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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A helicopter main rotor or rotor system is the combination of a rotary wing and a control system that generates the aerodynamic lift force that supports the weight of the helicopter, and the thrust that counteracts aerodynamic drag in forward flight. Each main rotor is mounted on a vertical mast over the top of the helicopter, as opposed to a helicopter tail rotor, which connects through a combination of drive shaft(s) and gearboxes along the tail boom. A helicopter's rotor is generally made of two or more rotor blades. The blade pitch is typically controlled by a swashplate connected to the helicopter flight controls. Helicopters are one example of rotary-wing aircraft.
The rotor head of a Sikorsky S-92
1 History and development 2 Design 2.1 Parts and functions 2.2 Swash plate 2.3 Fully articulated 2.3.1 Aircraft 2.4 Rigid 2.5 Semirigid 2.5.1 Flybar (stabilizer bar) 2.5.2 Aircraft 2.6 Combination 2.6.1 Aircraft 3 Rotor configurations 3.1 Single main rotor 3.1.1 Tail rotor 3.1.2 Ducted fan 3.1.3 NOTAR 3.1.4 Tip jets 3.2 Dual rotors (counterrotating) 3.2.1 Tandem 3.2.2 Coaxial 3.2.3 Intermeshing 3.2.4 Transverse 3.3 Quadcopter 4 Blade design 5 Limitations and hazards 5.1 Abrasion in sandy environments 6 References 7 External links
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Design The helicopter rotor is powered by the engine. semirigid. given as a gift by their father.Helicopter rotor . to the rotating mast. created multiple vertical flight machines with rotors made of tin sheets. would inspire the Wright brothers to pursue the dream of flight. The spinning creates lift. One of these toys. Before development of powered helicopters in the mid 20th century. Unlike the small diameter fans used in turbofan jet engines. through the transmission. Sir George Cayley. It is also used in many remote control model helicopters. an ancient Chinese toy." Leonardo da Vinci designed a machine known as an "aerial screw" with a rotor based on a water screw. The Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov developed a rotor based on the Chinese toy. although some modern rotor systems use an engineered combination of these classifications. is the basis of most multibladed helicopter rotor systems. At the top of the mast is the attachment point for the rotor blades called the hub. This system was used in several Bell and Hiller helicopter models. using ox-leather (straps) fastened to returning blades so as to set the machine in motion. German master engineer.wikipedia. The mast is a cylindrical metal shaft that extends upward from—and is driven by—the transmission. fully articulated rotor systems.org/wiki/Helicopter_rotor History and development See also: Bamboo-copter and Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci The use of a rotor for vertical flight has existed since 400 BC in the form of the bamboo-copter. a low disc loading (thrust per disc area) greatly increases the aircraft's energy efficiency. The toy consists of a rotor attached to a stick. Cierva is credited with successful development of multi-bladed. inspired by the Chinese toy in his childhood. The bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor. Helicopter rotor of Engelbert Zaschka. or fully articulated. describes the apocryphal use of a possible rotor in aircraft: "Some have made flying cars [feiche 飛車] with wood from the inner part of the jujube tree. powered by rubber bands. image from the German Federal Archives In the 1930s. The French naturalist Christian de Launoy constructed his rotor out of turkey feathers. in its various modified forms. 1927. and this reduces the fuel use and permits reasonable range. the free encyclopedia http://en. the main rotor on a helicopter has a large diameter that lets it accelerate a large volume of air. There are three basic classifications: rigid. written around 317. The rotor blades are then attached to the hub. Main rotor systems are classified according to how the main rotor blades are attached and move relative to the main rotor hub. Parts and functions 2 of 11 04-07-2013 12:53 . The rotors are designed to operate in a narrow range of RPM. autogyro pioneer Juan de la Cierva researched and developed many of the fundamentals of the rotor. This system. This permits a lower downwash velocity for a given amount of thrust.Wikipedia. and the toy flies when released. A decorated Japanese taketombo bamboo-copter. The philosopher Ge Hong's book the Baopuzi (Master Who Embraces Simplicity). As it is more efficient at low speeds to accelerate a large amount of air by a small degree than a small amount of air by a large degree. Alphonse Pénaud would later develop coaxial rotor model helicopter toys in 1870. Arthur Young improved the stability of two-bladed rotor systems with the introduction of a stabilizer bar.
