Course 131 Introduction to CDMA

Scott Baxter
www.howcdmaworks.com 800-890-0829

CDMA 131 Outline
™ Deployment
‹Multiple

Overview and Outlook ™ CDMA Basics
Access Technology Survey ‹CDMA coding principles ‹Spread Spectrum principles ‹Forward and Reverse Channel Structure
™ CDMA ™ CDMA

System Architecture
CBSC BTS OMC-R

‹PCSC ‹Power

Details and Operation

Control ‹Handoff mechanics ‹Optimization concepts
2

CDMA Deployment Status Review

80 70

CDMA Worldwide Subscriber Growth
1Q-2000 SUBSCRIBERS 57M

60 50 Millions 40 30 20 10 0

19 M

32 M

6.5 M
1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1997 1998 1999 2000

Source: www.cdg.org

™

IS-95/J-Std008 CDMA commercial deployment began in Asia
‹ Hong

Kong, South Korea

North America started later but is rapidly growing, both at 800 MHz and 1900 MHz. ™ South/Central America is just beginning widespread commercial deployment 4
™

United States PCS Auction Winners
Sprint PCS CDMA
The Largest Players, Areas, and Technologies ™ Sprint PCS
‹ ‹ ‹

AT&T Wireless IS-136

‹

Partnership of Sprint, TCI, Cox Cable Bid & won in 2/3 of US markets A or B blocks Sprint itself has D and/or E blocks in remaining markets Technology: CDMA Bid & won a majority of markets in A&B Blocks will combine and integrate service between its new PCS 1900 systems and its former McCaw cellular 800 MHz. properties Technology: TDMA IS-54, IS-136B Partnership of Airtouch, US West, Bell Atlantic, Technology: CDMA Western Wireless, OmniPoint, BellSouth, GTE, Powertel, Pacific Bell Technology: TDMA (ETSI GSM)
5

™

AT&T Wireless Systems
‹ ‹

Primeco CDMA
Western Wireless Pacific Bell Aerial OmniPoint BellSouth Powertel

‹

™

Primeco
‹ ‹

™

GSM Operators
‹ ‹

GSM

Canadian Wireless Technologies. and Operators Frequency Band. MHz 900 1900 1900 1900 800 “B” 1900 800 “A” Technology Network Manufacturer Motorola Lucent Ericsson Nortel Nortel ? Ericsson Geographic Area British Alberta Columbia SaskatchNew Manitoba Ontario Quebec ewan Brunswick Nova Scotia Newfoundland IDEN CDMA GSM CDMA AMPS TDMA IS-136 AMPS TDMA Clearnet “MIKE” Clearnet PCS Microcell “FIDO” Mobilink Canada ? Rogers Cantel 6 . Manufacturers.

including medium speed data service at rates up to 384 Kbs for mobile users. Third Generation proposals for wideband CDMA are attracting great attention both from manufacturers and carriers ™ 3G systems will offer higher bandwidth services.3G Wideband CDMA Regardless of the degree of acceptance of IS-95 “narrowband CDMA” systems. and up to 2 MBs for stationary users ™ Operators and manufacturers are presently waiting and studying the limited number of trials of 3G systems presently underway ™ 7 .

2G to 3G Migration Paths 2G System CDMA GSM Technology Family cdma2000 3G Mode Multicarrier WCDMA Frequency Division Duplex Time Division Duplex GPRS EDGE and 136 HS outdoor TDMA UWC-136 136 HS indoor 8 .

400.000 ? X? EDGE 9 ??! .800.000 Verizon 2.000 ? Other TDMA 724.823.000 Other TDMA 4.900. Sprint PCS 7.000 AT&T Wireless 10.000 Other CDMA 2.059.000 1900 MHz.000 ? AT&T Wireless 1.000 PacBell Wireless 2..000 1xRTT cdma2000 3xRTT HDR ? VoiceStream 3.000.100.060..090.000 Verizon/BAMS/GTE 12.000 Alltel 5.North American 3G Migration Plans 800 MHz.000.721. Vodaphone/Airtouch 9.000.800.000.000 ? Nextel 5.000 WCDMA UMTS UTRA Cingular/SBC/BellSouth 13.000 Powertel & Others 1.

5G”) capacity in same chip rate & bandwidth ‹ All IS-95B refinements ™ ™ Qualcomm’s HDR (High Data Rates) ‹ Up ‹ US to 2. faster data.Next Generation CDMA Enhancements ™ ™ IS-95B ‹ Improved ‹ 2x handoff.4 Mb/s on a single CDMA signal 3xRTT (CDMA2000) version: 3x chip rate and more Ð Even faster data: 2 MB bursting ‹ European (W-CDMA) version: GPS not required ™ UMTS Universal Mobile Terrestrial Services ‹ The European equivalent to 3xRTT CDMA ‹ 3G migration path for today’s GSM systems 10 . improved access 1xRTT (“2.

Capacity of CDMA Networks .

D-AMPS. N-AMPS 1 3 1 Users 2 3 7 1 6 4 5 Signal Bandwidth determines how many RF signals will “fit” in the operator’s licensed spectrum Robustness of RF signal determines tolerable level of interference and necessary physical separation of cochannel cells 30 30 Vulnerability: C/I ≅ 17 dB 10 kHz Bandwidth Typical Frequency Reuse N=7 ™ 8 Users Vulnerability: C/I ≅ 6. GSM.Wireless System Capacity Each wireless technology (AMPS. we will develop the number of users and traffic in erlangs per site for each of the popular wireless technologies 200 kHz Typical Frequency Reuse N=4 Vulnerability: EbNo ≅ 6 dB CDMA 22 Users 1250 kHz 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Typical Frequency Reuse N=1 12 .5-9 dB 1 4 2 3 ™ ™ Number of users per RF signal directly affects capacity In the following page. D-AMPS. NAMPS. CDMA) uses a specific modulation type with its own unique signal characteristics ™ AMPS.

2 392.4 130.66 Unique Voicepaths/carrier 13.3 38.5 Capacity vs.Wireless System Capacity Comparisons 800 Cellular (A.5 P.83 165. 15.000 15.4 1.000 TDMA GSM CDMA TDMA GSM 17 12 6 17 12 7 4 1 7 4 30 200 1250 30 200 500 75 11 166 25 71 18 11 23 6 3 3 3 3 3 1 0 0 1 0 22 6 11 6 2 3 8 22 3 8 1.7 34.500 Technology AMPS TDMA CDMA Req'd C/I or Eb/No. N 7 7 1 RF Signal BW.B) Fwd/Rev Spectrum kHz.253 66 39 30.02 Erlangs per site 34.5 9. AMPS800 1 3.5 44 105. B.253 Voicepaths/Sector 18 54 198 Unique Voicepaths/Sector 18 54 119 P.5 132 316.000 CDMA 6 1 1250 3 3 3 0 3 22 1. C) 1900 PCS (D.02 Erlangs per sector 11.9 11.000 5.1 90. db 17 17 6 Freq Reuse Factor.9 E. kHz 30 30 1250 Total # RF Carriers 416 416 9 RF Sigs.9 115. F) 5.3 11.0 0.6 13 .000 15.000 5.5 29.2 1900 PCS (A.253 66 48 242 18 16 66 48 145 18 16 55.8 9.8 3.500 12.49 4.66 13. per cell @N 59 59 9 # Sectors per cell 3 3 3 #CCH per sector 1 1 0 RF Signals per sector 18 18 9 Voicepaths/RF signal 1 3 22 SH average links used 1.66 13.500 12. 12.3 2.

550 6.7 11.050 CDMA 6 1 1250 10 10 3 0 10 22 1.2 55.66 1.2 93.3 242 145 130.4 14 .050 9.Multicarrier CDMA Capacity CDMA Carrier Frequencies 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 f Fwd/Rev Spectrum kHz. 12.050 4.9 392.6 281.1 55.500 1.800 CDMA 6 1 1250 9 9 3 0 9 22 1.9 203.300 10.1 357.7 80.66 Unique Voicepaths/carrier 1 13.5 22.5 316.3 220 132 119.3 13.3 67.5 9. per cell @N 59 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 # Sectors per cell 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 #CCH per sector 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RF Signals per sector 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Voicepaths/RF signal 1 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 SH average links used 1 1.3 Voicepaths/Sector 18 22 44 66 88 110 132 154 176 Unique Voicepaths/Sector 18 13 26 39 53 66 79 92 106 P.550 Technology AMPS CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA Req'd C/I or Eb/No.9 7.4 18.66 1. AMPS800 1 0.66 1.1 240.2 90.60 2.66 1.64 1.4 14.3 198 119 105.3 13. kHz 30 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 Total # RF Carriers 416 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 RF Sigs.5 7.4 30.4 Capacity vs. N 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 RF Signal BW.66 13.3 129.66 13.66 1.7 4.3 13.800 8.8 5.1 43.3 13.3 165. db 17 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Freq Reuse Factor.02 Erlangs per sector 11.66 1.0 8.3 10.6 3.02 Erlangs per site 34.66 1.3 13.300 CDMA 6 1 1250 11 11 3 0 11 22 1.2 11.8 P.3 13.800 3.2 13.66 13.300 5.3 13.

Some of the main points are: reduce Pilot. thereby gaining precious additional energy for traffic channels ‹ reduce BTS traffic channel DGU settings as low as possible without provoking forward link FER. and Paging levels as low as possible. CDMA networks for the most part are still single-carrier this severely limits the capacity of one BTS to approximately 20 erlangs ‹ implementing additional carriers brings logistical problems involving handoffs and system acquisition by mobiles ‹ ™ ™ Multiple-carrier operation is essential to achieve reasonable capacities Within networks. Sync. ‹ 15 . there are strategies for squeezing the most out of overloaded single-carrier BTSs.Current CDMA Network Capacity Issues ™ Today.

CDMA Basics .

GSM) Time Division Multiple Access ‹ each user has a private time on a private frequency n ue q e Fr cy ™ CDMA (IS-95. 008) Code Division Multiple Access ‹ users co-mingle in time and frequency but each user has a private code CDMA Power Tim e y nc e u eq Fr 17 . J-Std.Multiple Access Technologies ™ FDMA Power T im FDMA (example: AMPS) Frequency Division Multiple Access ‹ each user has a private frequency e F ue q e r y nc TDMA Power Ti m e ™ TDMA (examples: IS-54/136.

18 .Other Technologies: Avoiding Interference ™ AMPS. TDMA and GSM depend on physical distance separation to keep interference at low levels ™ Co-channel users are kept at a safe distance by careful frequency planning ™ Nearby users and cells must use different frequencies to avoid interference AMPS-TDMA-GSM 1 4 7 6 1 4 2 3 6 1 5 1 7 3 5 1 4 2 3 6 5 1 2 7 1 Figure of Merit: C/I (carrier/interference ratio) AMPS: +17 dB TDMA: +14 to 17 dB GSM: +7 to 9 dB.

19 . CDMA: Eb/No ~+6 dB.but with a uniquely recoverable code CDMA Figure of Merit: C/I (carrier/interference ratio) AMPS: +17 dB TDMA: +14 to +17 dB GSM: +7 to 9 dB.CDMA: Using A New Dimension ™ All CDMA users occupy the same frequency at the same time! Time and frequency are not used as discriminators ™ CDMA interference comes mainly from nearby users ™ CDMA operates by using CODING to discriminate between users ™ Each user is a small voice in a roaring crowd -. CDMA: -10 to -17 dB.

integrate a large number of chips interpreted by the user’s known code pattern ™ Other users’ code patterns appear random and integrate toward low values. hence don’t disturb the bit decoding decision Building a CDMA Signal Bits from User’s Vocoder Forward Error Correction Symbols Coding and Spreading Chips 20 .CDMA Uses Code Channels ™A CDMA signal uses many chips to convey just one bit of information ™ Each user has a unique chip pattern. in effect a code channel ™ To recover a bit.

CDMA is a Spread-Spectrum System ™ Traditional TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM Spread Spectrum Narrowband Slow Information Sent TX Signal Slow Information Recovered technologies try to squeeze signal into minimum required bandwidth ™ CDMA uses larger bandwidth but uses resulting processing gain to increase capacity RX SPREAD-SPECTRUM SYSTEM Wideband Signal Slow Information Sent TX RX Slow Information Recovered Fast Spreading Sequence Fast Spreading Sequence Spread Spectrum Payoff: Processing Gain 21 .

we can undo ORIGINATING SITE Spread Data Stream Input Data Recovered Data DESTINATION Spreading Sequence Spreading Sequence ™ Sender combines data with a fast spreading sequence. transmits spread data stream ™ Receiver intercepts the stream.Spreading: What we do. uses same spreading sequence to extract original data 22 .

or in CDMA. packaging is extremely important! ™ Cargo is placed inside “nested” containers for protection and to allow addressing ™ The shipper packs in a certain order. and the receiver unpacks in the reverse order ™ CDMA “containers” are spreading codes 23 .“Shipping and Receiving” via CDMA Shipping FedEx FedEx Receiving Data Mailer Mailer Data ™ Whether in shipping and receiving.

CDMA’s Nested Spreading Sequences ORIGINATING SITE X+A Spread-Spectrum Chip Streams X+A+B X+A+B+C X+A+B DESTINATION X+A Input Data Recovered Data X Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence Spreading Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Sequence X A B C C B A ™ CDMA combines three different spreading sequences to create unique. robust channels ™ The sequences are easy to generate on both sending and receiving ends of each link ™ “What we do. we can undo” 24 .

Ð generated in 15-bit tapped shift register ‹Nearly self-orthogonal if compared out-of-sync ™ PN Long Code: only one is used ‹242-1 chips long -.lasts 1/19200 sec ‹mutually orthogonal ™ PN Short Code: one pair is used (I & Q) ‹32K long -.lasts 26-2/3 mS.The Three CDMA Spreading Sequences ™ Walsh ‹64 Codes: 64 are available chips long -. repeats 75x in 2 sec.lasts 40+ days! Ð generated in 42-bit tapped shift register ‹Any short sample is nearly orthogonal with any other short sample 25 .

Sector X Σ A Forward Channel is identified by: ™ its CDMA RF carrier Frequency ™ the unique Short Code PN Offset of the sector ™ the unique Walsh Code of the user 26 .Code Channels in the Forward Direction MTX BSC Pilot Sync Paging Vocoder Vocoder Vocoder Vocoder more more BTS (1 sector) Walsh #0 FEC Walsh #32 FEC Walsh #1 FEC Walsh #12 FEC Walsh #23 FEC Walsh #27 FEC Walsh #44 FEC more Short PN Code PN Offset 246 I Q Transmitter.

Code Channels in the Reverse Direction MTX BSC BTS (1 sector) Long Code Gen Access Channels Channel Element Long Code Gen Vocoder Channel Element Long Code Gen Vocoder Channel Element Long Code Gen Vocoder Channel Element Long Code Gen Vocoder more more Channel Element more 27 A Reverse Channel is identified by: ™ its CDMA RF carrier Frequency ™ the unique Long Code PN Offset of the individual handset Long Code Receiver. Sector X Long Code Long Code Long Code Long Code Long Code .

com .CDMA Network Architecture www.motorola.

Structure of a Typical Wireless System HLR HLR Home Location Register (subscriber database) SUPPORT FUNCTIONS SWITCH Voice Mail System BASE STATION CONTROLLER BASE STATIONS PSTN Local Carriers Long Distance Carriers Mobile Telephone Switching Office ATM Link to other CDMA Networks (Future) 29 .

Motorola CDMA System Architecture OMC-R PCSC Personal Communications Switching Center OMC-R Processor Application Processor (or SC-UNO) BTS (SC614T/611) Motorola Advanced Wideband Interface (MAWI) CBSC DSC EMX-2500 or EMX-5000 Mobility Manager BTS (SC9600/4800/2400) Group Line Interface (GLI) Multichannel CDMA Card (MCC) Local Maintenance Facility PSTN Transcoder PC 30 .

The Motorola PCSC ™ Personal EMX-2500 Communications Switching Center ™ Primary functions ‹Call EMX-5000 DSC EMX-2500 or EMX-5000 Processing ‹HLR-VLR access ‹Intersystem call delivery (IS41C) ‹Billing Data Capture ‹Calling Features & Services 31 PSTN .

The Motorola CBSC Centralized Base Station Controller ™ Mobility Manager ™ ‹ allocation of BTS resources ‹ handoff management ‹ Call management & supervision ™ Transcoder ‹ vocoding ‹ soft CBSC Mobility Manager handoff management ‹ FER-based power control ‹ routing of all traffic and control packets Transcoder 32 .

radiate. receive CDMA RF signal IS-95/J. 8 ‹ high-efficiency T1 backhaul ‹ test capabilities SC611 Microcell BTS (SC9600/4800/2400) Group Line Interface (GLI) Multichannel CDMA Card (MCC) Local Maintenance Facility PC SC614T SC4852 33 .Std.The Motorola BTS Family BTS (SC614T/611) Motorola Advanced Wideband Interface (MAWI) ™ Primary function: Air link ‹ generate.

CDMA Details and Operation .

Variable Rate Vocoding & Multiplexing DSP QCELP VOCODER ™ Vocoders compress speech. and user secondary data may be mixed in CDMA frames 288 Full Rate Frame 144 1/2 Rate Frame 72 1/4 Rt. reduce bit rate ™ CDMA uses a superior Variable Rate Vocoder ‹full 20ms Sample Pitch Filter Codebook Coded Result Feedback Formant Filter rate during speech ‹low rates in speech pauses ‹increased capacity ‹more natural sound ™ Voice. 36 1/8 Frame Contents: can be a mixture of Voice Signaling Secondary 35 . bits Frame Sizes signaling.

Forward Power Control BSC BTS (1 sector) Pilot Sync Paging User 1 User 2 User 3 more Transmitter. it requests more energy ™ The complainer’s chip stream gets a quick boost. afterward. continues to diminish 36 . Sector X I Q Short PN Help! Forward RF Σ Vocoder/ Selector ™ The BTS continually reduces the strength of each user’s forward baseband chip stream ™ When a particular handset sees errors on the forward link.

Reverse Power Control 800 bits per second BSC Bad FER? Raise Setpoint BTS Stronger than setpoint? Setpoint Reverse RF RX RF Digital Open Loop Closed Loop TX RF Digital Occasionally. as needed Handset ™ Three methods work in tandem to equalize all handset signal levels at the BTS ‹Reverse Open Loop: handset adjusts power up or down based on received BTS signal (AGC) ‹Reverse Closed Loop: Is handset too strong? BTS tells up or down 1 db 800 times/second ‹Reverse Outer Loop: BSC has FER trouble hearing handset? BSC adjusts BTS setpoint 37 .

Detector AGC RF Duplexer RF Open Loop Traffic Correlator PN xxx PN xxx Σ CPU Viterbi Decoder Packets Audio Vocoder Audio Messages Traffic Correlator Pilot Searcher PN xxx Walsh 0 Transmit Gain Adjust Transmitter RF Section Transmitter Digital Section Long Code Gen. 38 .What’s In a Handset? Digital Rake Receiver Symbols Chips Traffic Correlator PN xxx Walsh xx Walsh xx Walsh xx Messages Symbols Receiver RF Section IF.

or even on different BTSs ™ Searcher continuously checks pilots 39 .The Rake Receiver Handset RF BTS BTS Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN PN Walsh Σ Walsh Voice. Messages Pilot Ec/Io Searcher PN W=0 ™ Every frame. handset uses combined outputs of the three traffic correlators (“rake fingers”) ™ Each finger can independently recover a particular PN offset and Walsh code ™ Fingers can be targeted on delayed multipath reflections. Data.

no muting! ™ Each end of the link chooses what works best.). on a frame-by-frame basis! ‹Users are totally unaware of handoff 40 . Data.CDMA Soft Handoff Mechanics MTX BSC Sel. BTS BTS Handset RF Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN PN Walsh Σ Walsh Voice. Messages Pilot Ec/Io Searcher PN W=0 ™ CDMA soft handoff is driven by the handset ‹Handset continuously checks available pilots ‹Handset tells system pilots it currently sees ‹System assigns sectors (up to 6 max. tells handset ‹Handset assigns its fingers accordingly ‹All messages sent by dim-and-burst.

