Theodor W. Adorno
Theodor W. Adorno
Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas (in the background, right), in 1964 in Heidelberg. Other names Born Theodor Ludwig Adorno Wiesengrund September 11, 1903 Frankfurt am Main, Hesse-Nassau, Prussia, Germany August 6, 1969 (aged 65) Visp, Visp, Valais, Switzerland Germany German 20th century philosophy Western philosophy Critical theory Marxism Social theory, sociology, psychoanalysis, epistemology, aesthetics, musicology, mass media Criticism of "actionism" 
Residence Nationality Era Region School
Theodor W. Adorno (/əˈdɔːrnoʊ/; German: [aˈdɔʀno]; born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a German sociologist, philosopher and musicologist known for his critical theory of society. He was a leading member of the Frankfurt School of critical theory, whose work has come to be associated with thinkers such as Ernst Bloch, Walter Benjamin, Max Horkheimer and Herbert Marcuse, for whom the work of Freud, Marx and Hegel were essential to a critique of modern society. He is widely regarded as one of the 20th century's foremost thinkers on aesthetics and philosophy, as well as one of its preeminent essayists. As a critic of both fascism and what he called the culture industry, his writings—such as Dialectic of Enlightenment (1947), Minima Moralia (1951) and Negative Dialectics (1966)—strongly influenced the European New Left. Amidst the vogue enjoyed by existentialism and positivism in early 20th-century Europe, Adorno advanced a dialectical conception of natural history that critiqued the twin temptations of ontology and empiricism through studies of Kierkegaard and Husserl. As a classically trained pianist whose sympathies with the twelve-tone technique of Arnold Schoenberg resulted in his studying composition with Alban Berg of the Second Viennese School, Adorno's commitment to avant-garde music formed the backdrop of his subsequent writings and led to his collaboration with Thomas Mann on the latter's novel Doctor Faustus, while the two men lived in California as
Max Horkheimer. where he studied from 1913 to 1921. as he recalled later in life. As a writer of polemics in the tradition of Nietzsche and Karl Kraus. he attended the Deutschherren middle school before transferring to the Kaiser-Wilhelm Gymnasium. a child prodigy who could play pieces by Beethoven on the piano by the time he was twelve. Schreker. was once a professional singer. At around the same time.Theodor W. while her sister. Adorno not only benefited from the rich concert offerings of Frankfurt—in which one could hear performances of works by Schoenberg. as well as by his fascination with Ernst Bloch's The Spirit of Utopia.
Life and career
Early years: Frankfurt
Theodor Ludwig Adorno-Wiesengrund was born in Frankfurt am Main on September 11. is the culmination of a lifelong commitment to modern art which attempts to revoke the "fatal separation" of feeling and understanding long demanded by the history of philosophy and explode the privilege aesthetics accords to content over form and contemplation over immersion. and continued interventions into matters of public policy. of which he would later write: Bloch's was a philosophy that could hold its head high before the most advanced literature. His mother. either implicit or explicit. Yet Adorno's intellectual nonconformism was no less shaped by the repugnance he felt towards the nationalism which swept through the Reich during the First World War. an assimilated Jew who had converted to Protestantism. Ernst Bloch. a philosophy that was not calibrated to the abominable resignation of methodology … I took this motif so much as my own that I do not believe I have ever written anything without reference to it. Ernst Simmel. Along with future collaborators like Walter Benjamin. Busoni. The eldest daughter of the Karplus family. his name was modified to Theodor W. who lived with them. Maria wanted her son's paternal surname to be supplemented by the addition of her own name: Adorno. At the age of six. had made a name for herself as both a singer and pianist. Adorno collaborated on influential studies of authoritarianism. Prior to his graduation at the top of his class. Margarete. At the end of his schooldays. Gretel and Theodor were married in 1937. Thus his earliest publications carried the name Theodor Wiesengrund-Adorno. His childhood was marked by the musical life provided by his mother and aunt: Maria was a singer who could boast of having performed in Vienna at the Imperial Court. The younger generation's distrust for traditional knowledge arose from the way in which this tradition had discredited itself. Over time. upon his application for US citizenship. as is evidenced by his reading of Georg Lukacs's The Theory of the Novel that year. Agathe. Bertolt Brecht and Ernst Bloch. anti-semitism and propaganda that would later serve as models for sociological studies the Institute carried out in post-war Germany. which he planned to dedicate to Samuel Beckett. Adorno. Max Scheler. while his father. Bartók. Adorno delivered scathing critiques of contemporary Western culture. Adorno exiles during the Second World War. ran a successful wine-export business. Upon his return to Frankfurt. Proud of her origins. writings on German responsibility for the Holocaust. 1903. the only child of Oscar Alexander Wiesengrund (1870–1946) and Maria Calvelli-Adorno della Piana (1865–1952). he befriended Siegfried Kracauer. He was not only a precocious child but. moved in the intellectual circles of Berlin. where she was acquainted with Walter Benjamin. or Gretel. Working for the newly relocated Institute for Social Research. Adorno was involved with the reconstitution of German intellectual life through debates with Karl Popper on the limitations of positivist science. a devout Catholic from Corsica. critiques of Heidegger's language of authenticity. Delius and Hindemith—but also began studying music composition at the Hoch Conservatory while taking private lessons with well-respected composers Bernhard Sekles and Eduard Jung. each of whom Adorno would become familiar with during the mid-20s. after fourteen years. Adorno was already swept up by the revolutionary mood of the time. as well as his friend Siegfried Kracauer—came out in support of the war. Adorno's posthumously published Aesthetic Theory. Oscar Wiesengrund's firm established close professional and personal ties with the factory of Karplus & Herzberger in Berlin. Adorno was profoundly disillusioned by the ease with which Germany's intellectual and spiritual leaders—among them Max Weber. Stravinsky. the Frankfurter Zeitung’s literary
In this manuscript.
Vienna. The Concept of the Unconscious in the Transcendental Theory of the Psyche. which he called in 1923 a “dismal Bohemian prank. but as a kind of coded text from which the historical situation of spirit could be read. in line with many intellectuals of the time. of whom he would later write: For years Kracauer read [Kant’s] Critique of Pure Reason with me regularly on Saturday afternoons. and Berlin
During the summer of 1924. Adorno championed avant-garde music at the same time as he critiqued the failings of musical modernity.Theodor W. After writing the "Piano Pieces in strict twelve-tone technique." as well as songs later integrated into the Six Bagatelles for Voice and Piano. in the sphere of the deepest understanding of music . Cornelius advised Adorno to withdraw his application on the grounds that the manuscript was too close to his own way of thinking. before returning to Frankfurt. the man Adorno referred to as "my master and teacher. with the vague expectation that in doing so one could acquire something of truth itself. Adorno continued his studies on piano with Eduard Steuermann and befriended the violinist Rudolf Kolisch.” In the summer of 1924. Adorno immersed himself in the musical culture which had grown up around Schoenberg: in addition to his twice-weekly sessions with Berg. op. with whom he developed a lasting friendship. the Neue Blätter für Kunst und Literatur and later for the Musikblätter des Anbruch. After leaving Vienna.. turning now to Hegel and Kierkegaard.. the Viennese composer Alban Berg's Three Fragments from Wozzeck. as in the case of Stravinsky’s The Soldier’s Tale. Adorno received his doctorate with a study of Edmund Husserl under the direction of the unorthodox neo-Kantian Hans Cornelius." op. he was unequivocal in his condemnation of performances which either sought or pretended to achieve a transcendence which Adorno. In these articles. Benjamin. I am not exaggerating in the slightest when I say that I owe more to this reading than to my academic teachers … Under his guidance I experienced the work from the beginning not as mere epistemology. Adorno had already met with his most important intellectual collaborators. Adorno editor.” 
Notable teachers • Hans Cornelius Notable students • Jürgen Habermas
Leaving gymnasium to study philosophy. psychology and sociology at Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt. Alban Berg.2 were performed in Vienna. Adorno continued his readings with Kracauer. Adorno traveled through Italy. In Vienna." was among the most prescient of his young pupil's early friends: [I am] convinced that. In December 1926 Adorno's "Two Pieces for String Quartet. regarded as impossible: “No cathedral. op. Before his graduation. you are capable of supreme achievements and will undoubtedly fulfill this promise in the shape of great philosophical works. through whom he was then introduced to Friedrich Pollock. 6. and the economist Alfred Sohn-Rethel.” he wrote. Adorno attempted to underline the epistemological status of the
. and began publishing concert reviews and pieces of music for distinguished journals like the Zeitschrift für Musik. not as an analysis of the conditions of scientifically valid judgments. Max Horkheimer and Walter Benjamin. Through Cornelius's seminars. 7 premiered in Frankfurt.” In these early writings. who had been living in Vienna after the failure of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. Adorno met his future collaborator Max Horkheimer. Adorno presented his Habilitation manuscript. he attended public lectures of the satirist Karl Kraus with Berg and met Lukács. which provided a welcome interruption from his preparations for the Habilitation. Frankfurt. Upon moving to Vienna in February 1925. where he met with Kracauer. at which time Adorno introduced himself to Berg and both agreed the young philosopher and composer would study with Berg in Vienna. to Cornelius in November 1927. “can be built if no community desires one.
In it. the University conferred on Adorno the venia legendi in February 1931. At the time." Having lost its position as the Queen of the Sciences. Though Adorno was not himself an Institute member. in the middle of 1929 he accepted Paul Tillich's offer to present an Habilitation on Kierkegaard. Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung. but challenged philosophy's very capacity for comprehending reality as such: "For the mind." Adorno announced. Adorno likened philosophical interpretation to experiments which should be conducted "until they arrive at figurations in which the answers are legible. as well as Benjamin and Kracauer. but it may be possible to penetrate the detail. In a letter of 1934 Adorno sounded a related criticism of Schoenberg: Twelve-tone technique alone is nothing but the principle of motivic elaboration and variation.Theodor W.. Thus. op. but elevated now to a comprehensive principle of construction. twelve-tone technique's use of atonality can no more be regarded as an authoritative canon than can tonality be relied on to provide instructions for the composer. Adorno's "Four Songs for Medium Voice and Piano". During this period he published the essays "Night Music". with whom he discussed problems of atonality and twelve-tone technique. while the questions themselves vanish. including "The Social Situation of Music" (1932). the later Strauss. In addition to publishing numerous reviews of opera performances and concerts. organic nature. as well as the neoclassicism of Stravinsky and Hindemith. which Adorno eventually submitted under the title The Construction of the Aesthetic. watchwords like "anxiety. as developed in the sonata. At this point Adorno reversed his earlier priorities: now his musical activities came second to the development of a philosophical theory of aesthetics. Yet his reservations about twelve-tone orthodoxy became steadily more pronounced: According to Adorno. to explode in miniature the mass of merely existing reality. In a proposal for transforming the journal. Between 1928 and 1930 Adorno took on a greater role within the editorial committee of the Musikblätter des Anbruch. Adorno threw himself once again into composition. in March 1933. by that token. philosophy must now radically transform its approach to objects so that it might "construct keys before which reality springs open. with the arrival of the literary scholar Leo Lowenthal. a new journal.3 was performed in Berlin in January 1929. detached from the surface of the composition. Yet when Adorno turned his attention to Kierkegaard. chiefly through its claim to pose an alternative to Idealism and Hegel's philosophy of history. "The Actuality of Philosophy. on the very day his revised study was published. Several months after qualifying as a lecturer in philosophy. Kierkegaard's philosophy exerted a strong influence. Adorno sought to use Anbruch for championing radical modern music against what he called the "stabilized music" of Pfitzner. Adorno unconscious as it emerged out of Freud's early writings. Adorno delivered an inaugural lecture at the Institute for Social Research. Adorno not only deviated from the theoretical program Horkheimer had laid out a year earlier." In line with Benjamin's The Origin of German Tragic Drama and preliminary sketches of the Arcades Project. social psychologist Erich Fromm and philosopher Herbert Marcuse." "inwardness" and "leap"—instructive for existentialist philosophy—were detached from their theological origins and posed. the journal nevertheless published many of his essays. as problems for aesthetics.. sought to exploit recent theoretical and methodological advances in the social sciences. "On Jazz" (1936). "On Twelve-Tone Technique" and "Reaction and Progress". As the work proceeded—and Kierkegaard's overcoming of Hegel's idealism was revealed to be a mere interiorization—Adorno excitedly remarked in a letter to Berg that he was writing without looking over his shoulder at the faculty who would soon evaluate his work. At this time. namely transformed into an a priori form and. Adorno struck up a correspondence with the composer Ernst Krenek. Adorno argued that Freud's notion of the unconscious serves as a "sharp weapon . against every attempt to create a metaphysics of the instincts and to deify full. Receiving favorable reports from Professors Tillich and Horkheimer." created a scandal. Against the function of the unconscious in both Nietzsche and Spengler." Following Horkheimer's taking up the directorship of the Institute. "On the Fetish-Character in Music and the
. was produced to publish the research of Institute members both before and after its relocation to the United States." Undaunted by his academic prospects. instead. His lecture. "is indeed not capable of producing or grasping the totality of the real. an independent organization which had recently appointed Horkheimer as its director and. Hitler seized dictatorial powers.
in December on the Italian Riviera. At this time. Yet Adorno's attempts to break out of the sociology of music were. the Institute's offices were searched by the Frankfurt criminal police. Max Horkheimer’s essays “The Latest Attack on Metaphysics” and “Traditional and Critical Theory. in June 1934. Adorno considered relocating to Britain upon his father's suggestion. Adorno was compelled to abandon any notion of "value-free" sociology in favor of a form of ideology critique which held on to an idea of truth. London. Adorno made repeated trips to Germany to see both his parents and Gretel. "the irrationality of society has reached a point where only the gloomiest predications have any plausibility. what would later become Minima Moralia. Adorno registered as an advanced student at Merton College. Adorno sailed for New York on June 9. Horkheimer and Adorno reestablished their essential theoretical alliance during meetings in Paris. Dawn and Decline. Karl Mannheim. Adorno worked on a dialectical critique of Husserl's epistemology. According to Benjamin. while Alban Berg died in December of the same year. Horkheimer telegrammed from New York with news of a position Adorno could take up with the Princeton Radio Project. Adorno's house on Seeheimer Strasse was similarly searched in July and his application for membership in the Reich Chamber of Literature was denied on the grounds that membership was limited to "persons who belong to the German nation by profound ties of character and blood. never complete. Adorno's philosophical analysis of cultural phenomena heavily relied on the language of historical materialism. at this time. With the help of the Academic Assistance Council. To the end of his life.” which would soon become instructive for the Institute’s self-understanding.” In his Wagner study. Impressed by Horkheimer's book of aphorisms. publishing "The Form of the Phonograph Record" and "Crisis of Music Criticism" with the Viennese musical journal 23. Adorno suffered two great losses: his Aunt Agathe died in June 1935. While at Oxford. Los Angeles
After the possibility of transferring his habilitation to the University of Vienna came to nothing. in March. "On Jazz" in the Institute's Zeitschrift. however. Yet Adorno’s work continued with studies of Beethoven and Richard Wagner (published in 1939 as "Fragments on Wagner"). After months of strained relations. "Farewell to Jazz" in Europäischen Revue. 1937 and stayed there for two weeks. Adorno began work on a Singspiel based on Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer entitled The Treasure of Indian Joe. Adorno never abandoned the hope of completing Berg's unfinished Lulu. As the Nazi party became the largest party in the Reichstag Horkheimer's 1932 observation proved chillingly prophetic: "Only one thing is certain. After receiving an invitation from Horkheimer to visit the Institute in New York. By this time. Oxford. and owing to both the presence of another prominent sociologist at the Institute. by the time he fled Hitler's Germany Adorno had already written over a hundred opera or concert reviews and an additional fifty critiques of music composition. the Institute for Social Research had relocated to New York City and began making overtures to Adorno. the thesis later to characterize
. Adorno began working on his own book of aphorisms. During the next four years at Oxford.
Exile: Oxford. as concepts like reification. As a non-Aryan. Before his emigration in autumn 1934. "you are unable to feel and appreciate such an obligation. as well as the methodological problem posed by treating objects—like "musical material"—as ciphers of social contradictions. In his new role as social theorist. Soon after his return to Europe. Adorno Regression of Listening" (1938) and "Fragments on Wagner" (1938). these drafts were astonishing for “the precision of their materialist deciphering. were the subject of intense discussion." he was informed. where she and Adorno were married on September 8. which he would. a little over a month later. false consciousness and ideology came to play an ever more prominent role in his work. as the swastika was run up the flag pole of town hall. Under the direction of Gilbert Ryle. Adorno was in intense correspondence with Walter Benjamin on the subject of the latter’s Arcades Project. who was still working in Berlin. At the same time. twice thwarted: neither the study of Mannheim he had been working on for years nor extracts from his study of Husserl were accepted by the Zeitschrift. 1937." Soon afterwards Adorno was forced into fifteen years of exile. New York. drafts of which he read to Benjamin during their final meeting. however. Gretel moved to Britain. While in New York."  In September Adorno's right to teach was revoked.Theodor W.” as well as the way in which “musical facts … had been made socially transparent in a way that was completely new to me. Adorno continued writing on music." he wrote. then under the directorship of the Austrian sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld.
then I did on this occasion. 1938. Adorno was nevertheless prolific. publishing “The Radio Sympthony. Soon after settling into his new home on Riverside Drive. Expected to make use of devices with which listeners could press a button to indicate whether they liked or disliked a particular piece of music.” Adorno was primarily interested in how the musical material was affected by its distribution through the medium of radio and thought it imperative to understand how music was affected by its becoming part of daily life. who soon passed on to New York the study of Charles Baudelaire he hoped would serve as a model of the larger Arcades Project. where Adorno’s parents suffered increasing discrimination and Benjamin was interned in Colombes. the two men discussed the difference in their conceptions of the relationship between critique and artworks which had become manifest through Benjamin's "The Work of Art in the Age of its Technical Reproducibility. in the form of the essays "The Authoritarian State." "The End of Reason" and "The Jews and Europe" served as a foundation for what he and Adorno planned to do in their book on dialectical logic. Adorno dealt with that atrophy of musical culture which had become instrumental in accelerating tendencies—towards conformism. Benjamin fled Paris and attempted to make an illegal border crossing. In light of recent events.” In essays published by the Institute’s Zeitschrift. Alarmed by reports from Europe. Adorno’s studies found little resonance among members of the project. the musical section of the study was duly left out. a dialectical critique of twelve-tone music. “In view of what is now threatening to engulf Europe. Adorno Dialectic of Enlightenment—man's domination of nature—first emerges. their joint study could entertain few delusions about its practical effects. In November 1941 Adorno followed Horkheimer to what Thomas Mann called "German California. Yet during the two years during which he worked on the Project.” he wrote. trivialization and standardization—already present in the larger culture. “Music in Radio.” Horkheimer wrote. which transformed itself from a book on dialectical logic to a rewriting of the
. which Adorno himself felt. only three months after meeting Lasarzfeld. On one side were those who supported Franz Neumann's thesis according to which National Socialism was a form of "monopoly capital". Adorno met with Lazarsfeld in Newark to discuss the Project’s plans for investigating the impact of broadcast music. Although he was expected to embed the Project’s research within a wider theoretical context. “our present work is essentially destined to pass things down through the night that is approaching: a kind of message in a bottle” As Adorno continued his work in New York with radio talks on music and a lecture on Soren Kierkegaard's doctrine of love." he wrote after reading the manuscript." which would later become Dialectic of Enlightenment. Benjamin took an overdose of morphine tablets. while writing. along with the draft memorandum and other unpublished writings. “The meaning of a Beethoven symphony. In correspondence. In addition to helping with the Zeitschrift Adorno was expected to be the Institute's liaison with Benjamin. completed a 160-page memorandum on the Project’s topic. The two set about completing their joint work. it soon became apparent that the Project was primarily concerned with data collection to be used by administrators for establishing whether groups of listeners could be targeted by broadcasts specifically aimed at them.Theodor W." At around the same time Adorno and Horkheimer began planning for a joint work on "dialectical logic. Adorno bristled with distaste and astonishment: “I reflected that culture was simply the condition that precluded a mentality that tried to measure it. the Institute set about formulating a theory of anti-Semitism and fascism. Current of Music. Adorno sailed for New York on February 16. In light of this situation. “heard while the listener is walking around or lying in bed is very likely to differ from its effect in a concert-hall where people sit as if they were in church." Horkheimer’s contributions to this debate." setting up house in a Pacific Palisades neighborhood of German emigres which included Bertolt Brecht and Arnold Schoenberg.” “A Social Critique of Radio Music” and “On Popular Music.” Thus Adorno suggested using individual interviews to determine listener reactions and. Unsurprisingly. when Lazarsfeld submitted a second application for funding. After learning that his Spanish visa was invalid and fearing deportation back to France.” texts which. Horkheimer's reaction to the manuscript was wholly positive: "If I have ever in the whole of my life felt enthusiasm about anything. which are now found in Robert Hullot-Kentor’s recent translation. At the end of 1939. was already a departure from the theory of art he had spent the previous decades elaborating. Horkheimer soon found a permanent post for Adorno at the Institute. Adorno arrived with a draft of his Philosophy of New Music. on the other were those who supported Fritz Pollock's "state capitalist theory.
totalitarianism and individuality.” Adorno’s surprise at his students' passionate interest in intellectual matters did not. op. Their joint work completed. "to think through with me how the work—I mean Leverkuhn’s work—might look. Adorno left America for Europe just as The Authoritarian Personality was being published. After the USA entered the war in 1941.Theodor W. were severely restricted in their movements. Adorno produced an analysis of the Californian radio preacher Martin Luther Thomas. treated issues like emigration. but completed two compositions: Four Songs for Voice and Piano by Stefan George. In California. the authors pushed for the greater usage of avant-garde music in film. Fascist propaganda of this sort. Hegel. Forbidden from leaving their homes between 8pm and 6am and prohibited from going more than five miles from their houses. Adorno resumed his teaching duties at the university soon after his arrival. Adorno history of rationality and the Enlightenment. twenty years after his return. “Contemporary Problems in the Theory of Knowledge” and “The Concept of Knowledge. Adorno put together a collection of aphorisms in honor of Horkheimer’s fiftieth birthday that would later be published as Minima Moralia: Reflections from Damaged Life. In line with these studies. urging that music be used to supplement.
Return to Frankfurt University Upon his return. now classed "enemy aliens" became increasingly precarious as government measures turned from anti-Nazism to anti-communism. hanging on to a culture that had itself been lost in rubble
." Mann wrote. First published in a small mimeographed edition in May 1944 as Philosophical Fragments. partisan of critical sociology and teacher of music at the Darmstadt International Summer Courses for New Music. holding on to ideas of the true. the 1950 study The Authoritarian Personality was pioneering in its combination of quantitative and qualitative methods of collecting and evaluating data as well as its development of the F-scale. Adorno helped shape the political culture of West Germany.Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers#Chronological items with seminars on "Kant’s Transcendental Dialectic. Adorno made the acquaintance of Charlie Chaplin and became friends with Fritz Lang and Hanns Eisler. "simply takes people for what they are: genuine children of today’s standardized mass culture who have been robbed to a great extent of their autonomy and spontaneity" The result of these labors. the government re-employed people who had been active in the Nazi apparatus and people were generally loath to own up to their own collaboration or the guilt they thus incurred. as well as analyses of the culture industry and anti-semitism. op. not simply accompany. Adorno assisted Thomas Mann on his novel Doctor Faustus after the latter asked for his help. the beautiful. In addition to the aphorisms which conclude Dialectic of Enlightenment." aesthetics. the visual aspect of films. Adorno had not only reached an agreement with a Tübingen publisher to print an expanded version of Philosophy of New Music. how you would do it if you were in league with the Devil?” At the end of October 1949. “Would you be willing. Before his return. dwelling and the impossibility of love. the situation of the émigrés. These fragmentary writings. inspired by a renewed reading of Nietzsche. This "reflection on the destructive aspect of progress" proceeded through chapter which treated rationality as both the liberation from and further domination of nature. who would not be naturalized until November 1943. émigrés like Adorno. the ruined city of Frankfurt continued as if nothing had happened. Dialectic of Enlightenment. Adorno wrote.7. interpretations of both Homer’s Odyssey and the Marquis de Sade. and Three Choruses for Female Voices from the Poems of Theodor Daubler. critic of the vogue enjoyed by Heideggerian philosophy. Until his death in 1969. the two turned their attention to studies on anti-semitism and authoritarianism in collaboration with the Nevitt Sanford-led Public Opinion Study Group and the American Jewish Committee. blind him to continuing problems within Germany: The literary climate was dominated by writers who had remained in Germany during Hitler's rule. Instead. as a professor at Frankfurt University. 8. Additionally. In this study. the text would wait another three years before achieving book form when it was published with its definitive title. by the Amsterdam publisher Querido Verlag. with whom he completed a study of film music in 1944. however. and the good despite the atrocities. Adorno contributed to the intellectual foundations of the Federal Republic. as well as everyday matters such as giving presents.
but also met with great admiration from Thomas Mann. In 1951 he continued on the topic with his essay Freudian Theory and the Pattern of Fascist Propaganda. and consisting of a 'qualitative interpretations' that uncovered the authoritarian character of test persons through indirect questions. After stopping in Paris. Adorno renewed his musical work: with talks at the Kranichsteiner Musikgesellschaft. rather than addressing such political concerns. Every day brings new fascination … concentrated nourishment. published as a contribution to the Studies in Prejudice performed by multiple research institutes in the US. He then published two influential essays. The Meaning of Working Through the Past (1959). Adorno also became increasingly involved with the publishing house of Peter Suhrkamp. is made of such dense material that a cubic inch of it would weigh a tonne here. Here he emphasized the importance of data collection and statistical evaluation while asserting that such empirical methods have only an auxiliary function and must lead to the formation of theories which would “raise the harsh facts to the level of consciousness. met Leo Lowenthal and Herbert Marcuse in New York and saw his mother for the last time. using a language intoxicated by itself ("von sich selber bis zur Selbstblendung entzückte Sprache"). in which he said that "Psychological dispositions do not actually cause fascism. became a lightning rod for critical thought. declaring his sympathy with those who protested the scandal of big-game
. rather. Adorno or killed off in the concentration camps. revealing residual National Socialist attitudes among the recently democratized Germans. inducing the latter to publish Benjamin’s Berlin Childhood Around 1900.Theodor W. another in connection with a production of Ernst Krenek’s opera Leben des Orest. Later on. and that there is still a real risk that it could raise again. Essays on Fascism Starting with his 1947 essay Wagner. in which he argued on the survival of the uneradicated National Socialism in the mind-sets and institutions of the post-1945 Germany. white in colour. and a seminar on “Criteria of New Music” at the Fifth International Summer Course for New Music at Kranichstein. Kracauer’s writings and a two-volume edition of Benjamin’s writings. culture had become an "alibi" for the absence of political consciousness. At the same time. Adorno delivered a lecture entitled "The Present State of Empirical Social Research in Germany" at a conference on opinion research. was exploiting Auschwitz for his metaphysical phantom "absolute negativity" ("absolute Negativität"). however. Yet Adorno was no less moved by other public events: protesting the publication of Heinrich Mann's novel Professor Unrat with its film title. Adorno’s own recently published Minima Moralia was not only well received in the press. then rector of the university. Public events In September 1951 Adorno returned to the United States for a six-week visit. The books have had a major influence on sociology and remain highly debated. Yet the foundations for what would come to be known as "The Frankfurt School" were soon laid: Horkheimer resumed his chair in social philosophy and the Institute for Social Research. One of these works was The Authoritarian Personality (1950)." In 1952 Adorno participated in a group experiment. Jean Améry—who had been tortured at Auschwitz—would sharply object that Adorno. responsibilities for the Institute's work fell upon Adorno. Michel Leiris and Rene Leibowitz. All the enthusiasm Adorno's students showed for intellectual matters could not erase the suspicion that. fascism defines a psychological area which can be successfully exploited by the forces which promote it for entirely non-psychological reasons of self-interest. Nietzsche and Hitler. rebuilt. The Blue Angel. in the words of Max Frisch. It is said that the companion star to Sirius. Adorno produced a series of influential works to describe psychological fascist traits. and Education after Auschwitz (1966). during which he attended the opening of the Hacker Psychiatry Foundation in Beverly Hills. in this respect it is similar to your book. who wrote to Adorno from America in 1952: I have spent days attached to your book as if by a magnet. however. This is why it has such an extremely powerful gravitational field.” With Horkheimer as dean of the Arts Faculty. where he met Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler.
who then approved its publication in the literary journal Akzente. After meeting Samuel Beckett while delivering a series of lectures in Paris the same year. With his friend Eduard Steuermann. all of which were included in the 1955 essay collection Prisms. South-West Radio and Radio Bremen. Yet conflicts between the so-called Darmstadt school. at which Habermas wrote that Adorno was "A writer among bureaucrats". Public figure Throughout the fifties and sixties. he frequently wrote for Frankfurter Allgemeine. Frankfurter Rundschau and the weekly Die Zeit." which. Back in Frankfurt. he was enjoined to return as co-director of the Institute.Theodor W. without the ideological pretense of being something else. receiving explicit expression in Adorno's 1954 lecture. Or rather. Adorno’s entrance into literary discussions continued in his June 1963 lecture at the annual conference of the Hölderlin Society. he renewed his academic duties and. “Valéry Proust Museum” and an essay on Schoenberg following the composer's death. In response to the publication of Thomas Mann's The Black Swan. to admit frankly the fact of non-identity and to follow through its logic to the end. Additionally. In his 1961 return to Kranichstein. Adorno feared that music was being sacrificed to stubborn rationalization. along with studies of Proust. not simply through his books and essays. the Institute nevertheless published a series of important sociological books. even so. Adorno penned a long letter to the author." Although the Zeitschrift was never revived. a textbook-like anthology intended as an introductory work about the discipline. a study of work satisfaction among workers in Mannesmann called Betriebsklima and the Soziologische Exkurse. Adorno presented "Progress. Karlheinz Stockhausen. Karel Goeyvaerts. At the Philosophers’ Conference of October 1962 in Münster. but also through his appearances in radio and newspapers. Adorno set to work on "Trying to Understand Endgame. at the end of ten months. Adorno took part in the Darmstadt Summer Courses for New Music in Kranichstein from 1951 to 1958. formed the central texts of the 1961 publication of the second volume of his Notes to Literature. Adorno hunting and penning a defense of prostitutes. Notes to Literature. "The Aging of the New Music". the essays “Television as Ideology” and “Prologue to Television”. At the invitation of Wolfgang Steinecke. but also published Mahler: A Musical Physiognomy in 1960. Adorno discussed topics as diverse as “The Administered World” (September 1950). the Gruppenexperiment (1955)."
. During this time Adorno not only produced a significant series of notes on Beethoven (which was never completed and only published posthumously). which included composers like Pierre Boulez. “What is the Meaning of ‘Working Through the Past?”’ (February 1960) to “The Teaching Profession and its Taboos” (August 1965). completed the essays “Notes on Kafka”. appeared in 1958. Adorno called for what he termed a "musique informelle". he returned once again to Santa Monica to survey his prospects at the Hacker Foundation. soon arose. from 1952 to 1954. including a collection of essays entitled Sociologica (1955). A second collection of essays. which would possess the ability "really and truly to be what it is. In talks. More essays on mass culture and literature Because Adorno’s American citizenship would have been forfeited by the middle of 1952 had he continued to stay outside the country. he was pleased when. Valéry and Balzac. where he argued that atonality's freedom was being restricted to serialism in much the same way as it was once restricted by twelve-tone technique. Adorno became a public figure. Luciano Berio and Gottfried Michael Koenig. interviews and round-table discussions broadcast on Hessen Radio. While there he wrote a content analysis of newspaper horoscopes (now collected in The Stars Down to Earth).
Adorno became increasingly critical of the students' disruptions to university life. massive demonstrations took place. were both commented upon in Adorno's lectures. which had led a campaign to vilify the students. Monopolistic trends in the media. As politicization increased.Theodor W. as well as the war in Vietnam. claimed Adorno had subjected Benjamin to pressure during his years of exile in Berlin and compiled Benjamin’s Writings and Letters with a great deal of bias. which. Like many of his students. An open appeal
. wrote to the editor of Merkur to express his disapproval of the "in part." Confrontations with students At the time of Negative Dialectics' publication. later published as the Positivist Dispute in German Sociology. the Shah of Persia's 1967 state visit. Adorno too opposed the emergency laws. the fragility of West German democracy led to the increasing student protests." a number of those present left the lecture in protest after Adorno refused to abandon his talk in favor of discussing his attitude on the current political situation. Adorno Post-war German culture At the same time Adorno struck up relationships with contemporary German-language poets such as Paul Celan and Ingeborg Bachmann. Adorno shortly thereafter participated in a friendly and productive meeting with the Berlin Sozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund (SDS) and discussed "Student Unrest" with Szondi on West German Radio. arose out of disagreements at the 1959 14th German Sociology Conference in Berlin. Benjamin’s longtime friend Gershom Scholem. he offered regular philosophy seminars to discuss the book chapter by chapter. His 1964 publication of The Jargon of Authenticity took aim at the halo such writers had attached to words like "angst". "decision" and "leap". where he presided over two important conferences: in 1964. he wrote that "Perennial suffering has as much right to expression as a tortured man has to scream". as well as the subsequent acquittal of the responsible officer.” he wrote in 1962 that the dictum "expresses in negative form the impulse which inspires committed literature"—was part of post-war Germany’s struggle with history and culture. directed in particular against the Springer Press. Soon Adorno himself would become an object of the students' ire. Adorno was elected to the post of chairman of the German Sociological Society. But as 1968 progressed. on "Max Weber and Sociology" and in 1968 on "Late Capitalism or Industrial Society". In spring 1968. Rudi Dutschke. to which Adorno replied that negative dialectics was concerned "with the dissolution of standpoint thinking itself. which. his own continual revision of this dictum—in Negative Dialectics. This death. After a group of students marched to the lectern. Adorno completed Negative Dialectics in 1966. while in “Commitment. proved the continued existence of the "world of torture that had begun in Auschwitz” The situation only deteriorated with the police shooting of Benno Ohnesorg at a protest against the Shah's visit. Among the students at these seminars were the Americans Angela Davis and Irving Wohlfarth. In response. After seven years of work. during the summer semester of 1967 and the winter semester of 1967-8. At the invitation of Peter Szondi. One objection which would soon take on ever greater importance. and which had subsequently seeped into public discourse. In 1963. as practiced by writers like Karl Jaspers and Otto Friedrich Bollow. A debate launched in 1961 by Adorno and Karl Popper. German support for the war in Vietnam and the emergency laws combined to create a highly unstable situation. was that critical thought must adopt the standpoint of the oppressed. in response. Relations between students and the West German state continued deteriorating. for example. Adorno additionally befriended the writer and poet Hans Magnus Enzensberger as well as the film-maker Alexander Kluge. Adorno’s 1949 dictum—"To write poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric"—posed the question of what German culture could mean after Auschwitz. Adorno was invited to the Free University of Berlin to give a lecture on Goethe's Iphigenie in Tauris. not to say disgraceful" remarks by Arendt. after which. a prominent SDS spokesman. rifts developed within both the Institute's relationship with its students as well as within the Institute itself. an educational crisis in the universities. unfurling a banner that read "Berlin’s left-wing fascists greet Teddy the Classicist. shameful. he said. was gunned down in the streets. Adorno's critique of the dominant climate of post-war Germany was also directed against the pathos that had grown up around Heideggerianism. following the lead of Hannah Arendt’s articles in Merkur. His isolation was only compounded by articles published in the magazine alternative.
At the same time." delivered in Zurich. Beginning in October 1966. Adorno canceled the lectures for the rest of the seminar. events prevented his concentrating upon the book on aesthetics he wished to write: "Valid student claims and dubious actions. After further disruptions to his lectures." he wrote to Marcuse. he wrote to Marcuse. signed by Adorno. maintaining instead his autonomy as a theoretician. Switzerland. The building of barricades. On August 6 he died of a heart attack. called for an inquiry into the social reasons that gave rise to this assassination attempt as well as an investigation into the Springer Press' manipulation of public opinion. During the winter semester of 1968-9 Adorno was on sabbatical leave from the university and thus able to dedicate himself to the completion of his book of aesthetics.Theodor W. Adorno protested against disruptions of his own lectures and refused to express his solidarity with their political goals." In September 1968 Adorno went to Vienna for the publication of Alban Berg: Master of the Smallest Link. Adorno published in Die Zeit." After striking students threatened to strip the Institute's sociology seminar rooms of their furnishings and equipment. Adorno returned once again to Zermatt. which was connected with a talk entitled "Charmed Language. But at the first lecture Adorno's attempt to open up the lecture and invite questions whenever they arose degenerated into a disruption from which he quickly fled: after a student wrote on the blackboard "If Adorno is left in peace. In the summer of 1969. For the summer semester Adorno planned a lecture course entitled "An Introduction to Dialectical Thinking. the police were brought in to close the building. continuing only with his philosophy seminar. is "ridiculous against those who administer the bomb. Adorno took up work on Aesthetic Theory. In June 1969 he completed Catchwords: Critical Models." as well as a seminar on the dialectics of subject and object." three women students approached the lectern. followed by a talk on aesthetics in Paris where he met Beckett again. Adorno began writing an introduction to a collection of poetry by Rudolf Borchardt. "are all so mixed up together that all productive work and even sensible thought are scarcely possibly any more. weary from these activities. Adorno rejected the so-called unity of theory and praxis advocated by the students and argued that the students' actions were premised upon a mistaken analysis of the situation. Yet Adorno continued to resist blanket condemnations of the protest movement which would have only strengthened the reactionary thesis according to which political irrationalism was the result of Adorno's teaching. bared their breasts and scattered flower petals over his head. at the foot of Matterhorn to restore his strength. Upon his return to Frankfurt.
Part of a series on the
. capitalism will never cease. however.
Theodor W. Georg Lukács's Hegelian interpretation of Marxism. had passed. music and literature could be described as a lifelong critique of the ways in which each tries to justify self-mutilation as the necessary price of self-preservation. argued that advanced capitalism had managed to contain or liquidate the forces that would bring about its collapse and that the revolutionary moment. society's self-preservation had become indistinguishable from societally sanctioned self-sacrifice: of "primitive" peoples. colonialist consolidation and accelerating commodification. According to Adorno's translator Robert Hullot-Kentor."  In this sense. mimetic desires found in imitation and sympathy. Neither Picasso's fascination with African sculpture nor Mondrian's reduction of painting to its most elementary component—the line—is comprehensible outside this concern with primitivism Adorno shared with the century's most radical art. the Western world. Adorno argued that capitalism had become more entrenched through its attack on the objective basis of revolutionary consciousness and through liquidation of
. as well as Walter Benjamin's philosophy of history. As he put it at the beginning of his Negative Dialectics (1966). Adorno was chiefly influenced by Max Weber's critique of disenchantment." At its most basic. Adorno's thought is motivated by a fundamental critique of this law. beset by world-wars. sank into the very barbarism civilization had prided itself in overcoming. From this perspective. Adorno. Adorno
Reason and Revolution The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction Eclipse of Reason The Fear of Freedom Dialectic of Enlightenment Minima Moralia Eros and Civilization One-Dimensional Man Negative Dialectics The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere The Theory of Communicative Action Notable theorists Max Horkheimer · Theodor Adorno Herbert Marcuse · Walter Benjamin Erich Fromm · Friedrich Pollock Leo Löwenthal · Jürgen Habermas Important concepts Critical theory · Dialectic · Praxis Psychoanalysis · Antipositivism Popular culture · Culture industry Advanced capitalism Privatism · Non-identity Communicative rationality Legitimation crisis
Adorno's work sets out from a central insight he shares with all early 20th century avant-garde art: The recognition of what is primitive in ourselves and the world itself. Adorno's theory proceeds from an understanding of this primitive quality of reality which seeks to counteract whatever aims to either repress this primitive aspect or further those systems of domination set in place by this return to barbarism. primitive aspects of the ego and those primitive. Adorno writes in Negative Dialectics. philosophy. when it would have been possible to transform it into socialism. At that time. Adorno's writings on politics. the principle of self-preservation. the central motive of Adorno's work thus consists in determining "how life could be more than the struggle for self-preservation. is nothing but "the law of doom thus far obeyed by history. along with the other major Frankfurt School theorists Max Horkheimer and Herbert Marcuse. philosophy is still necessary because the time to realise it was missed. According to Adorno.
many of which had not previously been translated into English.Theodor W. Adorno conceptualized this phenomenon as pseudo-individualization and the always-the-same. rests with neither the composer's genius nor the work's conformity with prior standards. He argued that the culture industry." The differences among cultural goods make them appear different. the easy pleasures available through consumption of popular culture made people docile and content. like Stravinsky. twelve-tone serialism constitutes a decisive. and therefore more revenue for the corporation system. In this sense. The latter has become a particularly productive. while the critique from the right emphasized moral degeneracy ascribed to sexual and racial influences within popular culture. according to Adorno. but with the way in which the work coherently expresses the dialectic of the material. Adorno located the problem not with the content. Adorno's work in the years before his death was shaped by the idea of "negative dialectics". Adorno claimed that musical progress is proportional to the composer's ability to constructively deal with the possibilities and limitations contained within what Adorno called the "musical material. especially in regard to the past (Auschwitz). as a collection of essays on the subject. set out especially in his book of that title. However. Many of Adorno's reflections on aesthetics and music have only just begun to be debated. no matter how terrible their economic circumstances. has only recently been collected and published as Essays on Music.g. as a form of reverse psychology.e. withdrew from this freedom by taking recourse to forms of the past as well as those who turned twelve-tone composition into a technique which dictated the rules of composition. and regarding as unreal or non-existent everything that did not. [citation
.  Adorno's analysis allowed for a critique of mass culture from the left which balanced the critique of popular culture from the right. by incorporating subtle modifications or inexpensive "add-ons" in order to keep the consumer returning for new purchases. By doing so. He wrote that "the same thing is offered to everybody by the standardized production of consumption goods" but this is concealed under "the manipulation of taste and the official culture's pretense of individualism". of identifying as real in nature and society only that which harmonized or fit with dominant concepts." Capitalist production so confines them. Popular culture was identified as a reason why people become passive. especially through the notion of identity. A key notion in the work of the Frankfurt School since Dialectic of Enlightenment had been the idea of thought becoming an instrument of domination that subsumes all objects under the control of the (dominant) subject. The objective validity of the composition. Adorno came to criticize those who. instead. i. which produced and circulated cultural commodities through the mass media. new music is to be credited with laying bare aspects of the musical material previously repressed: The musical material's liberation from number. body and soul. Adorno saw the culture industry as an arena in which critical tendencies or potentialities were eliminated." For Adorno. all while maintaining minimal costs and effort on their behalf. but they are in fact just variations on the same theme. e. but with the objective realities of the production of mass culture and its effects. the contemporary absence of composers of the status of Bach or Beethoven is not the sign of musical regression. it is to the analysis of such material that the critic must turn. From both perspectives – left and right – the nature of cultural production was felt to be at the root of social and moral problems resulting from the consumption of culture." Because historical experience and social relations are embedded within this musical material. morals or the Culture Industry. Thus. manipulated the population.  Thinkers influenced by Adorno believe that today's society has evolved in a direction foreseen by him. In the face of this radical liberation of the musical material.
In his early essays for the Vienna-based journal Anbruch. the harmonic series and tonal harmony. historical progress is only achieved by the composer who "submits to the work and seemingly does not undertake anything active except to follow where it leads. the culture industry appeals to every single consumer in a unique and personalized way. historically developed method of composition. Adorno the individualism that had been the basis of critical consciousness. that they fall helpless victims to what is offered them. Consumers purchase the illusion that every commodity or product is tailored to the individual's personal preference. yet highly contested term in cultural studies.
are put together in order to create. in particular. but inhuman. Being pushed and shoved into consuming products and services being presented to them by the media system. but the composer signally failed to return the compliment: ‘I have never been able to bear the fellow…It is disgusting. Indeed. This is consistent with Adorno's idea of society as a self-regulating system. as mentioned above. Standardization consists of the production of large amounts of commodities to then pursue consumers in order to gain the maximum profit possible.
The phenomenon of standardization is “a concept used to characterize the formulaic products of capitalist-driven mass media and mass culture that appeal to the lowest common denominator in pursuit of maximum profit” (Laughey:2007:204).’ Even a fellow Marxist such as the historian and jazz critic Eric Hobsbawm saw Adorno's writings as containing ‘some of the stupidest pages ever written about jazz. Apologetic music is defined as the highly produced and promoted music of the “pop music” industry: music that is composed of variable parts and interchanged to create several different songs. which he took to be a reification in thought of the commodity form or exchange relation which always presumes a false identity between different things. This gap. Richard Taruskin  declares Adorno to be ‘preposterously over-rated. numerous times a day. For him it was existent. The example he chooses to expose is that of Beethoven’s symphonies: “[his] greatness shows itself in the complete subordination of the accidentally private melodic elements to the form as a whole”. by the way how he treats Stravinsky.” (Laughey:2007:125) Whereas serious music. individualising products to give the illusion to consumers that they are in fact purchasing a product or service that was specifically designed for them: Adorno highlights the issues created with the construction of popular music.  Adorno’s reputation as a musicologist has been in steady decline since his death. Where different samples of music used in the creation of today’s chart topping songs. according to Adorno we inhabit a media culture driven society in which one of its main characteristics is product consumption. His sweeping criticisms of jazz and championing of the second Viennese school in opposition to Stravinsky have signally failed the test of time.Theodor W. They do this by.’ 
According to Horst Müller's Kritik der kritischen Theorie ("Critique of Critical Theory"). this non-identity in identity. 1990)’ to keep people obedient and subservient to the status quo of existing power structures. The distinguished American scholar. The masses have become conditioned by the culture industry: which makes the impact of standardization much more important. and the Frankfurt School in general. from which one must escape (but from which nobody can escape). according to Adorno. re-create and modify numerous tracks by using the same variety of samples from one song to another. Mass media is employed to vehicle message about products and services to consumers in order to convince these individuals to purchase the commodity they are advertising. being bombarded by media advertising. misconstrue Marx. which can never go into the former without remainder.’  Irritation with Adorno’s tunnel vision started even while he was alive. “The social and psychological functions of popular music [is that it] acts like a social cement (Adorno. was the secret to a critique of both material life and conceptual reflection. The potential to criticise arises from the gap between the concept and the object. He concludes that Jürgen Habermas. It would suggest that in today’s modern society (edited in 2012). Müller argues against the existence of such a system and claims that Critical Theory provides no practical solution for societal change. Adorno
Adorno's "negative dialectics" was an attempt to articulate a non-dominating thought that would recognize its limitations and accept the non-identity and reality of that which could not be subsumed under the subject's concepts. He distinguishes the difference between “Apologetic music” & “Critical music”. achieves excellence when its whole is greater than the sum of its parts. (Laughey:2010:125) Standardization not only refers to the products of the culture industry but to the consumers as well: consumers are daily. He may have championed Schoenberg. Adorno sought to ground the critical bite of his sociological work in his critique of identity. Adorno posits totality as an automatic system. By not realizing the impact of
so that RCA could profitably air more classical music.. would you mind a personal question?”. and reprinted  it was finally installed 25 years later. what the naive ethnographer or sociologist thinks of a human essence is always changing over time. concepts installed by dominant classes and social structures (such as our notion of "deviance" which includes both genuinely deviant individual and "hustlers" operating below social norms because they lack the capital to operate above: for an analysis of this phenomenon.Theodor W. a street which divides the well as people who would process the "facts" discovered. Among the frequently changing colleagues which the Princeton Project provided me with. is a political construct in large measure that uses. Theories and Political Significance (MIT 1995). It was as if she. presentation".  One example of the clash of intellectual culture and Adorno's methods can be found in Paul Lazarsfeld. as a living being. but just go ahead”. to discover both the sort of music that listeners of radio liked and ways to improve their "taste".” 
. as Senckenberganlage. After a few days.. “(Laughey:2007:124)
Adorno's responses to his critics
As a pioneer of a self-reflexive sociology who prefigured Bourdieu's ability to factor in the effect of reflection on the societal object. Adorno realized that some criticism (including deliberate disruption of his classes in the 1960s) could never be answered in a dialogue between equals if. had trouble both with the prose style of the work Adorno handed in and what Lazarsfeld thought was Adorno's "lack of discipline in . I said. Lazarsfeld.. Adorno himself provided the following personal anecdote: "What I mean by reified consciousness.
Adorno's sociological methods
As Adorno believed that sociology needs to be self-reflective and self-critical.including Institute for Social Research from Goethe revising theories that were found to be false. she had gained confidence in me.. the American sociologist for whom Adorno worked in the middle 1930s after fleeing Hitler. Its History. cf. the individual is caught in a situation where conformity is the norm. already thought according to the model of multi-choice questions in questionnaires. often unreflectingly. Adorno social media and commercial advertising. like the language of the ordinary person. however. As Rolf Wiggershaus recounts in The Frankfurt School. and she went on: “Please tell me: are you an extrovert or an introvert?”. For example. funded and inspired by David Sarnoff (the head of RCA). and asked most kindly: “Dr Adorno. “During consumption the masses become characterized by the commodities which they use and exchange among themselves. He felt that those at the top of the Institute needed to be The "Adorno-Ampel" (Adorno-traffic light) on the source primarily of theories for evaluation and empirical testing. he also believed that the language the sociologist uses. I can illustrate—without elaborate philosophical contemplation—most simply with an American experience. Lazarsfeld was the director of a project. Adorno praised the egalitarianism and openness of US society based on his sojourn in New York and the Los Angeles area between 1935 and 1955. was a young lady. in essays University Frankfurt—Adorno requested its construction after a pedestrian death in 1962. “It depends on the question. Pierre Bourdieu's book The Weight of the World). as he seems to have believed. in the Critical Models essays collection (ISBN 0-231-07635-5). and published in Germany on Adorno's return from the USA.
Fragments and Texts (1993) Current of Music (2006)
. and a number of other German philosophers and poets. and the letters to Adorno's parents. In recent years. and are more accessible to English readers. Studies in Husserl and the Phenomenological Antinomies (1956) Dissonanzen. A new translation has also appeared of Aesthetic Theory and the Philosophy of New Music by Robert Hullot-Kentor. Professor Henry Pickford. 1944) Composing for the Films (1947) Philosophy of New Music (1949) The Authoritarian Personality (1950) Minima Moralia: Reflections from Damaged Life (1951) In Search of Wagner (1952) Prisms (1955) Against Epistemology: A Metacritique. Olick and Andrew J.  The Group Experiment. Towards a Theory of Musical Reproduction. Edmund Jephcott and Stanford University Press have published new translations of some of Adorno's lectures and books. of the University of Colorado at Boulder. some early translators tended toward over-literalness. has translated many of Adorno's works such as The meaning of Working Through the Past. including Introduction to Sociology. is now available in an accessible translation by Jeffrey K. along with introductory material explaining its relation to the rest of Adorno's work and 20th century public opinion research. from the University of Minnesota Press. an additional problem for English readers is that his German idiom is particularly difficult to translate into English.Theodor W. These fresh translations are less literal in their rendering of German sentences and words. Musik in der verwalteten Welt (1956) Notes to Literature I (1958) Sound Figures (1959) Mahler: A Musical Physiognomy (1960) Notes to Literature II (1961) Hegel: Three Studies (1963) Critical Models: Interventions and Catchwords (1963) Quasi una Fantasia (1963) The Jargon of Authenticity (1964) Night Music: Essays on Music 1928-1962 (1964) Negative Dialectics (1966) Alban Berg: Master of the Smallest Link (1968) Critical Models: Interventions and Catchwords (1969) Aesthetic Theory (1970) Beethoven: The Philosophy of Music. Adorno's correspondence with Alban Berg. and a new translation of the Dialectic of Enlightenment. Problems of Moral Philosophy and his transcribed lectures on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and Aristotle's "Metaphysics". which had been unavailable to English readers. A similar difficulty of translation is true of Hegel. Heidegger. Perrin on Harvard University Press. As a result. Adorno
Adorno translated into English
While even German readers can find Adorno's work difficult to understand.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Kierkegaard: Construction of the Aesthetic (1933) Dialectic of Enlightenment (with Max Horkheimer. have been translated by Wieland Hoban and published by Polity Press.
Its History." The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism. Theodor (2003). 300. Adorno. Negative Dialectics.ix (1)  Adorno. The Adorno Reader. "Theodor W. Eric 'The Jazz Scene' 1993. 1995. 2004. 2005. quoted in Stuckenschmidt. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Guide.
• Adorno. Mass: Harvard UP.litguide. Adorno: A Biography.  For a comparison of Adorno's and Bourdieu's rather divergent conceptions of reflexivity.edu/entries/adorno) entry by Lambert Zuidervaart in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
. Adorno.Theodor W. MA: Harvard University Press. Adorno. Aesthetic Theory. Cambridge. • Jay. Peter Uwe. Martin.  Hobsbawm. Hohendahl. Adorno: One Last Genius. Nedim.umn. Claussen. Theodor (1992). MA: MIT Press. Jarvis. google. • • • • • • Adorno.umn. Nietzsche and Hitler in Kenyan Review Vol. Jay. Adorno. Espen (2006) Adorno and the political (http:/ / books. H. Auflosung einiger Deutungsprobleme. Notes to Literature: Volume two. Detlev (2008). Theories and Political Significance. 14. 351–368. 129 (7 June 2004).edu/Books/A/adorno_aestheticpb. Berkeley: University of California Press. Adorno. Fall 2012.2. 1974. The Frankfurt School. • Wiggershaus. MA: Blackwell Publishing. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag. v. Politics and Culture. Cambridge: Polity.stanford. Cambridge. 1996. Theodor W. 1998. New German Critique 97 (2006). Adorno and Ethics. p. 122 (also cited in Friedemann Grenz.xiv. The Essential Frankfurt School Reader. see: Karakayali. New York. sagepub. "Robert Hullot-Kentor in Conversation with Fabio Akcelrud Durão" (http://www.html) University of Minnesota Press (http://www. World and Work. Brian O'Connor. com/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ 38/ 2/ 351)  Theodor W. 'Der Geist ist stets gestört'.  Letter of 5 December 1949. Searle London: John Calder. Humanitas. 2005. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag. (http:// www. Adornos Philosophie in Grundbegriffen. ed. p. New York: Columbia University Press. ch. Durão. Arnold Schoenberg: His Life.
• • • • Gerhardt. p. Theodor (2000). Politics and Economics in the Interview Material (http:/ / ada.
• Adorno. Fabio Akcelrud (July–August 2008). Adorno (http://plato.upress. trans. Stichworte.). Theodor (2002).press. 2nd edition.17  Hammer. Rolf (1995). Martin Greiswirth and Imre Szeman. Prismatic Thought: Theodor W. Arato. The Dialectical Imagination: A History of the Frankfurt School and the Institute for Social Research 1923–1950. Christina. Adorno.brooklynrail.  Oxford Dictionary of English  Adorno. Eds. Malden.38. Oxford University Press.org/2008/07/art/robert-hullot-kentor-in-conversation-with-fabio-ackelrud-durao). TW (1947) Wagner. Retrieved 28 November 2011. Cambridge.  Taruskin. pdf). Martin.jhu.” Sociology (Journal of the British Sociological Association). Michael Groden. 1984. • Müller-Doohm. evergreen. New York: Continuum. pp. edu/ ~arunc/ texts/ frankfurt/ ap/ politics. pp. Richard. Theodor. (1982). 2nd ed. p. 1996 • Gerhardt. 'The Oxford History of Western Music'. Ed. ed. in: Süddeutsche Zeitung nr.56–7  Hammer (2006) p. p. com/ books?id=X3L5R3kiOh4C& pg=PA56). 1969. Issue 1.upress. (http://www.69  Andreas Dorschel. 43. 1977. (http:/ / soc. Adorno
 Christine Fillion. The Brooklyn Rail: Critical Perspectives on Art. Andrew. Essays on Music. Kritische Modelle. Simon. MA: Polity Press. n. Pantheon. Adorno: A Critical Introduction. Volume 2. "Adorno's Marginalien zu Theorie und Praxis: In Praise of Discontinuity".edu/) • Theodor W. Stefan (2005). New York: Continuum. Malden. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Berkeley: University of California Press. “Reading Bourdieu with Adorno: The Limits of Critical Theory and Reflexive Sociology.edu). Christina.
Online works by Adorno
• The Adorno Reference Archive (http://www.com/habermas.findagrave. htm) • Odysseus and the Siren Call of Reason: The Frankfurt School Critique of Enlightenment (http://www.org/reference/archive/adorno/index.com/cgi-bin/fg.1 v.edu/faculty/kellner/illumina Folder/ador.logosjournal.org.
.cgi?page=gr&GRid=7948579) • Illuminations – The Critical Theory Project (http://www.html) published in Other Voices.org/cubowman/siren.org/~dredmond/ndtrans.htm) at Marxists.efn. Adorno • Gravesite (http://www.ucla.gseis. 1997.html) at efn. Contains complete texts of Enlightenment as Mass Deception. • "Adorno during the 1950s" by Juergen Habermas (http://www. n.1.Theodor W.org.marxists. • Negative Dialectics (http://www. Supramundane Character of the Hegelian World Spirit and Minima Moralia.
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