Through shifting and tilting. called the lead-lag or drag hinge. the free encyclopedia http://en. The vertical hinge. These rotor systems usually have three or more blades. leaving the angle of attack of the blades as the sole means of adjusting thrust from the rotor. raising. and not by Coriolis effect. transmitting cyclic and collective pitch to the blades (the top one rotates) Three non-rotating control rods transmit pitch information to the lower swashplate Main mast leading down to main gearbox The simple rotor of a Robinson R22 Robinson R44 rotor head Swash plate Main article: Swashplate (helicopter) Controls vary the pitch of the main rotor blades cyclically throughout rotation. This movement is called flapping and is designed to compensate for dissymmetry of lift. allowing one blade to rise vertically while the other falls vertically. carries the main shaft rotation down to the upper swashplate Rubber covers protect moving and stationary shafts Swashplates. A variation of the fully articulated system is the "soft-in-plane" rotor system. and lead or lag independently of each other. Collective pitch varies the magnitude of rotor thrust by increasing or decreasing thrust over the whole rotor disc at the same time. or hunting. the non-rotating plate controls the rotating plate. allows the blade to move up and down. The pilot uses this to control the direction of the rotor thrust vector. allowing the blades to twist about the axis extending from blade root to blade tip. This motion occurs whenever translational relative wind is present. The non-rotating plate is connected to links that are manipulated by pilot controls —specifically.wikipedia. Pitch hinges.Wikipedia. Later models have switched from using traditional bearings to elastomeric bearings. or lowering the swash plate with the flight controls. The swash plate can shift vertically and tilt. and there may be more than one hinge. the collective and cyclic controls. Dampers are usually used to prevent excess back and forth movement around the drag hinge.org/wiki/Helicopter_rotor The simple rotor of a Robinson R22 showing (from the top): The following are driven by the link rods from the rotating part of the swashplate. The blades are allowed to flap. which defines the part of the rotor disc where the maximum thrust develops. In a fully articulated rotor system. The swash plate is two concentric disks or plates. The rotating plate is also connected to the individual blades through pitch links and pitch horns. The horizontal hinge. feather. which in turn controls the individual blade pitch. This type of rotor can be found on several aircraft produced by 3 of 11 04-07-2013 12:53 .Helicopter rotor . Scissor link and counterweight. The flapping hinge may be located at varying distances from the rotor hub. This movement is called lead-lag. connected by idle links. called the flapping hinge. or in response to a cyclic control input. The basis of his design permitted successful helicopter development. The vast majority of helicopters maintain a constant rotor speed (RPM) during flight. each rotor blade is attached to the rotor hub through a series of hinges that let the blade move independently of the others. The purpose of the drag hinge and dampers is to compensate for the acceleration and deceleration caused by momentum conservation. One plate rotates with the mast. dragging. allows the blade to move back and forth. Teeter hinge. These blade pitch variations are controlled by tilting. while the other does not rotate. Fully articulated Juan de la Cierva developed the fully articulating rotor for the autogyro.
