The Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg

Overview Astroparticle Physics Quantum Dynamics

Publisher: MPI für Kernphysik, Public Relations, 2009 Editors: Dr. Gertrud Hönes, PD Dr. Bernold Feuerstein

Werner Hofmann (particle physics and high-energy astrophysics). Prof. the MPIK staff totals 392. Since 1966 the MPIK has been led by a board of directors. as well as Independent and Junior Groups Service Groups administration and facility management. Japan. the institute cooperates closely with the University of Heidelberg. They are involved in a large number of international collaborations. Max Planck partner groups at the Fudan University Shanghai and the Tata Institute for Fundamental Science emphasize the connections to scientists in China and India. In the local region. As at the beginning of 2009. Dr. Klaus Blaum. Israel. The MPG was founded in 1948 as successor to the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesell­ schaft (established 1911) and is committed to basic research. Scientific Divisions Administration public relations. Keitel. DESY with CFEL (Hamburg). predominantly funded by third parties. including 88 scientists and 122 PhD students. where every year three or four new apprentices can be trained as “Feinwerkmechaniker Fachrichtung Feinmechanik” or “Elektroniker für Geräte und Systeme”. Its precursor was the institute for physics. Scientists at the MPIK collaborate with other research groups in Europe. are working at the institute. Werner Hofmann. USA. the activities concentrate on the two interdisciplinary research fields astroparticle physics (crossroads of particle physics and astrophysics) and quantum dynamics (many-body dynamics of atoms and molecules). Klaus Blaum (stored and cooled ions). The initial scientific goals were basic research in nuclear physics and application of nuclear-physics methods concerning questions in the physics and chemistry of the cosmos. Today. there are several further research groups and. partly in a leading role. Presently. The support departments at the MPIK contribute considerably to the successful Organizational Structure scientific work: precision machine and electronics Scientific Advisory Board Board of Directors Board of Trustees shops. Particularly close connections to some large-scale facilities like GSI with EMMI (Darmstadt). the institute consists of five divisions with the directors: Prof. a part of the MPI for Medical research led by Walther Bothe from 1934 to 1957. Dr. The MPIK was founded in 1958 under the leadership of Wolfgang Gentner. Ullrich.Overview The Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) is one of 80 institutes and research establishments of the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science. most of them from Russia. Chemistry and Biology“ and “Astronomy and Cosmic Physics“. where the directors and further members of the institute hold teaching positions. To foster young scientists. Additionally. Dr. Christoph H. junior research groups. Ullrich (experimental few-particle quantum dynamics). Scientifically. Dr. Prof. and numerous other countries from all over the world. engineering design and media offices. Keitel (theoretical quantum dynamics and quantum electrodynamics). Joachim H. safety Safety & Environment and environment. additionally 43 diploma students and 86 scientific guests from all over the world. the junior research groups are mostly affiliated to one of the divisions and thus broaden its research focus. Manfred Lindner (particle and astroparticle physics). 2 . Manfred Lindner. raRepresentative of the Board of Directors diation protection. Canada. Apprentices’ training shops are affiliated to the precision machine and electronics shops. All MPIK directors are involved in the graduate school “Fundamental Physics“ of the University of Heidelberg. 3 Christoph H. two International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS) have been established together with other institutes: “Quantum Dynamics in Physics. network Managing Director and central computing. CERN (Geneva) and INFN-LNGS (Assergi L‘Aquila) exist. Prof. library. Dr. Prof. Joachim H.

