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DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE SECOND EDITION ARTHUR H. NILSON Curved prestressed concrete bridge girders used . highway orade sep- ‘ration, Courtesy of State of Calforia, Department ot Puble Works, JOHN WILEY 6 SONS NewYork * Chichester - Brisbane - Toronlo ~ Singepore opi ©1017 yD ‘Abii eed Ped enna in Cina ‘Ata teed a ened Se {ey mdvod a Und St Cope 2 Sn nb pee ‘heermsnss Dept, Wy So ay of Coon Cag Pei ate In hl er tind PREFACE ‘Although the frst proposal appl prestessing to concrete was made as ‘arly a6 166, inthe United Stato, was ony a a result of he suc of the renowned French engineer Eugene Freyssinet inthe 1830s that pr ‘vesaed concrete became 2 pracical realty. in Europe, in the period ot ‘2cuta mater shortages folowing World War I Freyesint ana other pioneers demonsvated the remarkable possibilis ofthis new concept of fesign, and set hostage for tho development that was fo take pace tthe fotoming years Largely for economic rather than technical reasons, the evolution of prestested concrete in the Unied States haa been slong. somewhat flerent tines than in Europe. Untl just a few years ago, inerest was ‘mainly In standardized precast and pretensioned units of rlavely short Span, which could be mass-produced with great saving in labor cost Holowcore slabs and single and doubl-T boams wero, and are, widely ‘sed Yor floors, rots, and walls of buildings. For highway bridges, sta ‘are L-beams, T-beams, and box section bears evolved. Precast members ‘ot these types have accounted fo a sgnicant Wacton of al new construc: ‘ion ena undoubtedly wil continue to do 2. However, changing economic conditons and a rapily evolving tech nology are producing important changes In U. S. practice. Construction labor isnot in such short supply. The cost of materials & constanty ‘noreasing. There Is @ serous concern about conservation of resources Improved materiale and more powerful methods of analysis are goneraly valabe. Under these ceumstances, i's natural that engineers shoud ‘uum to more sophisticated designs, such as those developed meanwhile in Europe, which more fully expot the potential of presvessed concrote, CCastin-place fat plato leer, postensioned for hl continu are now ‘common in Buldings. Short to medium span highway brdges, often com Dining vertical grade wih horzontal curvature and superetvaton (Soe ‘rontspace, for example) are used to ensure smooth Wa flow. Segmen- ily east continuous-beam bridges an cable stayed gircers of presiossod concrete have dramatically extended previous span limts. The continued evolution of beth conventional and more innovative ‘ypes of prestesses. concrete consruction has created the need for {nginger who have a tm understanding of undamenta principles, on the fone hand, and the ally Yo create efficient and practeal designs, on the ‘ther. Family wih governing codes and specications is necessary Dut |S not sufficient for present-day pracice. Engineers are needed who can ‘ot eniy be effective in optimizing exsing forme of constuction but iso ‘can_apply fundamental concepts with confidence In new and unusual Stations, 'Thope that this book wil be an effective aid inthe edcaton of such persons. The inital emphasis is placed on fundamontas of behavior. This 'S folowed by presentation and explanation of imporiant code provisions {and design oft procedures, ilustrated by practical exampes. [Although intonded marly as a college textbook for use atthe fourth- ‘or tith-year fvel a special effort has been made to develop a clear ‘settcontaned presentation, so thatthe book may also be used by en ‘ineers in practice who wish To improve thee knowledge ot this raately ‘now field. The material has been cartuly coordinated with codes govern. Ing U.S. practee, partcularly the atest eaton of Bullaing Code Require ‘menis for Reinforced Concrete, published ty the American Concrete "AC! Cade notation ls used as far ax possible. Frequent reerence to tho publation ofthe Prestressed Concrete Instituto and tho PostTensioning Instiute, providing an insight into actual design practoo for the student, and suggesting souroos of practical information. Extonsive reference ists at ho ond ofeach chaptor provide a guide to the iterate {or those whose needs go beyond the coverage ofthis text “The book has grown trom a set of ectre notes tha developed while teaching prestressed concrete fo ov engineering students at Comet Universty over a 30sear period. The arrangement of te material flows ‘that of my loctres. Aor an introduction fo the Base concepts in Chapter 1, and a summary of concrete and stel material properties in Chapter 2, ‘the analysis and design of beams is presente in Chapters 3t0 5, Losees of presrest are considered in Chapter 6. it may be argued thal analysis of tosses shoulé precede beam analysis and design, but | have conclued that, om a pedagogical vewpoint, there's greater advantage to geting on ‘withthe Business of design ear in many practical cases, losses need be ‘Considered in no more detail than in Chaptrs 2 and 4 “The study of defections (Chaptor 8) and the design of slabs (Chapter 40) are fundamental and should be inchised in a fst course of std, However, the teacher may not find time to cover composite beams or continuous mombers (Chapters 7 and 8, respectively). These topics, a well as treatment of aly foaded members (Chapter 11), may be deterred Uni a ater course or taken up through sell-tudy Chapters 12 and 19, which deal respectively with precast construction and applications, have been writen to permit ther assignment as outsice reading, ‘Appendix A contains a varaly of design aids. These are useful in connection with examples and assigned problems, and may increase the Usefulness of the book to the practicing engineer. Append B contains fengineering. dala for certain post tensioning systems. No attempt was ‘made to be encyclopedic, but only to present sufficient detail to peer oalishe proportioning of members in problem assignments. Final, Ap ‘Bendix C provides i conversion factors ané metric auivalerts. ‘The prosenteation ofthis ex is an update and an expansion of the ‘stand Ineues changes in design pilosophy and methodology core: ponding fo changes n current practi. New information is presented on mater, parbcularly relating to high-strength concrete, now in common Use, and’ nowy avalable types of prestressingstov. Inthe chapters on Nexural analysts and design. adaitonal emphass has been placed on pata! prestessing, combining prestressed and non prestressed rein- foceament. These changes, among other things, have resulted in modca- tion of design equations for foxural strength and more elaborate mothods for calculating beam deflections. The reader vill fd moch new material Pertaining 1 prestressed slabs, particularly one-way banded slab construc “Many now design aids have been added. Section properties are given for standard holloweare slabs, and for single- and double-T beams, Used for floore and root. For tidges, secon property tables have been In Clided fr slandard AASHTO |beams, and fr other sections now used by |S numberof state highway departments. Secon properties are aso gwen for voided slabs, box section beams, an single-T beams, such a6 are ‘nidly use for shorter span highway bridges nally wil be noted that mary new problems have been added at ‘he end of each chapter for home assignment ‘R word is inorder relating to units of measurement. Naonwi, there ‘is a movement toward adoption ofthe Inlrmationa Systom (8) of metric Units, although progress In that decton has bean siow. tn. many cases, basic science and engineering science courses are taught using St nis Certain manutacturing Inausties have converted, But ia the construction industry, the familar "English" or “customary” unit are stil almost univer ‘sal although a metic version ofthe ACI Cade is avaiable, the ACI Coge In ‘customary unis 18 te one found In most desig offices, Recognizing tal Users of this text may have become tania with SI units i ropaatory ‘uses, but wil 8900 enter design aces in whieh customary unis preva, TThave proceeded as folows: (1) al graphs and tabulated information of fundamental nature (2. the Table of Chepter 2) are given in ual unt