Aircraft AgustaWestland AW109 Rigid The term "rigid rotor" usually refers to a hingeless rotor system with blades flexibly attached to the hub. Young in the U. This system is normally composed of two blades that meet just under a common flapping or teetering hinge at the rotor shaft. A rigid rotor system is mechanically simpler than a fully articulated rotor system. Through mechanical linkages. The difference between a fully articulated system and soft-in-plane system is that the soft-in-plane system utilizes a composite yoke. Example:MBB Bo 105 Semirigid The semirigid rotor can also be referred to as a teetering or seesaw rotor. the free encyclopedia http://en. usually opposing blades. Stanley Hiller arrived at a similar method to improve stability by adding short stubby airfoils. In a rigid rotor system. the flight characteristics are very similar and maintenace time and cost are reduced. This yoke is attached to the mast and runs through the blade grips between the blades and the shear bearing inside the grip. which in turn reduces the stress on the blades from lead and lag forces caused by the Coriolis Effect. While this is not fully articulated. Hiller's "Rotormatic" system also delivered cyclic control inputs to the main rotor as a sort of control rotor.Helicopter rotor . which was tested and developed on a series of helicopters in the 1960s and 1970s. or paddles. Semirigid rotor system 4 of 11 04-07-2013 12:53 . and Dieter Schlüter in Germany. combined with an adequate dihedral or coning angle on the blades. Feathering is accomplished by the feathering hinge at the blade root. rather than through hinges. found that flight stability for helicopters could be achieved with a stabilizer bar or flybar. This underslinging of the blades below the teetering hinge. Irven Culver of Lockheed developed one of the first rigid rotors. By flexing. because the rotor has much less oscillation. Flybar (stabilizer bar) A number of engineers. This allows the blades to flap together in opposite motions like a seesaw. such as the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior. The result is a rotor system that has less lag in control response. However. at each end. each blade flaps and drags about flexible sections of the root.S. minimizes variations in the radius of each blade's center of mass from the axis of rotation as the rotor turns. This makes it easier for the pilot to maintain control of the aircraft. the blades themselves compensate for the forces that previously required rugged hinges. the stable rotation of the bar mixes with the swashplate movement to damp internal (steering) as well as external (wind) forces on the rotor. among them Arthur M. and the paddles provided the added stability by dampening the effects of external forces on the rotor.org/wiki/Helicopter_rotor Bell Helicopter. Secondary flapping hinges may also be provided to provide sufficient flexibility to minimize bouncing. Loads from flapping and lead/lag forces are accommodated through rotor blades flexing. which allows changes to the pitch angle of the blade.Wikipedia.wikipedia. These keep the bar relatively stable in the plane of rotation and reduce crosswind thrust on rotors. This yoke does transfer some movement of one blade to another. The rigid rotor system also negates the danger of mast bumping inherent in teetering rotors. The flybar has a weight or paddle (or both for added stability on smaller helicopters) at either end. This system is similar to the fully articulated type in that each blade has the ability to lead/lag and hunt independent of the other blades.
but designed for both hands-off stability and rapid control response of the hingeless rotor system. and it has become the recognized convention for helicopter design. which means less fatigue and longer service life for the helicopter components. while nearly all others rotate clockwise. These systems. Aircraft Bell 206/OH-58 Robinson R22 Combination Modern rotor systems may use the combined principles of the rotor systems mentioned above. In fly-by-wire helicopters or RC models. This is accomplished through a variable-pitch antitorque rotor or tail rotor. the main rotors of helicopter designs from Germany. The United States and Canada rotate counter-clockwise. Elastomeric bearings are constructed from a rubber type material and provide limited movement that is perfectly suited for helicopter applications. When viewed from above. called "flexures". Eurocopter's Fenestron (also called a fantail). They also absorb vibration. are usually constructed from composite material. Aircraft Bell 407 Bell 430 Eurocopter AS350 Rotor configurations Most helicopters have a single main rotor but require a separate rotor to overcome torque. The three most common controls used today are the traditional tail rotor .Helicopter rotor . since the effects may manifest on opposite sides of each aircraft. some sort of antitorque control must be used with a sufficient margin of power available to allow the helicopter to maintain its heading and provide yaw control. require less maintenance. This can make it difficult when discussing aerodynamic effects on the main rotor between different designs. Some rotor hubs incorporate a flexible hub. although designs do vary. Single main rotor With a single main rotor helicopter.Wikipedia. Flexures and elastomeric bearings require no lubrication and. a microcontroller with gyroscope sensors and a Venturi sensor can replace the stabilizer. therefore.org/wiki/Helicopter_rotor The Lockheed rotor system used a control gyro. the creation of torque as the engine turns the rotor creates a torque effect that causes the body of the helicopter to turn in the opposite direction of the rotor. similar in principle to that of the Bell stabilizer bar. United Kingdom. This flybar-less design has the advantage of easy reconfiguration and fewer mechanical parts. and MD Helicopters' NOTAR. Tail rotor Antitorque: Torque effect on a helicopter 5 of 11 04-07-2013 12:53 .wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. To eliminate this effect. Elastomeric bearings may also be used in place of conventional roller bearings. which allows for blade bending (flexing) without the need for bearings or hinges. This is the design that Igor Sikorsky settled on for his VS-300 helicopter.
an acronym for NO TAil Rotor . causing the downwash from the main rotor to hug the tailboom. This is augmented by a direct jet thruster which also provides directional yaw control. a ducted fan can have a smaller size than a conventional tail rotor. Tail rotor of an SA 330 Puma Ducted fan Main article: Fenestron Fenestron and FANTAIL are trademarks for a ducted fan mounted at the end of the tail boom of the helicopter and used in place of a tail rotor. thereby changing the direction the craft is pointed. the free encyclopedia http://en.org/wiki/Helicopter_rotor Main article: Tail rotor The tail rotor is a smaller rotor mounted so that it rotates vertically or near-vertically at the end of the tail of a traditional single-rotor helicopter. therefore.Wikipedia. and vertical stabilizers. The tail rotor's position and distance from the center of gravity allow it to develop thrust in a direction opposite of the main rotor's rotation to counter the torque effect created by the main rotor. Ducted fans have between eight and eighteen blades arranged with irregular spacing so that the noise is distributed over different frequencies. the NOTAR system is simple in theory and provides antitorque the same way a wing develops lift by using the Coandă effect. Diagram showing the movement of air through the NOTAR system Development of the NOTAR system dates back to 1975 when engineers at Hughes Helicopters began concept development work. A more heavily modified prototype demonstrator first flew in March 1986 and successfully 6 of 11 04-07-2013 12:53 . The housing is integral with the aircraft skin and allows a high rotational speed. This fan forces low pressure air through two slots on the right side of the tailboom. producing lift and thus a measure of antitorque proportional to the amount of airflow from the rotorwash. NOTAR Main article: NOTAR NOTAR. A variable pitch fan is enclosed in the aft fuselage section immediately forward of the tail boom and is driven by the main rotor transmission. Besides Eurocopter and its predecessors.Helicopter rotor . is a helicopter anti-torque system that eliminates the use of the tail rotor on a helicopter. which also provide directional control by allowing the pilot to rotate the helicopter around its vertical axis. Although the concept took some time to refine. Tail rotors are simpler than main rotors since they require only collective changes in pitch to vary thrust. Hughes flew an OH-6A fitted with NOTAR for the first time.wikipedia. the United States Army's RAH-66 Comanche. The pitch of the tail rotor blades is adjustable by the pilot via the anti-torque pedals. Fenestron on an EC 120B The Fenestron was used for the first time at the end of the 1960s on the second experimental model of Sud Aviation's SA 340 and produced on the later model Aérospatiale SA 341 Gazelle. as the FANTAIL. In December 1981. a ducted fan tail rotor was also used on the canceled military helicopter project.
three common configurations use the counterrotating effect on rotorcraft. Tip jets Main article: Tip jet The main rotor may be driven by tip jets. Intermeshing rotors are two rotors mounted close to each other at a sufficient angle to let the rotors intermesh over the top of the aircraft. However. The Percival P. Except for tip jets driven by unburnt compressed air. There are several examples of tip jet powered rotorcraft. all produced by MD Helicopters. and it is simpler to handle changes in 7 of 11 04-07-2013 12:53 . The Hiller YH-32 Hornet had good lifting capability but performed poorly otherwise. prototypes that have been built are less fuel efficient than conventional helicopters. the front rotor tilts right and the rear rotor tilts left. There are currently three production helicopters that incorporate the NOTAR design. increasing lifting capacity. The French Sud-Ouest Djinn used unburnt compressed air to drive the rotor. Other aircraft used auxiliary thrust for translational flight so that the tip jets could be shut down while the rotor autorotated. the front rotor increases collective pitch to raise the nose and the rear rotor decreases collective pitch to lower the tail. which was originally envisioned to take off using a rocket-tipped rotor. Such a system may be powered by high pressure air provided by a compressor. To pitch forward and accelerate. The air may or may not be mixed with fuel and burnt in ram-jets. Tandem Main article: Tandem rotors Tandem rotors are two horizontal main rotor assemblies mounted one behind the other. very high noise levels is the single most important reason why tip jet powered rotors have not gained wide acceptance. validating the system for future application in helicopter design. This antitorque design also improves safety by eliminating the possibility of personnel walking into the tail rotor. The experimental Fairey Jet Gyrodyne. or rockets. the free encyclopedia http://en. the rear rotor increases collective pitch.org/wiki/Helicopter_rotor completed an advanced flight-test program. This lets the aircraft apply the power that would have driven a tail rotor to the main rotors. Another configuration—found on tiltrotors and some early helicopters—is called transverse rotors. Primarily. Tandem rotors are two rotors—one mounted behind the other. To pitch upward while decelerating (or moving rearward). pulse-jets. raising the tail. and the front rotor decreases collective pitch. To pivot right. simultaneously dipping the nose. 48-seat Fairey Rotodyne passenger prototypes and McDonnell XV-1 compound gyroplanes flew well using this method.74 was under-powered and could not fly. Coaxial rotors are two rotors mounted one above the other on the same axis. where a pair of rotors are mounted at each end of a wing-type structure or outrigger. research into noise suppression is ongoing and may help make this system viable. Though this method is simple and eliminates torque reaction. All rotor power contributes to lift. Dual rotors (counterrotating) Counterrotating rotors are rotorcraft configurations with a pair or more of large horizontal rotors that turn in opposite directions to counteract the torque effect on the aircraft without relying on an antitorque tail rotor. To pivot left.Helicopter rotor . which minimized noise and helped it become the only tip jet driven rotor helicopter to enter production.wikipedia.Wikipedia. Yaw control develops Boeing CH-47 Chinook through opposing cyclic pitch in each rotor. Tandem rotors achieve pitch attitude changes to accelerate and decelerate the helicopter through a process called differential collective pitch. Perhaps the most unusual design of this type was the Rotary Rocket Roton ATV. the front rotor tilts left and the rear rotor tilts right.
the free encyclopedia http://en. But like the intermeshing rotors. eliminating one of the key effects of dissymmetry of lift: retreating blade stall.Wikipedia. However. produced the HH-43 Huskie for USAF firefighting and rescue missions. During the Cold War. the transverse rotor also uses differential collective pitch. However. the Kaman K-MAX. Intermeshing Main article: Intermeshing rotors Intermeshing rotors on a helicopter are a set of two rotors turning in opposite directions with each rotor mast mounted on the helicopter with a slight angle to the other so that the blades intermesh without colliding. The arrangement was successfully used in Nazi Germany for a small anti-submarine warfare helicopter. It is also the configuration found on tiltrotors such as the Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey and the AgustaWestland AW609. with coaxial rotors rotor systems. This configuration is sometimes referred to as a synchropter. as well as the world's largest helicopter ever built.wikipedia. an American company. and control linkages for pitch changes to the upper rotor system must pass through the lower rotor system. in forward flight. Transverse Transverse rotors are mounted on the end of wings or outriggers perpendicular to the body of the aircraft. it requires the expense of two large rotors rather than the more common one large main rotor and a much smaller tail rotor. the transverse rotors use the concept for changes in the roll attitude of the rotorcraft. Coaxial Main article: Coaxial rotors Coaxial rotors are a pair of rotors mounted one above the other on the same shaft and turning in opposite directions. is a dedicated sky crane design. The advantage of the coaxial rotor is that. the lift provided by the advancing halves of each rotor compensates for the retreating half of the other. the mast is more complex. Similar to tandem rotors and intermeshing rotors. This configuration is found on two of the first viable helicopters. There is an increased mechanical complexity of the Kamov Ka-50 of the Russian Air rotor system because it requires linkages and swashplates for two Force. Intermeshing rotors have high stability and powerful lifting capability.org/wiki/Helicopter_rotor the center of gravity fore-aft. because the rotors must rotate in opposite directions.Helicopter rotor . The latest Kaman model. HH-43 Huskie Mi-12 Quadcopter Main article: Quadcopter 8 of 11 04-07-2013 12:53 . The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is the most common tandem rotor helicopter. the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 and the Focke-Achgelis Fa 223. other design considerations plague coaxial rotors. the Flettner Fl 282 Kolibri. Kaman Aircraft. the Mil Mi-12. Also.
The main attraction of quadcopters is their mechanical simplicity. from Antiquity Through the First World War 9 of 11 04-07-2013 12:53 . Cambridge aerospace series. Limitations and hazards Helicopters with teetering rotors—for example the two-blade system on the Bell. but less hard than sand. sand hitting the moving rotor blades erodes their surface. J. This can result in the fuselage assuming an attitude controlled by momentum and tail rotor thrust that causes the tail boom to intersect the main rotor tip-path plane or result in the blade roots contacting the main rotor drive shaft. References 1. 2006. war correspondent Michael Yon referred to this corona effect as the "Kopp-Etchells effect" to honor Cpl. front-right. with abrasion shields along the leading edge. but research into active blade control through trailing edge flaps is underway. The effect is caused by the pyrophoric oxidation of eroded particles. When a helicopter flies low to the ground in desert environments. ^ Taking Flight: Inventing the Aerial Age. which are very hard.Helicopter rotor . since a quadcopter using electric motors and fixed-pitch rotors has only four moving parts. 1923 photo Blade design The blades of a helicopter are long. sand hitting the metal abrasion strip causes a visible corona or halo around the rotor blades.org/wiki/Helicopter_rotor A quadcopter has four rotors in an "X" configuration designated as front-left. 7-9. often titanium or nickel. composite structure. and steel or titanium. They generally contain a degree of washout that reduces the lift generated at the tips.html) 2. Abrasion strips on helicopter rotor blades are made of metal. In 2009. Rotors to the left and right are in a transverse configuration while those in the front and to the rear are in a tandem configuration. the free encyclopedia http://en. At night. respectively. a shape that minimizes drag from tip vortices (see the wings of a glider for comparison). Tips of some helicopter blades can be specially designed to reduce turbulence and noise and to provide more efficient flying. Joseph Etchells. Rotor blades are made out of various materials. pp. Web extract (http://terpconnect. Rotorcraft blades are traditionally passive. This can damage the rotors and presents serious and costly maintenance problems. rear-left. Gordon. Benjamin Kopp and Cpl. Abrasion in sandy environments See also: Brownout (aviation) — Sensory illusions When operating in sandy environments. recently fallen American and British soldiers. causing the blades to separate from the hub (mast bumping). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Robinson and others—must not be subjected to a low-g condition because such rotor systems do not control the fuselage attitude. Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics. An example of such tips are the tips of the BERP rotor. narrow airfoils with a high aspect ratio.umd.wikipedia. ISBN 978-0-521-85860-1.Wikipedia.edu/~leishman/Aero/history. 18. de Bothezat helicopter. sand striking the rotor blade can cause erosion. ^ a b c d Leishman. and rear-right. where the airflow is fastest and vortex generation would be a significant problem. including aluminium.
^ Rotorcraft Flying Handbook (http://www. Accessed: 2 January 2010 ^ "Helicopters. U. American Helicopter Society. Retrieved: 25 February 2007.pdf) page 44 Pacific Wings.army. Helis..si. ^ "NOTAR Fleet Marks 500. ISBN 1-119-99410-1. Helicopter theory (http://books. DTIC.archive.html) 16. "These boots are made for flying: Rotor blades get new protective shields" (http://www. C.S.pdf). 7. 1980.com/studyguides/index.nasm. Army Research.mil /dticasd/sbir/sbir032/n184. ^ Alpman. 20.com/history.htm).doc) page 3.google. ^ Joseph Needham (1965).000 Flight Hours" (http://www.C. RDECOM Magazine. ^ Markus Waibel. Science and civilisation in China: Physics and physical technology.html). ^ Johnson. Anderson (2004). 2000. Emre and Long. IEEE Spectrum. "Blades and Lift" (http://www. UAVs" (http://spectrum. 151. Retrieved: 16 February 2011. ^ Paul Bevilaqua : The shaft driven Lift Fan propulsion system for the Joint Strike Fighter (http://www. Simon Newman.htm) Helicopter Vietnam.com/books?id=AovdKRWSqJAC& printsec=frontcover&dq=%22Professional+Helicopter+Pilot+Studies%22&hl=da& ei=LYZ4TdmcDMjRsgbj56TyBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1& ved=0CD8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=true) page 2-11. 5.gov/library/manuals/aircraft/media/faa-h-8083-21.aeroengineer. 8 May 2003. ISBN 978-0-8018-6875-7. Lockheed CL-475" (http://web.edu/aircraft /lockheed_cl475.usarmyaviation. "Quadcopter. 8. ^ Model 286 (http://www. ISBN 0-486-64647-5 13. 5. Taylor. Quote: The rotor is best served by rotating at a constant rotor speed 10.dk /books?id=PawbFeAAllIC&printsec=frontcover&hl=da) p3. ^ Rotary Wing Forum  (http://www. 1979.com/Files/Billeder/05%20News /Diamond_actuator_for_aerospace.WarbirdTech Volume 27. John Wiley and Sons.Helicopter rotor .google. R. November–December 2004.edu/research /aero/aircraft/lockheed_cl475. Revised on 15 August 2002.dk/books?id=SgZheyNeXJIC&hl=da& source=gbs_navlinks_s) pp3+32. 15. mechanical engineering Volume 4. Rotary-wing aerodynamics (http://books.5. ^ Croucher.google.com/forum/showthread. 6.S. New actuators for aerospace (http://www.org/5NFat7fwZ). Part 2. 24.net/history/lockheed/lockheed12.5 MB. Courier Dover Publications. 21. ^ The UH-60 permits 95–101% rotor RPM UH-60 limits (http://www. 41. ^ a b Frawley 2003. ^ Cox. ISBN 1-58007-027-2. Accessed: 25 February 2012.htm).michaeljohnsonmp.com/books?id=YRqV_PayIKIC&pg=PA22).rdecom. ^ Connor. ISBN 978-0-9780269-0-5.: U. Delta D2 (http://www. 4. 25.webcitation.S. 22–23.org/5MvjUcNbi). 18. Wayne. 1997. ^ Wieslaw Zenon Stepniewski.com." (http://www. Phil. Lockheed AH-56A Cheyenne . Army Aviation and Missile Command (February 2004).kothmann..dk /books?id=X_X3nOODGLgC&printsec=frontcover&hl=da) p216.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. 14. 22.google.com/pdf/Pacific_wings_P42-49_Delta_v4__bill_whitney. No. Development and Engineering Command 10 of 11 04-07-2013 12:53 . original link (http://www. pp. ISBN 1-56027-404-2. Accessed: 25 February 2012. (http://books. ^ John D. JHU Press.pdf) Journal of Aircraft Vol. p.mil/rdemagazine/200402 /itf_amrdec_boots. N. p. ISBN 978-0-19-516035-2. 2000.org/web/20080101194953/http://www.google. Washington D. Basic Helicopter Aerodynamics (http://books. ^ Landis. Octocopter .google. 17.com/books?id=IYnl_XPggZYC&pg=PA353). page 583-587. Retrieved: 25 February 2007. Presented May 1. pp. Government Printing Office. Seddon. 2011.com/Papers /AIAAJournalAircraftPart2.org/automaton/robotics /robotics-software/quadcopter-hexacopter-octocopter-uavs).webcitation. "Understanding Ducted-Rotor Antitorque and Directional Control: Characteristics Part II: Unsteady Simulations. Pam. Accessed: 25 February 2012. U. Retrieved: 28 September 2010. 11–10. Accessed: 2 January 2010 9. 23. Accessed at archive.php?folder=Documents /UH-60BlackhawkSpecific&download=Uh60limits. FAA-8083-21. Specialty Press. 2010-02-19.com. p.webcitation. ^ Johnson.si. U.pdf) Noliac.S. Hexacopter. Inventing Flight: The Wright Brothers & Their Predecessors (http://books. Federal Aviation Administration. ^ FAA Flight Standards Service 2001 19. ^ John M. Boeing. Quote: [Rotor speed] "is constant in a helicopter".helicoptervietnam." (http://www.org/wiki/Helicopter_rotor 3. Courier Dover Publications. 35. 11. Public Affairs Office.ieee. ^ Mangeot et al. Professional helicopter pilot studies (http://books.dtic.org/5Mvnymw0Y). Lyle N. ^ "The Boeing Logbook: 1983-1987" (http://www.faa.Wikipedia.org on 3 September 2007. Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum.rotaryforum. Retrieved: 28 September 2010. Accessed: 25 February 2012. Tony and Jenkins. 26. 6.nasm. Keys.MIL Word document. ^ Jim Bowne. ISBN 0-486-68230-7 12.doc) US Army Aviation . Retrieved: 10 March 2007. Oxford University Press.noliac.php?t=961&page=2& highlight=Coriolis). Dennis R.
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