This in fact cannot be explained by the standard model of particle physics. The rate of proton-proton collisions is up to 40 MHz forming up to 70 charged particles and a similar number of high-energy gamma quanta per interaction which are registered by the detector. Theoretical insufficiencies of the standard model are also suggesting extended theories that replace the hypothetical Higgs boson by alternative mechanisms. the read-out electronics for 270 000 channels. which contain information about the physical questions investigated with the LHCb experiment. The MPIK group has contributed read-out chips for the ca. as well as the corresponding antiparticles. Charged particles are detected by a magnetic spectrometer and gamma quanta by calorimeters. scientists of the MPIK are involved in four international large-scale experiments investigating different aspects of neutrino physics. Several mechanisms are being discussed for it. Therefore. Heavy Flavour Physics The new Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN in Geneva will help to answer the question for the origin of mass and the limits of the standard model of particle physics. directly after the big bang) is a further subject. Overall. The laboratory work at the institute concentrates on high-purity materials and the detection of weak5 . A group at the MPIK has been involved in developing this detector and now focuses on the analysis of the experimental data. (Illustration: DESY press archive) astroparticle physics. 4 Side view of the ca. leptogenesis. results from neutrino physics. The diagram however shows that the electromagnetic and the weak interactions become increasingly rare at higher spatial resolution. it is impossible to advance experimentally to the region of the grand unification of the electroweak and the strong forces even using the most advanced particle accelerator facilities. Further detector components (Cherenkov detectors and the muon system) help to identify the particles. It describes the behaviour of all known elementary particles: each 6 quarks (from which protons and neutrons are built) and leptons (among them electrons and massless neutrinos). g. The interaction zone within the storage ring is located at the right-hand side of the hall. 20 m long and 10 m high LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN in Geneva. the more uniform is the phenomenology of the elementary particles. 10 –18 m and thus enter the region. and the experimentally not yet detected Higgs boson. Illustration of the grand unification. e. The large-scale experiments ATLAS and CMS primarily search for the Higgs boson or new supersymmetric particles.g. The overall aim is a more deep understanding of the fundamental laws of nature.Theoretical Particle and Astroparticle Physics The standard model of elementary particle physics has turned out to be very successful. Stateof-the-art particle detectors reach a resolution of ca. and experiments at accelerators are combined and used to search for direct and indirect hints on a “new physics“ beyond the standard model of particle physics. as well as a part of the sensors. The as yet mostly unknown nature of dark matter and dark energy (of which about 95% of the universe is composed) and their cosmological implications (e. in which the common origin of the electromagnetic and the weak forces becomes observable. Astroparticle Physics Astroparticle Physics An exemplary topic of theoretical particle and astroparticle physics is the asymmetry of matter and antimatter in the universe (the Universe consists of matter and not of antimatter). An elaborate trigger system extracts the rare events out of the bulk of interactions. The rare decays of heavy quarks are investigated with the LHCb experiment in order to gain information about the cause for the asymmetry of matter and antimatter in the Universe. The theoretical work on this at the MPIK ranges from basic models for neutrino masses and mixings via phenomenological studies to the development of the simulation software GLoBES for present and future oscillation experiments. The proof of neutrino masses provided the first solid evidence for “new physics” beyond the standard model. The higher the resolution of the experiment. Experimental Neutrino Physics Presently. in addition 4 gauge bosons (among them photons and gluons). 450 000 channels of all the silicon-strip counters..

In the Gran Sasso underground laboratory.E. the neutrino-oscillation experiment Double Chooz. the gamma quanta collide with molecules producing cascades of electrically charged secondary particles. To trace the exact direction from which the particle showers come. in a supernova explosion or in the vicinity of a black hole. partly novel types of gamma sources and took the first spatially and temporally resolved pictures of these objects.S.S. where many interesting objects are found. The structure of Borexino resembling onion-peels. currently under construction. large and sensitive detectors are required in order to detect them. they are observed stereoscopically by several telescopes simultaneously. The outer shielding consists of 2400 m3 purest water in the steel tank with a diameter of 18 m. allowing us to image the sky in gamma light and to identify the sources. telescopes. If neutrinoless double beta decay is found. e. 7 . and tauon neutrino („neutrino oscillations“). are distant active galaxies observed in gamma light for the first time by the H. a trillion times more energetic than ordinary starlight. (High-Energy Stereoscopic System) telescope system in Namibia. is filled with 1000 m3 shielding organic liquid.S.. a fifth.E. Astroparticle Physics Astroparticle Physics From 2009. 