and Fig. Kennedy in 1995 in the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) that was a population based stochastic optimization technique developed by inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. This paper focuses on the former and discusses how optimal routing can be achieved in a network configured with distributed terminals. The evaluation function is time code at the reaching the solution of the optimal-path(Fig. performs multi-stage relays of data from the data source. This type of autonomous distributed control processing is called ant colony optimization (ACO).062 were rescued by organizations other than the Japan Coast Guard. and 170 are presumed to be dead or missing. Japan . packet flow. the network topology changes dynamically over time. C. The network can be managed by transmitting the adjacency matrix determinant bilaterally. End-to-end flow control This checks large volumes of data entering terminals. or 8. However.089 found safety on their own. In a wireless network. The flow control issue will be discussed on another occasion. If so.3). random number value which comes off from 0 to 1. but each path can be assigned a weight. B. This makes packet communication control boards capable of performing autonomous distributed control of paths extremely important.r2: random number value which comes off from 0 to 1. a system of 0 or 1 is not used in the adjacency matrix determinant. Packet Communications The two crucial control issues in managing a packet communications network are routing and flow control. I intend to simulate the speed and the direction of the buoy(Fig. 7. we will verify the effectiveness of the algorithm for network administration in wireless packet communications. c2 : the learning coefficient which takes the value from 0 to 2. CONSIDERATIONS A. In marine applications or for use at a disaster site. The arithmetic expression with the speed of the buoy is as follows. In case of small number of nodes. Dijkstra’s has a potential solutions fly through the problem space by optimum particles. Network flow control This controls the flows of packets entering the network to prevent network congestion. Dijkstra’s has no evolution operators such as crossover and mutation. Fig. we plan to release a number of rescue buoys equipped with hardware incorporating the algorithm developed during the course of this research and capable of transmitting physiological data on a victim. It was compared by the CPU task in GA or in Dijkstra’s with a simulation at the best route to the buoy of n which moves at their speed. Of the 7. gBouy:a value with the best computation number of times is called. The number of victims saved by COSPAS-SARSAT was a mere 119 (14 cases). as shown in the diagram.This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings III. and calculates data traffic and buffers up to the destination in advance.450 were assisted by the Japan Coast Guard. c1. Effect of the optimization in small number Unlike GA. Both types control packet size. since the operations required to compute all combinations (all possible combinations: 0. With Dijkstra’s algorithm.5(n-1)!) is small. 2. Control for networks with a small number (N) of units The model described thus far is valid when a network is configured with a sufficiently large number (n) of units. Various related techniques have been developed and reported. r1.4. timely. this system has lots of problem in the function of the FFB(free floating buoy) on sea surface.771 individuals on board ships requiring rescue in waters near Japan in 1997. 6) using the random number. and reliable distress alert and location data to help search and rescue authorities assist persons in distress. 1. and the flow of packets entering terminals. Applications COSPAS SARSAT The International COSPAS-SARSAT system provides accurate. This problem was pointed out by Dr. Eberhart and Dr. Here. Using the WINDS satellite. Routing We examined network topology diagrams to relay data by the shortest route. then performs packet control to minimize delays. the number (n) of units can be as few as 6. 4. 3 one of optimal results with time code comparison with GA and Dijkstra’s D.

selecting the most reliable communications routes. concentrating in limited areas and rendering existing public networks useless. influenced by environmental factors such as tides. and wind. To resolve such problems. 2: The lifejacket of the victims can transmit physiological data with packet communications. CONCLUSIONS Fig. Fig. individual terminals must be able to grasp network topologies and provide autonomous distributed-processing capabilities to transmit messages of the minimum size. We believe a new system needs to be developed. We performed an experiment using free-floating buoys (FFBs) (Fig. Proposed system and field tests Given several arguments that computers were unable to simulate. it is often difficult to grasp the actual conditions at a problem site. However. when the number (n) of . We plan to investigate whether individual terminals can grasp such changes in network topology on their own and whether it is possible to link a deadwood FFB to a satellite on behalf of other FFBs to conserve battery power. waves. 4 Prototype FFB A GA model is effective when a network is configured with a sufficiently large number (n) of units.4).) using singular FFB in the Sea of Japan. In addition to functional damage. and this research is intended to contribute to the creation of such a rescue system. traffic volume is likely to increase at a catastrophic rate. 5 Surface propagation data of FFB with Rayleigh fading Fig. in marine applications or for use at a disaster site. the communications infrastructure may be physically destroyed by the disaster and phone switches rendered unreliable by excessive traffic.This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings introduced the COSPAS-SARSAT system based on suggestions by the IMO. In a preliminary experiment with this goal. IV. 3: A FFB (free-floating buoy) can transmit physiological data on the victim (white circle in Fig.5. we obtained surface propagation data (Fig. However. assuming an accident at sea in which individual terminals would be required to grasp the network topology corresponding to the circumstances. we checked the operation of the prototype in field tests include electric field strength near sea surface(Fig. 4: A FFB can transmit data to neighboring buoys. Why we focus on communications during disasters In the event of large-scale natural disasters in urban areas such as earthquakes.5). The experiment was carried out under the following assumptions: 1: Two or more buoys are automatically released in the case of a shipwreck. since satellite communications consume significant electrical power. Field test (using eight FFBs ) From remote control centers. deploying LUTs (Local User Terminals) to receive rescue signals around the clock. Such networks will significantly improve the quality of first aid. it has thus far not played a significant role in saving lives. 6 Topology change at sea The topologies of such networks change with time at sea.6) to a satellite.

Proceeding of the 3rd International Symposium on Multi-Dimensional Mobile Communications. M:Mobile agents for adaptive routing.This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2011 proceedings units may be low as 7 or 8. Maes.2008. Nakajima I. 17(2009).. 12(1994).4447-4461. 40(1992).. et.1998. et.pp.S.pp.: Wireless networks based on information exchange between ants. editors. Santamaria.112-117. [15] Schoonderwoerd. Nakajima I.: Apply Biologically-Inspired Topology to Disaster Communications. Dorigo M. Steward S. Parallel and Distributed Systems. Hou. pp. Dijkstra’s algorithm is more efficient than GA.:A Multi-Agent System for Dynamic Network Routing. Juzoji H. Software Agents for Future Communication Systems Springer. IEEE Trans Vehicular Technology. Rango.H. N.pp.: Mobile software agents for control in telecommunications networks. A. IEEE Trans. Abu-Amara. Miner. Mao.. B. Morino N.et.:Cooperating mobile agents for dynamic network routing. al. REFERENCES [1] Shen.pp. & SYST. Holland.155-165. 1999.287–304. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] Kompella.D.pp.212-224. 57(2008). Tsai. pp.al. Yamaguchi S.:Minimal agents for communication network routing: The social insect paradigm. M.M.al.S.1-8..T... [14] Caro. Wei K. Z. O..pp. Pierre. IEEE Trans. Communications.F. BT Technology Journal. Cybernetics-Part B.pp.K. Dorigo. et.:The Ant System: Optimization by a colony of cooperating agents.1999..al.:Simulation and Theoretical Results on Cluster Management and Directory Management in Dynamic Hierarchical Networks. Orduna.. Man. We will report on our experiences managing network topologies by transmitting the adjacency matrix determinant bilaterally. IEEE Trans. Y.al. E. 26. Networking.. Kitano T. et. pp. INF. With Dijkstra’s algorithm.:Multicast QoS Core-Based Tree Routing Protocol and Genetic Algorithm Over an HAP-Satellite Architecture.K.. In Proceedings of the 31st Hawaii International Conference of System Sciences.116-119. Parallel and Distributed Systems. proceeding of the 10th IEEE Intl.F. 2008. et. Onishi R. on e-Health Networking. R.S.pp. S. a system of 0 or 1 is not used in the adjacent matrix determinant.S.. Kramer.74–83. [13] Appleby S.1-13.305–325. IEEE Trans.1215-1226.:On the Design of Large-Scale UMTS Mobile Networks Using Hybrid Genetic Algorithms.. Wang.. et.. but each path can be assigned a weight (corresponding to the distance of each terminal).. IEICE Trans. In AlexHeyzelden and John Bigham. G.: A Latency-Aware Partitioning Method for Distributed Virtual Environment Systems. Kumar..3(1992). D. pp. Conf.pp.:Svstems with Low Distributed Simulation Overhead..W.1(1996). Quintero. pp. Rueda.M. In AlexHeyzelden and John .K. This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the ICC 2008 workshop proceedings.al. IEEE Vehicular Technology Society. Szymanski.. Hama S. 1998:pp. editors. J. 18(2007). Colorni A.104–113. Applications and Service.E84–D(2001).:On Path Selection and Rate Allocation for Video in Wireless Mesh Networks. IEEE/ACM Trans.H. System.. M.P. 58(2009).1-6. Tropea. Morillo. Bigham.D. IEEE Trans.. Vehicular Technology.. A..... 312-323.P.al.:A Cost-Quality Tradeoff in Cooperative Sensor Networking. Bulut.2498-2508. Software Agents for Future Communication Systems Springer..

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