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According to a report done by an outside consultant, productivity dropped by 35% by the end of that period. The CEO has therefore initiated a plan to boost productivity by giving employees shares of the company as part of their pay package. We can use the text above to show the four different parts of a Critical Reasoning text. Conclusion/Main Idea - Most problems have a central idea or thesis. This is almost always located in the sentence at the beginning of the text, or in the sentence at the very end. In this case, it is at the end of the passage: The CEO has therefore initiated a plan to boost productivity by giving employees shares of the company as part of their pay package. Notice the word therefore in that sentence. Words like therefore, thus, hence, and so usually tell us that this is the conclusion or the main idea. Let these words lead you to the main idea. Conclusion Indicators • hence • so • thus • follows that • conclude that • as a result • • • • • • therefore accordingly consequently shows that implies means that
Most often the conclusion of an argument is put in the form of a statement. Sometimes, however, the conclusion is given as a command or obligation. Example: "All things considered, you ought to vote." Here, the author implies that you are obliged to vote. The conclusion can even be put in the form of a question. This rhetorical technique is quite effective in convincing people that a certain position is correct. We are more likely to believe something if we feel that we concluded it on our own, or at least if we feel that we were not told to believe it. A conclusion put in question form can have this result. Example: "The Nanuuts believe that they should not take from Nature anything She cannot replenish during their lifetime. This assures that future generations can enjoy the same riches of Nature that they have. At the current rate of destruction, the rain forests will disappear during our
There is no one here who does not have a skeleton in his closet. However. if a star's position is predicted based on nonEuclidean geometry. This allows the reader to make up his own mind. If the build-up is done skillfully. Example: "He who is without sin should cast the first stone. When determining the conclusion's scope be careful not to read any more or less into it than the author states. Certain words limit the scope of a statement. then when a telescope is pointed to where the star should be it will be there. then when a telescope is pointed to where the star should be it won't be there. Following is a list of the most important quantifiers: Quantifiers • • • • • • • • all some only never probably except most could • • • • • • • Example: "Whether the world is Euclidean or non-Euclidean is still an open question.lifetime. without feeling manipulated. These words are called quantifiers--pay close attention to them. Do we have an obligation to future generations to prevent this result?" Here the author trusts that the power of her argument will persuade the reader to answer the question affirmatively." The unstated but obvious conclusion here is that none of the people has the right to cast the first stone. the reader will be more likely to agree with the author. the writer may build up to the conclusion but leave it unstated. if the star's position is predicted based on Euclidean geometry. Taking this rhetorical technique one step further. This strongly indicates that the world is non-Euclidean." Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage? A. always must likely many no everywhere alone . Whereas. The world may or may not be Euclidean. GMAT writers often create wrong answer-choices by slightly overstating or understating the author's claim.
D. but unlike the conclusion and premises they are not stated in the text: they are implicit.B. Once you've found the conclusion. Here is an example from the text: A CEO of a major company noted a serious decline in worker productivity during the previous five years. that the world is probably non-Euclidean. In choice (B). Choice (C) overstates the main idea. E. If so. The answer is (B). The world is Euclidean.Assumptions are the facts that support the conclusion. likewise writers use certain words to flag premises.Premises are the facts or evidence that support or lead to the conclusion. just that evidence strongly indicates that it is. Premise . Choice (A) understates the main idea. they form the foundation or infrastructure upon which the conclusion depends. C. . The world is non-Euclidean. Earlier we saw that writers use certain words to flag conclusions. most often everything else in the argument will be either premises or "noise". This premise helps the author lead to the conclusion or main idea of the text. Here is what would be an example of an assumption for this particular Critical Reasoning problem: Owning something or part of something obliges you work harder to make it succeed. they are explicit. namely. Following is a partial list of the most common premise indicators: Premise Indicators • • • • • • because since if as suppose assume • • • • • • for is evident that in that owing to inasmuch as may be derived from Assumption. ask yourself whether it supports the conclusion. Unlike assumptions. Although the opening to the passage states that we don't know whether the world is non-Euclidean. like the premise does. it's a premise. The author doesn't say that the world is non-Euclidean. To determine whether a statement is a premise. The world is probably non-Euclidean. the author goes on to give evidence that it is non-Euclidean. the word "probably" properly limits the scope of the main idea. The world is neither Euclidean nor non-Euclidean. The premises provide evidence for the conclusion. but we can't yet state so definitively.
2. 4. The following strategies should help you with all the Critical Reasoning questions. This sentence supports the first sentence. Is it right there.Look for particular types of questions. in answer choice B.Like a premise. then B probably is the answer. do not read too much into it or let your own knowledge of a subject lead you to pick the wrong answer. At best it supports a premise or provides further detail or information regarding a premise. Read the other answer choices quickly. look for it down below in the five answer choices.Remember the old saying. and also supports the conclusion. Identify the Argument . Silly Answer Choices . In order to do this. But it does give the argument as a whole some sense. 5. but this is probably the right answer.e. KISS. this is stated and explicit information embedded in the text. Keep It Simple Stupid i. or makes no sense if the main idea is true. KISS . Supporting Information does not support the Conclusion or Main Idea. The key to Critical Reasoning is to focus on what the question is asking you to do. This strategy saves you some valuable time. Continue the Idea and ASSUMPTION questions. If an answer choice seems against common sense. but unlike a premise. rather. THAT'S ALL YOU SHOULD DO. this strategy does not apply to Supply the Conclusion questions. That's valid too – it is basically saying the same thing. the premise that notes that productivity has dropped. for example? If so. 1. many forget or do not know the importance of carrying out this absolutely essential task. it supports information that is already in the text. KISS? It also applies to Critical Reasoning. Strengthen. it does not support the conclusion. 3. Just answer the question. "2 OUT OF 5" RULE . imagine what would satisfy the question.Note that this line is not in the text: it cannot be in the text if it is an assumption of the author. From the text: According to a report done by an outside consultant. and then use the strategies appropriate for that type of question to choose the right answer. After you have imagined what could satisfy the question. or very similar to it. productivity dropped by 35% by the end of that period. but it does especially matter for Weaken. then you can probably eliminate it. We will be looking at different types of Critical Reasoning Questions in the next section. finding an answer choice that best answers the question. Supporting Information. Some books tell you to think of the 'scope' or 'parameters' of the argument.Sounds obvious? Nonetheless. Of course.There are ridiculous or nonsensical answer choices in many questions. Patterns .
1. Eliminate answer choices that do not answer the question. This is called the "2 out of 5" rule. even if you don't fully understand an argument. 2. Eliminate! . Weaken the Argument questions 1. Remember that that's usually in the first or last line. You MUST know how to deal with these types of questions.what would strengthen the argument. guess. 3. Hence. Supply the Assumption 5. and cannot decide between them. . then choose! Strengthen the Argument questions 1. Keep things clear and simple. KISS. Eliminate answer choices that do not weaken the argument. Identify the Argument. Remember. Identify the argument. you probably can still eliminate the three fluff choices. Then look for it in the answer choices. Eliminate silly or nonsensical answers. 5. Strengthen the Argument 3. and then use the strategies appropriate for that type of question to choose the right answer. If there are two or three answer choices left after the process of elimination. For specific question types Strategies for each different type of question. that's usually in the first or last line. Weaken the Argument 2. Identify the argument. For this reason. 2. Anticipate what will be the answer. Imagine what would satisfy the question. Eliminate the ones you know do not make sense. 4. usually only one attractive wrong answer-choice is presented. only two of the five answer-choices will have any real merit. 4. That is. So if you are left with two answer choices.Rather than making a choice immediately. 1. if possible. Inference These are the strategies that apply to all Critical Reasoning questions. it is almost always better to eliminate down to one or two answers. Look for particular types of questions (for example Weaken the Argument). thereby greatly increasing your odds of answering the question correctly. Supply the Conclusion 4. 3. There are four types of questions that account for the majority of the questions in Critical Reasoning. That's better than Las Vegas.Creating a good but incorrect answer-choice is much harder than developing the correct answer. At least you have eliminated it down to 50-50 odds. Evaluation 7. Paradox 6.
Eliminate answer choices that don't deal with or are supported by ALL of the premises. If there are two or three answer choices left after the process of elimination. Clearly most airline passengers would n’joy popcorn as a midflight snack. Is there an obvious conclusion that could be made from these premises? 3. or that don't make sense from the information given. if possible. Assume all the premises are true. Analogy Argument uses evidence about X to reach a conclusion about Y. . Identify the premises of the argument. then: choose! Supply the Assumption questions 1. Anticipate what will be the answer. To strengthen rats and Humans have similar effect of Sugar To weaken rats and Humans have dissimilar effect of Sugar 2. 3. that's usually in the first or last sentence of the text. then eliminate it. Eliminate answer choices that do not strengthen the argument. 4. Identify the gap in the logic of the argument. 3.2. Identify the premises of the argument. Remember. Eliminate silly or nonsensical answer choices. Sampling or Statistical Arguments reach a conclusion about a group of people based on evidence about some subset of that group. Imagine what would satisfy the question. then choose! Supply the Conclusion 1.what would strengthen the argument. What's the new element or factor in the conclusion? The assumption will probably introduce it. A survey of airline passengers indicated that 85 % of them would eat chocolate if it were offered as a midflight snack. If there are two or three answer choices left after the process of elimination. Go through each answer choice. Identify the conclusion. 5. Try to combine or link those premises. Does it strengthen the conclusion? If not. What's missing or needed to make this argument convincing? 4. 6. Choose! Don't waste time! There are three types of Arguments: 1. Then look for it in the answer choices. Sugar to rats Rat became active Humans who want to be active should have sugar. 2. 4. 2.
Causal Argument It uses evidences that X and Y occur together to reach the conclusion that X causes Y.To strengthen: Subset is the right representation of the group. To weaken: Subset is the wrong representation of the group. So we can say that the ppl who were surveyed were the staff of a chocolate company. Example: Increase in Dollar will increase Inflation Assumption: Increase in Inflation does not increase Dollar Rule: If A then B If not A then not B (wrong) If not B then not A (right) . 3.
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