6 Two of the four identical telescopes of each 107 m2 mirror area of the High-Energy Stereoscopic System H.S. Thereby electrons are excited which relay their energy to an organic dye (“scintillator“) which in turn emits the energy as flashlight that is detected by 2200 photomultiplier tubes mounted at the steel sphere with a diameter of 14 m.S. into which strings of photomultiplier tubes are inserted to detect neutrinos from high-energy cosmic sources. In contrast to the charged particles. High-Energy Gamma Astronomy The research in high-energy gamma astronomy at the MPIK is focused on the observation of very-high-energy gamma radiation from the Universe using the H. gamma rays travel on straight lines through space.est (interfering) signals. After only two months of measurements. in the Khomas region of Namibia. g. These emit faint bluish and extremely short flashlight (Cherenkov light) which can be observed on the ground in dark moonless nights with large reflector telescopes that are equipped with fast photodetectors. however.5 m contains 300 tons of a highly pure organic liquid. and then interact with radiation fields or the surrounding medium. The inner nylon balloon with a diameter of 8.E. Most of these objects are located along the galactic equator in the central part of the Milky Way.S. The neutrino observatory IceCube is already operational while under construction at the South Pole using 1 km3 ice at depths between 1450 and 2450 m in its final state. for completion in 2010. The H. will use antineutrinos from a nuclear power plant in France to investigate in detail the periodic changeover between the three neutrino types electron. As neutrinos penetrate matter almost freely and interact with it very rarely. the Borexino collaboration for the first time succeeded to unambiguously identify in real time neutrinos which are released in the electron capture of 7Be in the core of the Sun and thereby to verify independently neutrino oscillations. In the centre of the array. e. so-called particle showers. are produced when charged particles are extremely accelerated. This will strongly enhance the sensitivity of the system and extend the observable energy range to lower energies. the GERDA experiment for the search of the neutrinoless double beta decay in germanium crystals is under construction. they are their own antiparticles. in which penetrating neutrinos are scattered at electrons. The very-high-energy gamma rays. The volume between the inner nylon balloon and the steel sphere.S.S. When entering the Earth‘s atmosphere.. operating since 2004. The Borexino experiment in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy for the measurement of low-energy neutrinos started taking data in May 2007 after a long period of construction work. split to two compartments by the outer nylon balloon. The location on the southern hemisphere provides optimum optical observation conditions and enables a direct view into the centre of our galaxy. telescopes have already detected numerous. muon. it would mean that neutrinos are so-called Majorana particles. The four telescopes form the corners of a square of side 120 m. much larger telescope with 600 m2 mirror area is under construction. i. as well as on the photomultipliers for registration of the scintillation light through which neutrinos are detected.E. Some.

size. in particular shock waves. The dust detector on board of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn. hence on the gammaray signature they produce. which were developed at the MPIK. A foil sensor determining high rates is visible for its two circular detector foils. These properties are expected to have a strong impact on predictions of the spectrum of accelerated particles and. organic compounds or salts and thus feeds the big outer dust ring of Saturn. A cross-section perpendicular to the streaming direction of the particles is shown. Cosmic Dust With instruments on board spacecraft. The most important current mission is Cassini/Huygens (NASA/ESA) in the Saturnian system where spectacular discoveries succeeded. there is the detection of ice volcanism on the moon Enceladus.001 mm. This is done with respect to the formation and development of gas-rich galaxies and the star formation rates in dependence on the dust distribution.Theoretical Astrophysics and Infrared Astrophysics The work on theoretical astrophysics is in part closely correlated to the experimental investigations with H. Another topic is the effect of the considerable energy densities of cosmic radiation on the evolution of structures in the universe. and chemical composition of micrometeoroids impacting at velocities between 5000 and 1 million km/h. and its interaction with matter and magnetic or radiation fields. For example. 9 . Known sources of cosmic radiation are exploding stars. in-situ measurements of the interplanetary and interstellar dust present in the Solar system are performed. An integrated time-offlight mass spectrometer determines the elementary composition of individual dust grains. The dust detectors. A turntable allows aligning the instrument axis along the direction of the dust stream. of the dust distribution in galaxies. are tested and calibrated with the dust accelerator. through which large fractions of the overall energy in the interstellar and intergalactic medium come to be carried by a small minority of relativistic particles. Predictions of the turbulent magnetic field excited ahead of a shock front by accelerated cosmic-ray particles. At the heart of this work is the quest to identify and to quantitatively understand the so-called nonthermal processes. The sensitivity of the detectors is higher by a factor of 1000 compared to optical instruments due to the analysis of single dust grains. The gold-plated impact detector with a diameter of 40 cm and an aperture of 45° registers high-velocity impacts of micrometeoroids with velocities between 1 and 300 km/s and sizes of about 0. ESA) and its successor Spitzer Space Observatory (NASA) are being evaluated using theoretical models.S. rotating neutron stars and black holes. A dust detector aboard the spacecraft Ulysses orbiting around the Sun on an ellipse almost perpendicular to the planetary plane investigated until mid 2008 the interstellar dust entering the Solar system. e. which ejects ice particles with enclosed silicates. Observations of the interstellar and intergalactic dust in the far infrared light by satellite instruments aboard ISO (Infrared Space Observatory. They show that cosmic rays produce a web of strong field surrounding channels through which the particles can propagate rapidly. as well as interstellar and intergalactic shock waves.S. with the amplitude of the generated field shown in colour from blue/black (low) to orange/red (high). the propagation of the nonthermal radiation in space. The computations were performed using a specially developed simulation programme. g.. Astroparticle Physics Astroparticle Physics 8 The research at the MPIK addresses the acceleration and radiative processes in extreme astrophysical environments. The sensors determine the velocity.E. This energetic particle and gamma radiation is produced under extreme conditions impossible to reproduce in accelerator facilities on Earth.