Data. but softer handoff occurs in BTS in a single channel element ™ Handset can even use combination soft-softer handoff on multiple BTS & sectors 41 . Messages Pilot Ec/Io RF Searcher PN W=0 ™ Each BTS sector has unique PN offset & pilot ™ Handset will ask for whatever pilots it wants ™ If multiple sectors of one BTS simultaneously serve a handset. BTS Rake Receiver PN Walsh PN PN Walsh Σ Walsh Voice. this is called Softer Handoff ™ Handset is unaware.Softer Handoff Handset MTX BSC Sel.

Members notices a pilot in neighbor or remaining set exceeds T_ADD ‹An active set pilot drops below T_DROP for T_TDROP time ‹A candidate pilot exceeds an active by T_COMP ™ Handoff HANDOFF PARAMETERS T_ADD T_TDROP T_DROP T_COMP setup processing time usually <<1 second 42 .Pilot Sets and Soft Handoff Parameters ™ Handset views pilots in sets ™ Handset sends message to system whenever: ‹It PILOT SETS Active 6 Candidate 5 Neighbor 20 Remaining Max.

handoff still can occur but will be “hard” like AMPS/TDMA/GSM ‹ intersystem handoff: hard ‹ change-of-frequency handoff: hard ‹ CDMA-to-AMPS handoff: hard.Overall Handoff Perspective ™ Soft & Softer Handoffs are the best ‹ but a handset can receive BTS/sectors simultaneously only on one frequency ‹ all involved BTS/sectors must connect to networked CBSCs (the CBSC must choose packets each frame) ‹ frame timing must be same on all BTS/sectors ™ If above not possible. no handback Ð auxiliary trigger mechanisms available 43 .

CDMA Performance Optimization ™ Key Performance Indicators and Objectives ‹Dropped Calls. excessive overlap ‹PN Planning. delays short Ð Neighbor lists well-optimized ‹RF Coverage: holes vs. Access Failures. optimum Search Window sizes ‹Per-Cell anomalies: watch parameters for clues 44 . system FER ‹Soft Handoff Percentage ‹Capacity ™ Success comes from managing resources ‹Handoff: keep dynamics fast.

0% 1.5% 5.0% 7.0% 4.0% 2.5% 4.0% 5.5% 2.5% 1.5% 3.5% 7.0% 3.0% 6.0% Blkd Date ™ This is an example of a cumulative system-wide total blocked call percentage chart maintained by one PCS customer 45 .Total Blocked Call Percentage Example Percent Total Block Call Percentage 8.5% 6.

0% 1.Dropped Call Percentage Tracking Example Percent Total Drop Call Percentage 5.5% 2.0% 2.0% 4.5% 0.5% 3.5% 4.0% %Drops Date ™ Dropped call percentage tracking by a PCS customer. 46 .0% 0.0% 3.5% 1.

Total System Daily MOU Example 300000 MOU Daily Total System MOU Daily Total System MOU 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Date ™ Total system daily MOU plotted by a PCS customer 47 .

2 81.6 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 Calls 0 102.7 13.0 8.2 64.3 6.1 4.7 89.3 2.1 5.0 5.0 3.1 1.0 2.3 63.6 1.1 4.2 102.6 93.3 MSC Site 93Z 13X 57Z 2X 1Y 57Y 93X 35Z 30Y 1Z Call %Call Block %Blck Call Att Succ Succ Calls Calls 1833 2561 1282 2244 1922 1623 1027 855 1740 1630 1549 2234 1098 2017 1743 1486 926 698 1589 1495 84.6 3.2 1.0 0.0 4.8 5.3 3. 48 .1 2.3 63.5 5.9 3.7 84. etc.5 4.1 3. 1997 %Acc Drop %Drop Fail Calls Calls 7.Call Attempts Eng Site 6.3 91.5 4.3 3.0 1.2 64.2 63.8 2.3 % Blocked Calls ™ Many operators use scripts or spreadsheet macros to produce ranked lists of sites with heavy traffic.5 87.1 1.0 1.1 63.5 4.1 63.1 26.7 91.3 6.8 0.1 1.8 130 101 83 137 46 31 49 18 27 4 5.6 1.3 7.6 1.2 64.0 2.4 5.7 137 130 65 101 83 49 30 24 46 31 7.6 90.6 1.4 2.3 91.0 6.7 7.8 5.0 5.9 Acc Fail 136 130 65 101 83 49 30 24 45 31 September 5.0 2.5 4.2 108.0 7.0 4.2 64.5 2.5 91.0 4.3 63.1 5.2 Sector 1.9 90.1 5.2 85.1 1.3 MSC Site 13X 2X 1Y 93Z 30Y 1Z 57Y 4Y 30X 42Z “Top Ten” Performance Tracking Example Call %Call Block %Blck Call Att Succ Succ Calls Calls 2561 2244 1922 1833 1740 1630 1623 1615 1490 1488 2234 2017 1743 1549 1589 1495 1486 1495 1387 1410 87.0 % 108.3 3.9 3.1 3.9 90.4 6.7 91.3 108.1 1.1 2.1 26.1 4.1 4.2 1.0 4.1 2.7 4.6 92.1 43.1 1.9 2.2 108.3 7.2 108.9 110 145 90 93 66 66 58 112 83 81 6.8 0.3 Acc Fail 130 101 83 136 45 31 49 18 27 4 %Acc Drop %Drop Fail Calls Calls 5.3 6.2 64.3 108.1 94.1 4.3 Call Attempts Sector % Blocked Calls Eng Site 64.3 145 93 66 110 83 81 66 70 54 53 5.8 2.9 2.2 1.6 91.4 4.2 89.0 1.1 4.3 43. performance problems.

Forward FER Temporal Analyzer Markov Call Statistics Messaging Activity Pilot Set Activity 49 . Surveyor ‹LCC ‹Safco ‹Comarco ™ ™ ™ ™ Pilot Ec/Io Finger Information RX Level. TX Gain Adjust.CDMA Mobile Analysis Tools ™ Handset Maintenance D Mode ™ Real-Time Data Collection Tools ‹Qualcomm 318 2 94 X A 7F ™ ™ ™ MDM ‹Grayson WMI. TX Power output.

FER. handset RX & TX Powers. Drop Call rates Message Search/Analysis Analysis of Anomalies ™ Pre-drop parameters 50 . PN. Transmit Gain Adjust. parameter distributions ™ Access.CDMA Network Analysis Tools ™ ™ Post-Processing Tools ‹Qualcomm ODA ‹Grayson IQAnalyzer ‹Safco OPAS ‹LCC Deskcat ™ OM ™ Analysis Tools ™ ™ ‹Metrica Map Plots ™ Best Ec/Io. Number of active pilots Charts. Tables & Graphs ™ Handoff statistics (perneighbor tables).

McGraw-Hill # 057629-7. If you can only buy one book. 1227 pp. Good coverage of system design principles. More than just theoretical text. vocoding.. Scholtz. Yang. “CDMA Systems Engineering Handbook” by Jhong Sam Lee and Leonard E. McGraw Hill 1998 $65. “Applications of CDMA in Wireless/Personal Communications” by Garg. 1997. Y. 577 pp. and Levitt. Includes enough math for understanding and solving real problems. 35 chapters. Omura. Lee. buy this one. Comprehensive summary of wireless technologies along with principles of real systems. ISBN 08493-0573-3. Highly recommended.. cell and system design principles. ISBN 0-07-037103-2 Lee’s latest/greatest reference work on all of wireless. You can design CDMA chipsets after reading it. 245 p. Gibson. cell design. radio engineering. Highly recommended. Prentice Hall. and data applications. 1998 Artech House. 008 as well as W-CDMA. ISBN 0-13572157-1 $65. includes chapters on IS-41 networking. RF propagation. 15 illus. "CDMA: Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication" by Andrew J. "Spread Spectrum Communications Handbook" by Simon.Bibliography “Wireless Communications Principles & Practice” by Theodore S. 689 pp. Excellent treatment of IS-95/JStd... but beware lots of triple integrals. “CDMA RF System Engineering” by Samuel C. Each chapter is written by an expert. Edition by William C. 641 pp. $65. Clear-language explanations for both engineers and technicians but also includes detailed mathematics for the research-inclined. Smolik & Wilkes. “The Mobile Communications Handbook” edited by Jerry D. Heavy theory. 1998 Artech House. and welledited for readability. Good CDMA treatment. traffic engineering.. ISBN 0-89006-991-3. ISBN 0-89006-990-5. Rappaport. $89 If you can buy only two books. Viterbi. buy this second. ISBN 0-13-375536-3. 360 pp. noise. Excellent treatment of CDMA basics and deeper theory. 7 appendices. ISBN 0-201-63374-4. CRC Press/ IEEE Press 1996. very complete and well done. 51 . 1996. system performance optimization and capacity issues. 10 chapters.50 Definitive technical reference on principles of Spread Spectrum including direct sequence as used in commercial IS95/JStd008 CDMA. Addison-Wesley 1995. $99. Prestige collector’s item among CDMA faithful. Solid foundation of modulation schemes. excellent full-detailed expositions of every single wireless technology known today. and practical details of CDMA signaling. voice applications. forward error correction. Definitive very deep CDMA Theory. Miller. "Mobile Communications Engineering" 2nd. digital processing theory. not very relevant to operations. Prentice-Hall PTR. Good general treatment of CDMA capacity considerations from mathematical viewpoint.

1988.. McGraw-Hill # 036077-4. Still contains solid theory and discussion of practical network architecture. system/RF design principles and process. it may motivate you to dig deeper into theory as you explore why things behave as they do. At the very least. digital processing theory. $74 ISBN# 0-13211939-0 Excellent in depth treatment of modulation schemes. McGraw-Hill # 05147-X. $55 Introduction to major PCS technical standards. Ed. Prentice Hall. basic antennas and transmission lines. useful exposure to nuts-and-bolts practical ideas for the RF-unfamiliar. 52 . If you didn’t take signals & systems in school. LAN/WAN "Communication Electronics" by Louis E. 771 pp. ISBN 0028018427. Frenzel. 424 pp. but without quite as much authoritative math or deep theoretical insights.. "Wireless Personal Communications Services" by Rajan Kuruppillai. and modern circuit devices. Prentice Hall. 1100+ page softcopy ($44). 75 illus. Sonet.. Solid treatment of the practical side of theoretical principles such as Ohm’s law. 428 pages hardcover. “Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications” by Bernard Sklar. "Voice and Data Communications Handbook" by Bates and Gregory 699 pp. 70 illus. this book will make dealing with hardware more comfortable. "The ARRL Handbook for Radio Amateurs (1997)" published by the American Radio Relay League (phone 800-594-0200). At best. 350 pp. list price $54. Smolik & Wilkes. If you haven’t had much hands-on experience with real RF hardware.. April.. All the basic principles of transmission and their underlying math. ISBN 0-13-234626-5 $68. this is valuable exposure to real-world issues. this is your coach in the closet. McGraw-Hill #0065342-9. This is the little brother of “The Mobile Communications Handbook”. Microwave. 1996. Fax. Good explanation of each technology for a technical newcomer to wireless. good technical reference "PCS Network Deployment" by John Tsakalakis. Includes good traffic section.. receiver and transmitter architecture and performance. Even includes some spread-spectrum information in case you’re inclined to play and experiment at home.Bibliography (concluded) “Wireless and Personal Communications Systems” by Garg. Glencoe/MacMillan McGraw Hill. $65 Tops-down view of the startup process in a PCS network.95. $65 Good authoritative reference on Wireless. Video. 360 illus. 2nd. ATM.. 445 pp. 1994. or haven’t had a chance to see how the theory you learned in school fits with modern-day communications equipment. $68. Covers applicable technologies from HF to high microwaves. noise. ISDN.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful