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QUESTION 3 With particular reference to Nigeria, list and discuss five major constraints to Educational planning in developing countries.

Suggest ways of improving the planning process.

Educational planning is the process of determining the objectives of education, educational institutions or educational programmes and the means (activities, procedures, resources etc.) for attaining them.

Many more young people are attending school today and much more money is being allocated to education by governments and private sources than ever before. Inspite of all these, Educational Planning in Nigeria and other developing countries have been faced with some major constraints which includes the following:


1. RISING DEMAND FOR EDUCATION Given this background, the first constraint to educational planning in Nigeria and other developing countries of the world is the continued rapid growth of population, combined with the rising demand by parents and their children for educational opportunity. There is no present prospect of this increase in population slowing down.

In Nigeria and many any developing countries, it should be noted have the basic natural resources to sustain a substantially larger population in the long run, provided these resources are intelligently developed. The real problem is not total population but the rate at which it is increasing in relation to the rate of economic and educational expansion. Demand for education already heavy, is likely to increase still further because education has a way of generating its own demand. If you put a much larger number of children through primary school you must anticipate that a few years hence more pupils will want to go to secondary school.

My suggestion therefore is that Educational Planning process should seek to fill the gap between the increasing demand for education at all levels. For example, an increase in demand for primary education should also lead to planning for the availability of more secondary schools and ultimately more tertiary institutions to absorb the graduates of both primary and secondary schools respectively. A gap between this popular demand for education and what a country can do at the moment in providing educational opportunities constitutes a major problem in educational planning in Nigeria and many other developing countries today.

2. FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: The second constraint to educational planning in Nigeria is finance. It has always had to face them, but the constraints in Nigeria and many other developing countries are likely to become more severe, simply because the proportion of national economic effort that is now going into education is so much larger than in the past that it is beginning to compete severely with other

important demands, such as health, housing and industry. One cannot expect educations proportion of the total national budget to keep going up as rapidly as it has in the last ten years in Nigeria and many other developing countries as this will amount to neglecting other sectors of the economy.

My suggestion for improvement in the planning process here is, while educators, and educational planners, must continue fighting hard, as they have always had to, for bigger budgets to take care of more children and to do a better job of education, they must now learn more about fiscal affairs in order to seek out and obtain new sources of finance. For example, in a bid to generate more sources of income for the effective running of the institution, University of Lagos Nigeria has set up a pure water plant which produces satchet water that is sold to the school community and to the general public, Multi- purpose Halls that are being rented out to individuals and corporate bodies for events, Parking Lots etc in order to generate additional income for the running of the institution. Other areas of economic activities that schools particularly universities should embark on are Consultancy, Provision of continuing professional education and vocational courses. But however successful they are at this, they will at the same time have to give much more attention to getting greater and better educational results out of the resources they already have. There is therefore need to not rely absolutely on the budgetary allocation. Educators and educational planners in Nigeria and other developing countries should seek to explore more sources of revenue generation in addition.

3. TEACHER SUPPLY AND DEMAND The third constraint to educational planning in Nigeria and other developing countries is teacher supply and demand. This is going to remain a crucial topic for educational planners but it is likely to change its character somewhat. As primary, secondary and tertiary level educational output expands, schools should find it easier to recruit staff in order to accommodate the expansion. Another teacher supply problem which will probably become bigger in Nigeria in the next ten years if not checked, concerns specialized teachers particularly for vocational, technical and science education. The teacher requirement pattern will demand more teachers with not just a good general education or specialized in one of the traditional school subjects, but teachers who can teach in specialized programmes, particularly in technical fields.

This means that schools can become more selective in employing teachers than during the earlier period of rushed expansion. On the other hand, there is also the need of upgrading the teachers already on the job who did not have an opportunity to go through Colleges of Education or University but are enthusiastic and committed to the teaching profession. They will now need further education and training if the quality of the whole system is to be raised. In addition to employing more qualified teachers to meet the increase demand for education, I also suggest that In-service training will become a must for teachers at all levels.

4. TRAINING FOR BUSINESS AND GOVERNMENT A fourth and parallel constraint concerns training for industry and commerce and for government service. This by and large involves people outside the rural areas. Here is another

key area in any educational system (especially in Nigeria) where much rethinking and research is needed to provide guides to future development that will make the best use of available educational resources.

Here again we need to keep in mind not only the formal educational system, such as the vocational high school or the polytechnic (these have their place), but also out-of-school training for industry, commerce, and government in some cases these are preferable to inschool training. They may be less expensive, quicker and may concentrate on people who really are going to practice the specialized training they have received.

The great expense of technical training requires that we look very hard at the choice of formal and non formal types of technical training during educational planning process considering the manpower needs of Nigeria and other developing countries.

5. THE MANPOWER INBALANCE The fifth constraint to educational planning in Nigeria is manpower imbalance, and there are two sides to this coin. Earlier, the side that received main attention was the shortage of specialized manpower for economic development and government administration. Serious shortages of certain types of manpower still exist in Nigeria and one task of educational planners is to try to shape the educational system and the flow of students to overcome these shortages. Otherwise economic growth and public services will be handicapped. But the other side of the coin is that the over-all number of new is not growing rapidly enough in many countries to absorb the young people emerging from schools and universities. In recent years

this imbalance has become a conspicuous problem. In a sense it is a good sign of educational progress, but it is also a source of grave concern to educators, political leaders and others, because the pupil who comes out of school with a certificate or diploma will not be satisfied to be told: "Wait a while, the economy will absorb you one day, or if not you, then your children". He wants a job right now and if he does not get one he may become a problem. It is not only a problem for the individual; it is a waste of human resources for his society. Educators and planners cannot simply dismiss it by saying it is someone else's problem to solve. They cannot say? "We have produced the manpower, now you find the jobs"

Educational planners in Nigeria and other developing countries, while they cannot take responsibility for creating jobs, must be in a continuing dialogue with those concerned with economic development and employment. They must try to do what they can within the educational system to cut down the time lag between leaving school and finding gainful employment. This is a difficult problem for which there is no panacea. It will haunt educational planners in Nigeria and many other developing countries in the coming years. Another constraint to educational planning in Nigeria and other developing countries of the world is political instability which has characterized the African scene. The unstable political climate in Nigeria has impacted negatively on the quality and reliability of educational planning.

In conclusion therefore, research supports that the process of Educational planning is most effective and efficient when all stakeholders which includes the community, the church, private

sector, the parents, teachers, youth and the adult are involved. They are more likely to support the efforts of the Ministry of Educational in realization of educational objectives.


A. B.

Discuss any five characteristics of Developing Nations What are the implications of those features for educational development in any developing country of your choice?

Low levels of productivity

Developing countries have relatively low levels of labour productivity, i.e. output per unit of labour. This is mainly due to the absence or severe lack of complementary factor inputs such as physical capital and or experienced management to raise labour productivity, there is need to mobilize savings and foreign finance in order to generate new investments in physical capital goods, and build up the stock of human capital through investment in education and training. In addition, institutional changes in land tenure, credit and banking structures, honest and efficient administrations and the restructuring of educational and training programmes should be tailored to the needs of the developing societies

High rate of population growth and dependence burdens:

In 1990, the worlds population was estimated at 5.3 billion, of which more than 3/4 lived in the less developed countries. Almost all the developing countries possess high population growth potential characterised by high birth rate and high but declining death rate. Death rates in developing countries have fallen, compared to the past, due to improved health conditions and control of major infectious diseases. On the average annual population growth rate in developing countries is 2% as compared with about 0.7% in developed countries. Birth rates are

generally high in the order of 30-40 per 1000 whereas those for advanced countries are less than half that figure. An important consequence of high birth rate is that a larger proportion of the total population is the younger age groups. This leads to a higher economic dependency. With many dependants to support, it becomes difficult for the workers to save and invest in productive assets. Life expectancy is averaging 51 years as compared with 75 years for developed countries, implying that a smaller fraction of their population is available as an effective labour force.


Substantial dependence on agricultural produce and export of primary products : The

majority of the people in developing countries lives and work in rural areas. Over 75% of the population in Africa and 63% in Asia are dependent on agriculture compared to only 5.5% in North America. Agriculture contributes well over 20% of GDP for most developing countries compared to only 3% in developed countries. In Uganda agriculture contributes about 45% of GDP and close to 90% of the population live and work in rural areas, heavily dependent on subsistence agriculture for a livelihood and the production of a few cash crops for an income. The basic reasons for the concentration of people are basic needs of food, clothing and shelter. Agriculture productivity is low because of primitive technology, poor organisation and limited physical and human capital inputs. Primary products account for over 60% of all exports in developing countries and over 94% of total export earnings in sub- Saharan Africa.

Poor health care

The percentage of a countrys budget that is allocated to health services largely determines the standard of health care in that country. If we consider the average percentage of 4% in developing countries as

opposed to the 96% in developed countries, it is easy to understand why the hospitals in many poor countries are in such a shocking condition.

In developing countries many people are dependent on a stream or a river for their daily supply of water. The water from these sources is not always safe and clean and if people use the water just as it is, it could lead to outbreaks of diseases such as cholera, which cause many deaths every year.


Low standard of education

Education and training determine the standard according to which the population of a country functions and produces goods and services. One must remember that there are approximately 80 million people in developing countries who do not go to school at all, therefore one can understand why developing countries are faced with unemployment. Without the necessary training people cannot be prepared for a vocation. This means that such people have no chance of improving their own conditions. d countries. People who do not have enough good food and fresh water are much more susceptible to disease. The state has to give a great deal of support in preventing and treating disease. When someone is ill, he or she is unable to work, and this is very detrimental to the economy of the country. eady created various organisations that are involved in giving aid to the poor countries. Food and medical supplies are granted on a continual basis. However, because of the inadequate infrastructure of the poor countries, the distribution of such supplies often causes even more crises. Very frequently huge amounts of food and medical supplies never reach the people for whom they are intended. In the USA, Canada and Europe the farmers produce much more food than what is needed by the people of these countries. The

surplus food can be bought and distributed in countries that have a chronic lack of food, or where natural disasters have occurred and there is great suffering and misery. Unfortunately, production costs have increased so greatly that it has become extremely expensive to buy wheat, maize and rice for distribution to people in distress.

Question 4B

What are the implication of these features to educational development in any country of your choice? Taking Uganda as the country of my choice, Uganda became independent in 1962. Educationally, it was advanced than its neighbouring counterpart like Kenya Zaire, Sudan etc and has the only University College in Eastern Africa at that time called Makerere.

Education System, especially at lower levels, suffered from years of neglect. This resulted into poor quality; poor enrolment e.g. 50% at primary school level and high drop-out rates (7.8% in lower grades); high attrition rate (50%) and a low completion rate e.g. 35% at primary school level; dramatic difference in enrollment between geographical locations and individual schools; and an overall system showing very low efficiency in terms of total cost per child. In addition Parental contributions to school maintenance (including partial support to teachers salaries) accounted for 50 75% of all school financial requirements. Despite low government tuition fees. PTA dues resulted into poor parents not being able to enroll all (or any) of their children in school. Another

Just like other British colonies, it found the content and scope of its primary and secondary education unsatisfactory at the time of its independence and this led to setting up commissions on education review and plans and policies were developed to guide educational


Soon after the National Resistance Movement (NRM) came into power, an Education Review Commission (EPRC) was setup in July 1987 to appraise the entire existing system of Education in Uganda and recommend measures and strategies for improving the system. The Commission was to focus on improving the system in order to: Progressively embrace modern curriculum and pedagogic trends and development. Equip students with productive and modern marketable skills. Produce socially responsible citizens. Review and reformulate the general objectives of the school as a whole as well as at each level. Advise on the most effective way of integrating academic with commercial and technical subjects in school curricula. Recommend measures to improve the management of schools and tertiary institutions so as to maximise cost-efficiency. Reassess the appropriate system of financing schools and tertiary institutions and rendering services efficiently. Advise on optimal location of education institutions throughout the country. Review the role of qualifying examinations and adequacy of the current methods of assessment.

Assess the role of private sector in the provision of education at all levels.

The Organisation structure and management of the Education System in Uganda Education, (ii) Primary Education, (iii) Secondary, (iv) Technical,Vocational and Business Education, and (v) University or TertiaryEducation (annex ii and iii).Typically, Education in Uganda is provided through multiple approaches including the Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Systems. The National Constitution in operation mandates Government to be responsible for leading in the provision of Education. However, individuals, private sector and NGOs are all encouraged to join Government to educate Ugandans. Within the formal sector, Government encourages a diversity of opportunities including general, Vocational and Technical structures. The Government White Paper recommended in 1997 the Macro-structure of the Ministry of Education and Sports to improve on its efficiency. The new structure in (annex i) includes 7 or 8 departments headed by Permanent Secretary and Director of Education. The Ministry also has one Minister and three other Ministers of State as political leaders. Primary and Secondary Education are legally transfer services to Local Government. The decentralisation of services is aimed at bringing services closer to beneficiaries. Since the attainment of independence in 1962,Uganda has improved on its record pertaining to increasing access and quality of Education Ugandan educational sector has recorded a lot of improvement both quantitative and qualitative in the following levels of education through the adoption of the following strategies: a) Primary Education

i) Classroom construction There has been marked shortage of classroom resulting from the destruction of classroom during the 1970s coupled with the rapid rise in enrolment. Deliberate effort had to be made to put up additional classrooms. In 1998/99 the ratio of pupils to classrooms was 131:1, before improving to 118:1 A total sum of 53.9 bn/= was spent on classroom construction during the period 1998/9 to 1999/000. A total of 6,689 classrooms were constructed under CCG, SFG/GoU and NDB during the same period. In the financial year 1999/00, out of the planned total of 3,975 classrooms to be newly constructed/completed under School Facilities Grant (SFG), 3,331 classrooms were constructed. In the current Financial Year, 2000/01, shs 50.2 bn/= has been earmarked for construction of classrooms. By the end of the plan period (2003) stock of permanent classrooms will have been built.

ii) Providing Free Education Since National independence in 1962, education has not been free in Uganda except at Public University level. This factor in its self militated against access for all in education. Government therefore has made efforts to progressively provide free basic education. In 1997, Government declared that it would provide free Education for four children per family. Where applicable, 50% of this number was to be girls. Government continues to encourage families to send all their school going age children to school although Government sponsorship will still be limited to 4 children per family. This policy has freed poor children to access education and in 1997 1998 the enrolment at primary school dramatically rose from 2.9 million to 5.4 million. This rise continued and reached 6.5 million in 1999 and 6.8 million in2000.

iii) Grant-Aiding of Primary Schools To increase the number of schools at this level, Government has been taking over Community schools, staffing them with teachers and paying their salaries. Between the year 1990 to 2000 over 4000 schools were Grant-Aided. Alternative Basic Education This programme incorporates expansion of semi-formal opportunities adopted to reach the unreached in Nomadic communities, Fishing communities and working children. Over 19,000 pupils have been enrolled in school through this programme.

b) Post-Primary Institutions
At Secondary level strategies include: i) Construction of Seed Schools Provision has been made over years,1998 2003 for the construction of 60 seed secondary schools and construction work at; Mukura , Serwanga Lwanga and Okwang S.S. has been completed and the schools are already commissioned while 35 million shillings has been released to the following Districts Mubende Kabarole Kamuli, Kiboga, Ssembabule, Kotido, Moroto, Nebbi, Kitgum, Kisoro.

ii) Rehabilitation of existing schools In some cases the rehabilitation and expansion of existing schools has increased their capacities significantly. Recently, 73 secondary schools have received Capital Development Grants towards their construction and rehabilitation works and 16 secondary schools have been

identified for expansion and rehabilitation. The latter will serve as centres for Comprehensive Secondary Education.

iii) Grant-Aiding of Community and Private Schools Government also grant aids community and private schools annually. For example 94 Community or Privately owned schools have been Grant-Aided and staffed this financial year, 2000/2001 while an additional 180 will be Grant-Aided over the next two years. Grant aiding is generally cheaper than construction of new schools.

For Technical, Business, Vocational Education and Training, the strategies include: i) Establishment of Community Polytechnics beginning with the piloting of 45 colleges w.e.f. next academic year March, 2002. ii) Providing Grant-Aid to Private Providers. iii) Shillings one billion has been budgeted for rehabilitation of Technical and Farm Schools in the next three years.

c) Tertiary Institutions and Universities

i) Opening New Public Universities With effect from October 2000, Government will open Kyambogo University and Northern University of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences. This will bring total number of Public University to 4.

ii) Abolition of Cost-sharing

Government has abolished Cost-sharing in Government Tertiary Education Institutions with effect from July, 2001. This policy enables the poor but eligible students to gain access to these institutions.

iii) Introduction of Quota System Public Universities under Government has introduced District Quota System to ensure equitable distribution of opportunities of access to Public Universities under government sponsorship.

iv) Expansion. Makerere University has widened access as a result of expansion of space and introduction of new courses resulting in increase of undergraduate students from 16,042 in 1998/99to 20,360 in 1999/00, while the post graduates rose from 1,000 in 1998/99 to 1220 in 1999/2000.

v) Private Universities. As a strategy to increase access to University Education, Private Universities were licensed between 1999 and July, 2000, namely: Ndejje University and Martyrs University.

In conclusion therefore, there has been a lot of remarkable changes in Ugandan educational sector which are quite commendable.

Times have now changed. Schools now rely a great deal more on community participation. Parents are more enlightened and are becoming more vocal, demanding a hearing about the methods of teaching and the content their children are learning. Parents are becoming more watchful about how the fees are being spent. They are knocking the door, seeking audience with school officials. They are asking for ways that they can help improve the quality of Education their children receive. The Ministry of Education and Sports, within the Reform, has articulated the need for parents to take interest and get more involved in their learning. This is a crucial need. Parents are their childrens first and most influential teachers. The Ministry is arguing that parents must be empowered to actively participate in making learning more effective, qualitative, and interesting. The Ministry has, therefore, developed training materials that will guide parents to improve the quality of Education. The training approaches are easy to follow; they are participative and capable of generating insightful discussion with parents, drawing on their rich experience.




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