0 2 4 0. processes of nuclear physics may occur and even new particles may be formed. Microscopic GeV collision of laser-guided electrons and positrons starting from positronium in counter-propagating laser pulses. = 0. Quantum electrodynamics’ effects under the influence of a very strong laser field effectuate the coupling of photons to vacuum fluctuations. This is why numerous laser photons merge to a few extremely energetic photons and the vacuum gains a refractive index differing from 1. is first driven away from the atom by the laser field. it turns out that the vacuum is not empty (quantization of the vacuum). extremely strong laser beams permit the direct acceleration of light atomic nuclei to energies that offer potential for medical applications. or control of the refractive index. Tightly focused. during the recollision with a C60 fullerene its whole electron shell is excited entirely to perform vibrations. In an intense infrared laser pulse. In larger ensembles of nearby atoms in strong laser fields.1 0. The distances between the colliding particles are microscopically small (1 a. lasing without inversion. initial theoretical studies show that a direct interaction of X-rays with pre-accelerated atomic nuclei may be induced by super-intense X-ray laser radiation like that of the future XFEL at DESY. This makes it possible to use new methods for the measurement of nuclear properties. Nuclear and High-Energy Processes In the framework of quantum electrodynamics. In these fields. Laser-Modified Quantum Electrodynamics. respectively. charged particles may become so fast that the effects of the theory of special relativity play an important role. 4 Quantum Dynamics Quantum Dynamics 2 y a. During the recollision with the fullerene both its remaining electrons are excited to perform vibrations and high harmonics of the laser light are emitted in the form of short-waved light pulses (blue wavy lines). the most precise theory we have in physics. Furthermore. The theory offers the modelling of diverse procedures that circumvent this effect. thus preventing the recollision. when. Highly precise calculations of bound states are the basis for the determination of natural constants with a relative accuracy of 10 –14. or that metal clusters absorb infrared laser light very efficiently. ionic. collective effects become important. g. Collective effects may lead to the intensity of fluorescence light becoming proportional to the square of the number (instead of the number itself) of atoms. In extremely strong fields. Thus.u. This creates the need to search for solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger and Dirac equations.u. the electron can even reach relativistic velocities. e.53 ∙ 10 –10 m). collisions at much higher energies can be reached. but it is driven away from the atom by the “light pressure”. The calculated probability distribution of the particle position is displayed (violet to red) at the instant of the collision. or molecular systems with highly intense laser fields is the goal of quantum theoretical calculations.2 The optical properties of an ensemble of atoms can be strongly altered by exposing them to moderately intense laser fields which provoke quantum interference effects by resonant couplings. ences also make it possible in optical lithography to produce structures that are much smaller than the laser wavelength. g.. Among them there are electromagnetically induced transparency.u. e. so that.1 0 z a. but then it is forced back again. This recollision may induce a further ionization of the atom and generate higher harmonics of the laser frequency. a part of the electron shell of a C60 fullerene is detached and driven back and forth by the laser field as a “wave packet” (represented by the light-grey cloud).. In case of very high laser intensities. new particles may be generated. during which muon-pair creation has been predicted theoretically. Interfer10 In addition. 0. the basic equations of non-relativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics.Theory of Relativistic and Collective Quantum Dynamics in Intense Laser Fields A detailed understanding of the interaction between all components of atomic. the structure of the vacuum is described and its predictions are scrutinized with the highest precision using ion traps at the MPIK and the storage rings of the MPIK and the GSI. and so the completely new field of nu11 . An electron having been detached from an atom by field ionization in an intense laser field.2 0.

The formed. the energy stored in a so-called metastable (i. energy-rich. The atoms or molecules to be investigated are injected as a gas jet from the top into the reaction chamber where they collide with the electrons. at the accelerator facilities of the GSI in Darmstadt. charged particles.and position-sensitive detectors and their trajectories can be reconstructed therefrom. in which the H atoms preferably occur in a linear arrangement (dark areas). The large yellow rings are Helmholtz coils producing an axial magnetic field in the direction of the electron beam. was “filmed” for the first time. even the motion of electrons in atoms and molecules can be studied in a time-resolved manner. one of the tiniest and fastest pendulums at all. The timescales of the thus observed motions are 10-100 femtoseconds (1 fs = 10 –15 s). as measured by the imaging of several hundred thousand break-up events at the ion storage ring TSR. during which light covers only atomic diameter distances. Additionally. The formed fragments are caught by large-area time. also corresponding to space conditions. Moreover. positively or negatively charged fragments are guided by an additional electric field onto two large-area detectors where they are mapped. Methods of investigation are the fragmentation by collision with an electron beam at low kinetic energy (dissociative recombination) in the test storage ring TSR of the MPIK or by X-ray pulses of the free-electron laser at DESY (FLASH) and the imaging of single fragmentation events with particle detectors. g. it is possible to think of particle physics requiring relatively little space by means of high-intensity laser pulses. e. For this purpose. which have been developed at the MPIK. are a prerequisite to prepare single quantum states. Cold Molecular Ions and Ultracold Ensembles Elementary processes of molecular ions (positively or negatively electrically charged molecules) or molecular ensembles are realized in the laboratory within strictly controlled conditions in order to reconstruct the motions of the individual building blocks. Even shorter time spans. phase-control techniques are employed that al12 13 . Extremely fast processes can thus be started in pump-probe experiments and traced in time – this is how the vibration of a hydrogen molecule. Higher harmonics of the laser frequency with photon energies up to 70 eV are produced using this technique and characterized in order to generate even shorter pulses with a duration in the region of attoseconds (1 as = 10 –18 s). Last but not least. Experiments with ultra-short X-ray pulses are conducted at the freeelectron laser of DESY in Hamburg (FLASH). Ultra-short intense laser pulses or an electron beam break up simple molecules like H2 or atoms like He. Very low temperatures and densities. but long-lived) atomic nucleus of a highly charged ion can be released like from an extremely energy-rich battery. In such an order of magnitude. e. The investigation of these processes forms the basis for new techniques that may come to be applied in the future: For example. Experimental Quantum Dynamics in Intense Fields Basic principles of quantum dynamics are investigated on systems consisting of a few particles using so-called reaction microscopes. pulses of a few femtoseconds’ duration and intensities up to 1016 W/cm² are readily available.clear quantum optics may be opened in the future. 40  K). stored and cooled beams of molecular ions are used as they also occur in space. can be achieved by the bombardment of atoms or molecules with fast. low producing “tailored” laser pulses showing a desired temporal course. Geometry of the break-up of a three-atomic hydrogen ion in the collision with electrons (e –) of thermal energy (ca. Quantum Dynamics Quantum Dynamics In the laser laboratory. The triangular arrangement of the H atoms in the H3+ molecule before the collision (centre of the diagram) mostly is strongly disturbed. novel time and frequency standards or manipulating chemical reactions specifically with laser pulses seem possible.. The sorting of the events according to the geometric parameters h1 and h2 shows a particular reaction channel. A reaction microscope in the laboratory at the MPIK for electron-collision experiments.

there is a slow and a fast process. Measurements on Stored and Cooled Ions Highly charged atomic ions. Up to extremely high charge states. very strictly controlled electron beams are used for this purpose.For cooling molecular ions down to temperatures of a few Kelvin. “Evaporation” of added ions of light elements leads to cooling of the more heavy elements. from which its mass can be deduced if its charge state and the magnetic field strength are known even in the case when the exotic particles live only for a few milliseconds. Furthermore. millimetre-sized atomic clouds representing one macroscopic quantum state. the measurement can be done by determining the so-called mirror current that is induced in the electrodes. but in the case of radioactive nuclei often limited by the lifetime of the stored particles. in particular the mass. Canada). Properties of atomic nuclei. the ions may be precisely investigated in storage rings and traps. can be produced and investigated. Precision Mass Measurements The chemical composition of our universe shows some surprising peculiarities: The sun mainly consists of hydrogen and helium. Extremely precise mass measurements of even In a Penning trap. i. so-called quantum gases (Fermi gases or Bose-Einstein condensates). ions can be stored by the superposition of an electrical quadrupole field and a magnetic field for very long time spans of up to several months. the latter of which is yet mostly unexplained. but vice versa. iron is much more abundant on Earth compared to heavy elements like gold. In the direction of the electron beam the trap is closed by repelling electrodes. For this. at charge states up to Hg78+. play an important role in the search for answers to the partly unexplained fundamental puzzles at the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics. by laser cooling in specially designed atom traps also ultracold superfluid phases. e. which thus remain within the trap for a longer time span and can be investigated. which contain to an appreciable amount free charge carriers. Laser-cooled negative ions will be used to pre-cool antiprotons in order to produce and to study antihydrogen at low temperatures. atoms lacking most of their electrons. it is possible to determine the magnetic moment of the bound electron very accurately. namely electrons and ions. whose lifetime In an electron-beam ion trap EBIT (the photograph shows the installation of the MPIK at TRIUMF in Vancouver. Recombination of highly charged ions with electrons only occurs at given collision energies in most cases and produces a highly excited ion or atom. at which all molecular vibrations are frozen and only the lowest rotational levels are excited. Quantum Dynamics Quantum Dynamics 14 15 . A focused electron beam extracts further electrons from the ions and at the same time prevents the ions to leave the trap due to its negative charge. At very low temperatures close to absolute zero. are called plasmas). This allows to precisely check the predictions of quantum electrodynamics for bound states. The ion performs a characteristic motion in the trap (circular orbit with superimposed oscillations). Using single ions of light elements with only one electron (called hydrogen-like ions) trapped and cooled in a Penning trap. also a precise determination of the electron mass is possible. innovative techniques using low-temperature technology and cold electron beams are being developed. Laser spectroscopy of Li+ ions circulating in the test storage ring TSR with ~5% of the speed of light made it possible to perform a precise test of the theory of special relativity. The results also serve to review fundamental theories like quantum electrodynamics. and excitation energy are measured with extreme precision.. but only via the capture of neutrons under extreme conditions. all chemical elements that are heavier than iron cannot have been generated by nuclear fusion. are of overwhelming importance for the processes in plasmas like in supernova remnants or in experiments on nuclear fusion (ionized gases. According to the model of nuclear physics. In the storage ring. whereas in an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT). also visible light and that of the free-electron laser FLASH are applied for spectroscopy. positive ions are confined to a thin cylindrical volume by means of electrical and magnetic fields in an extreme vacuum.

16 . where antimatter and exotic nuclei in quantities not yet reachable shall be produced. Quantum Dynamics In addition. Accelerators and Storage Rings For the research with fast ion beams. molecular and also astrophysics. and thus enables also a test of the standard model of particle physics. scientists of the institute are participating in the new FLAIR and NUSTAR facilities of GSI’s future facility FAIR in Darmstadt. Negatively charged ions from an ion source are injected. stored and investigated in detail. is already under construction as the succeeding experiment. Beam cooling by an electron cooler or by laser beams enables a highly precise preparation of the stored ions to perform precision experiments in atomic. but also molecular ions like CH +). The precise determination of nuclear masses before and after a radioactive decay provides important information about the nature of the electroweak interaction. and ejected again as positive ions after recharging (stripping) with manifold energy gain (tandem principle). has been discovered and its mass and lifetime determined at the ISOLTRAP facility of CERN. a new radon isotope.short-lived isotopes with a relative accuracy of up to 10 –8 are possible by determining the cyclotron frequency of single ions stored in Penning traps. the MPIK operates its own accelerator facilities. Also in storage rings mass spectrometry is possible. In 2008. The cryogenic storage ring CSR. The MP tandem accelerator with the HF linear postaccelerator as well as the high-current injector and the 3 MV Van de Graaff generator are able to supply the heavy-ion storage ring TSR with ions of nearly all elements (from 1H to 208Pb. 229Rn. High voltage of more than 12 million Volts can be generated in the centre of the pressure tank of the MP tandem accelerator. in which at extreme vacuum (<10 –15 mbar) and a few Kelvin also heavy molecular and highly charged atomic ions will be investigated almost without any disturbances by the environment. accelerated.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful