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lntroduci ng Cultural Studies

ntrod uci ng Cultural Studies

Elaine Baldwin Brian Longhurst Scott McCracken Miles Ogborn Greg Smith

The University of Georg ia Press Athens


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List of Key lnfluence boxes List of Defining Concept boxes Preface: A User's Guide Acknowledgements

page xiii
xv xvii xxi

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part; Cultural theory


Culture and cultural studies

1 .O lntroduction 1.1 What is culture? 1.1.1 Culture with a big 'C' 1.1 .2 Culture as a 'way of lite' 1.1.3 Process and development 1 .2 lssues and problems in the study of culture 1.2.1 How do p eop le become part of a culture? 1.2.2 How does cultural studies interpret what things mean? 1.2.3 How does cultural studies understand the past? 1.2.4 Can other cultures be understood? 1.2.5 How can we understand the relationsh ips between cultures? 1.2.6 Why are some cultures and cultural forms valued more highly than others? 1 .2. 7 What is l he relationship between culture and power? 1.2.8 How is 'culture as power' negotiated and resisted? 1.2.9 How does culture shape who w e are? 1.2.1O Summary exam ples 1.3 Theorising culture 1.3.1 Culture and social structure

3 4 4 4 6 7 7 9 1O 12 14 15 17 17 18 20 23 25

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Contents 1.3.2 The organisation of meaning Cultural st udies 31 41 43 43 44 44 45 47 49 3.2 Legitimating inequality 3.2.1 ldeology as common sense: hegemony 3.2.2 ldeology as incorporation: the Frankfurt School 3.2.3 Habitus Culture and the production and reproduction of inequality 3.3. 1 Class 3.3.2 'Race' and ethnicity 3.3.3 Gender 3.3.4 Age 3.3.5 Structural and local conceptions of power Conclusion

Conlents vii 104 105 108 11o 112 11 2 117 120 124 126 128


Communication and representation

2.0 2.1 lntroduclion Language, communication and representalion 2.1.1 The attributes of language 2.1 .2 Language, culture and thought 2.1.3 The Sapir- Whorf hypothesis 2.1.4 Sociolinguistics 2.2 Signs and semiotics 2.2.1 A semiolic analysis of a photograph 2.2.2 Roland Barthes: semiotics and myth 2.3 Advertising and representation 2.3. 1 DiHeren l types of advertising 2.3.2 A semiotic analysis of a soph isticated advertisement 2.3.3 Advertising and gender 2.3.4 Promotional cu lture 2.4 Language, representation, power and inequality 2.4.1 Language and power 2.4.2 Language and class 2.4.3 Language, race and ethnicity 2.4.4 Language and gender 2.4.5 Language as culture: language as power 2.4.6 The ethnography of speaking 2.4.7 Language as comm unication and representation: a summary 2.5 Art and represen tation 2.5.1 John Berger: oil painting, realism and capitalism 2.5.2 lmpressionism and modernism 2.5.3 Art and gender 2.6 Television and representat ion 2.6.1 The language of industrial disputes 2.6.2 Stuarl Hall: encoding, decoding and ideology 2.6.3 Television: ideology, discourse and power 2.7 Summary: reflecting and constructing


51 52 54 54 55 58 60 60 62 63 66 71 72 73 76



Cultural studies

131 133

4 Topographies of culture: geography, power and representation

4.0 lntroduction
4.1 4.2 Cu ltu ral geog raphy 4.1.1 Cultural geography 'old' and 'new' The power of place: locality, language and cu lture 4.2.1 Philosophies of place 4.2.2 Critica! understandings of place 4.2.3 Culture, power and place: Stockholm 1880-1900 The country and the city 4.3.1 Representing the country and the city 4.3.2 Cu ltu ral images of the rural 4.3.3 The country and the city 4.3.4 Cultural images of the urban: imagining Los Angeles 4.3.5 Concl usions Culture and national identity 4.4. 1 Nations, national identity and territoriality 4.4.2 Nations as ' imagined communities' 4.4.3 Making the nation 4.4.4 lmaging the nation 4.4.5 Nationalism, landscape and women 4.4.6 Nationalism: inclusions/exclusions 4.4.7 Conclusions Orienta lism: discourses of the East 4.5. 1 Orientalsm 4.5.2 Power and geographical representation 4.5.3 Critiques of Said's Orientolism 4.5.4 Conclusions Travelling cultures, diasporic cultures and global cultures 4.6. 1 James Clifford's 'Travelling cultures'

134 134 140 140 143 144 148 149 149 153 154 157 157 157 158 161 162 163 165 167 168 169 172 173 174 175 175


77 77
79 80 81 82 86 89 90 92



Culture, power and inequality

3.0 3.1 ln troduction Theorising about culture, power and inequality 3 1 .1 Marx and Marxism 3.1.2 Weber, status and inequality 3.1.3 (aste societies

95 95 101 103 4.6





4.6.2 Paul Gilroy's Block Atlantic 4.6.3 Doreen Massey's 'Global sense of place' 4.6.4 Conclusions 4.7 Conclusion: separation and conneclion

1 76 178 1 79 179 181 181 182 183 183 184 185 185 188 190 193 194 195 197 199 200 203 204 208 21 1 212 213 214 214 218 219 221 221 222 222 227 233 233 235 241 250 25 7

6.3.1 Performing identilies in unconventional politics 6.3.2 The limits of transgression: The Sotanic Verses 6.4 Conclusion

257 262 265 267 267 268 271 271 273 275 276 278 284 286

Culture, time and history

5.0 1 n troduclion 5. 1 Now: modernity and the present 5.1.1 Modernity 5.1.2 Task-based time and industrial time 5.1 .3 Industrial time 5.1 .4 Time and difference 5.1.5 The paradox of modern time 5.1.6 Wornen and time 5.1 .7 Modern lime versus traditiona l time 5.1.8 Conclusion

7 Cultured bodies
ntrod uction 7. 0 1 7. 1 The social construction of corporeality 7.2 Techniques of the body: ernbodied instrumentalities 7.2.1 Mauss on body techniques 7.2.2 Feminine motility: 'Throwing like a girl' 7.2.3 Body idiom and body gloss 7.3 Culture as control: the regulation and rest raint of hu man bodies

7.3. 1 Power, discourse and the body: Foucault 7.3.2 Civilising the body: Elias 7.3.3 Eating: a disciplined ora civilised cultural practice?
7.4 Representations of embod im ent: cu lture's depiction s 7. 4.1 Fashion 7.4.2 Gender difference and representations of femininity 7.4.3 Representalions of masculinity 7.4.4 Effects of bodily representations and t he limits of
represen tation




Then: history and the past 5.2.1 History as facts 5.2.2 Marxism and history 5.2.3 History as narrative 5.2.4 M ikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin 5.2.5 Michel Foucault 5.2.6 History and difference 5.2.7 Example: 'A maiden tribu :e lo modern Babylon' 5.2.8 Past and present 5.2.9 Conclusion lr/when: the future 5.3.1 Utopa and dystopia 5.3.2 Narratives of the future 5.3.3 History and the future Conclusion

290 293 295 297 300 300 301 302 303 307 311 314 316 316 316 318 318 319 323 323 325 327 328

7.5 The body as a medium of expression and transgression:

culture's idiorns 7.5. 1 The em otional body 7.5.2 The sporting body 7.5.3 Body arts 7.5.4 Discoursing the fit body 7.5.5 Bodybuilding: com ic-book rnasculinity and transgressive femininity? Cyborgism, fragmen tation and the end of the body? Conclusion

Politics and culture

6.0 lntroduction 6.1 Cultural politics and politica l culture 6.1.1 From politics to cultural polilcs 6.1.2 Legilimation, representation and performance 6.2 Cultures of political power 6.2.1 The cultural politics of democracy in nineteen thcentury Britain

7.6 7.7

Subcultures: reading, resistance and social divisions

8.0 lntroduction 8.1 Subcultures: power, divisions and interpretation 8.2 Deviants and gangs 8.2.1 Deviance and subculture 8.2.2 Mike Davis: gangs in Los Angeles 8.3 Folk devils, moral panics and subcu ltures 8.3. 1 Stanley Cohen: Folk Devils and Moral Panics 8.3.2 Moral panic today 8.4 Youth subcultures in British cul tural studies 8.4.1 Resistance through Rituals: the general approach

6.2.2 Perform ing identities in conventional politics 6.2.3 Bureaucracy as culture 6.2.4 Performing sta te power 6.3 Cultures of resistance

x Contenls
Phil Cohen: working-class youth subcultures in East London 8.4.3 ldeology and hegemony 8.4.4 Structures, cultures and biographies 8.5 Three studies from the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies 8.5. 1 Paul Willis: Leorning to Lobour 8.5.2 Paul Willis: Profane Culture 8.5.3 Dick Hebdige: Subculture: The Meoning of Style 8.6 Youth subcu ltures and gender 8.6. 1 The teenybop culture of romance 8.6.2 Pop music, rave culture and gender 8.7 Youth subcu ltures and race 8.7. 1 Simon jones's Block Culture, Whil e Youth: new identities in multiracial cities 8.8 The Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Stud ies and youth subcul tures: a general critique 8. 9 Aspects of contemporary youth culture 8.9. 1 Symbolic creativity 8.9.2 Postmodernism and youth culture 8.9.3 Rave and dance cu lture 8.9.4 Going out and extending youth 8.1O Rethinking subcultures: interactions and networks 8.1 1 Fans: stereotypes, Stor Trek and opposition 8.1 1.1 Fans of Stor Trek 8.1 1 .2 Fans of daytime soap opera 8.12 Conclusion: from resistance to ide11tity and performance 8.4.2 335 337 338 339 339 340 341 342 34 4 345 346 347 348 352 352 352 354 356 357 358 359 361 362 364 364 365 367 367 372 375 377 377 378 381 383 385 387 9.6 9.7 9 .5.1 The tourist gaze 9.5.2 Postmodernism and post-tourism The glimpse, the gaze, the sean and the glance Visual interaction in public places 9.7.1 Categoric knowing: appearential and spatial orders 9.7.2 Unfocused interaction, civil inattention and normal appearances ln terpreting the built environment 9.8. 1 Marshall Berman: modernity, modernisation and modernism 9.8.2 Reading architecture 9.8.3 Reading the landscape of taste 9.8.4 Reading cities: legibility and imageability 9.8.5 Reading landscape and power Visual cu lture and postmodernity 9. 9.1 Postmodernism and capitalism: Fredric jameson and David Harvey 9.9.2 jea n Baudrillard : simulacra and hyperreality 9.9.3 Digitalisation and the future of representation Summary

Contents xi
387 389 391 392 393 395 398 398 40 1 408 409 41 1 412 412



416 417 419 422 450


Afterword Bibliography lndex

9 Visual culture
9.0 9.1 9.2 lntroduction Visual culture and visual representation Modernity and visual culture: classic writers and key themes 9.2. 1 Georg Simmel: metropolitan cu lture and visual interaction 9.2.2 Walter Benjamn: mechanical reproduction, aura and the Pars arcades 9.2.3 The figure of the flneur Technologies of realism: photography and film 9.3. 1 The development of photography and film 9.3.2 The documentary tradition 9.3.3 Coln MacCabe: the classic realist text 9.3.4 Laura Mulvey: the male gaze Foucault: the gaze and surveillance Tourism: gazing and postmodernism


9.4 9.5

List of K e y lnfluence boxes

1.1 1.2 1.3 2. 1 2.2 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1

Raymond Williams Michel Foucault Antonio Gramsci Roland Barthes Stuart Hall E.P. Thompson Karl Marx The Frankfurt School Richard Hoggart David Harvey Paul Gilroy Edward Said C.L.R. james

5 28 38 52 88 96 97 109 113 156 166 168 191

5.2 Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakh tin 6.1 bell hooks 6.2 judith Butler 6. 3 Julia Kristeva 6.4 Max Weber 7.1 Donna Haraway 8.1 Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies 8.2 Angela McRobbie 9.1 Georg Simmel 9.2 Walter Benjamin

202 223 231 232 243 313

327 343 368 373


Lis t of Defining C oncept

1.1 Psychoanalysis 1.2 Structuralism and poststructuralism 1.3 Discourse 1.4 Semiology and semiotics 2.1 Representation and rea lism 2.2 ldeology 3.1 Power 3.2 Hegemony 3.3 Feminism 4.1 Essentialism and difference 8 24 30 34 61 84 94 106 120 138 4.2 Space, place and landscape 4.3 Globalisation-hybridity 5.1 Colonialism and postcolonialism 6.1 ldentity 6.2 Resistance and transgression 7.1 Ritual and symbolism 8.1 Cultural capital and habitus 9.1 Modernity, modernism, postmodernity, postmodernism 141 159 189 224 258 288 355



Preface: AUser's Guide

\\\ think tha t cu ltu ral S!Udit' i' Olll' of tlll' 1110~t ~tI11UiatII ~ < trc a ~ o f" act il'il l' 111 intcllt:n ual li le. lt is als< so an<thi t1 g th:ll is ~ tucli<:d a t cl ii'Jl:rtn t ltHI,, J rming a n IH' proli lc o l 111:1 11\' ltllil'crsity COUI"\('\, J ltt' l'l' < 1l't' 111<\ ll\ b oo k.~ ()JI illlpOrt <lll( pat 1 or L cullllnt l .. tud ic, , ll m,el't'r. a-. lit l!.t\t' fou nd in m ar own ttacll ing. tll ere is 110 in trodurtion lo tite lield tltat ,eeJ.,, w olf<t an mt'tYicw :tll(l txploaation o( ~omc of tlw 1110'-L imponam a1en ues of' 1 e~caa eh in thc fidd- hcnn: th b book. 11hich dcliberateh and lt'tY consciou h' seb out tu be: a tc~thoo k for studtnts wlto an ~tuching cultural ~Ludie'"" pan of a u niHrsitl courst. In stekin){ LO ' 'Tite an introch tnio n ,,e ha\'e nu t at te 111 ptcd to bt complctc l) compnhcnsiiT. \\'e think that \\'l' con: r thc nwst importan! :t ' ( WCI ~ o f cultural q ucl ic~. but lllt itll <ttd)' this Can 01111' be OUt' illtC' I'prc tatiUil u f" tlll' licJcJ. ll'l'ill l'll f"ro rn particu lar s t : II Hi point ~. \\'('han organbcd tlt t book into ni tH' chapttT'- d il'iclcd into lll'o p:II'L S. Pan l. 0 11 cultur:tl theory. contain ~ tlt n t r hapl lTS. In thc ri rst 1\'l' itlll'lld UCl' su tn e di lfe retll tntan i n~s o l' tite con cep t of" n tl tn n :tncl !111: i:-'-llt'' ari,i ng (roan tltc:st nH:>an ings. Tlti~ ll'acb 11~ tn poilll lo tite imponanct o ( cultu ral studit')> a~ an ac tii'tl that produce~ knoldt:dgt that ~eparate di.,cipline~ cannot. Our mm disciplinan training ami affiliaton s \~11'\', tak ng in anthropologY. 'ociolog,. geogmph~ an d l.ngli-.h. ancl we continut 10 110rk in uni\'ersity depanmenb thal 1d lect discipline'. 1-lo11ewr. \\t' \\'Oltlcl all auest lO the '''aY' in wh ich nu r contac t~ 11 it h cultu ra l suaclies h aH~ changl'<l lhe "'"''' in 11 hich ,,e thin k. ttach <tll(l re~ea rc h . 1n Ch apt er 2 I H' exami ne so am impon :1111 ;t ~ p ec t s nr con1munic:11io n a nd re?presentalion , illll'<llh tcing critica ! SS11l'' ur lang uagc andlllt':llling . This is l'o liOI\'l'cl bl' a chapter conct' l'lt N l ll'i th mult iple el i nH n ~ i o n ~ :111 d tlwories u f pnwl'l' and i mqnal i11'. T oge ther tht th rtt chapter:> in Pan 1 addrt'" ianpo rt<ull gen eral iNtl'S :t nd d cba lt:-' in cultural ~ltldic~ and p rovide a m ap around 1hem. In lhese chaptc:r;.. and in tlw rest uf thl' book. ll'l' an particularh concerned with the dil'i~ion of cu lture along tht linc-; of cla~s. raCL' am i getHkr. Paat 11 of thc book contaim ~i' chapter:- ,,h ich txamitw in 'onw de tail diffcrcn t din1('n'ions o l cult ure. O m of thl mo~t ~igninn1111 dt,elupautnb in tht' humanitits and xvii


Pre face



~oci a ! ~cicncc~ in rennt ll'll'S has been thc incre<~~ecl auen tion lO the imponance of ~pace 0111d tim<'. lndctcl. W<' 1\'0IIId argue that cultural swdies h01~ bccn an intpOI ta t\l

mpetu;; bchind ~11 ch clt'\ do (>lllcnt . \\'e rc fkc t lh('Sl' COIICl'l n~ in C h a p ter,<, -J .1nd .-l. wh ic h pointto lh l 11a~~ in11hich coll!e mpo ra ry cult lll'l' canno 1 b e u n d er toud witho tll ~ig nifka nt a tte ntio n l O ~pncc, pince, con ce ptio n s o f' time a llCI social cha nge. Q f ru ur~c t h e se acade m ic cl<,d oprntn IS are con te xtu;tlisccl b~ 1he inc rcascd p ace of con te m pora rv lifl' ancl tlw t'i\Sl' of comnntnicatio n a ncl lra1cl which a re produc ing n c ,, cx p e ri c n ccs of tinl t: :tnd spacc. :\nothcr im port:Hll lthi f't in conte mporary cull\11 e a llCI th c Sllld)' of it h a~ bl'l'H a rcddini tion of politic,. Oftcn ari ~i n g fr om 1hc n c11' socialmol'e men ts of the 19C)O, and aftcr, th t'IT i~ no11 an unclcr~ 1 a n d i ng of th e \\'ay in " h ic h poli t ic~. as actii't\' concern ccl 1dth po1rcr. i all .mwnd 11~. In Ch apter 6 11e cJdre~ ; n u mbcr of i'sues raisecl b1 thi cx pamion and chan~l' in th t mca n ing o f poli ti c~. .\ no th c r ~ igni fi ca nt area o f con cern in con tc m pnrary lifc is the bocl~. \\'e :tl'l' a ll awa rt: of thc state orour boclit:s a nd th e f'o rms o f tre<liiiiCitl l'o r th c m ll'hen they :m;' n nt t'tul c t i nnin~ a de quatl'l~ 1\to rt:OI'Cr the re is illc rc ased clcbatc around IH.'II" techno log-ics of he ding <ltl el bod~ a ltc ra i ion. Ag ain. c ult mal stud les ha~ be e n in th c 1an g uard of' considc nttio n o l' ~O I II(' or thesc issu es - a con ccrn r c fl cncd in th e subjec t matt l'r of C h a ptc r 7. Cultu re can ot'ten h l ~ccn as a ll c n co m pa.<;..~ in g in th a t ma n y th in gs a n cl actil'it ic . ' are sccn to be pan of a cultu r e. 1l m\'e,cr, cu ltures arL' (so cli1id ed a long the fines of rlass, racc. gender am i agc .111d. a~ ,,e ha1e suggested. b1 )pace ami ti m e. One imponantwa\' of discussing am i charauerising su ch d i1ision s is th ro ug h the concept o f su bcultu rc. C:ha ptcr H is d t:nn tdto th is area. In p llrticu lar it exami nes work on youth su bc ultu res. Thc fin al c hapt t'r of th c b ook r e tmns 10 son1c o f th e ~,u es o f re prcstnta ti o lt n utlinccl in Part l. L',ing idc.s abo ut tech n o log ica l c hange and broacl shift s in culture, \\'C adclre ss imponan t d c l'l lopme m s in ,-~ttal cu lt ure. Pa n of o ur con cem h tre i~ to loca te f'o nns o f l'istml rc prcsenlatio n allCI the l'iswtl asp ects n f c1 cryclav i ntc r actio n his to rica ll ~ ancl spa ti a ll~. T h a t is th e outli llt' o f tlll' ~t ntctu re a nd con tent of our bool... \\'e c xpecttha t you ll'ill rcacl th o~e chapter~ t hat mmt in tcrc 1 you o r ,,.IJ b e of moq use at a n y one time for a panicu hu purpose. T o fac iliwtc th c use of th c bool... liT h:11c l unh e1 d i,id ed all thc ch a pter~ intn o;cctiOJh. \ 'ou ,,.JI fi n d cxtensi,e croo;s-re fercncing betwecn c h ll pter~ .111d ~ec ti ons, but it is al~o im p ortant that yo u use t h e tab lc of conte nts :~n d th c in dex f'o r th c~c purposes as wd l. T h t sectio n s o f c h a pte rs c a11 be read o n th e ir 0 \\'11 , but vott ,,.JI a lsn fi nd that tit e~ fit int o an a rg ume nt Lhat is d e ve loped throt lg h a c hap te r. \\'e ha,c indml<:d o th < r typcs o f d el'icc s to COIII't')' o t1r ideas: figure~. cling rants, cartOOIIS, photographs o f' hui ldings. m o numc 1111. o r painting.-, discu ssecl in thc text nncf ta blcs. \\'e h an a l!'n in ch1ckd thrcc typ es ofbox: Ke~ J nflu c n ccs. Dcfining Conr q ns ;ntd Extrac ts. \ (m 11 il1 ilncl concq >ts ancl people ll'h o are boxccl high lig htcd in bnld in th c tcx t. for exampl<' Donna H araway. Dl'fining Conccpt bOXl'S pro1id e a n mcn icll' to h dp gcmI.Ht a ba~ic uudtr~tanding. Extract hoxn incl uck matc1 ial that , of't<'n thtn cJi,rus~ecl in the ll' Xl. hut ,,hic h 11<' t h in k alsn rl'pa'' IIICII'l' <k tailccl "lllch on \OU t part. Kl'l l nfluence bn:-.n addrt"~ thc mos t salien t :lsptrt.; of' the lik a n cl 1\'nrk of ~o me o f' t lll'

1 n:~ot' in cu ltural ~wdil- . \\"l' h.tH'IIl'd inth e~c to IIHhtdt thlt'l' difll'rtnttlpe' ol 11tll'l : li r;;t. tho~(' who h.t\'l' bt'l' n panicuhuh impol'l:tllt in thl' cll'll'lopmt' llt of c ullu ra l <;tudit' (cxamples ind\l(k Ric harcl ll ugg-art. E. P. rh 11111p~on ancl Rm monrl \\'illia m"); ~tcond . th o~e a utltOI' " (u h i,t oricall~ initi:t tl'rl lli(> t ~l' n era l approa c h e ' th.Hil<tl'l' S tlb ~C'C]tt e nth bcl' ll d ('l'l'ln ll'cl or influc ntial in cu ltu1al ' t ud i l'~ (exa mpl e~ hcr<' a n K.trl :\lar:-. . :\ lic hc l Foucau lt, ~la x \\"d w r and C. I .. R. Jt llll'S): finalh , th e re :tl t th o~t " h o arl' c urre nth- pa n i r ipa tin ~ in th l' rl'd e ,e lo pmtnt uf c ul tura l ' llldic ' a ' it lxco na.; 111n rc :t lll' nti H to i"ll t"' etf tW il d n. r<t ce . po~ tco lon i:tl ,111. e ultu ra l lll'bridi ll' a n cl ~o on. ~u e lt a~ _l udi tlt Bu t kr . . \ ngl ht :\ lt Rnbbic. P<lltl (; lt o 1 a n cl Ldward a id . 1 hi~ approaclt ntean' that tlw maj01 i11 of our Kc1 l nlluttH l' i)Cl:-.<'' reprl'sent 11 hiH mtn. \Otm of 1dtom are Ion~ . Thi' in it-ell reflcct' th e d<ll'lopntt'lll ol' tltl' fidcl and tlw po,,<r 'lrttggft, that ,(Japl' it. \\'l, ll'i,h tltat tltl ,u,nion ,,ert othen,i-e. Jl mll'll'l . it i~ )Jl'rhaps of -onw ,jgn ific.tiHT th :n l'\'Cn lll:tll\ o f th1 ,,hi t<' nwn '''t'l<' m arg-i n al to 1 11ai mt rt am acackm ic 1 ifl'. \ \ \ an a J,o con '-CPtl ' ol' 'O ill <' of 1h e n. lmts 1ha t <ll't' nli ~s i ng ( fn r e :-.a111 pk Derrid a. 1.~ nta rcl . .Jan1 c~c 111 ). ,,lt irlt 111.1~ llll'all li ttl l' to I 'OU a t tit e 1 1tonwut. btll ll' h ic h 1'011 wi ll Cllllll' ar ro " in t h i ~ book ami oLltt l'' \ 'OII ~tad . l lm,cTcr. '''l' lt:ll'l' tril'd L o ho x tl1nst ptopk ldtn'l' id<'a' <trc mns t u~ cd in th c hook. rd l(< ting- thc scn'e tlta t thi' i' our HT~i o n u f c ulttt r:tl 'utdi<~. .\llth e Kc1 lnflue iH'l' a u d l kfi ni n~ Conccpt hma, co11ta in f11r tl te1 t'l'.tclillg t lta t c:u1 bl' u,td 10 deepcn thc tt lldtr'tall cling uf the con cq>ts. apprnadtt'' a ncl JWoplt t ltl'' con tain. \\'e lta\'t' al~n induclecl ,, guick lo funher l't'ading lor tlll' ll''t of th e hool.. al tltl' end of h chapter.

A cknowledgem ents

.-\11 book' a re th t.: produc ts o l' a numhcr of inf luc nces. Tcx tbooks a re C l 'l' l1 ltWrt .so. \Jan ~ pcoplc OI'Cr 111 0 l'l' ~c:.::n, tha n ,,e \\'otdcl carc to re me mbe r han al'f\:cttd thi ~ book. \\'e \\'ould likc l o btgin b) ack no \\'led g ing- 1his ge ne ra l d e bt. \ are :1 l~>o p:ut in da r ll gra t<ful to the :monytn ou' rdt rtes for 1h e i1 lw lpful commc nts. Ela inc Bald,,in ,,o ul d likl tu than " lt<'l' collcagues for the ir con tribu tion 10 1h l ''Ti ting of 1hc boo". Bri:-. n l.ongluust 1\'0illcl likt 10 thank 1he ~lltdents 11'110 h:-.1( ,,orkcd 1\'i h h im un tlw m:-. terial in lh'\ book. Pa t tiru lar thank~ are due 10 J ulic \\'cir for pctmi,~ion 10 u~r her excellen1 p hotograph\. . \~ a l\\';1\, h i~ biggest dehts mT 10 Bcrn:~deu e Ox ley. Jaml~ Oxle1-Longhur"1 ancl Tim Oxln-Longh urst for sh:-..-ing it all. con \ lcCrackc n ,,ould like 10 thank for their con1rib11tion~ and c n lh tt,i:l,lll. tlw swdcnl'\ on E ngli~h ancl Cu l un~d . tmlic~. o n Sociolo~ :-.nd Culnu~l Sluclit<; ancl on thl ~1.-\ in Culwml , tudil~ at the L'n inr~itv of , alford. Panicular thank' go w C:lorgin.l \\'a~l<-n for her <;uppon. \ liks Ogbotn 11ould likl to than" Ph il C.t-:lug.John Gou ld. Cat hl'rinc 1\'a~h. ancl tht sccond a ncl 1h i1 el ~ tar Cu ltural Gtograph, ~~ ude n ts at Qucen \ latY and \\'e~t li c Id Collegt for t heir com t lll' ll l~ on l'nrlier wr, iom o f c h np1cr -1. Greg Smit h ll'oulcl li kt l o tltank .Julie .Ju nes fo r comme m s o n an <arl~ d raf't of Chap ll' l' i :ntd .Jason Rutt l'r for as.s ist;n1ce 11ilh C ha p te r :t Cra1 cfu l ac kn ml'l eclgc m t' tH is madc 1 0 the fo llm,ing som ccs f'o r pc nnissiotl l o repro du ce m a te ria 1 in tlt i' book. El'e ry d Tort h a~ he e n m a de 10 1r< tce cop)'l'ig'lt 1 h o l ciLr~. but il any ha1e bntt inaclnrtt' llll)' m t rl o okLd 1h e publishe r ll'illlw pk:tsecl 10 makl' tite ll CCl'Ssary arra ngtlll{'lll :11 th t lirsl o pponttnit~. Box ~. 1 : re p m dttncl by ptrmissio n of Seckc r & \\'arbu rg, a nd C u n is Brown cm beha lf of Dal'id Lnclgc. Box 2.:'>: reprud uced by ptrmis~i o n uf :\larion B o~ars Publi, h trs. Bo:-.. 2.7: rcproduccd ))~ ptrm i" ion ol 13r itis h ocio logical .-\ssocia1io n. Figure 2.:~: flgtt l'e from ':\ IIth rodal' from ;\ ll'l hologic' b1 Robnd Ban lws. trans la ted b1 :-\n ne tte'('r~: lramla timt CO))I'l'ighl 1!172 bi.Jonat lta n Cape Lld: reprinlcd bl' permi~sion or llill ami \\'an){. a dili!'ion ol F.IIT<tr. S1m u ~ & Giroux. lnc., ancl Ra nclom ll ousc. Figure 2. 1:



n produccd b1 pt'l'llli,,ion of.fackie Fkming. Figure ~ ..): IL'j>HJdlllt'd b1 plnni,.;ion of Rmllkdgt & Kq~an Paul. Figure 2.1): rcproduced ll\ C0\11 ((_'" or tht rru~ll't''- T lw :"\;uional Callln. Lonclon. Figure ~-~= 199H. Thl' . \11 llhtitute o f C:hirago: reproclmLcl h" pltmi"ion. Box :t2: I'('(>IOdllll'd bl penni'<<:ion ur Cambrid~l' L' nh ei\I~ I'H''' Box :t:~: exllaCI from 'lllill'l,tn 'Pl'll' mi~en fm ~ million b1 Donald \f ad.cocl. 1 .Juh 1!1!17: Tlt1 (;urmlinn. 19!17. Figurt, 1.1 & 1.~: Johu Lcighh. 1991 . Figure -1.-1: reprocluncl h1 nHtl'le:o.\' of th e rru'l<'l'!oo. The :"\ational (;alkrv. Lundon. figure -1..): (;"(1(//lott\/l!ll'jllll!f. 1epmcluced h1 IH' IIlli~'i on n i l he 1 kar~l Corpnr;uion. Figur<'' & l. 7: rcprodurcd lw pe1111i~~ion o[ "lla :"\ational (;allcn ni ln: land. Figure I.H: rcproclucecl b, wnni,,io n n i the \lu~c du l.n uHl', T:1i>l v 1.1 : IL'procluced h1 [Jl nui>sinll o J' .\rn o ld. Figlll'l' ;", 1: n produrnl b~ pt nnission ol' T h <" \ (u.;l'lllll uf' \ 1odl' l ll . \1 L. :\l'l\' Yor k: . \l > h~ .\1dri c li Rurkdl'i ln Fuucl: 199R T h t \ h ht' lllll o l'\lndtln .\1l. :\l'l\' \'orl-. Fig u rt' li. l. li.2 & ().:{: I'L'>rnclutTcl h\' fK' rlllission of P:\ :'\LII'S. Fig u rt li. 7: rqmH lu cccl b\ w mi s~ ion o J' lllL' \ lus(-c C;m ;mlk-l. Paris. Box N. l: rcprncl uce<l ll\ f> <'l'lllissiou ol Ru ull cd ~c K Kq{a ll 1 \u d . l3u" H.~: (tt'X I) re prnd 11('('([ 1 )\ w n ni"ion or RouLlcdge S..: Kcg-:1 11 1'a ul: ( phologi.IJ)II 'l re procl uced bl' pt'llll i s~ ion ol Cttt' lnagts. Box N.~: rcprud und h, ( )l'l'lllis~ion o l Rnut kclgt S..: '''gan I'.HII. 1\o-.; .~. 1: 1l-prnd11nd b~ pt'llllissinn e>1 Hl ack11l'll P11h1ishl'l ' Figurt H.J: 1 \'produttd h\ JH'IIIl\Sion o l \'(.'('\(), Figllrt' H.2: l'('prudund b\ pt>lllli~,jnn or Bl:tck\\'l'll PuhJi,IH'I ' Fi).\tllc H.:t reproducecl b1 penni,o;ion uf Black\\'dl Piibli,htr,, Figun R-1: rq)l odund h1 ptJmi~~i on ol Routkdgc &: Kq~an P.1ul. :\tllnbtJ'ld li't on p. :12-1: 1tp odund b1 IWIIll\\on ol Hlad.,,d1 Publisher,. Box !1.:\: 1ep10dund b1 pcrmis~ion of Dukc l' niH~ I ,, P1e". Box 9. 1: reproduccd b1 pcnn ission of \ l iT P1e:.,. Fil.(llll' 9. 1: ll'P' oduced b1 pc1111,,iun uf l'lnguin Hook': .\lan Shcri<bn. 1977. 1a bit 9.:\: nprocluced b1 pt'lllli"ion ol ~agt l' ublicationo; and J L' rn. Tah1l' !l. 1: rcpruclund IJ\ ptJmi~~ion o( Bl.ttl-.1\l'll l' uhli'li l'l''. :\ulllhertd lb1. p . .JO 1: Briti-h Soriulogiral .\"tll'iatiu n: np oclmnlll\ fH'I'IIIi"ion of Camb1idgl' L' ni\ersitl l' n''

part l
Cultural theory
l. Culture and cultural studies 2. Communication and representation 3. Culture, power and inequality
poge 3



Culture and cultural studies

J.Q j lntroduction
Cultural studies is a new way of engaging in the study of culture. Many acaclemic subjects have- \ long brought their own disciplinary concerns to the study of culture; chief among them are ( anthropology, history, literary stuclies, human geography and sociology. H ~eve r, over the past ~d~ad es or so there has been a renewed inlerest in the study of culture which has crossed ~pl inary boundades. The resulting activity, cultural studies, has emerged as an intriguing and exciting area of intellectual activity which has already shed irnportant new light on the character of human cultures and which promises to continue so to do. 'vVhile there ls lillle doubt that cultural studies is coming lo be widely recognised asan important and distinctive fiel d of study, it does seem lo encompass a potentially enormous area. This is because the term 'culture' has a complex history and range of usages, and thus it has provided a legitimate focus of inquiry for severa! academic disciplines. In order to begin Lo delimit the field which this textbook considers, we have divided this chapter into four main sections: 1.1 A discussion of some leading definitions of culture.

1.2 An introduction to the core issues raised by the definitions and study of culture. 1.3 An analysis of some of the principal occounts offered to date which address these core issues. 1.4 An outline of our view of the developing field of cultural studies.
By comrnencing our book in this rnanner, we hope to show the complexity of the field of culture and to begin to provide a map of the importan! issues. We shall consider some of the ways in which these issues have been addressed in studies of culture in order to define ancl explcate the new and developing field of cultural studies.

Learning objectives
To learn the different definitions of the concept of culture.

4 lntroducing Cultural Studies To identify the principal issues in the study of culture. To learn about sorne of the leading theoretical perspectives in cultural studies.

Culture and cultural studies 5

Key influenre


R aymond Williams (1921 - 88)


What is culture?

cl~~ ~ l op rl lt'lll ( 1. 1 .:~).

1 hl ll'l"lll 'u11l1nT ha' a compllx hi~tol~ .111d clinr,e r.111gc of llll'.\lling:. in contenlporan cli~rour,e. Cu lture can reflT to Shake,peare or Supcrman cumir'. optr.t or foo1ba ll. 11ho cloc' the ,,.,.,hing-up .11 hom~: or 1hc urg-ani,atiun of thc offiu of d1e Pn.:~i dl'lll of lh< L'nilt'd ~1.111'' ol' .\llltTic.L Cu ltu re i> founcl in nn1r loca l Sll'l't'l, in ~our mm ci t1 ancl rotllll n. " ll'l'll '" 011 tht udwr ~icle t>f thc worlcl. ~ n aal l r h i l clren . tnn.lgtr;., aclult- .nacl tlckr pvupk a ll h;1 w 1h l'ir ,11,11 cultur<'s: baat 1hcy mayal"' shar1 :1 na 1 1urt. 1 'taclth of'the term . it i.s <'SSl'11li:d 10 h1gi 1 1 In 11') ing to <ltfi ne ,,IJ at (;i,v11 tht l'I II L11l l> n 1lll1 1 'l' ,, C:ul tlllt' i ~ ;1m1rcl th:u ha, g rmm on-r the Ct: ntur i e~ tn 1v:Hh i1' prL.~L nt broucl 11 1l'i 11liug. Onc of' lhl' f'o 1ntde ro.; o l ca tl t11ra l s1udics in Brita in. Rnymoncl Williams (p ..'1) , fl a, 11':\nd li H: clnl'fopilll'lll OJ thc COI1t'<'j)l <llld j)l'<ll'icltd ill\ inffl 1 t'III< tf OI'C it-ring or LS mod('m ll'l'' Oi ll.<idc tht 1 \illtlr:t l scien ces. tll<' te nn 'cullll rt' i..; chidh' tl,vtl in tlll'l'l' rt'1:11 lc 1 ~ d i..;ti 1 \t 1 w 11 \t'~ 10 re f1 to: 1he an' :1ml an is1ir acti1i1~ ( 1. 1.1) : thl' ka1md. pri lllill if~ \\ lllbofic f'cat111'{'.\ uf a J><11'tCUiar 1\'a\' of' fi f'v ( ( . f .~): <IIH ( a j>I'OCl'~~ of

fu_.l) Culture with a big 'C'

In t'\'tnd.ll' r,tlk. tt1hun. i' bdieHd to cothisl ofthc 'lwtk:. ancl pracricn. ol' nnd t'spccialh :uti'-lic ac1i\11 . thus cultltl'l' i~ the 1\'0rd that dc!.rribcs mu~iL, lilerature, painting and ,nalpturl. tlwatrc and film' ( \\'illianl~. 19S~b: 90). ( ultun in thi\ \l'll~e il, 1dckh hdil'l'('d w llllltl'111 nfinecl' pur!.Hit~ in \\hich tlw cululrecl' pl'I\Oil cngagc:..

~ .1

3.J Culture as a 'way of life'


n tl 1c: 1111111an ~citnn, the ll'orcl 'cnltllrc ha~ achicl'ccl II'd(' CII IH'IlO 1 0 rcf'er tu tl w cT(';H itlll allCiu.-;c of'sp ubols (p.~~~) 1dtich clisting ub h a pa ni cular ,,a~ uf lifc, wlwther ora peopk , n pcric>d o ra gru11p. o r humani11 in ge lllTal' (\ \'illiams, 1 91:t~b: HO). Onh htiiiW IIS, i1 i.~ of'tl'll argu('(l. ar~: capable ofcre;ui ng ancllrall\l llilling c1il 1un :u1cl we ar~ abh- lo d o this hl'Ctusc ''T LTl'illt:: a nd use sy1 nbols. llu mans pm'l'~' a ,~rnbol i,i ng ' -capacily whic lt is tl ll' ba ~i s of our cultural bcing. \\'Jial , 1lH'II. iS a M lllbof? ft is 11hc11 1 wopJe agrcc lhat SOII\l' II'Orcl ()!' dr:lii'ilg 01' .{L'\1111'1 ' wi ll sl:tnd f'or ti tlwr :tn idea (lor examplc a pcr~on , likl' a pilo t). oran objl'ct (a box. lill l'X:t lnpk). or n ftTiing (like contempl). \\'hcn 1hi' ha' bt'l'll clont:. rhcn a '~m bol COI II'l'l ing a 'ha red icl<a has btcn crcatcd. Th c~e ~laared idea~ an. .w mbolicall\' 11ll'cli:necl 01 t' 'P1l'"-l'd 1hrougla " rllboli,m: for ex.1ntple. b1 a 11orcl in the ra~t' of''pilot:. or b1 .1 clra\\ ing- 10 ronn1 1hc icll'a of a box. or IJI a 1-{<'S IIIre 10 con1 l'\ rnntl'lllpt: ancl it is

Raymond Williams was a Welsh cultural analysl and literary critic. His 'serious' allention ti ) 'ordinary culture' was a key influence on lhe development ot the idea of cultural sludies, of which he is normally seen as a founding figure. Born into a Welsh working-class family, Williams studied at Cambridge befo re serving as a tank commander in lhe Second World War. He returned to Cambridge after the war to complete his degree. He taught for the Workers' Educational Association during the 1950s, before returnng to Cambridge lo take up a lectureship in 1961 . He was appointed Professor of Drama in 1974. Williams's earliest work addressed questions of textual analysis and drama and can be seen as reasonably conventional in approach, if not emphasis. His influence was enhanced and reputalion made by two key books: Culture and Societv (1963) and The Long Revolulion (1965). The former f;'examined a range of iluthors to chart the nature of the formation of ~as a response to the dcvelopment of indlJstrialism. The latter pointed to the democratic potenlial of the 'long revolution' in culture. Williams distanced himself from the elltist and conservative perspectives of F.R. Leavis and T.S. Eliot in argulng for both socialist transformation and cultural democracy. Williams emphasised these themes ir'I....CommunJca lions (1962) which also contained sorne proto-typical media analyss. Television wa; lhe subject of tl;e later Television: Teclmology and CultumLEamlil21.11 which introduced the concept of 'flow'. From lhe 1960s on, Williams's work became more influenced by Marxism, resulling in_M.arxism and Lilerature (197]J ~1 ! His Tl!t.S.otmtry and t~e City (1973a) greatly inJiuel)~ed subsequenl interdisciplinary work on space and place. H1s vast corpus of work (including over thirty books) also addressed drama, cultural theory, the environment, the English novel, the developmenl of language, leftist politics and, in the period before his death, Welshness. He was al so a prolific novelist. The impact of Williams's rather dense and 'diHicult' writings was"ofteo)n terms of his overall aeproach, cultural materialiso1, and emphasis rather than in U1e detail of his analyses. Hlslifelong commilmenllo socalism, combined with the desire for cultural communicalion and democracy, was greatly attractive to a generation of leftists. ij!uurre~at~s is enhanced by the use of his concepl of ;_~uct~ of fee~~[. to_::udx various pheno~ena from lfefarytexts to urban ways of life. reading
Willlams wrole a vasl <1mount, so much so that his identily has been seen as lhat of 'writer'. The flrst reference is a revealing sel or inlerviews, which combine the lile and work. Willia[)ls, R . (1979) Politics ond Letters: lnterviews with New Left Review, London: New left Eldridge, 1. and Eldridge, L. (1994) Raymond Willioms: Making Connectiom, London: Routledg~ lnglis, F. (1995) Roymond Wil/iams, london: Routledge.


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Culture and cultural studies

thesc nwan in).{' that make up .1 c u lture .. \ '1mbol def in e~ \\'h:t l 'omcth ing mea n s. a , ing-lt' '1111bol m a~ h aH m a m m ca ni11 gs. Fnr cxample. a fl .tg m ay ta ncl for :1 m ;Hcri:tl lnt il\' likc a cu un 1n nu<l an abs1rac 1 1a lu v su c h as patriolisnl. To sllldy c u lt11n S t lll" lO :t'K \\ hal s th l' lll l';t llII !;' o f a .'l ~ [t- e (' d r t'SS. a Cuele oJ' lll< IIII HTS. a place. , la ug u agc. a norm o( rondutt. ,, w~tl'lll o( lwlil-1'. a n a r chiteCllll .il stdc. ancl so nn. Languagl'. both 'poktn and 111iiH'n. , ob1iou'h .1 1,,,, n: po~iwn o( 'lllii>Ois butthcn <1rt' ;t11~ lllllllhCr of thing-; that lunction a' "lllbok,, hair~t~Je,, 10<1d "'igns. smile,, B~ l\\\. b1hines~ '11i1s - tht li'l i., Lndks:>. l ;iw n th e \\a~ lha t \\'l' h an d i,L'IL' .' l'd c ultu l'l' '" l: tr. it mig ht be 1h o ng h1 tlwt culturv i ~ l'l\'1 '\ thin g a tid t' l'l'IYII'h l tc. l n ck e d . som e ap pro ac h l's to t h c swcly u f c ulture ta kl' !>llc h a p n, itio n . espccia lh. J'u 1 in ~ 1 a n ce. th o,c cu ming at th l wp ic fro m a m ul'l' .tnthropo logical puin 1 ol 1 il' ll', Thn~. thl' ll int' ll'e tHh-CL'lllllt"' anthropologist Tvlo 1 ( 1H71: 1> gan the lollowing cll'linition of culiurc ;t- Jmt complc" "hok 11 hich in elude' knmdcclgc. bdief'. an. ntorak la11'. cu~tolll', .uHI an~ mhl'r c;pabi l i t ic~ and habih acquirl'd b~ man [sic] . 1 ~ . 1 1 11l'111ber or \lll'l' IY J'hi' de li11i1 iun poin ts lO th e p t'1 Y<t1>il l' ms~ (J( n liiiii T in ~oc i a l li ft. l t e mphasist'' 1ha1 culiu rc is a p ro dn n o f humans li1ing tuge tlt t' l and th a t it i~ ll'al'md . .-\ ~ imil:\r .~o 1't o l' <~p pro<t c h info nn' th c d escription u f th l' En g lisll 11ay or life b~ tite .\tlll'ricl n poe1 and crilit l.S. Elio1 as inc lltcling
::~ lih u u ~h

T h e d iiTe re lll 'l'liSes in11hich tlw roiKl'J)l ol'ud tnre l'all hl' 11 '-l'cl are illuqrated in tl w to llowing e xa mpk, . . \ phi\' b~ S hakt,pearl mig l11 be ~a irl to be a di ~tin c t p it'Cl' n i cultura l wo rk (se n Sl' 1.1.1 : c ulture ll'ith a bi ~ ' C' ). lo lw :1 product o f' a p a nic ul a r ( En g lish ) \\';1\' o r Ji le hl'll'(' 1. l. ~ : cu lturl' ;,a \\';\\' u f li fc) a n cl lo n presen l a cer t;t i11 stagc of cult ural de1 elopmtnt (l'l'IISC l. 1.:'\: culturl' .1~ process ancl cll'l dopnlt'lll l . Rork u ro JI mar bl' analy ed b1 cxantining tht ~kiiJ... ol i1' perlormer<. hl'il'l' 1. 1.1 l: in ttnn-, ol i1' asS;)cia tion ll'ith m111h cuh u H in the latl' l!l."llh ami eath l ~)(ilh ( 'en~e 1.1.2): and "'a lliii SC<l l fo n n . Jooking f'or i l ~ ori~ill ' in o lh ~r 'llll'~ o i' mtt~ C .111d ;t],o ' g il' in lltu n ct

musical fonn ~ ('l'llSt' 1.1.:1). ) 0 11 l:11e 1 In 1his book ll'e sh a ll r onsicll'r allt l. " ~~ o( ili l'Sl' di r~ 'ere nl ~e.n~~~ ol' culture. lloll't'n' l . it is im ponam to notc th:t l t h e~t cld lll Jllo ll ' a n d the1r ll'e l'< ll'l' a nu mbc r o( t'O tll p lex is."ues ami prublem~ J'or th e anah'l'i~ of culture ll'hich ll'l' inll oclun i11 tlw n txt p;tl'l ol th c rhap ter.

J.2 l lssues and problems in the study of culture

T h e th rel' ~t'li!>('S of ntlllliT identilied in tht Jlll'l iou~ pan uf thi' chapter han lt'IHkd to \ bl' ~llldiccl fn>lll diff<t l'lll J>Oilb of 1 iell'. Jil'net. arti~liC' Or intl'fll'CIU;]J aCII itl hL'Ihl' 1.1.1} ha~ commonh' bt'<'n tht' prminn ol 1he humanitie' srhobr. \\'a1o; ol lile ('ense l. l.2) h :w c becn eX<lll iil t'd by th e anth ropol o~is l o r th c so cio]cgi'' ll'hi k th l' d lHIopm c nl o f c ulture (SL' Il \l' 1 . 1 .~) mi g h 1 S<Till 10 h e th c pn)\ 11 re oJ' ilw his1o ria11 ''' ing h isto ri ca 1 d ocum e 11" a11d m e th o d s. T h t''t' d isri pi im, ha1 t lL' Il ckcl 111 ap p roa r h t ult 11 re in d il'l'erellt 1\'a~s and lrwn d illert'll l Jlt'I'SJll'(' l in:-.. II O\\'l'l'l'l'. a' ll't' shall demo n ~tl olll' ill thi' chaptcr. thc central imp01 tamt ol a cJi,tinn cultmal ''udit, approach , that i1 faci litatcs thc idcntilical ion of a ' e l of 1 01 < i"ue' and pwhlt'll" 11'h irh no o m di'r ipline or a p proach can so h e on j , 0\111. '" c:-..plain 11ha1 11<' mean through the ik n tilicatio n ;m d t'Xt.:mplilka ti on o f th t'M' tore q u esti o ll ' .. \ , lc HI 11ill St'l'. th tl bm h stan a nd fi n ish 11ith lht b su c ul th e rl'la1iun ~ hip b e lll't'l' ll 1lw JH'rson:d :111d th c cultural.

[.\] 11 lht charanni,tk auh ilk~ and intl'rc~t' ol a pcopk. Derb1 Oa1. 1knle1 Reg.ut.t. Cmll'' the l ~th ol .-\ugthl. ,, (IIJ> linal. tht do.:' tan~. 1he pin t:tblt'. the dan hoarcl. \\'tn,ltl dale chl'e,c. hoiktl 'abha);(C c111 into 'tctio1", bcc1root in 1 illt'gar. 1!h h Century Lo1hir rhii i'Cht<. ilw m n ,ir ofEigar ... (Eiinl. 1\ 11 ~. ;" CJIIOtc d h~ 1k bdigl', 1970) 01 h t r "ppro ac h f'" h al'l' tl' n cletl 1o arg m ti"'' sonw arta' o r ' ocia 1 1 i l'e mT m ore p rop1 rly th ought o f as po lit ka l 01' eco n o mi c 1ha n u il tural a nd thu' can in so111e fash ion b e se pantttd lrum cultun. T ht i'. tho e 11'110 ll'otdcl dd ine cult ure:: in ~en e 1.1. 1 (a ns ;md ani,tic aui1 it1) II'Ollld tcll(l 10 xclude so me imtilluions an d plwn omcna 11'hich tlio<>c acccpting and ming ddinition 1. 1.2 (\\<11 of lil<) \\'OU id see as pan of c ulture. T htrt io; li ulc co ll \L'IlSII ~ o n this mauer h n1 it i.s clcar th a t it 11il1 be an isstw in 1h is hook. Cul t. u rr in ilw ' eme o!' ll'ay ol' lil'c . lwiiTHT. m m t b e clistin g uish ect rro m 1he n e ig h b o u ri ng conce pl o J' so c il' l1. 1n ' JK'a ki ng o l' o;or itty \\'C rd 'el' 10 111 e p a ttC'l'll o f soci:il inltruion s and n :J tio n , IJi ps belll't't' n in cli1 id ua b a tl(l group~. O f'l cn a socie t\' 11'ill ocn q >~ a ll'l'l'itor~. bl rapabk ni rtprorluri n g i1w lf a n d s harc a cu lture: but for SOllll' ( esp e\ia lh largc-scale mockrn ) 'ocie1 ie, it 111.11 make more <.cn~c 10 ':" 1hat sc1eral cullun, ('Ol'X'-l (no1 hannoniotl',h') 11ithin 1he '><>riet~


How do people become parl of a culture?



1.1.3 1Process and development

(Ti,c earlics1 uses of t hc ll'llrd rullure in th t 1:11(' ~ l idcl le .-\ges rdi: r to the lend in g or / culli1ation ol crop<. ancl ani111al' (hcnce agrintltme): a liule latt r the same semc wa~ 1 ll~lll,fl'l red (() <k~cribe tlll' cultil~llion pcopll\ minds. Thil> cliliH'llSiOII of the \I'Orcl cult ure ch~ "''S alll'll tion to ih subo;equen t u~t 10 d e,cribe t lw ck1dopment of tht \ inclil icltta l's capac itits ami it h a' bt'l'll cxtl'mk d 10 l' l11 bra . ce th e idea 1hat cul t il'atio n , lt.~dl' a ~l' IH'I':il , so c ia l a m i 11 istori cal pro ces~ (\\'illiau1s. 1983b: ~10- 1 ).


C:u h tn-e is 1101 someth in g 1hat ll'l' 'in1ph ,d, ,orh- i1 i' k<nJll'd. In a n thropo log1 1 h i~ p toctss i' rc l(.' rrl'cl tu ;, arc tiltura lio n 01 t' ll t' lllillra ti o n . In ps1t h o l ng-~ it , d t, cribtd ;, co nclitioning. Socio logi,ls h ~11c te nded 10 use th e ter m 'su r i:disa l io n 10 d c~>crihl' th l' proccss b~ 11hic h ll'l' bl'CIIIIIC socia l a n d cultma l bei ng'. T h l' 'oc iologisl .\nll to m Gidden;, ( 1989: 87) <il'~n ihcs socia li:.ation "' thc prucc~"'l hlt ebl. iln ough to n tar l ll'i th other human lwing,. tlil' lwlpless inl;nll ..(raclualh bccome;, a ~dl-m1are. knowlcct~-:cablc h11111an being. ~ k illed in th e "."'.' o l thl' gil't'll culture all(l emironmenl. Sociolngi~l' h <We clistillguio;lwd (11'{1 'lagt' ' oJ' Socialbaticlll . l'rimatY wciaJi,atiOil IISII<tiJ y takt'' ll'i th in a fa m ill'. ur t:un ih -1 i ke g-ro u ping. a nd l:t,ts fm111 h in IJ 11111 i 1 ilw eh i Id p an it ip:tles in large r HIHlmo re dil'l'I'St' ~ro upin ~~ I Jl'~'llncl tlil' i:11nill. "'u a ll ~ IJeginuing 11'ilh sdwol

ln troducing Cullural $ludies

Culture and cultural studies 9 influential psychoanalytic critic, jacques Lacan, argued that the unconscious is like language. In other words, culture rather than biology is the important factor. Lacan's work has been importan! for feminist critics, who have developed an analysis of gender difference using Freud's Oedipus complex. According to leminist psychoanalytic criticism, the context in which ferninine sexuality develops is different to that of masculine sexuality. Men and women enter into dilferent relatonships with the syrnbolic arder through the Oedipus cornplex. The Oedipus complex arises through the primary identification of both boys and girls with their mother. Paradoxically, it is the mother who first occupies the 'phallic' position of authority. The cliscovery that the mother does not hold as powerful a position in society as the father (il is the father who symbolises the phallus) crea tes the crisis through which the boy and the girl receive a gendered identity. The boy accepts his 'inferior phallic powers', sometimes known as 'the castration complex', but with lhe promise that he will later occupy as powerful a position in relation to women as his father does. The girl learns of her subordinate position in relation to the symbolic arder, her castration complex, but for her, there is no promise of full entry to the symbolic arder; consequenlly her feeling ofJack persisls as a sense of exclusion (Mitchell, 1984: 230). In cultural studies the theory of the unconscious has allowed a more subtle understanding of the relationship belween power (p. 94) and the formation of subjectivity. While psychoanalysis has been found wanting in that it suggests but does not actually show how the social relates to the psychic, that suggestion has been the starting poinl for sorne of the most fascinaling investigations in cultural studies.
Furfht'r rmding
Weedon, C., Tolson, A. and Mort, F . (1980) Theories of language and subjectivity', in Culture, Media, Language, London: Unwin Hyman. Mitchell, J. (1984) Women: The Longes t R evolution, Essays in F eminism, Lilerature and Psychoanafysis, London: Virago.

in \\"e ' l('fll '0( ittit' Jl1 i111.11 \ 'llCia)i,atioll imohl'' 'lit h l'kllll'lll' .1, tht' o ll<Jlli,ition of bngua{e and .1 gt'll<kl t'd identity (p. 22-1 l: 'l'Cnllcl.n' ,ociaJi,at ion rdl'r' to .di tlw 'ub~t'C'Jllt'nt inlhlt'll Ct'' \dlic han indi,idualt~JWI t'IH t'' in .1 lik1ime. p,, cholog\ .md j, 'ubcli~ci plint'' likc psychoanalysis ( p. ~) Jl"' p.lnind;u :lllt'lllitm '" childhuud and 1he nmditio ning th a1 rclat t'' to tht an uisi1i on n i a gcnckrand :1 'tx ua lil\. (;enrl er rl'l'tr.; to the ~ocia lrok' th.ll d ill'l'rt'lll 'oC'ie tit:' cle li11 t' as lll :l'culine or l'cminint. Sc).; llal it\ n l'trs lO lil e CJc,I'l'~ <l lld ~tX u;d lli'('I IIalion nf a Jl< lll it ll lal' ind\'dua J. - ht fOU IHil' l' 11[ ps,chuanahsi'. Si);, '111111HI Frcud (p. H). argltld 1l1a1 1 11:1~< ulini t' :md l ~ rn ininil\' :u11l tl11 choice of a ~l':o- Ua) 1 objtrt :ll'l' lllll rli nCl ) ~ rt):lll'd lO bio)o.,f\, ])lit art a ll',llil ol tonditioning. Ft"ntilli'" hmc ll'td Fnud, tlll'OI in tn nppo'e the idta that 111en :lit' 11 a tu rall~ 'IIJ>t'l io1 . t'H'n though Frtud him,l'll ''1' not panicular!\ ' ' mpathttit tn reminism (p. 120). Tht ronrt'ph ofanuhur;Hion allcll'nlllltllratinn. condit iuning .IIHI 'oriali'>ation cl ra" .tl1t'n1ion 1 the 111am ami "" inth 'ocia) arrangl'I1W111' "hith pl:l\ a pan in tlw wa" i11 \\'hic h hum:ub karn abuut 1 11t'<l11ing.


Dejmi11g mncejJI


Psychoana lysis

sychoanalysis is the narne given to the rnethod developed by Sigrnund Freud (1856-1939). Freud hirnsell used his interpretative technique to analyse literature and art. Psychoanalytic theory has subsequently developed in lo a nurnber ol differenl schools, sorne of which have influenced feminist (p. 120), Postcolonial (p.1 89), Marxist (p. 97) and postmodernist (p. 400) cultural criticism. Critics who have used psychoanalytic ideas include members of the Frankfurt School (p. 109), Julia Kristeva (p. 232) and Juclith Butler (p. 2 31). Freud's method ol interpretation is first cleveloped in ThgJnterpretation oL Dre.ams (1900). He describes how syrnbols in dreams represent condensed or displaced meanings that, when interpreted, reveal the dreamer's unconscious fears and desires. In The Psychopothologt, of Everydoy Life ( 1901 ), he showed how slips of the tongue and lhe ( inability to remember words are also symptoms of unconscious mental processes. Condensation, displacement and 'symptomatic' rnethods of interpretation have been r deployed by critics to decode cultural texts. Psychoanalysis has been particularly influential in film criticism. Freud developed a tri-partile theory of the rnind: the id or unconscious; the ego, which adjusts lhe mind to externa) reality; and the super-ego, which incorporales a moral sense of society's expectations. Perhaps his most lmportant work was on a theory of sexuality. The psychoanalytic concept of sexuality posils a complex understanding of desire. The fi xecl binarism of masculine feminine given by earlier biologistic lhcories of sexual difierence tended to assurne an equally fixed desire by rnen for women and by wornen for rnen. In psychoanalysis, there is no presupposition that sexual desire is limited to heterosexual relations. Rather, the adaptable nature of desire is stressed and an importan! role is given to fantasy in the choice ol sexual object. Freud's work was still partially attached to a theory of biological clevelopment. The

1~1 a1 persons aunbute 10 ther he hanour ancl 10 the1r thoughh .'111d flod 1.n~~ :'" cultural. 1 IH ~ ap proarh to culture rerers 10 llw ~h arccl undc:rswnrl lllg'' ol mcll\ 1 d u a l ~ :tiHI

Anthropolog~ a1~d ,omc: ror~u' o l 'o.nolo~ ~ce mc<.ll1111glu l acuon. tht.uncler,tanchng~ s a)

1.2.2 1 How does cultural studies i~terpret what thin~s mean?



grouping-!> in socicry (or to sen se 1.1.2 ol' r ullure- '"a" nr li kl. Snnw sncinlogists. ror , ex;un ple Btrgcr and Luckmann ( 1!l(i!i). ' "'t s~ 1liat 1111111< 111 kuo\\'l< dgl' o l' rlw 1\'orld is 1 oci~l ly co11~1 ructc.d. that is. I\T apprel~c~1d our 1,orld throug h <HII' suci;.d si~uation" ancl ) O ll l' lll lC'n\C liOilS \\'ll h o thcr pcopk. JI ll IS 1he C;tSl' lhat Olll' lii Hil'l'~l: II H I III g' IS ~ l l'liCliii'C cl b)' om social situati on~. thtn our \'t'\\'.>\ ol' tllf' ll'orlcl may be partial. .\ltllnll).{ll Lhe re 111:1\ be a rea l wo rld. \\'t' can o nh' \t'\1' it lrnm ccnain an){k-.. Thu~. our kntmkc\:{(' ol' tlll' ,,orld is i nC'dtabl~ per,pc:Cl\~tl. T hi' \'it,, compkmC'nl~ tht i"ut of cultural r<:la t\ ,m (~ec ~ect ion 3. 1). Hert' the tutpha'i' , on tht' "''"' tha t 'ocial rolt' aliCl rdation,hip~ \ shapt thl' ''"' \\'('~ce :1nd g'H" llH':t n i 11 ~ to thc \\orlcl . ldlt'n:al- nth ural rdath ,m 'll't''-'l'' tht' ,,a~ that habitual. 1aktn-fol-l.!,l < llltl'<l "'"" ni thougl11 . ao; t'lo.Jl1l'"t'd in ~pecrh :m el

1O lntroducing Cultural Sludies

lang1 1 agl'. dirt'CI u ur uud e rsta nclin g-.... .-\n e xamplt' of pt r~p ec lilal knmd edge , 1hc di fl c rin g ;\ccmull' ol tlle di,;;olutiu n o r a marria~c gi,t tt b1 !1w't' imoiHd ami affeCit'd h1 it. l'h t c:--pla n ation giH' tl for the brt' ak-up nf a ma t t i.tgt b1 1111t' pa tll1tr 11ill rareh mi n dck '' ith 1he tx p bnation {i1en b~ tlw otlwr ( 1b tl. 1~)/tl). T ht ~ociolo.," of kno\\ lcdgt:. a~ thi~ appmach 10 utHkr... landing i, kuo\111, ~ug~e~ls th.ll tlw \l'll'l' tha1 IH' mak< or IIH' 11'orld can be m acle intdligibk 1h1 ouglt tht cx.unination of our 'otial :.ituation. For t:xample. i1 i~ ~omttinw ... p~t>poHd th.ll om.., 1il'\\ ol tite 1101 Id i' linked to d al>' po~ition. so that working-cb'' pcopk 11ill hall' a difltrtnt, ie11 of 1he \l'orld 11'0111 liJ>(>tT-cla~~ peoplc. Socinlogi~h o J knmdtdgl' do 1101 ptopoH t lt.ll ott1 bclid~ can alw;n, lw n :du ccd w. or o;imph n:ad off f'rom. ot lt' 'ori.d 'ituation. hut th e1 do ~ ugg<.'.'l th:nth t't' ll'orld-Yiell'' <lt'l' cu ltura l. and that cu lllll t' h a' tn ht , lllclicd in rt la tion to <.oC'il' tl . :\! l. 1h t inte rpntation of' c ultlut in l'l'l.uion t(l "Ki.1 l ~i tu a t ion introd liCl'' fllrtl1t'r is~ue' < t'lide n ce and rclati1 is1n. 1 kiHill'itd gt i' ... <lt ia 1 11 u> l1."11'11rttd. can t i H~c h~ Sl l t~1 a thi11g as ' trm knmd edge.; IJ'pcrcqHioi1Sa l1 d btlil'f, arl' ah.' a''' l't' l;ltiH' to ( SclCI:I I ~ 1111 :1110 1 1. lhl'll \\'))\' ... lwu ld 11'(.' bl'licll' :11\\' p:ll'li cu la l' lit'\\', ('\'(' ll t ht \'il'll or lhl' ]>I'I',OI1 a'~trt i n ~ tlli, .'\ lal t' llll' tll. si n C't' it tu o "iiiiH' influ cnctcl b1 th t llt' r . . on~ ~ i t u a1ion~ 1 In Si.'t kin.;- lo intc rpnl a 1\'::l\' uf' lif'c of < t rli1Tcrc n1 sncic t\' ora dif'!trt' 1 1l gi'O up i1 1 our 11111 1 sodc1 ,.. 11'111' , rwu ld ll't lwliei'C' OllL' int c rpre1:11 ion ra 1h c1 1i1 :1 11 illl\ ol il t r~ 11 ll'l' are 10 l>l'g in to :tdjnrl icaLl' eH' t,aluate diflere nt in1crprtl:llion' lht'l1 ll't ll'ill tH:td 10 < ol1'>iclt-r 1lit IY]Jl'' of' ('\'icit n cl' o f'krtd Ji)l' 1lll' p:1rti cu l.ll' i 111 crprl'l a 1it H1 . 111ll'I']Wi.'l al ic tll or nH'an ing i ~ th crdurt .1 core issll t' in nd tu ra l s1udies. o~nd i1 rl'lalt' ' to ho11 ll't' und trsta nd till' ll'l.ll i o n ~ h i p hl'lll'l'i.'ll 1lw pa'L a 11 el 1lw p rc~clll (\l'l' Clt;q>tt'l' :).

Culture and cultural studies




Tradition and traditional




How does cultural studes understand the past?

~\'ithin tlli~ COilll'~l: cuh. u n:_in. E!l~]j:ll '~t.ldi.~' ha~ oftcn ht'l'll ( Olltt'iHd in lt'l'lll\ or mfhtcnct .uHit r;tclttiOtl. ~ho1 ( 1!Ul: 1.1 ). fot ex<tmpk. 'no pott. no art i't of a m art. ho~' h i' co1nplt-tl' nw.111 ing a lone. !Ji, signilicance. hi~ app1l't.uion i' th e a pprccia( tion nf hi' ~tl.uion to th c cll'acl poth .tnd .mi'h . .\l ore l't't'l'lllll'. Eng]i,h ,tudits h a' lwg un to ([ lll''lio n thl' l'a!un of' the canon. that i~. lllost 11 ri 11en lt'XIs selccted a' o l littT:ll'l' ,alut .mcl as rtq uire d reaclin g in ~chon l s ancl ll llil'tr,ili l'' T cx ts that han httl 1 pre\'iou ~h' IH'glert<d lla1c be e n i1Hrocluced i 111 o schunl and un iwrsi 1' ,,, ll : illll'l'~. ~ t ore II'Oilli.'n\ ll'riting. IITiting b~- mino ri11 grnup~ in British ,;oc it t ~ . 110tt-!~riti~ll 11ritin~ ;u1d popu lar fiCli on h ;l\'l' ht'(' ll indude d in th c canon . For l'Xa n1pk. 1il t' poe niS or De re k \ \'a lco tt (SI Kills. <:a li])l)l'an). th c 1\0il'l' ofC:IIitllla .\rlwbc (N igtTi:l) :nH i tltosl' o l .-\ lice \\';dk('l' (US. \ ) an IHII rcgankd as dt'Sl't'l'i ng l itl'l':l l'~ t'<tt1,i ckra ti on . 1 :1 1g'li, h , tudits has ll'itk' ll t'cl ih ott tlonk bcyo nd tite influe nce ni' nLitel pot't~ and ll'l'it c rs 1o lo ok :11 so cial :llld jj qnrical ia rtor' :1ffec1i11g' lllt' production oJ' lL'Xh. 11 S 11011' ('0111111011 1(11' l'l lit'S tn loo k <11, f'ol' l'X:t lll>Jto. 1il t po,itiOI I or \ I'O ll1 t' ll in tiW IIill'll' t' lllh Cl'llllll"'' ll'hl'Jl COilsidt'l'ing tlw 111)\'l'b uf tia pcriod. Cri1 i c~ like Edward Saicl (p. l liH) :m cl ( ,;1\.llri Spi1ak han a l... o looked :11 thc Jti,wn of Eut opean impe1i:tli:mt :md a,J..ed ltc111 tii.H hi,lon 111a n il(,1, ii,C'If in litt' l a tnre.

One lw.u, muth 1a!k in E n~land of' th c nallll't' ol ttlltlne ('l'l' Bo:-- 1.1 ): England i' ' l'l'll b1 'ouu to han a cultllrl' th.u ,rttcllt, h.t< k o~t r a tltou ...and 1ear~.

Ocriud frmn tlw Lnin Hrh fwdut nwanin g to pass on or w gi1e do1111. COJnmonh u ... td in t uhttt.ll \tudi t, to rcfcr to dcmt'llb of cuh lttt th.n .ut tran,miw:d (e.g. langu.tgt) 01 toa bO<h of colk ni1l' 11i~dmn (t.g. to!k talt-, ). ,\ , an acteclil'l' (tradilional l it implit, con tinuit, ami comi,lt'll(l . Tt.tdition :. and traditional prart itn ma1 he M.'t'n po~i1iwh or ut~a t in h . \\lH:1e dw pa'>t , w n c i~H td. 1rad iti o 11~ 111 a~ lw '~ 't' lt a' a sour cc of !egi liman a n d \'a lta: in rc,o luliona n ,111at io 11' th t p ;1,t 1nay bt 'it'\\'td " 'ith contcmpt and 'ecn a~ a brakt upo u progres~. The ttTm raditiou h:1' ,1 1111111lw r nf diffe rcut m caning,, al! o r whic h a~t centra l to llo11 ndtlll't' b \111cler.~ tood. !t can 11\ean knoll'll'clge nr cmtoms 11.111 (kcl dmm lrum gt'lll'l'illilll1 1() g'l'll t'J': IIiOII. In thi, 't' ll SC th e icle;J. ror exampk. o r ; nationa l 1radi lion can ha1c :1 po~ i1i H ~e n se a~ a m01rkcr or t lll' ; t~t a nd d tt. p mu1cd natlll'l' n i a nation;d r nllll l'l'. O n tlw u thcr hand. thl' acljcctin 'lr:Hiitiona l' is of'lt.' l1 11 ~ed in a n cga til'l or pt:joratI't' sen sc from 11iLhin c ultu res lik(' llt ost ol i'\nrt lt ,\n wrica (11' \\'tstt'l'l 1 1-:uropl' 11hic h dc,c ribe thtmselles a s mocltr1 1. 1 kn ' trac!ilional', 11hc n ll'tcl 111 dl''iet ibe non-Europcan cultures and ~ocit t i<'' can nlt'< \11 bac k11a rd or ullcll'rdtl elopecl'. term' 1hat aso;ume 1ha t al! sori< t it, n11 1\l m odcrni~t in th e ,:1111t' 11'<1\' a ncl in tht: 'ame dirc ction. Cultural 'uu lit, is a l 11.1~s ct itical o f th i' kind ol impo,ition of tht :.tanda rd' of un e culture u pon ;molh tr 10 define it <h in ~omt 11'<1\ inle t ior. ' T r01d itinn a l' can abo n fet to :.ocia! rok' in socicl\ 1l'ltirh an olttn 1akcn !or !{rant td. but 11'itich mig-h1 bc cptc:.lion cc! in cuhtu~t! ~t udie': fi 11 t:--amp le. wha t it is 10 lw a mothet ora father.

T h b parlicnhll' (':--amplc lrom tht dbcip! ine ol Engli~h sh011, that t radit ion~ arl 110-;) n e utra l a nd ol~jtrtiH. ,nn1l'itoll' ll'ailing 10 be discol'ered. but a re culturalh coll~lrtlctt'd.J In ~><.ing cons1 ructec~ anc! l'l'ro n slru.ctl'cl som c thin~s are i.ncl~1dc~l all(( ot hcr..- cxchu lt~j Tl11s rdlc c ts. accord ul_t w 11\:tll\ llt'll t'l''. pattern~ ol th e d1stnbuuon ol powcr ( p. 9 1) 111 socic11 . u s ;u te n1 pt 10 c l:1r i1~ S< nlt' ol' thc'<: poi n ts 1h r o u g h anollt t'l' l'XOI111 pk . T lw kilt :n1d 1 lig h land cln~~ are preo;e nted , bnth in Scothtnd and IHII,ide. :1~ Snouislt tracl it ional costlll11t.'. T his g:u b , Ol1 l' of th e mo'l iTC'ognisahk ancllisih!t> componc1HS ol' Sco11 ish e u 111 ll'l' ;111 el ,, ll'ol'n hy Sccll ti ~ h JKop lt a 1 a ,aril' l,. ol' -"lw c i.t 1 tKCa, ion ~. 11 i..- 1h ~~ ~ prescntccl lO ti te non-St'o ls \\ Orle! as ;t COIIIJ>Oilelll o!' Scouisl1 nns- ihl' :t ll rihttl('S ora panicu lar plan. J1 :1lso f'un r ti o n s in tilis lnanner fur ma111' Sco t ~ \1'ho ro 11.~ide1' th i. \\'Caring of lh(' tart;lll lil be a IIH' IItod oJ' ide ntificai U11 \\'ith tlll'ir CUitllnd lteri lag'l'. IIOII'C\'Cr , it apxars tilatth t kilt a' a 1raclitinnal c ultura l f'nrm hao; IH'(' Il consl rn c lt'd and rcpac kagcd 10 llll't't ~e 11\lt' hi ~torira ll y 'lxc ilic lll'cds. l>;11id ?.kCronl' ( J!lD2: 1K 1) h as su~gcs1cd dt;ll " lo rm o [ cln ... ~ .md dc,i gn ll'hic h had solllL' rc<ll but lta phatard ignilican cc in th e ll igh la ndo; of Scot !a nd 11a, taktn o\'l'l by a lm1 land popu lation anx ious 10 clai111 ~OIIIl' di,linrtil'l' .l'Pl'Ct ofcult u rt. a l a lillC' -IhC' late IIlll'lt.:l' lllh Cl'llltl n '

12 lntroducing Cultural Studies Culture and cultural studies 13

- whcn its economic. social t~nd cu ltura l i dcmit~ wa~ cbbing away'. Thus a widely accepted <~nd represtntative culll!nll form is sh01m to h;l\'c bccn E1r from uni\'crsal bUL rather associa ted wi rh a panicular group a t a spccific momcnt in rime. Funhcnnorc. this mcans rhm th c meaning of the kilt is constantly c hanging ,,ir hin couish socier~. For cxample, in !he 1950s ,,earing a kilt \\'as th o ug h t eneminate b\' cenain sections of thc yo u nger genenn ion: howc,-e,, sincc t he recent incrcase in Scouish n;Hionalbm the kilt has come back into fash ion. ancl is often ,,orn at occasions 1ouch as we dclings.

1 Box



1.2.4 1Can other cultures be understood?

t\n issuc or rel iability of e,idence is a lso raised rhrough rhis cxamplt: as it may be diffic ult to know prccisely who ,,ore the kilt a n d whc n. Fun her. it raises th t: proble m of what h<~ s been termed ' h istorical rel<tLi,ism'. \\'hatthis dr;n,s atrtnrion to is 1he cxtent 1o whic h wc, < tS conre mporaries of the last decade o f rh e L\\'Cillie rh centUIY. dwe ll in a world th:u is sufficien tly d iiTere m fro m the worlds of our prcdcccssors, so 111;1c h so that i1mar bC' rcry clifficulr for us lo understa nd 1hose ,,orld s in th c wav th nr rh cv clid. How wc ll Gll.l II'C tllld<.:I'Stand wha t \\as in the middle-class, lnwland Seo!~ pcrson ~ mind wh~n he or shc a<liqncd a ncl ado pte d Hig hland d rcss? The rc a re somc si111iletritics he lw~c n the i s~ t1cs raiscd u nde r this heacling and others tho ug ht mo re o ne n to be a~soc iatccl wilh c ultu ra l re la ti,ism which ,,e discuss next. ( F'nllwr to 1he difficult)' of Sludying culture across his rory, 1llen: is thc parallcl problcm Of i nte rprett~tion of c ultures fro m diflerent pans o f th<: \\'Orld O J' in differcnt sccri ons of o u r own socicty. Is it possible for us to u nclcrsrancl the cu ltures or othcr pcoplc in rile war they do themseh-es, orwill o u r u nders1<1 ncling inerirab l~ be mediatcd ria t hc disLOning prism or ou r own cultural understanding ?- T hese problems ha,e ah,ar con fro ntcd a nt h ropo logists in their a uempts to interprct thc ochcr worlds of n on-European societies. ls il possible to comey ad cqua tel~ ch e c\'idcnt ~eriousness that rh c Anndc accord to t he consultation of oracles (scc Box 1.2) o r the conccptions of rime held br Trobriand l sland crs (see Box 1.3), in tcxts designcd for co n~umption b~ \\'csrcru a udienccs who hold ,-ery differcnt te mporal conccption ancl ideas abotll magic and witchcraft? ~o\'e l isl~ . sociologists and jou ntalists abo facc thi~ problcm in dC'SCribing thc wars of Ji fe of d iffercnt groups in thc ir 0\\'11 ~OCiCI\', ~ 1 <111\' quitt" scr OliS practica! el iITicullies can <1 rise f'ro111 this prnblem. For cx:nnplc. one in fl ucnlia l ~ ttld\' of' ron, io lt (Tan ntn, 1990) Sltggcsts thal 1hc many ntisundcrsta ncling-. 1ha 1 .. .-i ~e hctwttn me n a nd ,,onwn do so becausc ,,hat we <trc d caling ll'ith i~ a n l'\'t' tYcla\' \'(rsio n of rh e d il'lic lllrics o l' cro~~cttllura l communicatio n . In th l USA wollll' l; ~ ;ea k and hc ar a la ng uage o l connectio n a nd inti macy ,,hi lt IIH.' Il s ptak a nd ht'ar a lang uage e)!' status ami indcpcncle nce' (Tanne n, 1990: < 12). Di fTering co ll\'t' r~aliona l p r01nices are c ntploycd b)' mcn a11<l ll'o mc n. Tan nc n obser\'C.S rh a1 in discussing a problem, wo m e n ,,.i11 ofl'er rcassura nce whereas m e n wi 11 se e k a soh11 ion ; ,,o m en ten el to cngagc in ' ra pporH a 1k wh ile m en a re more at home lcct uring <1 nd cxplai n ing-; m en are poorcr lisreners than wo111en. According ro T a nne n . wo111cn cngagc in 111orc cye con ract :mcl less inlerntption than men in con\'ersation. 1kr argumc1H is 1hat men and "omcn employ d istincr comcrsational styles wh ich shc la beis gen ele lecrs. T hese are

Thc Atancle. an .\ l't ican pco pk. lin arou nd the 1\ile- Congo d i\idc. Tht cla~sir \\'ork onthci1 belief '''-lt'lll' i' 11/tdtrwft. Omdt'!t aml.\lagiramfmglht.\:rllldr l)\ E.E. [,an~Pritch :ll'd . publb.htd in 19:r1. T he .-\Lande belie\e that mam ol rh~: 111 i~lonum' thar bclitll rh e m are camcd b, ,,itchcraft ( mangu J. ,\laugu i' in hcritcd: the .\/ancle beli<:HIItat il Jta, 1hc form of a blackish S\\'elling in 1hc intc~tincs. ancl ir i' this .sub~ratt<'t' 1ha t. \\'h ln acti,atccl. causes harm 10 other~. E\'cn though indi,iduals ma~ hm< inhlrited IIWIIgu thc~ do not n eces~ari ly cause hann w others becauw it is nnh had . <~nli -~oria l J'cl'lings that set o ll\\'ilchcral't. A~ lo ng as a pcr~on re n~;lin' ~ood lt'1 11ptrc:d l h t~ wi ll not cau e witchcraft. Sincc witc hcrafl is th c produc t c>l' had fcd in ~s. rhtn a p e;T son 1dto ~ uffcr a mi~fonunc -.uspects rh os< who do not lih.t h t' l' 0 1 h im and \\'li o han reason to wish ha rm . T hc lirst. Sl1Spec ts are thl' rtforc ont\ (' lll'llil'S. -1h t r c: are fin; o.-aclcs that a Zande (sing ula r ol' Aza ndc ) tna\ constdl in ordcr to han' lllt' " itc h na111ed. r\ftc r a n orack h 01s n;uncd tit e wi1ch. th c pc rson idtlllilild is to ld thal the o raclc h:ts n:uncd th c m and ~ h e or he is ;tsked to withd raw th t w il d t c r<~fl. L',ttally n;lmtd pcopk prole~! II H.: ir innonnct ancl -.taiL' 1ha1 thl~ tllL'<llll 110 harm; if thev did ca u~c witdtc.T;tf r ir wa~ u nin1enlinnal. b an, Pri tchard ~ tar es 1ha1 .-\tancl<" d o not bclic\T rha1 witr hcra n c;HI ~l'!> ;tllmisfoJ'Iulll' '> and indi,icllta l-, ra nnot blamt: their mm moral fa iling, upnn it. .\tande ,m tha t \\'it chuaft ne\er caused anyone to comntit aduhcr\', \\'itchcrafr is 1101 1he onh "~rcm ol' explana tion among the ..Vande: thc\ do rtcog-nise technical cxplanations for e \e nts: for example. ama n is injmed hccau~c a house collap~e~. but ,,itchc.-.,(t attcmpls to an "er the que tion of \\'lw this homc colla p~cd .. \11 '"'lt'l11'- of cxplanation imoh-e the 'ho\\ ol C\'Cnts a nclthc 'wll\' of C\Til l'; tht homc collap't'' btc:n~t tht woodcn suppons are rollen - this is thc ttdmical ' ho''' of explana! ion - bur why did it collap~e ata panicular time :tJI(I cm a pa tintlat ntan:O Tht '\\'11\'' ol' txp lana tion cll:Jb \\'itlt ,,ha t E\'ans-Pritchard calh thc ~ingula il\' or e\'l'll lS: '\\'11\' nw~ . 'wll\' 1101\':0' Relig ious explanations offer rh c <111~\\'c.'r thac it 1\'<l~ lhc \\'ill o( Cod: scic ntilic .'xpla n.llinns ~peak of coinc icle nces in tilllL' ancl spacc: ag noslic'> m a~ ~t:c th c a 1 h wcr in cha ncc: lhc A1.andc know th aL il is wi1c hcral'l . E\';ms-Prilc ha rcl cnm nt L' n ls 1hat ,,hile he li\'cd among th e Aza ncle he fo uncl ,,itc hrral't "~ sa l isf'ac tory a f'o rm ol' ex planallo n for C\'etHs in hi ~ own lif'e as ;111 )' o 1lte r.

urficicn lly d if(('l'l'lll (rom rar h < Hhl'r tha t tht ta lk bcc,,een mtn 11() \\' llH'Il 1nigh t ))(' appropriale Jv rq~ar<krl as :t fon 11 of ( I'O~~C illtura l COIIIlllllll iCation (SC(' St'Ciion 2 ..J .J ) ~ 1loll i ~ and Lukl'' ( 1\ll'\2) inclndt both h iswrical and c ult ura l rclati\'ism undcr rh c brnad lwadin.{ ol 'ptrctpllla l rl:'lati\ ism' ancl argue thar there are 1\\'0 clill'ercnr cl imcn siono; 1 0 lw examined. Firsr. the1.' is the dq-\ree to ,,h ich eeing or perception i~ rclatiw:


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Culture and cultu ral studies




Trobriand lslanders

The Tro bria nd l ~ lancl s ar~ po liti c:tll ~ pan of Papua Nc11 Guin<.:n. T hc bcst-kn 011'n II'OI ks on the T 1obriancl lslnncb are b1 .\lalino11ski but E. R. l .< :ach has IITitt<.' n on Trobriand idea' of time in 'Prim itin: cale n da r~ ( Oownia 20 ( l 950)). a nd t h i~. alo ng 1\'ith o thc r wo rk. is clbcussed in Elnf!irl's o( Ti1111 ': Crdendor.1, Uorlls a111/ C:11lfurps b~,\niiL on~ :\l'e ni , 1 990. T hc Tro bria ncl cale ndar is g uiclcd br the nwon : thcre ar<. lii'Cln or th i1tccn lunar C\'cles but o n ly ten cycles are in thc calendar: thc remai n in!.{ Cl'cle~ an free time' ()llbidc th t cale ndar. rhe prim a r~ ('\'e nt or th <: T robriand calend ar i. t he appeara nce oJ' a ,,onnwhic h appear~ for three nr fon 1 nig ht~ o nce a l'car 10 sp:mTI on the .,urfae<: of' the wa te r. T h ert: i., a lestil'al (.\Ji/ama/:) in this mon th which inaugurates thc pla nting ~ea,on. Tht 1\'0n n do~s 11 01 app ear .11 cxactlr thc 'flllll' time cl't'l) yea r a nd planting does no 1 1 akc place a t cxactl ) the samc timl' l'le n nar so 1herc is ~o mc1 in tes ;t mismmch bc tll'cc n \\'DI'lll :m el planting. This situation is cxaccrhatecl bccause th <. Tro bria nd h land ar~ a r hain ancl thc worm appear' at thc southern t'Xtremity of the chain, ~o ne,,s of it\ a ppea1<111n' takc time 10 communicate. rhe constc ucnce i~ 1hat the rest\ als, and ~o 1lit ca len dar. I'< H)' g rca tl y in tht time o r 1ht'i r cele bratio n from island l0 i ~laml. \\'hc n th e discrepancit:;, are fe ltto ht' too greaLLO b<.: manageabk thcre b a realignmc nt and tlw calendar i~ altcrcd 10 achic1c comi~tl'llCY. Trobria nd reckoning o l time is cyclical, associated ,,ith tlw agricullttral ycar. Lunar cyck!> th < ll a re n o t connecrt:d tn this ac ti vit ~ a re no t r~cogni sed so th <.'l'l' is time ou t o f th e cnlc:nda r ; a clifl ic uh IHHion Lo gra~ p i1 1 mocle m industrial soric tics 11hcrc time is bclie,eclto be a natural ancl inevitabk comtraimupon ac1 i1it1. T hc T robriand bnguagc has no tenses: timt is not a limar pro~rcss i on t ha t, o nce pa,~c cl , cannot bv regain ed ; in thc Tmbria ncl ~~s~t tn . time rc tums. Trobriand ick-as ol Lhe natnrc o l' existt'lltT are no l s<.'l in time bttl in pa t tern~: it is o rdcr ancl pautrn ecl reg ularity tha t locates c1en t'> and thing'. not time.

boundary or 'zont of contact' . For examp-lt)iL would be possible lO considtr thc interactions bctween thc TrobriallC~Iander~ t r the .-uandc ancl th e Europ eans who :1niled as pan of thc proccss of co loni~ 11 (p. 189) (i ncluding. or course. the nnthropologists who swdi t'd the n1 a n 11 1'ftt' nbou t the tu ). T his ''"Yol' thinking a bo ut culture olh:n d escribes thcse relatio nships in terms of ' d e~tru c L ion ol' cultures o r their disappeat~l nce as one cultu re replaccs or corrupts a noth c: A.gOQ_d l'Xample would be the fcars ofAmericanisation as :-.lcDonalcl's h a mburg~ s. Coca-Col;~:l nd Levi\jca ns sprcacl w Euro pc. Asi;1 nncl Africa thro ugh proccsscs of lobalisatio~(). l:l9). How<:I'Cr, Lhi po int or,iell' is lilllitcd in Cl'rtai n 1\'a~s. 'rst.JL-~ ntpo~~ ibl e l O dil'ide t hc " orl cl up i1110 th tsc exclusin cult ural ttrritorics. As we have p oin ttcl out. cultu t e i!> ni o a mauer of age. gender. class. <;tatus -so tha t any such c ultural bloc, definecl in 1e rms or nation, tribt: o r socie t)'. will be made 11p of many cultures. Th i~ mea ns tha t II' C will also ))(' positi o ned in relatio n lO no1just om culture butmany. Second. cu lture cloes not opera te simph' in tl'rtns of 11101 e powerfu l cultures de tro,ing weakcr un es. Sine< it is a nen~r-t ndi n g procc ~ of sociallv m acle m~ani n g. c ulture adapt. ch;mge a n d mutate into ne11 lo rms. For t'X<t mplc. thc T ro briand l ~la nde rs took up the English gamc of cricke t. bttl they did so in tc nns o f th eir O IITI war-making prac . c ric ket did no t simpl~' repl:lce ot her Trobrian d games. it wa~ made in to a n cw hybrid p. 159) cultural form ,,h ich 11':\S neitlwr English cricket nor Trobriand 11arfa . : allv, it m ight be uscful L o think about tite rebtio nships bclll'tt: n cultures in tcrm ~ or a serks of ol'c rlap ping webs or 1 w tworks nulw r than as a paLc hwork of cultural 't e rrito ries' (scc. fo r examplc. Chapter R). Thi ~ ,,ould mean that under~tan d i ng thc meani ng ol' a m culmrall'orm ,,ould not sim ph' locate it ,,ithin a culture hut would look a t it in te nn~ of ho1~imo Lhe intc rsec 1io n betwecn dilfcre n t c ultu ral networks. Fo r examplc, Coca-Col<t hJ~ takc n o n cliffe re nt mcanings in cliffere nt J XII'IS of th t' ll'orlcl: signifying neo-coloni (p. 189) oppression in India (ancl being banned for sotm time). while it .sign ifi re('dom ami personal at110nom1 to 13rili~h-Asian 1011ng peoplc in Lond on. lts nl('anings cannot be con tro llecl b~ the Coca-Cola compa ny. a hhou!-(h tlwy 11~ thro ugh 1hc ir adl'crtising n unpaigns. ;\lc itlt e r d o the ir tll('anings simp h imoln c" 1hc e xttnsio n of an 'A.Jnelican cultu re. 1n tea el th ese m~ani ng> cleptncl u pon L h e locatio n of' the product in a complex 1H.'tl,ork of rcla tion sh ip\ ,,h ich sh a pc its ignilicnncc ami ,a lit<' 1~ d i ffcren tl~ positio ned consumcr!>.

( ) (


L ha t is. when we lnok a t !'Omething or sceJ.. 1 0 undl'l'sta nd it. do ll'l' ac tuall v scc th v san lt' L h ing a~ ano thtr per,on looking m it? Second, there i' 1he cxte nt lO wh ich percq)lio n ancl underst<1ncli ng rcl~ on l a n gtHI~t. These qmstion s abotn pe rception rcmind 11~ thaL. as StllclCil lSo f CUlture, \I'C llHISI ('(lllStantJy 1hi n k aboUL ll'hO \\'('are -ll'ht'l'(' \I'C CO illt' !'ro m a nc) what o ur position ' .,-in o rdc r tu under~tand who anclwlta t we arl' st udyi ng.

1.2.6 1 Why are sorne cultures and cultural forms valued more highly than others?
In English stuclies. litc tmure h a~ traditionall~ lxc n seen as pan of higlt culture (!>t'nse l . l.l : a ns a ncl artistic anivi ty). Cc r1 ~1 in lit<nu~ texts han' bcen selectcd as 1\'0rth)' o r stucly, lor l'xamplc thc nmels of Cha rles Dicktns or the plays of S hak e~pear~. T h is process o r sdection ha~ meant thc: simultaneo u> t:xclu~ion of o tiH'I tcxts. del'inecl as no n-litcra t)' lt h a~ ;tlso kd to a n cmphasis on '' ritin~. to thc dctrimcn t of o the r. more m od e rn ro rms o f c ult mal ac ti,ity. fo r cxamplc lilm a nd ldtl'isio n. In ;1 f11nh e r s1 e p sur. h fo rms of litermure o r hig h culture a re rcgarded by somc LO be c ulu1re itselr. O the r excludecl forms of 11Titing or text' are dcfimd a~ simply 111bbish. trash o r. in a n oth er ofte n d erogatory p h rasc. as ma" c ulture. Tlt i ~ entails a j uclgcment of l'alue, which i

.2.5 1 How can we understand the relationships between cultures?

This qucstion ol' positio n raiscs anotlt cr proble m in te rms of ho11 ,,e thc relationships bctll't'l'll cultu rt~. Om com ( ntio nal wav l)r undcr'tallding thb i~ 10 see culturts as mutu a l! ~ c xclmi,c block 11h ich intersen. in te ract ami im erface along a


lntroducing Cultura l Studies

Culture and cultural studies


oflen assumed lo bt elf-e,idtnt. Thtb some form~ uf c uhnre a re to be \.tlmcl ami prmected a ncl 01 hcr:. '' riucn ofT as \frt hless a nd inckecl pos iti,el~ dangerou<.. IIOII'tn-r. :1s ,,e ha\'e aln:ad\' ~ccn. ~urh canons or tradition~ are th em~elns cunstruc ttcl. Fu nhcrmore. as ll a11kin'< ( 1990) h a~ maintained, things tha t are t h ou~h t tu ht' high ntlture :111cl lh osC' dtlinc cl a~ ma~s c ultu re oftt'11 sharc ~i milar th e nH:s a nd ; p<utinilar te xt can be see n a<. hig h c ultun: al o1w puint in ti 1ne :111d po pu lar or nw<.~ c ullt1rl at amnhcr. The exa111pk o f' o pe ra may be usecl LO illustratc thi<. po int. In lta h' o pe ra i~ a popular ancl widdy rtcngnisecl c u ltural funn. <.ingl'l'' are 11e J1 kno1111 a nd pcrl'orm:IIH'l'S draw big uclie nn.., ,,hich are knollleclgcablc ancl critic:d. In comra<;t. open1 in l>ritain i.., regarcled asa n e lite ta<.ll' :m el resea rch s hows that t\ pira l k auclic nce' f'or op<:ra are o lclt1 a n d are drawn from hig h er SOCia) dasse~ than Ollll't fonns of' entertaillllll'nl. \'ct in 1990. fo llo11ing thc u~t of .\'rs5un Dorma from the opeta 'J'umndot. !.ung b~- P.11~1ro11i. to imroduce the Bl3C w l rd~ion CO\'erage ol thl 1~190 \\'orld C:up Finals. O JK' t~ t rocJ..tted in public popula rity in Britai n . In acldition w incrcasLd anclknces at Jj,e pt t'formann' in opera houses, then \\'CI'l' largc-scale co1nntt' tTia 1 pmn to t io ns ol' concens of 111 u sir lmm o pe ra in public p<ll ks a nd :nT nas. Te l t,i~ i on , vick o a nd compact clisc ~;d es o l opera increased e n o rm ou ~ ll' :tnd a n nlbum. In r :ol/{t'li. s11ng- b~- Carrera~. Do1nin..:o and Pmaroui. w;1-, tnp o l' tl w music c han.s in 1990 (C ul111ral Tre nds. no.i. 1 ! 1~10) . Th e example illustratt>~ 1he poitll that it is often cn tpiric:tll\' difficult to a<.~i..:n nil tma l practices 10 neat concep111al cJi,i ions. T he question of'bounclarics between le\'tl, ol culllll'l' ami thtju ti!lcation fot thtm i~ an arca ofccntral concct n for cultural 'tudit;.. PietttBonnlieu ( 1 9~-1 ) (<.ee Ddlnin~ Conccpt tU. p. 37>5) has maintaincd that thc bmnHiarie-, betl\'l'en popula1 ancl high an are ac tu all~ in tlie proccss of d i-,soh-ing. \\'lt e tlw1 ur 1HH <Hle acrepts this 'iel\'. it i... clcar that t he stucl y of boundarie~ a ncl margin!> mm bl' \'l't" n:,e aling a bout c hcri... hed \aln c.~ \\'hich ;m:: ma intain l'd \\'it hin bounclarie~. Tlw reln tiomhips betwcen cultura l '~'s t c n1 s are a fruitftd atTa lo t tht stucl y o l'th e prt>Cc~sc:. o f'bo und:11'\' mainte nancl' and but tncl:tr~ c ha nge. linked a~ th cst topics are to issues ol' c u ltura l cha ngc ancl c u iLttr:ll conti 1 1uit1' (sen se l.l.3: n tl turc as a proccss oi' cle,elopntl'lll). \\'i thin social a n tlt ropo log~ thcre is a n ts tabli ... hccl prartiCl' uf clemumtrati ng thc ,-aluc ami \'iabilitl' of culture~ that are ofte n n gardcd )), thc reJe,a tH authm itit.., as poot and impo\'erished ora.., anachronism~ ancl. .t~ :-.11d1. ripe for phllllttd intenlntiott to bring about changl. Stuclics b~ Ba,aer ( 19!1 1) and Rig b' ( 19R~ ) han argutd that nonmdic pastoralisn1. that is a \\'a\' of lifc in ll'hich l>t'ople mo,e \\'ith anima), and in \\'h ich a nimal produc ts are 1hc staple d ict. b a ,,Jtolh rational and e lllc icn t u ... t of' resources. Suc h ptopk.., a re a blc to lil'e in inlw~ ) il: t blt arcas ll'he rc n tlti\;nin1t i.., 11o1 possible and t' njoy a ic lt c.:u ltmal. socia l and po litica l lil'c. lkspi tc this t'\'idt' 1 1l'l' tlat'l' is prcssure fro nt dcwlopmcn t plannc rs to l'nf'orct cha ng-c throug h land polic ic.s that . compe l paswralists 10 g-hc up their tradition:tl " ay ol'lil'l a nd hecon1(' scttlcd r ulti\'ato t, or 11agc l abou rer~ . Simi la rl y. Jud ith Oke l ~ in IHr <.tucl~ uf'gyp ... ies ( 1 9~t~) h.t.., l- hlll,'11 tiH: complcx ric h tH'1-' of b'Ypsy culumtl bcliefs ancl ]>l'i1nicc~. identif,inK a of' corl' principies around "hic-h gi')JS\' lifc is anicula tl' <l a nd 1d1ich gi,e!> mcaning 10 a JI act hities. Gyp11ie<., lil..l pa'>tora list . are u ndtt prc~~tlle to.Sl'ttle dmn1 and to cunlotnt tn pre,ai ling idcas abotll .. propcr and fitting 1\a\ lil'c. 13mh these cxamplc ~ dril\\'

atlcn tion to the issues of po11er :lllcl inequality in cu ltural a mi social lifc to which ,,e tu rn in t hc next section o f 1he chapte r.

1.2.7 1What is the relationship between culture and power?

lmplicit in o ur discussions so far has bccn the issue of powcr (p. 94). Sin ce it is a pro cluct of i ntc raction. wlturc is <tlso a pan of the social \\'o riel ancl, as suc h, is shaped by thc sig nillcan t lines o f fo rce whi clt opcnuc in a socia l " orld. All socictics a re o rganised politically a n d economically. Powcr ancl au thority are distri bute d within thcm, a nd a ll soci e ti c~ hmc mca ns fot allocating scarcc rcsources. T hese arrangcmcn t~ produce particular ocia) fon nations. Culllln.s are affcctcd b~ thc intcre ts of d omina nt groups ;tlidate theit positions in pan icu la r structures. in ocieties. which seek 10 expl11in allCI ,One of thc ways in wh ich gron p'> d o 1 hi~ is thro ugh thc construction o ftraditions and thci r pro mulgation through the population. Thus it might be a rg ucd 1hat the idea of a traditio n of British Parlia me nta ry d e moc racy e xcludes other ideas of d c moc rac~ and social o rga nisation that a re against 1hc int e res1 s of tlw powe rfu l. l.ikc wisc, Lraclition in English litc ra lllre exclucles and marg innliscs o 1her ,oices. Tlw ddlnition of trash o r mass c ul ture might be seen to nc~atc forms of c ulture tlt;tt art a c tuall y e t"Uoyed by oppre sed gro ups. 1 0 ,,-c,c . :mot hc r way oflooking a t thi~ suggesrs that suclt mass or populat fo n ns are aclllallr u~ccl by those in power to drug or indonrinate suhorclin:nc groups. Fonns of popu lar c ulture can in t his ,ie\1' be sccn to be like propaganda. For exam ple. onc commentary on moclern c ulture. that of the f rankfur t School ( p. 109) o l critical theotT. argues that t hc c ulture industries c nge ndcr passi,ity and cun lormit y amo ng their rnass audic nccs. Fo r example, in this typc of analysis the rclationship betwecn a big bancl Jeaclcr a nd hil' fans could be see n to mirror thc re lationship bc twcc n thc to ta litarian leadc r and his fnll o we rs; both f'an s ;tnd fo llowc rs re leas< thc ir tc nsio ns by taking pan in ritual (p. 288) ac ts ofsubmission ancl conl'im11it}' (Adorno. 1967: 1 1 9-~~2). \\'h<HC\'Cr \'ie,, is a dopted. it is clcar that power and cul tu re: are incx tricably linkecl ancl th;u thc analysis of c ulture cannot be cli\'orced from politics ancl power rclations. lndcccl, wc " ould a rgue that t his is a vcrv imp onam reason for s tudying culture and for taking culture criously. llowe,er. the precise way in which fonns of culture conn ectto po,,e r rcmains a n issuc to be studicd al grcater length.

1.2.8 1 How is 'culture as power' negotiated and resisted?

Gi\'e n thc pcrspecti\'al nature o f snciety, it is int.:\'ita ble that c ultural a uiwdcs will a lways be in conflict. Thus, the process of negotiation is encle mic lO, all(l c ultural resistances (p. 258) occur in man y d o ma ins of lif'c. Four key a rcas of stmgglc ami 1t cgo1ia tion th a t ha\'e conccrncd cultural swdies are arou ncl ge nder, race ', class <llld agc (for more on these catcgorics se e scction 1.3. 1 and Cha pter 3). These conccpts define social ) relationsh ips which are oftcn fraught. To takc one area asan examplc. thc concep t of gencler encom passcs both how m asc ulinity and fcmininity a re clt~'i~lcd (see s~ction 1.2. 1) a nd how m e n a nd "omen relate to o nc a nothcr. Gcndcr clefintttons are pomts o f



lntroducing Cultural Sl udies

Culture and cultural studies


truggk in 'iOCictit' ,jncc 1\'h at i1 10 1, . ;1 111:111 and wh ar it i<> to b<: a wo111an arc 1CH' r fixcd . ln d ec:d . l h C~t d di nit OilS lh l'I11 .~C h-t~ a re. in p a rt, tllc produ rt of iJO II'CI" s 1rug~k i>clll'een lllt'll a nd 1\'tl lllCJL Ft m ini' t write r' h an- btcn m ost innuc.: n tia l in gc nde r s tu d ics. Fc mini t cli ~c ussi o n o f' gtttdt' l m i){ltt be d hidtcl hroaclh- into argun t l'ttl~ J'o r c:quality. for commottalit~ or uniHr,a l it~. ancl l'ur difkr<:tH'c. The argumctu liu cqualit,tmplta,j.c. tite pol itical itka of righh. Equalin hel\,'tTll mctt ancl ,,mmn i~ cldi ncd b1 aiNract rights. w 11h ich hot h ~l'Xt'\ are c:n titlcd: inc:qualit1 can be defincd b1 11'0111('11 ,la e k of rights. lar examplc: ro \'o te or to L'Cjua l pa~ 7\q('ot ia tion h e re i~ ai'O lii HI 1 h e con cq n o f 1\'0IIt c n 's r ig h t.'. T ite a rg tllll CIH f'o r co mmunalit ~ or uni,e, a li ry strcsses th a t a lthOl tg'lt wo llll'll m m bc lnng 10 l'l' l'\' d ill crc nt social. 1-{t'ogra phical a n d cu ltura l grou p~ th e1 ~ h <ll'l' cont111o n or ttni \'l'r1-a l intcrcst ~ bccau~e ol tiH.:ir gcnrkr. .:\eKot iatio n It ere i> around t it e fundame n tal inccualit1 ol 1\'0ilH' n ht ra u~e of thcir :.ubordiuatiolt in all 'ocittie'. T h c argumcnt 101 dillerencc i, more complkrttecl; it rcjcch both idea' of - implt' t:quali tl aml uniHr,alitl'. [n ~ t tad , i l argu es that l h l' d il'f l'l't;' llCCS be\ 1\'t> t n !111.'11 a n d 1\'0tlll'll ,lJld between d i rft'l'l' lll gro tt ps of '''o m e n nw:ttt th a t a n m ccpt ol gt nde r can twn r be a bstracterl o ut o l :t parti1 ttlar .silt H\lio n. ,\ egotia ti u n , thcrdmc. ,,h ilt not dem-i tt< i n <.'q tta l i t~. "'ill lx a r o u n d th c s )('c i li ci t~ ol cliJ'I <:-rc at ccs. Critir' ol' gc nd n d ili ~ i o n s .\ tr ugglc to rccldine cult ura l cons tr uctions o l gntdt:r. \\'onwn\ llllllt' ltttnh. but abo ran1paign s for (('sbian ami ga1 right~. 't'd. 10 redraw tlw cultural bouudarie:-. ol men'-; and 1\'0illl'll , t''\fJl'l icnce. uch politiral mmen1en~:> an: olttn drawn into ronllic t \Ith the 1 ;11, ;md 'ocial and pol itical in, itu t io n ' li kt rdigiow, organ i" ll ions an cl poi iti cal pan ies ,,h iclt do n o t 11 islt th c c u lt ura l ' uppo n l'o r thcir d o anin a n ce to be t> roclcd o r destroncl. In tltis txampk it c;11t bl' 't-en th a t th c ,,ickr lramc1w>rk~ o t' socie ty (po\\'~ 1 ancl au tlt ori tl ' tr un ures) infl uc n c(' < llld imposc t lt t' l ll'<c h'c~ o n cultura l hl'licl' and practicc to al!'tn outcotncs. \ \'e lt;nt a ln:ack int rocl1an:d .1 awmber of otlwa .lrt;~ ,,her ( cu lture can in 'iOmc: son ol 1,;1 he hdd lO be ronneclt'd 10 rcdation,h ip' ami pallnn~ ol





Conrad on Africa

11te p r c h isturic tn au "a' cursing us. praying to u'. wl'lcotni n g "' - 11'110 cclll ld ltll ~ \\'e wtre cut on from the com p rehen,ion of our sun'tHnHiings: ll' l' glidtd pa~t like phantoms. wonckt ing ancl ~ccret!l IJ>p.lllecl. a~ sane mtn 1,ould b{' bl'fore
<l ll emhusiast ic u u tbreak in .1 madhotht:. \\'e coulcl not IIIHkrstan d bec:H1Sl' 1\'C 11'Cre roo f'a r nn cl could a w t re m <. m ber beca11se \\'e l\'t' l'l' trme ll ing itt tla nig ltL of first agc, , oi' t. hosc agc~ L hat are gonc. le aviug ltarcll) a sig n - aiH l 11 0

m c m oric >. rhe eanh Sl't'llll'cl u11 eanh h. \\'e are accus10med to look upon th e ,had.kcl form of a conqn t'l't'cl monster. but th ttT - th{'n: you coulcl look at a thing m o n<>trous ami fnT. lt wa;; uncatth l~. ancl 1he mc n ll'l'rt - ~o. th e\' 1\'t're tH>I in h uman. \\'t' ll, yo11 kll\1\\', that 11a , tlw 1101st of it - tlt is 'uspicinn of tlteir 1101 br i n ~ inhuman. l t II'< Htlclcom c slowly 10 O ll L'. They IHJ\d td a nd k a p ed . and ~j) llll , a m i m ad e h o tT icl f:trcs; ln n wha tthril kd \'tl ll wa~ th e thuug lt l uf th t' il' hu allaali l~ li kc ~ou r - tl w tlto 11g h t of l'lllll' n: m ott kins hi p l\'ith this 11 ild a nd pas~i o n a t e upruar. L'gl~. \'e:~. it 11as ugly e n ough: but if 1'011 1\'l'I'C man e n ough \'011 would admit 10 \OIII',elf that therc ,,;~ in ~011 j11~t lht laimcst trace ol a response ro thc ten ibk lrankne~s of that noise. a dim su,picion of thcrc being a nH'an ing in it \l'hiclt \'0\1 - ~o u so remo le lrom tlw n igh t of li r~l ages- nntld cc ,ntpre h e nd.
J"'ql lt Co ttt ad. 1/rarl of /Jml:lll't' ( 1 ~9tl): ruotl'd in Ch ittn:t .\ch c ' h<' i 1 \J~:-<: lil

1.2.9 f How does culture shape who we are?

T ll t' a h on cxam p lcs demon,tra te th a t ~t a llgg l c an cl n cgouat1 on :t rl' o l'tcn aro u ncl c ut,tiott~ of cullllr;ll id cntity ( p. 22-1) .. \n cxample that gi\'1.''1 tlw que, tion ol' ickntitl tnort promitH:nce b th e w;ll in which tht 01 igin'l ol' Engli,h ,uclico; in tlw nineleenth C<.'llltt l'\ \\'ere: closell' linktd 10 thc grm' 1h ol unin..-,al eduration . \s a di'icipl inc En.{lish \\; , , in th l' 1 t'l\' of 11\all\ (Oillllll' lll :l l ur~, de~ glll'd lO g'\'t' 'l'h oolch ifdrl' ll a SC' Il St' o l ; n a ti o n;d cu lt un ( Batslttr rt al.. l ~l:-).J. as cli,n tsstcl in ,-\ sh c roft l'/ al.. I!JK9). Lit e ran tcx ts 11ert ustd tu insti l this s< n,e. Con o;eqm atth. a lt hou~h Eng lish litt T;tturc ll'a s . o l't<. n p1'C1-l'lll ed as a propct ~t n cl~ in it;.c ll. tlw 1\'ot\' it ,,as t<tuglt t wa~ o l'te n <k~ i gmcl. con,l<Ht'h' or uncomc iou,h. to encoura~e a p:utiCt:la natiottal identit1. a St'll'l' of what it mcant w lw l~riti,h. In te<tching thi, 'tnsc of lkitish iclttltitl', ot.her nation. 1 1 rnhurc, or idcmities witltin Hritai n 11ea T eitlwr trcatccl uncriticalh rt, part of En~li~h c ultll rt', or 1\'t' IT lel't o u t o l tl w r: m on. . \ n or hc r l'm:ct of 11 tis procl's~. 11h ic h , u nw \\T rc rs h aH' d ttn ' t<cl. was to in fu st a

pride in the Briti'h Empirc. Fnr exampk, tht ~i.('cri a n 1\Titc.:r ancl critic Chinua .- \ che be h a~ rri ti ci~ecl th t " ''" ' th a t th c nOI'd /1!'111/of /Joriiiii'Ss by .Joscph Con a -acl is ~ till o l: n p rtstn t<'cl as a f{H '< It t'X<Hll pie o f Eng lish Cll lL u re. T h c n ol'tl ck scribes a n ig h tma ri;;h e n cotnll L' t' II'th Al'rira fro111 1h e Eu ropt'<lli ()I)tltof d el,. (st'<.' Bm: l .l l. l lm,eiTr. Ar h t b e Itas cfemonsL ratecltltat t ltt r l'prese n t:tlOil oJ' .\ fri can cu ltlll"t' li ta! it COtl latlS j~ p:trt ia l. In ecl on linte knowleclgc and is thus gro~~~~ dis torted. Constcu cnth. to a Tad tlt t nmTI asan English or e1cn a European (Conrad 11as Polish in origin) 1\'ork of art is w n < t' i\( rt \'t'ry onc-sidcd 1 it-11 ol Eu ropean impet iali .. m in .-\frica. Through s11ch prore"~'' a n Enp;li' h 11atio n a l icknt ity wa~ consL rucL L'd " h ic h in i'OI\'ed com m ac ting .\l'r ican icktl tit ic' in p a rt ic ul a r wa\'~ : a ~ irra ti o n a l a ncl ,a,agc:: 'otl1Crs'. l ckmi t i l'~ a tT l't' l'\' o ftc' tt conncctl'd l ll p lace h o th localh a n d m o re ll'ide h. \\'t ma~ fte l th at 1\'e ident if\' ll'i!l1 a part icula r lm:al :ll'l':t, a cit1. a rq~ion anda counll'\' and th at thc extent to 1\'llich ,,e place empha,i!t on ont of theo;e 111;11 dcpen d on a contexl. for example. 11'110 ,,e are talking to at am panicular time. Holl'l'\'('1. it , ckarh the rast 1hat thcsc iclcntities can cause con l lict ami clisagree m e m a nd tlt :ll impo rt an ! iss uc:s in thc stud ~ o l c ulture con ccm th c 11ay in wh ic h such ide ntilies a t'c ctm ,uuc tecl a ncl h o 11 thc1 rc llcct a ll([ inll c::cl panic u la r clistrib u tio n s or power.

20 lntrod ucing Cultural Studies

Culture and cultural studies


1.2.1O 1Summary examples

In orde r to examine ~onH: n r th c ideas conwinc d in sec tion 1.2, ,,o sllo rt txamples are ghe n belo ,,: the fam ily a ncl Shakcspeare.

assumed that a11 Eng lish rami l it'~ han: ide ntical c ultures. Th is npens up thl c halle nging iss uc of h oll' part ic ul a r local n tltures relat<: 10 th c hro acl tr. m o re ge neral em e~ of ,,hic h thcr may be thuught to be .1 COJhtit ue n t p;u t. lt is a lso cle.1r t h a t fami l\' stn tc tu re~ a iHI organisa1ion ch a nge on:r time. n ot just cl aronological. his10rical time . but al so st ru ct tn al 1ime . 1h a t is a~ re la t ion!>h ips b e t11ecn fami lr m e mbl' rs c hange as a con scquence o l' age and lll < ll.llnltion. In al l soc ie ties, a s c hilcJ;en g ro " to ad ulthood Lhe po\\'er o l o ther a du lts o r c r th e m dimia1i ~hes. Thi ~ orcurs both a' a result of phy-,iological change (ch ildren no longer dep e nd 011 their parcnts for lod) ami also a!> a result o_r cu l uu~ll expectation~ a~out th e roles ol pare ~H~ a nd c hilclren. T h r~e cultural cxpectallo n s ma~ be genden:cl: [o r example. th e Eng h sh idio m th at dtscribes adult c hilcln:n as 'being tiecl to th e ir m o th e rs a pron strings' can lw rcacl as a ge n e ral disa ppro,a l tlf adults who d o n o l lca\'t: th t immcdia tc 'phcrc of th e ir 11101 hrr. Yel this idiom i:, ovcrwh c lming ly applied to adul t mate c hildrcn a nd thm cx p resses a 1iew about th t proper. expcc Lecl rcl atio n s hip~ bctwcen a d u lt males and th e ir mo!11cr'. ~len are e xpc:cted w lx free from th e closc: innue n ce o f th(' r 111nt h crs. whc rcas the rt il' ol'lcn ft'lt 10 lx a n identity bct\\'een ad u lt 1\'0IIlCn a nd thtir mo thcrs. Va riab les su c h as th t sex of r liildrc n , th e nnanbe r of t hi ldrt' ll a ud the age of th t' parc:nts "hcn ch ildrtn are born. all a t'ftn th e etJurst o f family li ft. 111 \ 'icLO rian F.n g-la nd. wh en famil l' sizc ,,as big-gcr a nd lifl' cxpecta ncv les!> than 1101\', sonw paren ts hacl d e pendeut c hildre n for all their lil't.'S - th crc "a~ no time in "h ich a ll thtir c hildre n h ad g r01m up aJl(l left ho rn c. T hese d e mographic and 110ti:d I~I C tors g rcntl y influe n ce th e course or famih life ancl d c monstratc 110 1 only t h c h e te roge n eity o f c ullllre bttl also the mall ~a bilit\ of' culture .. \11 cultures are reprod ucccl in speci[ic circttm11tan ce~: ideas a ncl 1n lucs are .intcrpreLed ancl unclcrstood in thc lighL o f local condi tions. Thi ~ las t p oint brings u o; back 10 t h e i ~suc. of jud gement ancl relatil i<.m in th e u n dcr~ ta nding ol cul1ural prac tice that ,,e raiscd e arlier in thi~ srction. A cultural a pproach toa common imtitutio n. in this case th t f'a mih, d e m o n strates th c po wcr of c ultural studies w gr n eratc a 11ide range a ll(l n umbe; of p o te tllia l a r eas of II H'sti gatio n . S01 n c of thcse hm-c bc::en allu<lcd to in th i' txample bul 1'011 ,,ill be able 10 idtntif, more.

Exampfe 1: The family

r\n CXtl lllna ti o n o f famil~ Jif<' re1 eals ~Olll C of the iSSU<.'S th < ll 1\'C h;we i<k n tifi ed in th e tud\' o f cult u r e . For imtancc. ,,ithin a fami l~ adu lh lul\'c ){real po,,er O\'Cr the li1Ts of ch ild ren be cn n ~c human inl~mto; are d epcndcn t on adults for thcir SIIJY\a l for re latin.> h long periods of time. One 11':1} or und c:rstancling famil y tire is to examin t.: re la t ionship~ and proccsses in te rms of clol1linant and subord in a te c ultures. T his approac h has b ccn used e xtl'n'i"c lr bv man ~ li:minist 11ritcrs 1dw h<we uwd th c con cept of patriarch~ tu rcfer to the asscm b lage of cultu ral a n d m a terial p01,er that mcn c1~oy tiNitis "om e n ancl ch ildrcn (Camphell, 19HH; Patema n . IHH9). Thc peliod of d epcndcnn ofchilcl ren , \'a ries fro m culture to culture. hnth hiswricall y :md cont('111poranenmly. ami a numbc r Of\\'rilt:rs han: C lllllWIIIl'cl thal th e \\'t>Sll'1'11 llotion o[ ch ild l100d is a l'l'l:tlil'e h rcctnt concept (Arie~. 1962: \\'ah-in , 19{2). Funller. in umn~ pans of' th e conten1pora;, . wo rld it is a mistake to th ink of thc lil'l'\ ofchilcl rtn inttnn o l dtildhood as it i~ u u der~tood in th c \\'e~t: t h i~ pcriod of growt h a mi lc:arning is seen quite diffc n :nt h- from t h a t in \\'e ~tern socie tits. Calchnll ( 19R2), 11riting or India. re rlt;rrks that in lncliat l rnral socit'll. ti acre is th c cultura l belit-fancl p ractice th'.t wca lth flows Jman c hi ldrtn w parents as '''t ll as from part nts to c hilcln:n. llc comrne nts that. ~ ~vi cally in \\'este nJ ~oc i e tl', resotii'C(':, llow in a OJH'I,m clirection frorn pa r enh w r h ild r en aiHI parcn ts do not e:-.pect ,oung ch ildren tu comribme lo tht material 11cllbeing of the l.lmily o r origin. ll owe1 er. in man y p a n s of thc world c hild rcn are ,;dmcl , al lcast in pan. for the contri bu tions th<tl they make to th t donwsti c tt.:o n ornics of l'ami l ~ allCI lwu ~dwl d; th cre i~ ll'hat Ca lclwc ll calls a 'reciproca! fl o w' of goo d~ and ~t' t Yiccs h c: tweetl pan:nts and e l'l'JI q uite ~o un g ch ildren. Fo r exam ple. wdd ler' can join in gat hc ri n g lirewood a n d thi~ is a valuable con tribu tion in cconomit>~ wherc this is th e only fu el a1~ a i l ab le for cooking and b o iling ,,a te r. This c ultu1 al l'iell' of c hilclren is significant in und e rstanding res ponse s to fa n1il~ p la nning pr~j l'CI S. Cald,,ell argues that a ll too oftcn \\'(~crn cultural a~surnptiom abou t famil y lifc ancl clesirablc family size din:ct the p o licy a nd goals of t h t~t' projects. Loo ki ng bei'Ond th e English lamily LO familit~ in other pal l'> of the ,,ortd rem inds us of th e h etcrogene itl' and din~ rl>ity of culture <l nd aJe n ~ u ~ to thc d<ln){t' I"S lor u n d crsta nding in asS11111ing that c ultures a ncl cu lurral m canin g~ a re th e same 1h e ll'o rlrl o1er. lndeecl. CI'Cn in \ \'estl'l'll socie ties thtr( is much c u ltura l di,crsill'. Novels a ll([ acaclemic studics pointto 1he cfftcts o f class and powcr o u fa mil y lifc . Jn lw ecent pa~t criticisms hmc bcen le,cl!('d against sum t trad iti o n a l read ing for childrt n b ecausc it ponrays a miclclle-class 1ie\\' of famih s trtlCillres a nd r clation sh ip wh ich i~ far remoncl from th e expericnces o f manr c hildrcn. ,\cna~a ti o ns o l ~exis m a ncl racism in lite raturt fo r c hildre n hme also becn made. These cri ti cisms gai ta draw o ur allc nt ion w tlll' re lat ions h i ps i>c tii'Ccn ge n eral. el ifluse c ultuns ami lcxa l. panicular c u l ltnc~. Al thoug h ,,e may identi~ an Eng lish c ulture as d is tinct f'ro m. sa~ a Frcnch cultmt'. it cannot be

Example 2: Shakespeare
T h e sLucly of' Sh akes p eare has a [l,ays been central LO English s tuclies ~111cl 10 somc construcom o l Eng li h ide n tity ( p. 224). raditionally. in English stu di e~. hake~pcarc play' a n d Shake~pcarc's languagc h;n-c been prc~e nted as tht c:.,cnce of Eng lishn tss. J'h cy hme b cl'll macle to st'tYt' a-, th e d efin ing fcatur e s o ra h omogen ous aJl(l un c h a ng in ~ culture. Subsequcnt au th o rs h an: o fte n bcl'll j u clged in tcrms of h o " 1h e\' ti L int o 1ha! tradi 1io n. lkcause o f th is con 1 1ect ion b CI\\'Cen Shakesprare ami national identitr thl position of these piar~ in sclwols h as bccome a n impo rtalll issuc. f he argument is p ut fon,ard that c hildren nHJSt r ead Sha kespear c in o rckr 10 learn Eng-l ish a ncl Engl ishness. Shakespcare's pla1~ b ecom e l'a lued O\'CJ . and abol'e o th e r fonns of cultura l procluctio n . A~ a res ult th c teaching of' Shakespearc . ancl Eng lish hisLory. was also a pan ol colon ialism's cultmnl project (p. ! S9). H owenr, cultural stu di t~ a~k~ ra t hc r dilf(nn t q u estiom abou t Shakc~peare. l nstcarl


lntroducing Cultura l Studies

Culture and cultural studies


o f taking h a kesp eart"S pOSillOll for grantcd. it asks what llt l' SOCia ( p ' lllOll of tflt' th catrc was in Eliza be th an times. Funhe r. it a'ks h ow plays IW ' r<. wriu<.n a ncl produced in <' ~ ixtCC lllh < lllcl St:l'l'lllCCIIlh CClllurics. Evidcnce th a l sh ows a hig h ck g rt:t' collabora tio n betwccn pla~wrig hts a nd adapta ti o n of pla~, o n th c ,tagc chan ge:-. 1h <. conctpti o n of Shakespearc a~ indi\idua l gc nius: h e a p pcars as pan of a 1\'idet cu ltu n :. Shakespcare is th en placed h iswrically rat h er than his pla1~ being 'cen as 'tim c l e!>~ ot 'etemal'. T he qu estion o f the aud ien ce is nddressed bot h in t h c sixteenth and sc,e ntccmh cetHuries ancl tl OII'. T h is gi\'es a ~eme of wh o th e p l a~s 11c rc ime ndcd for ancl how they h a\'e bce n l'l' cci,ecl. funh e r c hallc n g ing th e ron ccpti o n th a l his ll'urk is uni\'<. rsal: th a t is, fo r l'\'l' ryo ne, all nf th c l ime. We mi ~IH ask ,,h at group~ of sch oolc hildre n tnake of Sh a kcspearc's p lays depending o n l las . ra n. a nd gendcr. o r wh<.th er thc1 h:l\'t' ~ce tt th e pln,s in th e th eatr e or in I'CI'iom madt for th e cinema. T IH timele s nalllre o f ' h akesp earc can also be challengccl b\' ~t ud ies t h a t h o\\' that lht texts h a,e bcen altc rcd consick rabl ~ O\'t'r th e yea rs: ami 1hat h e was no1 a lwa\, considcrcd a s impo nant as !te i~ no w. Cultural studi es looks at 1he c han g ing co n ce)Iio n s o f Eng lishn css - ancl i1s re lationsh ip.-: 10 the rest o f th c world - that ca used Slwkcspcare to be rcdisconrccl in th c e ig-ht C'l'lllh ccn nt tv as the nat io nal poe1. T h is extcnd~ from stud ying di ITere n t ,er~ions of 1he plm~ to lookin g a t 1he tou l'i ~t in cl m tn in S trmforcl-u p on-A.,o n . l t can a lso imoh'e s tuddng 1he ,ersions ol Sha l..espeare that ate produccd in other p an:- o f th c \\'orle!. The'c d o not sim p l~ sho,, the imposition of En g'lish cu ltura lmean ings. bu 1 the complex p mcesscs of n cgotiatio n 1d1hin n etlmrk~ o f cu l1urnl intc raction 1\'llic h m ean 1ha t Sh aktspearea n his1o ry p la r s ,,e re ,chicles for disc us:-ing poltica! a uthotit~ in th e So,ic t L.: n ion , all([ ,,hiclt recen ti~ brottg h t a Z ulu 1crsion of Macbeth f'rom post-apanheid Sou th :\frica to th e r<.co th lructi on ol Shakcspeat e 's C lobe T h eatrt in Lo n do n .


1 Box


Troilus and Cressida

But \\'hen th e planets ltt l'l'il m ixture 10 d i..,orcltt 11ancler. \ \'hat plagues and \\ hat po rt e nts. what llltllin\'! \\'h:n raging of th e ~ea. :,hakin g nf e arth ! C:otltllHHio n in th c 11inds: J'ri g hts, c han gts. h orrors Oil'{'l'l ami crac k. rend ancl d e rac inat c Tite unit y and m a rri c d cal m o f s tate~ Quite from th cir fixure! O h wh e n degree i<. sh a l..' d , \\'h ich i~ tite laddcr of .111 high d esigns. The CtHcrprise is o;ick. llo11 cou ld commttnitie,, Deg-rt'l'S in school,, ;llld b ro th crh oocb in c ities. Pea ccl'ttl cotnm e rn l'mm cli,idable sh ores. T hc primoge ni1y < tnd du e of' binh, Preroga the o f agt'. cro11n..-. scc ptrcs. lamcls. IJtll that dcgree ~tattd in a ul hemic p lace? Take but degree ;n,a~, ll tltli! H' that tring. Ancl h a rk wh a t discot el follmrs. Earh t h in g m cets In nw rC' o ppug nac~: llll' boun ded waar' S lwu lcl lil't th e ir bo!'om s hi ~h t r 1han th e sh o res. An d makc a so p of a ll this so lid g lobc: Strc n gt h sh o uld bC' lord of' imbcc ility. . \ nd the rude on should s tri ke h is father clead
l1mllll flml

Al! of these proce~sts of qt testion ing :md n egotiation are of cou rse p olitical: tht' sho\\' that t h e interp rei<H io n ofShakespeare is a maner ofpo,,er. 1 h i ,,as clearlr ~hown b~ ~largo 1 llei n e mann ( 19R!l) in h e r essav ' llow 1 3rccht read Shaktspearc'. S he ga,e 1h e exa m p lc nf N igel La,,~on. C ltan cellor of tl w l~xc lwqu e r in th c lnl e Hlt\Os, 1\'ho fJU Oll'd from S hakespeare 's pla ~ 'l '~tJiluJ ond Crl'ssida ( 1()0 1-2). Lawson m e d 1h e q lttatiott 'Ta k< but degt ce a11ay. untu tt t' that s trin g /.-\ncl hark '"hat disco re! l(lllo,,s to argue th at Shakc pcar c was a Tory. llo\\'CI'e t. as H ei n cm:tn n poin ted out. t h c character who ma ke' the sp eech. U h-sses. is in fan a wily, cu nn in g politician . who is u sing 11t e t h reat of social disonler to :tttain his 0\\'ll en e! ~ (~ee Bo x 1.5).
Al 1 of t h e se q u esti o n s a nd issues d e ri,e from adopti ng a rather di ITe ren t approa c lt 1o th c s u tdy of' c ulture to thal represcnte cl by Eng lish studi es in i1s m o re cotwentio n:tl g uises. T h ey a re th e ~o ns of qu estions pos<.d b~ th osc acl o pti tt g a cultura l sw dit'!> pcr~pcctil't' a nd a re sh a p ecl by th c e o re iss ues t hat \\'C han identified. llowc1er. th c1 a h o itl\'ohc a~ki ng q u estion s whiclt lcad u~ on 10 examining thc theor etical per pe~tin~ used II'thin c u lt m al studil~: what is the rclation,hip bet,,een t h e \orial position ol tlw audience (e.g. race, class a n d ge ncler) and t h t itHe rpre tatio n o f th t tcx t? Ho,, can wt uncle rslancl th c \\'<1)'S in 1\'h ic h 1hc m e anin g ' o f Eng lish n css (and th e ir link 10 S ha kcs> < arc ) ancl 1h e m e an i ng~ of Fre P<.: h n ~:'s beco me clcfi n cd as o ppnsi tes? \\'hat

Or.sidfll.iii.91- ll :,

i d c~b ancl m e th o d s cnn \\'(' ttse to int trprlt plays in tb c ir histo rica l come xt o r llH' con te m p orary m e an i ngs o l' Shakcswarc ,,i1it i tt scltools? 1n tit l n ex t scction we exa111 in e ~0111 (' o f' th e m o 1 inlluc n ti al 1\'a\'S o f th emising c ulture.

J.J I Theorising culture

T his scctiun introclttC'l'S thc o ri es of c ulture 1\'hich a n empt 10 addrcss th e issm'S < HHI problcms set out abo,c and to unile tltttn \\'i thin fralll e\\o rk~ of cxplanation. The bringin g toget her ol' cli\'crse issues aml prohlcm ~ in lO a s inglt- lonn ncce arily inl'ohcs a procc~" of abstraction. Theorist~ mm e a\\'<1\ from 1he det a il o f panicular in.,ta n CC'S ami loo k f'or conncctions in tcrm ~ of general princi pies o r conrepts: the ron scqucn n of 1 hi~ l~ lu(knt is th a ttiteories ;;:e o l'te n dil'fi cult to g rasp a l lir~t \ight , ro uc h e d ilS th l')' are in abs trac t lang ua gt. l tmay h c lp ~o ui.O 1hink o l'issu es ancl proble m s as th e builditlg'


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Culture and cultural studies


bl oc k~ of th co ri~s; bm 1llc re i~ no tscapin.;- thc t'ac1 tha l 1he Jang uagt t lf thcory is abstract. and \'Oll may ,,ell find it diflicu lt 011 lirst reacling. Gtne ral lhcori<"s of cullure addres~ o rrc or more.: or thc.: following quc.: <.tions:

l. \\'h:u is thc relat ion of culture to


Mnrcturc' (

2. \\'hicll ideas ancl mcthods uf innstigation olfer the must prornisi ng prospcc ts t'o r in teqJrcting culture~ 3. H o w is mcaning orgaui,cd ancl paucrnecl? In adclressing each of 1hcse in nrrn \\'e ll'ill tn O \ l' th roug h a r:rngc of thtnrc rical approaches. Bro<1dlr - a mi this i ~ a raricalllrt tha t can be fi llcd out b, looking ;u cxamples in the rtst ol thc booJ.. - ,,e s1 an wirh fu ncrionalist ancl s tructlllalis t (p. 21) forrns of' undcrstanding ll'hich s ugge~ L clt:arlr clefi necl. ancl of1 en ra1hcr rigicl. rcla tionship,. From the e \\'C mmc on to theorctical appro:tches (\d1 ich some1imcs rnight still be c:lllcd s tru cturali~L ancl Ht'C of'tc.:n infhttnccd hy 1\arl Marx (p. 97) that place tmphasi' 0 11 th(' unckrstancling of rulturT and lll('aning through thinking abou t their relationships L O poJitica) l:'( Oil Olll)' (for ('X ampJc, cl aSI' SlJ'UC tur<:,, rnod t.~ or jJI'OdliCLol1, e tC.} a nd lhcir irn portancc \\'ihin con0 ic t~ btLWC\.' Il difl'e rentl\ pusitioned ~aci a l groups. Fi na ll ~ ,,e s1rcss 1\'h:n are often callcd poslslmcturalist (p. 2.f) or postmodenr (p. 100) th eorc tical approaches which rctain a conccrn with polilics (and sollll' concern tor c~onomic ) in explai ning .cultun (see Chaptcr 6). but use a IIIIICh mor( nexiblc e n ~~. \:> 1 how culwrcs and meanrngs are maclc.

societies and texts; Foucault (p. 28) (history and philosophy) who pointed to the way j ' that underlying epistemes determine what can be thought in his archaeological method; and Althusser (philosophy), who drew on Lacan's re-working of Freud in a re-reading of Marx (p. 97) which emphasised the role of underlying modes of production in the determination of the course of history. Debate around L acan was influential on the work in feminism of writers like Kristeva (p. 232) and lrigaray. Poststructualism developed pa' OLJ.L O L([iti.que Q.Uhe binary_Qivision.u .o often char.acled~turalism. So, for examp~it cri~iclse~ t~~d~a t~a~ere s actu~y .a distiQs.t structure unaerlying texts_or_speech, plurong such d1 st1nclloos. Moreover, 1t 1s critica! o~ oftheScientific pretensions of structuralism. ~-~a lism tended to work on the 121~JhaLthe truth or .the. realstructure couli_be found. Pos!~ruct.!J ralis!ll is more..concerne,d \-Y.[lJ:l t~~ay in whic;h_versiQDS of tcu1h a~_;>.roduceg in~xts_ and thr.Q!!9h which is always in can structuralism therefore tends to be more playful in practice if not outcome. The work o Derrida and Baudrillard exhibits sorne of these po~tslructu ralst ideas. Derrida sh~~s how texts subvert themselves from within and B audnllard explodes the neat oppos1l1ons of sign and signifier, use and exchange value. E~~~oLstruel!l!.alist and po~stru~ l analyses ca~ b~und in cultural stu 1e . More formal structuralist analyses have sought to find the hidden meamngs f fcifk tales (Propp), james Bond (Eco), the Western film (Wright) and romantic fi clion (R adway). Poststructuralist influence is more diffuse, but can be found especially In more llterary forms of cultural studies, where the complexties of text.s and their multiple meanings are "- lnterpreted.



n~ver ~resolved. Pos~

Defining concejJI


Structuralism and poststructuralism

Furlhn reading
Hawkes, T. (1991) Structurolism ond Semiolics, London: Routledge.

Wright, W. (1 975) Sixguns ond Sodety, B erkeley, CA : University of California Press.

Structuralism was an intellectual approach and movement whch was very influential in the social sciences and the arts in the 1960s and 1970s. Th~sl.c i~ of structuralism is ~ ( th~t a phenomenon study should be~ssonsislli!g of aysle~t~s. Tb!.U.Ystem and the relat1onsh 1~ ~m ~s are p Q_re imRQ!lant than the individual elements that make up the s stem. " The Sw1ss mguist de Saussure 1s regarded as the founder of structuralism. In his study of language, he drew attenlion to the structures (langue) that underpin the variation o! everyday speech and writing (parole) and analysed the sign as conssling of a signified (concept) and signifier (word or sound), founding semiotics (p. 34) as the science of the study of signs. The emphasis on the slructure to be found below or behind everyday interaction, or the variety of literary texts, was taken up by a number of (mainly French) writers working in different areas of the social sciences and humanties. Examples include: L vi-Strauss (anlhropology) in studies of kinship, myth and totemism; L acan (psychoanalysis) who re-worked Freud, arguing that the unconsciousness is structured like a language; Barthes (p. 52) (literary studies), who examined the myths of bourgeois

1.3.1 1 Culture and social structu re

Sociulog-ists oft('ll li'>L' 1hc ttrm 'social SllliC tun' lo ' IIH> en<.lming. an;; paucnll'd re lat inn~hip' bctll'l'Cil dLment'> of a 'OCICI\' (. \ lwrnorn hit' 1'1 o l.. 198-1: 198 ~"\ CO lll \11011 1\'\\' of dt'~cribi rl~ lht ~I J'UC!ll l'l' of a particular '> OCiely ~ I D f'OC'l iS tiJ'O il h ruain lin c~ of' d t a\'agc. In \\'c~ tt rn socit-tics 'ocia) \CL'rlli'-lS most comn1only identif\ thl''-C '" cla~s. age. ~l'IHkr aml cth nidt\'. In this tradition thc realm~ are sttn a ~ intcrconn ected and iuteracling b11 1<'SS<' lllially.uuequ;rl as force~ fo~ changc. \\l1crc th.c\ pri mt' n:alm i~ that o! ~ocia) Slntcwre, cult ure ' ' tr<alt'd as a (kn ,au,c of '>tnrcture. Thrs j is clearly the case in frm ctionalism.



} :j

Functionalism O ne infltrential fon rtnltion of 1hc rclationship of n llture 10 social trucnrre can be s<:c n in the II'Ork of 1hc r\mnican sociolngist T:dcoll J>arson.~. l'arsnns trcars culLUre as


lntrod ucing Cul tura l Studies

Culture and cultural studies


for th t.: propcr run c tiqning ol ~ucil ty. In gttH: ra l ternl ~ n tlturc -l h ~ll is. l'a)U('' nornt:-. a nd s~mboJ ,- prodck the linchpin uf l'a r:-.on,\ '-olution to thc prohkm ol ~oci a ) o rckr. This p robkm i :111 ana h tical i"-111.: ro nretning- the sou n .t, ol tlw t' IHl u ri ng qua litl' of social lil't- how i ~ tlt t' reg-u larit~. per,iste ncl. t'tbti,c stab ilitl' a ncl prtdictabilit~ or social life a c h itlecl:' P;r~on ~ maintain~ that ru ltlll'l' i' th t Cl'lltral d t;> IIH'Il l oran a dcqttatc solu tion to th i' problem berau~t it pr01 ick' ,alue~>. t he ,ha red idea' about what i~ de~irable in sociell (pcrhaps ,alnt'' like matl'l prospl'l'i tl, indi,idna l fhcdon ancl ~oc i a l justicd, a nd n orlll.'-. tire acrt'pt ah le nwa 11' of obtain ing t hest' 1h in g-s (for t;..;a llt pk. Lhc iclt.:a 1ha t hont''-1 e nde;t~ Jttr is t lw wa1 to succe:>'-). Cu ltu re a lso pml'ide~ languag-e and o thcr ~1'1 n bolic :-.1'\LC'tm l'"l'lltial to orial lili:. P;u soth fnnhe1 ma intaim that culture i~ in ttrnali,ed b1 pcrsonalitit, a nd that inclil'idual mo tilation th n <; ha~ cu lt um l orig ins. ~ l orcmn Ll,o or 'oc ict~\ basic ft.:atnru. i1 s ecotlnlll\' ami ih po lit ica l s~stclll , a re maintai rt ccl b1 c ult ure . Hc n u t hcre is a n i111po n a nt ~('ll'-l' in whirlt c ullllre 'oils tlw ll'het'i~ of ~ociet\', In L )l( fn ctionali~t 1 ie,,. of' l'ar<;on:.. ~orit'll. cultllll' ,11\clthe indi1idual are intnrelated. earh intcrwllctrating the other, b u t culture orcu pies a n ' ntr.d >lace blcall'-t' o nth e one ha ttd it i' i nt c nwli ~(cl bl' ittclilidu;tlsand nn tite o th e r J .....__ i1 i~ inst itu tiond iwd in lile Sl<~hk pauen1' o f ac tio n th:t l ,nakc LIJ) lite so c ilt1 ..
ll i:'CL'I>'<I r\'



Subordination and patriarchy

Submdi 11 otioll of 11'01111'11: a phra~c usecl 10 dt:scrihc tltt gc n era l i ~cd situatio tt wheHbl' mcn a:- a ~roup haw more ~ocial .lllcl economic pm,tr titan 11ontt'll. including po,,er Ol'er women (Pearson, 1 ~1~12). ~ l e n .tr(' dominan! in 'ocie11 ancl m asc u lin i t~ ,r,ignifles dominan cc mtr re min inity in te nns of idea,. Potriarrhy origina lll an anthropological tcrm that <k~cribes a .;ocial ~ystem in which authorit\' i~ inwstecl in th(' m a Je hcaclol'the housl'110ld (t he patriarch) .llld o thcr n1alc c ld~rs in 1he kinship group. O lclt:r tnt'll are tn ti tle d LO exerc ise suci.tlll sanc lionccl a utho rity m -cr o thcr me mbl' rS o r th e hou~eh ol d u1 kinsh ip g ruup. both \\'Omen ;1ncl 'ounger nH..'Il ( Pearson. 1992). Patriarch1 ha!> bt'l'll criti ci~td b1 somt ftmini'\tS '" too all-embrarin~ a tenn to d escribe the dinen.nt fMnt~ of mall' clominancc in difTne nt socic tic ,.

Social structure and social conflict: closs, gender ond 'roce'

"li e scpa ra tion oln iltu re ancl wcia l stru ct urc is n vt fiuti tcd tn /unrtionalisl tltcori,ts. 1t apptar; nl ~o in lite wnrk or thcorists wlw arg ue d tha t ronf li<:t i~ at the core of ,ocie, ancl 11ho nnder,tancl cultun in tc nns of tlw 'll'll<ll lll'<l relatiolhhips of poli tics an;l economic~ (or political cco 1 to 11 1~ ). Ka rl ~l arx (p. 97), th l' n illt' lt'l'llth-centun philosop hcr ;md rcm h1 tinna r '. ;m el tit e social llt t'(H'io; Max We be r (p. ~1 :1) tre attd IH' Iiels, ,alul'' a 11d bt'l1ai'our as produc ts of 'or ial a nd l'< tHHln tic i nl'qua liti c~ a11d powe r rela tiomhips. ," \lthoug h \latx', idea' ,11(' ,en compk' ,onw of hi\ lollo11er' h;\\'e argued lha t those ll'ho ho ld t h t means ul production in ,ociel\11 ill con1rol il ~ idea~ ancl l'al ue~. T ite r ulittg icll'a.o; ora SI)<.:l'll' (i l ~ fol'lll\ of btll', politics. r~l igioll,l' IC. ) ll'i ll be lltO!'l' of' th t dtH IIi nant das~. The~t ick<t~ ,,. bl u., cd 10 managc and ]>l'l pcllt:tll' an trnequal ancl uqju<.t s~sttm . In t h i~> ,cJwme. cuhurt ~cnl's <l' a prop LO thc ~ocia l ~lntcturt. legi ti mi~ing t he l'Xi,ti n l{ orcltr of thi ng:-. Fcminis t (p. 120) 1h l'o r isls haH' al so Sl't'll c ul turl' "' a prod tt CI of' social ro n fl ict: b nt wh ercas ~ 1arx iM ~ Sl.'l' socia l con r lic1 ;" bc tll't'l' ll classc~ . l'cntin i~t:o. '-t't' gc nde r rl'ln t iom a' justa' impo nant. T\\o kc,te l n t ~ in femini,ttheon ar1. ~~:uion ;u~a1-ciH (~ee 13ox Both these te nus cle~criht hclll me n ltan. more social and l'COnomic po\\tr t ha 11 II'Oilll'l1. Fe mi n ist 1htntY for u st~ on tlll' pul 1ica l ami econom ic incquali 1ics be tll'l.'\.'11 n tc n aml ll'llme n. l lmH'\'l'r. b tctll'-l' wunttn ha1-c ofttn i>t'L' Il c xcluclcd rro m ~h e mainstrcam o f political nncl cconomic life. ftmi~vt al'o empha'i'cd thc m~t ud\lng'Cltlturt a~ n "h ich-incqna lity i' rcprod u red. lkcatt~e it is within cu llll'l' 1 tat ge e tr is fonn cd . ll' nt in ist,., tan stucf~ in 11rdcr to exa 1~1 in( tllt' way~ i11 ll'h ic h c ul1 u ra l cxJl'na 1io ns ancl ;t <;~ um ptions abo ut stx haH f'ecl thc lclta that !{C'ncln inequalitl' i~ natura l. Cultu~t ancl nmflict are abo linkcd in lite ~tudy ofracc' anclra r i,m. T ht.: conccp1 ol

race is oftt n put in iii\Trted con1ma\ bccall..,l' rart. likl gcnckr. i' a l\o a '>ocial rather) than a biol w ical categ-or\'. Altlw Hg h peopk arl' oftl'n cliiTcrc~ficcl by ra cial' ;, a clc!in ec.l as betwcen raCial gro11p~ ( F1e lds, 19\lO: 9t). hw1 ( 198-1) h .t, .11guc d th.n t a oal ptCJllcltce i~ cult ural in t he sem e that it is tlw anic ulation ofpopular bl'iief~ hl'ld by a pcopk abou t othe rs 11ho nre felt w be diff('rc nl frtJ lll thtmselws. Rarism, hoiiT I'cr, artic nlatt'l' c 1tlt ura l cli flcrence ,,i th stntc turlcl inc qua lil)'. using pt'ITt'!)tions uf tl ll'Sl' d inen n ns LO valiclatc opprcssion. T hc arguml'n t i' that c ultural domina tion is an e~~cntial e ll'mcn t or economic ancl political con tro i.Ju~L as rem ini ~t~ con tenclth:n the cu ll\ll'.l l roles a"igned 10 ,,om t' ll (genckrlcl role~) serl'l' 10 acco unt fnt th c ir wpar;ltt ancltrmq ual re l a tion~hip ll'ith lll t-' 11 , SO critiC'- of l'<lC !> Ill arg ue tha l prl:jucl iciaJ l'; tlllt.:~ a nd a lti tlldl'S lOII'<tl'dS colon ist'd ptople!> dl,doped as Europe atl impn ia lis t' slaugh tt'rld thcm. too J... their lands and dcstrowcltht'i t tllltllns ( Rich;mb. 1\l\lO).

cJ1 a~L~ "ays ma.r~ cl~fll'l'~nccs 11itl~in.

'' gr~up.

Culture in its own right andas o force for change

llo11enr. culture nc<:d not be ~l'l'll as ckpcndtnt u pon .m el clni,atiw or tlw c conom ic o ra m othcr dimension of socia l ~truc turc. TIH: cclebn11td case hnt i\ ~l ax Wc be r's (p. 21~~) aC( tl\ llll th t p:trt plal'l'd by the Pro lotalll e th i(' in l'xplain ing- th c o ri g in.- of mo d em capitali'>lll. \\'l'l>l'r a rgm:- that t iH bl'iief' of tltl l'arll' Prott~t; lllt '-t'CLS plal'ed a kt, camal role in tht t~tabl ishmt'lll ol' the ,pirit' or c ulwrc of ca pitali:-.m. a nclth trch y co;Hribu tcd to clel'l'lo)tnem of th c capi ta)i,t cconomic .,~s rem. ;..ra.w of the early Prote stan! g roups su b<.cribecl LO thc tcac hings Ca hi n '~ doc trine of' pre d cstinn tion whiclt ma intaine d that thc belil'l't:r's e ternal ' a ll'ation 11a, clctcrmimd at binh a nd that no amoun l or goocl works coulcl alter God's deci:-ion. r h i'i pland a liTllll'IICIOilS psycholog-ical burdtn on bcliel'<:rs ,,ho ha el n n ,,a~ or K\10\l'illK 1\'hClill'l' thcy lllllllh(' recl



Culture and cultural studies 29 28 lntroducing Cultural Studies <lmong th~ Ekct (those who achicve cwrnal sah'::uion in thc li{'(' hereafler ). Thc pr;'ICtical solution offt>rrd b~ the Prote talll religion lO the anx1e1~ thus gtn('lated la1 in thc notion or mcation: thc beli(:n:r was instrunccl 10 work long ancl hard in an occupation in <'r<ler ro attest hi~/ her confidcnce ancl colwiction that Elcct l-tat u~ 11as a Mlrcd. bner. thc doctrine 11-.\ relaxcd so thal ~}"temati c labour 11ithin a 1ocation ami thc material prospcritl' thal accompanicd it came 10 be secn a\ a sign of Ekction. Thc conscquen cc~ of these bdicfs ancl relatcd n.: strictiom on consumption and indulgcncc 11a~ (a) to imroduce a ne11 goal-Oii(ntatcd attitude toward'> economic actil'it~ to replace the dilTu~c auiu1dcs that had per i~tcd through the ~ f iddlc A~e~. an<l ( b ) to facilitale tite proce~s of capital acC U1 11lii<Hinn. Weber of course ,,as well awarc that a number of factors othe1 than the cultural contrihuted toa phe nomcnon as complc::x as capitali!>m (Collins. 198U). His intention was to show how idea~ can be 'effcctiH force., (\\'ebn, 1930: 183) in the hiswrical dcvclopmcnt of socicties. CulttiH' (hcrc in the fonn ol religilHI'I ide<~~) ran hape as well as be shaped br social s1n 1 cturc. A more intcrwoi'CII 1icw of thc rclation:.hip bcrwecn cultu1 e and society i<> !>hOim in rhe work of ~ J a n Douglas ancl Michcl Foucault (p. 28}. They bmh suc <;in thc ir writings thal ou1 understanrling of panicular objeCls relates as much 10 the 11ay 11e think about tho~e ol~cc t~ :h to :1111 qualitics tho. e objt'CIS ma) ha1e in lhcmschts. Therc is a reciproca! rdalion-.hip bcrween thought ancl thc object(s) of thought: a 1wo-wav proce'>s ,,here objcct<; han~ q11ali t ie ~ that mnkc an impressio n 11pon us, bt1t that impression is influenccd b1 thc w:ws i11 11hich 11c ha1c been conditioncd to think abo11t that object. Thought and objccr are. the11. inseparably liukcd but this doe n<H mean that ,,.e al11a}s d d The Birth of the Clinic (originally published in French changing patterns ofknowledge pr~ u~ e. 11966) and The Archaeology of Knowledge (French in 1963), TheOrderofThings(Fr~n~ ~ngll1~archaeologies' to describe all these projects. The original 1969). lndeed, he use t ~d er~wer which the treatment of the insane had r~vealed connectlons between knowledge a p . 1' ed groups in his Discipline and Pumsh: The 1 f to other margtna 1s . were further explored 111 re a ton. . F h. 1975) his edited editions of the hves of the Birth of the Prison (originally pubhshed 111 rene ~n d't H~rculine Barbin (1978), and his three murderer Pierre Riviere (1975) and .t~e herm~~li:~e~ ~ French: Volume 11976, Vo\umes 11 and books on The His!Oryof Sext~a/tly(or.rgtnally p d enealo ies- he used theories of discourse (p. 1111 984).Jna\lofthesestudres -wht~hhec.alle 9 gd knowledge are connected in the o trace the changing ways tn whtch power an 30) l rtes <p. 224) production of subjectivities and 'd ' entt h .h ed the ways in which we think about

Foucault's impact has be~n ~c~demic. He ~~ e :Sn~ look at the ways in which they are ower knowledge and subecttvtly, encourag f 9 ntext to context In emphasising that P ' . h' h they chilnge rom co . . . stin in the analysis of society' he has encourconnected and the ways 111 w '.c 'Nothing ls fundamental. That .s whatts r~tere- ~AJer relations, ways of thinking, and ways of aged us to thinkabout the ways tn whlch thld tnbgs d~ff ent This means that his influence has also 1 curse1 ltes understandmg ve s and others- cou e er h' h shape institutions and subectiVI . t the forms of power w IC been political. Hts attentton o . prisoners' rights and gay rights. has been influentlal in, for example, campargns over /

Fw1her reading

d Other Wri!ings !972- 1977, ed. Coln

Foucault, M. (1980) Power/Knowledge: Sele<led lntefVIews on Gordon, Brighton: Harvester Press. . . Ph'l hv Culture lnterviews ond Other Writings . l O (ed ) (1988) Michel Foucoult: PolttKS, 'osop ,, . Kntzman, . . 1977-1984,London: Routledge. . uin oucoull Reoder, Harmondsworth. Peng . 1984) The F Rablnow, P. (ed ) (

fey injluence J.2

Michel Foucault (1926- 84)

Michel Foucault was a French philosopher and historian - indeed these two categories or identities become blurred together in his writing and thought - who has hada dramatic and far-reaching mpact on cultural studies through his work on the connections between power (p. 94), knowledge and subjectivity. Foucault's varied career took him through several disciplines- including philosophy and psychology - and various countries - he worked in France, Sweden, Poland, Tunisia and Germany before taking up a position at France's premier academic institution, the College de France, in 1970. Significantly, his job in Pars was, at his suggestion, a professorship in History of Systems ofThought and in this we can trace the themes of m1.1ch of thework that he undertook from the 1950s through into the 1980s. F oucault's early work traced changing modes of thought in relation to 'psychological' knowledges. His book Madness and Civilisation (1961) traced the relationship between madness and reason; reading the changing reactions to madness, and the incarceration of the mad, in terms of thinking about ratiorality as tney changed from the medieval period, through the Enlightenment's Age of Reason, aod if'lto the nineteenth century. The issues that it raised were explored in varied and chang!ng ways i!' hiS subsequent work. Careful attel)tion to the.


. " tncl th:t1 idea-. nt>n>r changc. lt dm-. lllt::lll that 1 think in tht s:llllt' ,,.a, ahotll t1n ng ' . 1. ll ., uni<lirl'Ctional cau,allll lrom r . . . ocal 1cl,\11011' IIP' IH 11 . changc is tlll' mucmne o anp1 . . . ll lucnce ,nlcltuT. a~ IIC a<. ) ' -. . . , tll'\l cuhw e 111a1 11 su ucturc LO culw rc. 1 biS me.m .. 1. . lttiH' i' a fnnT fnr changt (n cH . . . 1 he rcco rn 1uon t 1.11 e ll <.tructurc inllmncln~ cuhul e. gl l. 1 1 'll t'ltllliiT t'\11 be e:-;aminccl as a '"~tclll ) J' 1 lO 1h<. )t' ll' 1 l o ' 1 sim )h thc object ni chan~e t:a~ ~ . 1 /) . \hn \)ougla., ( l~ll)l)) <lr~llt'<. 1 ~<ll . . .. 1' \11 Pullll alit rmg' . . . . 1. in ib own nght. For ex.un.p t:.. . . 1. . . 1 t' " 'lllCI a colllJ)llhlon. nol '""P 1 . 1 ~ont'l\' l,tl t.: a CJI ~ ' . idca<. ab0\11 clirt ancl 1II'~ICill' 11 11 1 uh icll'a.., aboul COillannnatton. o. 1 lh . m,\ll'rtal \\01 e l ll 011,.. bccau'e thev can he n:1 atcc lO t ,.<1 to"nol<>).,". or \\Orlcl-11<.' \\. 111 . 1 t i 1 ' II'C p 111 O ,\ \\1 l: 1 , aclllh ancl illnc'' but )l't.lll't e . . . 1 tnn:-. llr thcir 1ctauon 10 o . 1 .. 1 . a culture not u-.t 11 ' . . .. 1 and hlaicnt' are un del <.tooc 11 tl 1lll . . 1. l Jnl >tll il 1 ' versus 111111101 ,1 < M f1 1 Of'1lll\ [Of t' X:llllJ> t.: tl l ' disca'c bllt aho in ll'rlll' o H l ' <b o 111 ' . . ' 111 - 10 IJke into ccount thc nwann~ ' 1 r ,r cJI clut ,,.. 1 Jall' ' . 1 .. ,, 1 .. 10 undn~tancl dlrt' pace lihh. Thu,, ' <uhur:.Jl \UH t' l~t.nH m,.. . . dinl 'cn<.l'. l 111 l ol\l . . 1 of dirt in lllOl'l" lhan JUSI ,1 II H . 1 J ifl ill" ol l'ITill~ \\'htcll 1t'Sll l 1 11 or<kn11g .tnc e 1" ' " historicatly. \I'ihin a SJWCIIJC Cll 1111 t'. H


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Culture and cultural studies


fmm ideas about thc "orld giH~ meaning to bdl:wiotn. The M< HC of be i n~ clirt~ is thus <~s nwch the pronuct of ideas as it is of tlH : mat(ria l world. In turn. Fuucanlt ~~ rg ues tltat social g ro u ps. i de nti tit~ and po,itiom - likc cJ,,,,es. ge11dcrs. racc and exualitie~- do not pre-exi't :me! sonwho\\' cktcnni nc their own ancl o ther cultura l m ea nin g~. Th cy <tre prod ucccl within discourses (p. :~0} which d t'fin e ,,hat t h c~ are ancl how the~ opcnHe. So. fo r Foucault, <.'\ 'tn though theH han: alw;\\'s been men ''ho han' ~ex with men. therc ,,as no 'homosexual' identill. and no 'h01110SCXUal S<:X' bcfOI'l' lha t icJ entit~ <illd t h ~ li~ure 01' tht ' hOillO\t'XU:lJ' \\'C .I'e cJdined in tlledical. pwchologiral and !ite ran text~ at thc cnd of thc nilletcen th nntun. That tho,t cliscotu ,es about homoscxuality both produccclmm<~ to regula te male sex~tality aiHI the refore de fintcl lliOJ'e cltnrly a g'I'Ot lp ol' holllOS<.'X llaJ llH'II - ancl provided the basi' for po..,itii'C identilicatiotl '''itlt that te rm 0 11 thc pan of sonw oJ' tho~t men. mcant th;u 'homosex ualit~ cn me to hme a ,ignificant place '''ithin thc social ~tn tr tu re. In Fo uc ntlt 's n rsion of thi ngs there is no cktttJni n< HI.' relationsh ip beLheen social struc tu re and cultmt. lnstcad there is a flexible 'ct of rdationship~ betwetn powcr (p. ~) 1) . cli~cour~e a ncl11hat exist~ in rhe world.

Dejining concept




that there are Jots of ways in which the world can be descri bed and defined and that w~ have no sure grounds to choose one over the others. In turn this also means that he is dedicated to recovering those ways ~~ kno:-'ing that have been displaced and forgotten. Discourse is also about the relattonshtp between power and knowledge. F oucau t (1980) argues that we have to understand power as something productive. For example, it is not in catching a criminal that power lies but in producing the notion of 'the criminal' in the first place. As he says: 'T~~ver relat)Qo wltb.Q!!tk correlative constitution of a field of knowledge, nor any knowlecige 1hat does no~restppose and co 1~ute at the same tirnepower relations' (F oucault, 1977: 27). To continue the example, it is the body of knowJecrge-:-the discourse - that we call 'criminology' that produces 'the criminal' (and, in the pasl, now forgotten figures like 'the homicida! monomaniac') asan object of knowledge, and suggests ways of dealing with him or her. The criminal, the criminologist, the policeman and the prison are all created together 'in discourse'. _ . This does not mean thatthe world is just words and images. Foucault i$ keen to talk about the institutions and practices that are vital to the worklng of discourse. lf we think about medica! discourse we soon realise that the forms of knowledge and language that make it up are inseparable from the actual places where these discourses are produced (the clinic, the hospital, the surgery) and all the trappings of the medica! environment (white coats, stethoscopes, nurses' uniforms) (see Prior, 1988).


iscourse is a way of thinking about the relationship between power (p. 94), knowledge nd language. l.n part it is an attem~t to avoid some of th ~ difficulties involved in using he concept of rdeology (p. 84). lt rs a way of understandtng most associated with the vork of the French philosopher and historian Michel Foucault (p. 28). For Foucault a 'discourse' is what we might call 'a system lhat defines the possibilities for knowledge' or 'a framework for understanding the world' or 'a field of knowledge'. A discourse exists as a set of 'rules' (formal or informal, acknowledged or unacknowledged) 'which determine the sorts of statements that can be made (i.e. the 'moon is made of blue cheese' is nota statement that can be made within a scientific discourse, but it can within a poetic one). These 'rules' determine what the criteria for truth are, what sorts of things can be talked about, and what sorts of things can be said about them. One example that Foucault uses which can help us here is the imaginary Chinese encyclopaedia about which the Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges has written a short story. Foucault uses this to challenge our ideas about the inherent truthfulness and rationality of our own classification systems and scientific discourses. In the encyclopaedia: [A]nimals are divided into: (a) belonging to the Emperor, (b) embalmed, (e) tame, (d) sucking pigs, (e) sirens, (f) fabu lous, (g) stray dogs, (h) included in the present classification, (i) frenzied, {j) innumerable, (k) drawn with a very fin e camelhair brush, (1 ) et cetera, (m) having just broken the water pilcher, (n) that from a long ff way o look like flies. (Foucault, 1970: xv)

Furlhn ml(/i11g
F oucault, M. (1980) Power/ Knowledge: 5elected lnterviews ond Other Writings 1912- 197 7, ed. Colin Gordon, B righton: Harvester. Purvis, T. and Hunl, A. (1993) 'Discourse, ideology, discourse, ideology, discourse, ideology
.. :, British ournol of 5ociology, 44, 473-99.

In coJv>idcring cu lture ancl <;ocia! stntcture m: have dtmon<.tratccl the rigid cktenninism of the lunnionali<.ts; thc <.trong connections bel\lt'tn cult ural struggl e~ and tht social relatioll ~ of dass. raCl: and gendcr madc bl' :\Jar)( ist<., [(:n tinists and anti-rar ists:, ancl the iutportanct of cu lture in rcciprocalh shapin~ social suucturt<. ancl social positions and identilits. \\'t can take thcsc th lori e~ funhcr b' co n ~id erin g ho,, cu hmal ni ti c~ appro:1ch tht p:Ht erning- and o rgani:-a tion of mcaning. _


1.3.2 1The organisation of meaning

Ra~1no_nd Williams (p. ~) at gues that the p;~~ning is a e ucial :.taning ) p<)tllt lor n tlwral anah-sts: [l]t ~ \\'it ll the di~c o,ery ol pattem~ o r a r h.tractcrbtic kind tlt:t t ;m~ u ~c ful culw.ral anahsis bt'gin<.. ancl il , with the rclation,hips hcrween t h c~e paucrns. wluch ~oruetim cs rc,eal un cxpcctccl identitics and correspnndences in hithrrto se pan~te h <.:nn~id ertd ac til'iti r~. soml'tinll's again re,eal d iscontinuities ol an unexpl'cted kJJld. thar cultur;tl an<th,j~ i~ con cerned. ( \\'illiaul~. 1960: . 7)


\ Foucault's aim is to problematise the relationship between words and things. He suggests


lntroducing Cultural Studies 111<1111' diflcnlll ll'a~s ll 1\'IJic h LJ js ~Larrh for p:tll l'l'l l' of llll'<l llilj.{

Culture and c ultural studies


ll o \\TIT I", lil L' J't ca n procetcl.


5peech, language and text

T I _o ke\' C OilCl' )IS in thc lh cories of llll'all in r are i~JI1 :md. ~ pt i on. lll'itlw r or 11'lnc 1 can be nnclc rs looc 111 a comnHlllSl'll.'L' wa\'. Fur L'Xantpk. it c 111 be arg ue d il m1 lhtTl' is lll'l"t'l' pnl'eCI ro mntltnic uio n bctll'l't'n 'lwa kc r a nd and icnce. no1 lea'1 bec:ntSL ' a ' ma1 ronCL'a l nwaning ( inten liona ll~ or uni niL'Il liona lh'). :-\one the lt'~l-. 'JlLTCh ans do ro ntain cl u l~ ro 1he itllt' ntions ni 'Jlea l..e1' The wnc uf ' o ice llla1 spea k' a bont th L rc huinn~hip bct\\'('cn 'JlL'<Ikc-r alHI ;lttd ie n n. 'o one 111:11 tHH he ll'ho ll \' clependL'Ill u po11 the COllll' ll l of' tlll' spcLc h a et. l n listl'll ing- tn sp~:cc h ; 11ll' lea m, abu u.t tht ,,iclc1 l' ttllll ra l .-a lues 11 hic h a re in1plici t in 'lwech. Speech allCIIan~ua~L' haw prmed lCI hL rir h lield~ lor'l' ol tlw u-.llhllli~<-ion of } c ulture. Sem io logis ts (p. :~ 1) h a,e argucd tha1 :tll I'Uitura l pr.o dnc t'> sh nulrl be seen ;, tcx ts . .-\ n drura l p rod un 111:11 1101 be ac tualh ''Ti ttl'l1 btll i1 ~till consi,t s o l' sign ~ (~L't' ( il:tple r :l) ll'il e l il('r \'btt:tl. anr:1 l u r <:ITJl ta c tik (e.g. ~c ulplnrt. ll'llic ll nta, be touch ed ) ll'hicll can ht read ' or itllL'I'ptt'tLd ..\n txantple oft ll i~ 11oul d be a flag 11 lticlt .>ta nds lr ' pa rticul:u L<H ttlliT. .Scmiotic' a~sum ts -.t.ltldard :t'\soci.uions tlta t art' ll'dl l..nmm, a n c~iahl blwd part of the cultural repe tiOi n. a nd 'o can be rt'adi h all(l cas il~ called u pon. 1 ~in k. Jt <H nr:tl u waning o l' :tm ~ig n . lts 1a l_ue o r Jneaning ra n_ ~Jt; l y be cJ CL ' 'JJII IICCfi''l.'l:ttio Jt lO co tlt L'I ~g' ll.'>, ll'il ll' 1 in llll'll l"l'CJl iJ'l'S !'C:lrCJlii~ 0111 O~IOI1 ' :1 11rl rlirflow., ~ -,.,..-. :---,--...._ - ....._ "'-~~11 nc tJt' Jd cl 'L' IlltOllC-" 1 1 Gitmpon;lltt to temcmbt..-.lha.u.l.tcn:..Jlla\

mam a<.<.oriation' fo r a 'Jtrific r ulw ra l itL'tt t a ncl tht' n~_. ~hcn K!:QIIpcd toget lcr. ;,!.Wltar conllictin g or contradiCiotT. Tht ' itua tional :md coJti L'X Illal ttat u re of mean i n ~ m u: be ~l re~~ed bttt th e no tion u f' cc~x t ~ n:111t n~;uings_:!vo..ll!!..LJJJle- cn:l t i~ J li'C'~l' l H't () othcr Jl)( :tn ~s. In ti )(' r:tS(' o r thl' llag wiJi(') l't' pi'I.:'I>L' Ill~ ; n nmtry. 1\T can s<t that lo c\Jtc gru11 p o f wople th i, llag mal' han tlw meaning o f' p.111 iotism a11 d ,1Jared hi~totY. btn to a d il ktTIIl grnup ol peopk )t j.., ,,une llag- II HI\ rq>resell t opprc~~ion and injustice: lor txample. t hc 13t iti-, h fbg , thed pa1rioticalh in sume pan -, llf 1 3ri l:tII_' bu t .ll lrtl:JncJ S ~011 1 L' I .ilt('~~d't' l J'tcJ Lo~ ' th c iJIII Ch tr's apron ' IJeCa ll ~l' o f'iJ S L'o n n o t a tt on ~ II'J th blooch l't')J J'tsston. 1 he St'll 't' of uppre~~ion or injtt.-;tice is IL-'s like h to be recoguistcl by Lhc fin; ~ro up. ifthe\' npr~'t' J ll a d o ntin:utl ~o cia.l grn up, hu tthi~ d.Ol'-" tHll mean tha t th1s sen,e '' 11111 prc~cnt. fltJ ~ ~<'arch for int l't prcta tion can he lllOI'l' 01 le" orclet t'd tl11 ough thl couHntions ol '11'11( tllr;tli~m.

~tructuralism and the order of meaning

Stntctun1li'" St'l' culturt' a' a n ordered "'ll'lll 0 1 ~tru ctU t (. C ultu re is p resented a' a "'tem or cocll-cl nw a n ing"' '"' ich arl' p 1oclncecl ami tl'produc~.d t h rough social in teraction. Thcir int e rc M ,in hcll,. p;uti c ipaut~ in intt ra ct ion lcarn a nd 11-'t' tile cocle ' 11 COillllHiltiC<Hion ..\ Jll JIIllwr o l' 1 Wrspe1'1il't.s ha~ becn hro11g h t to 1hi ~ ,Stl\.'. Cenai n 1h loric' o f 1in g nist ir ,. lo r ex;11 11 piL t hosL o f Ft' rdi na ncl ek Sat '"ure a ncl l\'o am C:ho nt'l..' . state that there , a Ull\'L'J'"tl 'lntctu ri ng prinripk in :tll huma n

lang uagc: 1h a l o r hi nary o pposi t io ns. Bi narr o pposi lions COlh SI o r [1\'0 o ppc.,ing L e rms: ror e xample, blac k a nd wh ite, man a nd wo ma n , high a ncl low. Ll'i -S trau~s ( 19fi()) a rgues that these oppo,itions are not a m c-nahk 10 dircct obsen a tiou or anah~i,. l nstead. they o pe ra te at a level that is not conscio us, a lc,cl som e timcs cksc.-ibed a, th:u o f deq{ , stntc lllre. 1)1e Mudy of cullllre, according to st nt c turali ~.f..O n'i t of c; ult ura l fot.:,ms. Thcsc cu ltttra l fo rms are the result of thc human mind bcing hro ug ht 10 bcar 011 panicular c mi ronm c nts. L1 i-S trauss a rgucs that thc resultalll c ultura l fo rms a ll exhibit the ame pauern. that o f binary oppo~i t ion s. The con te m of particular c ttltures may be d ilfcrcn l bu t th is is thc rcsult o r d ilfcrcn t e miron mc nts. \\'hat is signiflcant is no t tite clilferen t COili CIHS, bu t thC icJenticaJ pa UCrnin g of c ultu ra l form s. \\'~!.!.2_~o m tit e a ~sumpt ion tila t Cl d t ura ~CO I}~,t_gl~C t t l ica l l?!!.!!s:w~, LYL.Strauss sa1s t ltal 1nCfi\'iduaJs ha\'e a 1 1 innatt' bio log ica l c~paci tv, what he ca lis a mm a r. ~~ i c h th t:y use _Lo decode' o r interprc t coclc of cultu ral in fo t ma tio n. Co s are cultural in tile sense t ha th ~v ;)f; !_he cx presston o~a pcople's sh a rcd co~l\emi ~n a t ." p~1 ni cu lat timt'. Accu l ~ ura te d mt' mbc rs o f a socJet\' kn~cocks fo r the n sonel)' Coclc~ are c nltt trally spccillc, b tlllhe abilitl' to d ccodc is uni\'e rs:tl ancl inna1 e. ~ This tneans tha t e1 eryo1H' ma kcs sensc nf th c II'Or!d at 11\'0 dis1inc t i<'l't l, which take place simultancottsly. The firs t is at t hc lc1 c l nf d eep stntc llllT whne tlw binary o ppositions o peratc. ll1c second , at thc 1'Url~ICC' lc1et of con t e mpor:mtmt ~ ani\'in ,,h e rt' kn owle d gc u f a c ultural cock a iiOI\S son in~ a nd classif) ing 111 o pera te anclme:ming lO e me rge. L1i-Stra uss like ns 1his thinking to whal ll'e e n g-a~t: in ,,he n 1\'t' listt' ll 10 music. \\'e hear b u th th c me loch a nd th c lta nno n \', b ut in o rde r tu ac hie1e a n unclcrsl:lltding ul' the music IH' Jta,e to int~gr:llt' tlte nt. l t ) th t 1d10le that gi,cs us the mt~,agc. a ll{l so it is both su rfacc ami d eep stntc tutt' that g in'llllS our under ta nding of cuhua.tlmessages. u~,i-Straus~ 11orked o ut th esc ide as t lt ro ug h 1he analysis of myt h , ,,h ich he a rg ues is ont o ft he cleareSI form s ofcultura l ex prcssio n ofa socicty's \'C\1' n i itself'. 1\ la~}' ~.lli.. ( 1966) anc!.J;&Jllt.Ul d.-L.~ac lt ( 1~170) adop t :~ ~ imi t ar s ta ncc to that or Ll'i-Strauss towards c ultura l ltnderstancltng ancl the rt'cl puon of cu ltural messages. T hcy both a rrct ~l'lll i ng :trises_OlJl. o r Pt!!!f!!l~ a iiCI onkr, but th l.'\.:..iliffi:LJrom l~trau s~ ;;t;;'c;ning tite source of orcler in the so~_world and not in phy~iology. lt is.J.b.c social a nd cullllral contc xts and th c ag ree~rt.!:! ings o f sha H'd cxperie n n .: t l ~ nterac t i o n that a llocate and setmcaning~Leac h , ro r e xamplt-. ill1ts1ra_te~ his case " 'it h colo ur el a s ificauo m . l"i1"Eglish culture thc re a re c ustotllary a~soCtau ons ma cle betwecn colours a ncl fac t ;ltld feeli ng- thus re d is thc colour of dangcr. red i also associated with po mp, it is thc colo ur o f the Br itish Labour Pany a ncl it is a tc nn used to describe mentbc rs of the Communist Par1y. A n a ti1e user of Eng lish is aw;1re o f some if 1101 a ll of tite rc pcrtoirc of' :l\'a ilable me a nings and 0 11 ltcarin g th c \\'Orcl ' red ' II' II d ecide. accordi ttg to con t{'X l , wh ich meaning is ap pro priatt. T his will be th c tneaning tltat makes scn<,c w tht' htarer and gi,es a message. Thi ~ ~ociocul tural explan:uion of culture ancl comnH tnication a lso pays attcntio n to other feawres or conve ntional cultural systc ms. such as ges ut re. drcs~. physica l appe arance, ,o lumc a ncl tone o f 1 con1mu nication . The sta nclardiscd mca nings t hat cluste r arou nd c ac h cultural ite m pro1ide sup pon a nd e1 ide n c< fo r siwa tionall y prefc rn~ cl read ings. Semiotics ancl tructurali~n t are d iscus ed funhcr in Chapter 2.


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Culture and cultural studies


Defining concejJI

J. 4
Semiology and semiotics

The ~ tudy or science of signs, known in Euro pe as semiology (a term coined by Saussure) ~nd rn North America as semiotics (a name devised by C.S. Peirce (1839- 1914) for his rndependently developed philosophical system which shared many common premises with de Saussure's). . Ferdinand de S~ussure (1857- 1913), a Swiss linguist, saw language as a system of ( sr~ns whose meanrngs are arbitrary. His m~st influential ideas were set out in lectures grven between 1907 and 1911 and publrshed posthumously in 1916 as Cours de Linguistique Cenera/, edited from Saussure's papers and his students' notes. Saussure emphasised that what a sign stands for is simply a matter of cultural convention, of how things are done in a given culture - it has nothing todo with what the sign refers to in the world or the sign's history. He suggested that 'the linguistic sign uniles, not a thing and a ,9D..Lc;,gmerised ~o elw..i!~a signif~d, a name, but ~ conce~t a r~d a sound-image.' Si -w.hrc h rs materialised in a si g,r2if~r, a sound-image such asan advertising ~oa_rdr~g ora newspaper text. The meaning of signs must be sought in the relations (of srmrlarrty, contrast, etc.) between signs. For Saussure, the cardinal Qriociple was ' that n~ng can ever reside in a single term'. ~ A further influential distinctron suggested by Saussure is between language as a atterned syste~ (langue) and language as embodied in actual speech (poro/e). The study f lang~a~e was. rts~lf lo~ated as part of a larger science devoted to 'the study of the life of gns wrthrn socrety whrch Saussure named semiology. Semiologists maintain that it is possible to discern certain Iogb or structures or codes ,vhich underpin the multiplicity of cultural lile as we experience it. Saussure's ideas have ) ~een developed especially effectively in the broader sphere of culture by Roland Barthes (p. 52). His writings explcate the laten ! meanings - the myths and codes - that inform { suc.h divers~ cultural phenomena as guide books, steak and chips, electoral photography, ' \JII-rn wrestlrng, margarine, and the Eiffel Tower. lf. the sign is ar.bitrary, .then its meaning can only be established by considering its relatron t~ other srgns. lt rs thus necessary to look for the differences and oppositions between srgns. These are classified in two broad ways:

- there are people lhat it supposedly oppresses who are perfectly willing to die for it). In this way the ideological functions of signs can be exposed. Certain cultural forms can be seen as myths which serve lo render specific (often bourgeois) values as natural, universal and eterna!. /

Fu rf lil'l' tNtd i ng
Barthes, R . (1973) Mythologies, London: Paladin. Gottdeiner, M. (1995) Postmodern Semiotics, Oxford: Blackwell.

H ermeneutics ond interpretotion

Anotlll'r ~ignifican t tradi rion in thl 'ncial ~ci ences ronnrnld 11irh inH:l)llL"tarion i' hel'llll'llC'Illi('\, De l hed in i1ia 11 ~ rronl dl'hatl'S in GerlllallSpl';l ki 11 g' C0\1 111 ries 0\'l' l' thC' intcrprc rar ion ol' thc 13ihle, rhis approar h 1 ,.,, becollll' IIUl'asing-h conn: m ed ll'i rh wiclcr ~,uo or interprct;ll ion :111 d ,,.rh phi l o~u phi ca 1 ckbal l'-' mcr the conn ecrion hct\\'ecn nHani ng and ex isrPnn. ll t'l'lnemurics ar~u es ~~ b lllf)Os.~ ib il~ d ~(' tlw llH:an ing ur a lCXl rrom thl' cuiru G'contl'Xl ur it~ ll lcrpr('lt..:L In orrkr 10 imcrpret :ny ll'Xl - thc in[crpmer nLcc~':" ih :u1d u n a,oidabl~ brin~, ,., ri H ll'Xt cenain prior undtr~tanding~ or Jorc-u nder~tancli n.{s lrom hi~ her 01\'11 culture . , ht intcrpreter's fort-u n dl'r~wnding~ racili tate tlll' (>1'0( l''' of intcrpretation ancl :11'{' l hem~eh'c~ ,,orked upon (i.e. conlirmed. modi fied. rl'fliH'<l. .lllll'llded. etc.) in tlw cour~e o[interpretalj!)n .. This comer,;u ion-likc procl'" , 'ometintt'' cksnibcd b1 rlw tt'l m ' the hermencutic ( circk' (Gadamer, 1 ~175 : ~ :~.1--J:i), .\cii'OCa tts of the hcrmcnt'lllir circk 111aintain that ~rprerar inn , not .1 simple OJH:-11:11 rr:1 11, 111ission of ideas f'rum ttxr lo rtackr bm it is rarl1cr :111 lll erar rin process in 1d1id1 rlw readn's f(.m::-unckrstancl ing-s are IT(JIIired fo r a n ~ f'lll'lhc r lllld l' J'S i a ndill~ or tlw ll'XI ro be IJOssii>le. T hm. 1\"h cn 1\'l' reacl Shakespearc's J /amfl'l ( Jli00-J). or 1\"<llc fl a performance o (' il. 1\'l' bring LO bc:11 O lll' presc n r -da~ culttmtl understanding!' abou t filial clutl'. jealom' and rlnng-t. Sl'Xtml propril'll'. t' IC.. and rh t~c uncler,tanclings an l'lahor:Htd and moclifiecl in com tqutnn or our reading of thi' pla~. T he notion of rlw htrnJt'IH'uric circle ha~ fl into 1n.1n1 t h eorie~ uf culutr in the 'ocia! ~c i ences and huntaniries. One ol it:-- cen tral implit:ll ion' , to underscore tht ab,enn of an~ pri,ilegecl po,ition or .\ rchimedean puint for tlw inrerpretation or culr nra l phtnomL'na- knl)l~l-;,..c.ulr~Jar~~!~~-:_. \m l'ril.:i!n sociolggist I.J.;!.DJ.W..Garfj nkc.Lis al.)q\s kn<>\l'l.:d~l!.!JJ-~I rc. Olll' txample of thc cle,d upml'll l ol a soriologic tl appruach to interprctation influcnn:cl by 111 (' IWI"IIIl'll l'lll C traclition can be f(JtnHl ll tlw 1\'ork o r tlll' l lungarian sociolog isr of' kn01dcdgt' Karl ~lannhl'im. ~ l a nnh c im arg ms rh :H a n llru ral actor text conrains rlll'C'l' le\'cls of lllt'aning: o l ~j lc ri,e. cx pre~~i\'c and clo r lllll t"nt;ll ~. ~l :mn h e im ust~ th e h ~ pothetical exampk ol' a fritnd gi1ing alms to a hq~ga1 10 hring ou t rhc,. dif'ltreuce' hetwcen these thnt laHr' ol mt'<Jning. T he objectilt' nt<:.111ing of the act product inherts in the act ihl'IL .111<1 in thi, l'Xampk it ._ a~~i~t.tnn. 1 he Sl'Cond lenl. t~sin mean i n~. itll"nh'e\ thl' LOn,ickt .Ilion of what a n acror in ttnckd or ,,.,he!> LO expnss b\' am pa11icular act. :\lannhvim\ l'ri ~1H I ma\' ha\'c ht't'll ''ishin.{ ro come)


Synta matically - the linear or sequential relations between signs (thus traditional English mea s consist of a main course which follows a starter, and a dessert which fo llows the maln course). P~ica lly - the 'vertical' relations, the particular combination of signs (thus soup or meiO but not apple pie for starters). The meaning of signs may not be readily apparent. Semiologists speak of different levels of signification. The skilled semiologist can proceed from the leve! of denotation the obvious ~1eaning of t~1e si~n (e.g. a photograph of a black soldier saluting the flag), t~ the connotallon of the srgn, rts taken-for-granted meaning (e.g. colonialisrn must be right



lntroducing Cultural Studies

Culture and cultural sludies 37

'~mpath~ to tht b egga r throug h his a c t. T h< third ht}'er of m e atting i' tit e m os t imponant fo r .\ lann lwim as it liuks th t ac t w wider context;.. The act can fu n ction a~ a clocumc:' tll u f tht friend\ pn,onal in a~lld be~ clncut~nt h~po~ lor eGnplt-. tlw (n t:nd wa' a multi ntil liottaire wll o tnadt his m one1 b1 tu a king th e beggar rccl u ncla n t from a job in thc;' lit, plan:. Ho\\cwr. 10 lornlllbtc th i~ interpn:t:nion ''T h :n-e to knuw lite ,,id er c;otltt:xl of ll w art. for tx ampk. that its a 11th or 11as f'xccp ti on:tll r \\'t:llthy. 1 his co ntwc ti u ll to \\'ider c:o nt exls e;.w blislt e~. in thi' C:I\C. link' betii'Cen th e act and llw poli tictl t<onom, \\'ithin "hich it takes plact. In the n e xt s<T tion we disc u ss pnl it ical tcotHJ tny and tite i111 pon nnct or ideo logy ( p. K-+) as a " al' of uncl c rsta11 el ing pallnn' o i' llll'aning.

cultural clil'kre n n and id<:olog ira l cliHr,ill' teu cb tu gL' I sqnt t'! Ccl tlltt o f' tWI\''P" Pl'l',, , Jealing onh a tThtti1eh natt 011 mi del le ~round. ,\ 11 a ll!'e-" using thc as~ umpti o n s of' poltica! t'C<HHIIIll' ca n abo lw li11 ked

issn e ... ol

" hat ougl11 w be. For cxamplc. thnt i' .1 widd1 acnptld h e lid 1h.n '""" tha t nwn m ean'> " 0 r,l' . .\I on ch:llnWI', more p rog-r;lllll11l'' ;11HI llllll'C' broack."' IHn tr'> ol radio and telcl'ision dt,igmd to appca l w a 111:t'' a udi c tl et' " ill kacl to :t lm1ering of tlt t ualill' or ,tnin ( 'l't' 'l'Uion Sotm lll'tl<l' in Cllltul'ill ~tuclic,, di~Cli'SCd in q . r ,. ,. C ltapte r 2. lt ;ne 1oi!'cd kars a houl th e <orntpltng nat.tll t' o 111a'' me e 1:1 nr auc wn cc '. :\ mo n , np hi,li C:Il t'<i ll';t\' o!' tU IH ll'<' l in{ th t conct nts o l political cco m1tn1 ancl qm,tio n :. 11 1 mt;niII~ art throu~h tlll' tO il CC)~ t .or ideolo_g> (p . ~. ) ..~leologit'' can be 0 [' l':triou ' so n s. An ton io G r amscl_( J,__;':-1) dtiJciL"cl li[ LJckologies ILllO tltrt" l' cawgori c~. J'h c l ir~ t i~ th at of common '<'11't'. Common-o,cll'l' i<kao; an t hn~e 11'<' allt..l for gt::l~H ed . Co ntt11nt1-Sl' l1 '(' ick:t' :tlld \itlllt'S .!_!rt:_pan o!' C\'l'l')'clil.)' li lt-. twcl roc k of' our ilcler'-la n t liJlg ..PLillt.:.-.~-~odd: IJ111 1dw n l'Xaminl'd t" lmel1 tit e~ 111.11 aJ)j){ar 10 b :-litl;l.r conu.uli< ton or H'l 1 '"JWtlicial. \11 l'X.tlll>l~ o~ ; _ rommoll-!>l' ll,t' icl colog~ i' g i1cn in tlw phra't' ' Bm s :Irt IJc ller :ti [ootball tllan ).\ trb. 1h1 s csp resscs a widcJI' hdd icka . C011111Hlllil hdd lO he lllll' .. \ rl<>'>t'l' l'X;tlliil:liOII OJ' lhi'> ' tr ll th ', hOII l'H' I'. mig ltt CJll t'~ ti O II itS \';tJiditl' h1 as kin g ' .\n' bOl'<. L' llCOIII':tg< d lO be 11Wrt physic:-tlll' a CII'l' titan girl o;~ o r '. \re g irJ, allull'l'cl to p :uli r ipatt in ln<tba ll '.'r ar~ tlay cxclmkd a t homt. at sc hoo l. or at d n h Je,cJ?' 11 tlw all,l\l'r to tiH:'L' <JIIL' 'tton' ~~ ~l'' tit e n the r o utnt on-sc nsc idea tltat bo~ s are bclll' t < 11 loothall than g irls i' ..-h o\\'11 to IJ

Politico/ economy, ideology ond meoning

{ .-\n in1cres1 in political eco no1111' m ea n$ : 111 intcrc:-. t in bs ttes of powc;T and inl'qua lilr 1hat ;n( as.soc ia l<.'d I1'th thc: a llo ca ti on of n.: ~<Jtll'C<'~ atHI tite fonnation ofm.alt lt. T he idea ~ of politintl c cono m~ han-hada ll'idespread 1a lttt' all( l application in soci:1l scicn ce ancl in
d i sci plin e.~

such :1'> histo ry and E n ~li sh stncli cs b cca m c th cy lla,c pnncd fruitf'ul in th e

imc~tigat ion of pattcrm of tn eaning. T o rdate politit'al econonl\ 10 cult ure is to p ro ntpl

so me of IIH: l lloll'ing q tt c.stiott ~- \ \"l.t ~ll <1 re-t ill>'- Coalt1 l'C: Iions h c tll't'l'll mmcrsll j p and ro tllrol o f' 1he tlll'di a an d cu ltma l ~(.:ioni' \\ lla t i~ tlll rolt- o:_.lte-ewn<'nic ipfrastnt Clttt'C in dw di"cmination ni (lt-asi' \\'hat are thc links lwtll'ce n c.:cJ11~~1og1 ~~ - ~ lransle r a 1 1d thc 1ranskr <lf knoll'lc~gy~ ltt a ll 1hc:-.c arca~ ol' im];giga t <lllJ.!. t~c l a l i Oll ~ltip , \oughl bctii'CCH politit'>. l'COIHitnic:. and ct.),hllre.
- - - - 1

.\n examplc of lh\ :tpproac ll \l'flltlcl be an anal~s i ~ of' 11 ell,papcr CO nLCtll tu ~C I.' jf a cu nn cc1ion ca n bt c~ tabli ~ h ed bl'li1Ten th e Oll'nn~ h i p a ncl con trol of the ncwspaplT and the 1~ J>l' ami c haracll'r of tl l'll~ p ri ntcd . In simpk l<'rnb, it ~uggcs t.' considc ring the l'XIC' Ill LO ll'hiclt lil e Oll'ner's I'CII'S <tllCI nLCI 'l'S I~ are re n ecltd in LltC C011l l' nl of th c ll l'll'~pape t . :'>le11,paper cowragt of tlw tWII' ha' beeu fi~tm d to be on: rwhclmingl~ procapitalist, pro-<,fulu.\ quo in c haracter. Tllc. qttl''tion illl' ll beromes: how is 1his coi n c id e n ce 11ith llll'lle rs ' inll'l'l'Sts 10 be cxplaine d ? Onc explanmion point~ tu tll e conce ntt".l lion o f <lll'nershi p and con trol of B1 ilio,h ncw,paper~ (85 pcr cc nt oral! newspaper circub1ion is contrullcd hy ~eH.' II larg e co mpanies). Nl'll'spap <. t proprie to rs h an. nHtlual inlct-csts in otiH:r n na ndal all{l indtN t ial undenakin~~. and a l ~o h a1e an upbringing and lifcs tyle in commo n : in slton . th e~ han slta recleronom ic inlerts ts all(l a s hared c uhun:. T ltus it ~ hardl y ~urprhin{ lhal lile prcss's CO\'cl'ag<. j, biased in fmo ur or llll' intcrest' aiiCI , a lut, of pri~;ne etltCI pri~c .. \ n a ltcmatiH explana ti o n clraws a lt cn tion to 'o m e di ll'c ren L l(: aturc' of 1lw poi i ti ca 1 <.co tt o my o f ncwsp;t per product io n. l lcn ctnp h a~i' i;, placcd un tll<' p rel'ai ling lugic of the 111arkct in ll'hich newspape rs are p rcse ntll' produced . T h<. co mmt' ITial """ i1al o f n e \\:-.papers depcnd~ u pon ad1enb ing rel't' nu e wh ich in lurn ~cnc r;ne~ a prl'-"-"III'C 10 tnaintain a n e11spap e r'~ circ ulation. To t'l' tain a largc re.tder,hip lll'W'J>a p crs gi1e ptoplc wh a t th c~ are hl'lic1ed w wan t human itltcrcst 'lories. c rinw. se x, ~pon ancl scand;tl. Enlt'rtaining the rc adcrsltip co nH.:s to take preced en< t' owr prmidin g inlorma tion abou1 , gni lirant worl d e1ctHS all(l cducating t h l p ub lic in thl' 11;ws o l tT,pom iblc c itilcnship. J\ la1erial doc umenting

tnt< o nl y bcGH t'<' ol' paniullat titt unt,tann, ( ~t'L' o;euion 7 . 1.~ ). ( ~ram~ci's ~econ cl Cill l'g'U~ jdeoh ~ ~ora p.ti'I< J1~1 il o~ , ,,h~. T hi,. ll ll':lllS 1101 \() mu c lt tlll' tlt o llg ltt ora panicular plti lo so plt e r but <)~a p:trtt: ul,ll g roup nl _ peo pll: in \OCit'l\ \dlO put forw.ll'< l a l'l'a,onahh rohc:nnt ~l'l of tdc';"' 1 hc,l' pcopll- ( .ram'o calls inlclkctuals: a nd lw inc luck s bollt tradilinn a l int c llec ll t:tls su c h a s prie~ t s. ;utd iutdk rt ual:-. 1dw tmergl' front ~ocial mmt ntl'tlls. li kl' tradl' tutionisl' or politi ra l ac til'iSl!>. Thus. <.xample~ of ideo l o~l'' th at ate philo , ophi<, are Roman Cath o lic teac hi11g~ or thl ccological id('a ~ of Cr<.'C' IIpl'aCe or tltt belids ol Rig ltt lo Lile a nti aboni onisl gro 11 p~. Gram.,ci's 1hircl nl\{'gill" i' ol a dominan! 01 hege m onic ( p. 1()!}) idcol()~~. th:ll , ot~lat lw~'a h.ading ro k in ~ocit'tl . An txa mpk of a l~tgtmouit" icJcoJogy in a p.trlicu Jar SOC i C' l~ tni g lll lll' lhl' clomin,tllCl' of Olll' )Jt'l''Oil'S <k:t,. fo r exantplc in a cliu.ttor,hip. Or il migh t hl th<' de~cription of a socl' l' .1~ capi tali'>t or incJil'idualisli C. \I'IH'r<'h} idl'il!' (t1r icleolog it') Ji kl ' liH' prilllat' l' o!' lll(lllCl;u~ profit' or

'tlll' SlltYiltJ Of' lhl' li tt l''t' :trl' lhl' cJotnll;tlll idt:t\,

,\n lllHit-I'Standing o( h oll' llll''l' thl'l'l' cJj(ferellt C<lll'~O I'il'3 uf idco]o.,l'\ lll;ty illt C' I'relatt' can be g ai11ccl b~ tltinkin g abcnllthc ickul ogY o[ radsnt. In tlw lirst ca tegory. contnton sen:-.e raci:-.111 might con'i't o f p h r.l'\l'' likc 'T hl' Engl i'h .m: cokl'. 01 Black [>t'ople .liT ll:tltlral alhl< t< ~s . rltcsc p lt rast'~ l'XJ'I'l'SS l'l'l'l')'da~ prejuditTS ;ts ('(111111101 1 M' IISL'. They clo IItH. on tlteir 011 11. l'XPI'l'" annhing mon 1h a n 1he i11Cli1 idual p t <judin o f' th<. spea k<.t . 11 , h O\H'H' r. thew ro mlllnll>;t'll'l' icle .J' heconw pan ol a coh l'rl'nl '~ ~ll'lll, th <. n 1hey etl lt'l' Gra111sci'$ ' l'COIHI ca tegor\' o i' a pltiJo,oplw. :-\ill l' tce nthetntun anthropolog iM., cJa.,.,iliccl thc l, ol humani11. pl.tlin~ Eut~ p< at lhl top ol a put poneclh l'\'Oi ttliunar\' lacldtt with Oritntab atHI .\lri can' < 'OtHin g lurthtt dmm : 1his i:-. plainh an


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Culture and cultural studies


Key influence


Antonio Gramsci (1891- 1937)



Antonio Gramsci was an ltalian political activist and writer who was influential in the development of Marxist (p. 97) cultural theory. He aimed to develop concepts that would enable the understanding and transformation of twentieth-century political and economic structures and social and cultural relations. He is best known for his work on the idea of hegemony {p. 106). Gramsci was born in Sardinia and was educated in Turin where he joined the Jtalian Socialist Party, and worked as a journalist. In 1921 he was a founder member of the ltalian Communist Party {PCI) and, after a visit to Moscow, was elected to the ltalian Parliament. He later became leader of the PCI and, in 1926, was sentenced to twenty years' irnprisonment by Mussolini's Fascist government. At his tria! the official prosecutor demanded of the judge that 'We must stop this brain working for twenty years!' However, durlng his lmprisonment Gr~msci wrote his most famous works, published as Selections from Prlson Notebooks (1971 ), whiCh combined studies of politics, philosophy, history, literature and culture. He died hottly afler being released from prison. Gramsci is important lo cultural studies because of his attempts to develop the onnectons betv.:een class relations, culture and power (p. 94) without reducing issues of ulture and mean111g to a superstructure determined by an 'economic base'. His concept of hegemony aimed at understanding how dominant classes could organise their rule thfough consen.t when their politi~al and economic power was not in the interest of those they subordmated. However, th1s was not a static situation within which the ideas of the powerful we~~ unchallenged. Gramsci used the metaphor of a 'war of manoeuvre' to suggest that poht1cal. struggles were continually being fought in a whole variety of arenas: political, economiC and cultural. In turn this meant conceptualising the role of the intellectuals who were part of fighting these 'wars'. Through his notion of the 'organic intellectual' he argued that everyone who used ideas was an intellectual - it was not just a label for a small prof~ssional gr?up - and that these 'thinkers' and their ideas were organlcally tied to particular class mterests. lt can be argued that it is Gramsci's ideas that form the basis of the notfon of ~ult~ral polit.ics', dueto the ways in which they were taken up and reworked ,by those work1ng 111 the B~rmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (p. 327) in the 1970s.

organi ation of' lh.ll \CH'it'l\ . "'o. fc1r l'~<l111(lh-. 1he ll'l' OJ' raC'>1 idt'.l\ (CI jll'iil\ lht 0 e~clude blad, people rrom hou ... ing 01 European roloni,:llion ol India .lml .\frica 01 1 panicuhu jo b" i' an ~.xampk ol a hq.temon ir ideolog' . In pranicl'. 1h e'1.' 1h rt'1.' ca 1 egories ;u e olkn combin ed. Th u ~. a tommo n-~en~e 1 aci,1 re111ark i., oftc:n macle in he 1 con1ex1 ol :u1 acceptecl knowledge ol a1ailable I';'! Ci~t ph ilmophie' and ol raci'm ,,, a hegemonic i ckol og~ .

Poststructuralism and the pattems of meaning

Thinking through 1he concepl ol ickologY lllL'ans con~id ering a 1dw k r<lllg't' ol ~oci a l groups and 1heir re l a 1ion ~ hip w idea' ancl cultmalmcaning'. In thc ,ruc1urali, 1l<'r,ion these 111 eanillj{S are stricth' p< lltl'rnl'rl according to specilk structliiTS anrl ws1enh 'll<u h as binary opposi1io11. 1n ihl' p<~ li ti ca l lTUIIDrn~ I't'll' thl'rl' are 11\0IT ur k-... 'lrong link' belll'l'C'Il the dil'ltrt.lll groups :md tlw ickas all(l llll'anings 1ha1 1 l w~ hold and propo1 11 1d. Postsll'llt'llnalism ha' e lli.'Sliomcl 1hl' n <ll lll't' ol lht conmc1ion ~ 1hat arv 1nadt' i11 b01 h o l these o lhe r 1htorelir:d appro;lt' llls. Firsl, l (jllt'\(OIIS 11'11:11 arl' ~l'l'll ~ lil e ri~idi i t'S or SlnlCILLr:1 1i, , S\'Si t' lll ~ ol' llHHLglll. ' Jns1cad oJ' binan opposi 1 io 11 ~ it 'll)o{)~,sl' 1h:H llwrt are lllnr h nwre C0111plicalt'd and cvcr-c han~in g :-~~lt'llls o l nHanin ~ ,,J irh nccd to be unders1ood in lhti1 p;u 1iud:~r ) con tcx ts. T hus, llw llll '<lllin g~ 1h:t1 1 lling~ han.. are not lixcd - IIH'\' are lluid a11d changing. ,\ ., in ~~;:~hakcsreare example;-tlJC meatli1gs oJ' thc pJa, s are 1101 ckftnccl by fixcd ~~'S l t'lllS of' ~ ig n' - for examplc, lhinking abO U! !he reJation.,hips bctllt'{'ll ha1111011\' and cJi.,harmom or OIC!t-r a mi di,ordcr in thc comedie - bu1 are dependtnt on tllt' erpreiL 'd. 1 hu " Sha\...t comex1s in 11hich lht' .1n 111il!en. c nartcd. co n ~u nwd and in 1 speare ~ undcr,t.lndi n g~ o l rarc aiHl moiH.''. - in a pla~ Iikc '/'/11 .lltlfllll//1 of \ 'tllill - c.111 be in1e1prctcd in lt' l'lll~ ni con temporan cli.,course;; of t'Cnnom ic, aiHl nHH a lill . 1 hi, need no1 be ba~td upon d irt'Cl \...nowlnlgt. 1hat Shal..e:.pean hacl. hut a ,l'l of imerlocking cultural coclt.' .h Stcplltn Gretn blall alJ~uc:,. < k aliug ,,itll the cm n ,. pondenccs betll'i.'t'H 111t'dic:d ll'XIs aud Shal..espeare's tex1s: [Tl he s1 :11e o l Sha\...t'pt:uL ' l..11u11 kdgl' of medicl ~ci e n re , 1101 111l' i111 pe lll:ull i"ue hcrc. Thl.' rela1inn l ,,,J 111 ~. ,ta hJi,h bt'll\t'l'll m~_ di ca l and lhe:llriral prani< t ' , 1101 OIH' of' cau,t and tfll-u nr """Tt' ancllilt'l~H"> rtalil.<llion. \\'e arl' cl<aling- laliar ,,ith a sharccl ('ock, .1 't'l of' lllt'l lorl..ill).( li'O(ll'" .111cl ,jmi Jitudc' thal fllllClOll IH>l Oll l\' ;t\ lilt objcc l ~ hu i "' 1 lw cOIHiilioll' uf rt'pi'l''l' lll<ttiun. (C:r<enhlau. I!IHN: i'li) lt is not, thcrcl'o rc. 1lw '~~ll' III S and ~ l l'lH'lll l 'l'S of nte;111ing 1h:n an lllJlOrl<tlll bu1 11tc ways in wlticll llloi't' di lfmt p:ll ll'l'lts ol' '"'''IIIilg'S in tersen in panicular ' illl<llinm. Second, po~!Sini C lll ra Ji,l s <JI Il'Si iOII llw ~u l iditl or lh<: relationship' thal iht. poliliral econotn)' approarh '"l~ lll':- t'Xis1 b<:iween er onomic re la ti onships ancl ntlll tral lllL'all ings. Jnstcad ol ass<'Lii ng tltat 1hen: arl' ickulogil'Sappropri:ue 10 dasscs. lht'\' arguc 1ltal ~h e re l a ti on~hips are bu1h con1ing:cnt and con textua!. .-\gain . cJao;qs. ~< ll dtr, ancl racu. are. in pan. forme el 1h I'OIIg h 1ht idea", ickologies allCI cliscttrses that are ll~t'd ahonl tlwm ancl1ha1 lht' "'l' in thl'ir 'trnggll's: all{lllttst will difle1 dept'nding on llll' time. thc place, the nalurt nl!ht \li'll).{gk. :md 1lw hbtm"> ol'that o;truggk. Th11' 1lw pallt'l'll'


Further reading
' Gramsci, A. (1 971) Selections from Prison Notebooks, L ondon: L awrence and Wishart, Grarnsci, A. (1985) Selections from Cultural Wrilings, L ondon: L awrence and Wishart. Joll, ). (1 977) Gramsci, London: F ontana.

('X:lllplt ol' a rar i ~ l philosopiH. 1 he ~a7i :md Fa~c i'l bdid!; abont ,\ 1 ;-an racial nonic idcologT ~ upnic~rit.'' are ni ! l ~t. ~;une 11-pe. Racism becomc:s a dominan! or heg-< 1 whl'n 11 1s "'l'd ,,.llhm a panicular 'oril'l\ to k gi1im:11e llw ~()cia l di1 i~i ons and


lntroducing Cultural Stud ies

Culture and cultural studies


of 1neaning c.muot be traccd b.tck lO unclerl~ ing political.uHI t' conolllic ~trmtu1 ~~: thc1 :tl"l' rela ted tothem btn in "a~' th:n an l'H'I'-c llanging am i \\h iel! lllll'l be explortd a n cl i nterpre tld b) tlw ('tJ itural a 11 ;d ~-,l. T l111'. Sh a kt,ptarc doL'' 11c H alll'al'' dd i n c En {lish lll' " for a ce n ain rla'' b111 i' up in that ,,a1 in panindar bauk~ 01cr l'clur:llinn. 'ta111s a iHI c ultural capital (p. :tJ:) ) .-\11 ol thi~ pnt' mnch mo11 of a bnrden on cnn mm intcrprctation s nl t tdtu re . . \ n ' l1 lr:ll eltme nt ofpo.' l ' llll l'l ll ra ti~t tlloug ht i' t lw idea that cu ltll1\'- in all it ' li>n11' - i-; a 'tt'''. 11hidt (':tn be 'rt.tcl'. Thi' tlworctiral mmt ltm,trch 'lt''ll lalitl ,l!i lh the lons ol tl w ~lllch o l ru llnl l'. \\-h:u i' 'tudie d '" no t -.o mu r h c ultura l fn r m s ur . nprest'llla1u11 as tht tcxt iL'l ll . \\' h c n hdc n it ha~ bt'L' I1 a'' ll lllt'd th a t i1 nti ~ht be pos~ible to gai n l..nmd cdge b1 tlw 'wch ol cullllral filnn. poo..h!ltltlllrali~t theori,ts ( ~th~s (p. :12). ~J p. ~~) .. l a~ut~ lJe 11 itht l h a1e q tlt'SlOill'd th c 't':11Th for nH:anin g- < llld collt'l'l'11 Ct' . .Jacqlll'' Dt' l'l'iC I.I h,t, :11 g u cd th :u th e tc :-. t ~ thal 111ake n p 1. ln ol l'illding nuaning and l..uml'lcdKl' to tll t n dturc can n enT be pinnecl ele m 1 -.tudent ol ru ltlll'l'. thl'l ddl-1 it. Tlw la'l.. ol 'luden!\ ol cullure , not. tllerd<.ut, 10 loo!.. lor explan:Hio n,, b 111 lo ' d ecoJ1 q1'1K t' llll'<ll li n g- in r ulturt. S ttulen t~ o l c ulLun ~ houlrl not louk fr 1r !>l'~ l (' lll ~. ~lntc ltlres ancl icko log it, i>ut sJo ttlcl look ;u th e gaps. clbton ti1Hi itie., ancl illt'Oibi'lt.'lll<s in I<'Xh. Followl'l ~ ol thi~ .1pproath contt.nd th:ll thcrt' i, ah,als panial i t~ and subjLr ti ,it~ in IIIHkr,t:IIHling: n tltllrt' con'i''' of nnlitipk l'l':tlities \\'hi c h :ll't' lll'I'Cr un c kr~tood in th<'ir L' lllirl'ly tith c r b1 Lht sc ndc r nr t.lw rccein-r u l' i111'o rmation. Tt"'l' are ah,al, 'u l ~jl'<:l 10 illlerprt.t;uion. douh t alHI cli,pute. \\ hall'l'l'l' t lw :tllCIIIJ)I' of :llltluu' 10 e:-.erri'c conll o l. O n e olckr H' rsic 111 ol' po,lSIIII C'I urali, n1 cloes ;1l1 l'111Jll tn r<'l:u c tex tu;llit y back 10 wc ial l: t c to r~ . Th t ' Bakhtin Sclwol' (p. ~0~). a 11 cl partir ut.u h- \ '.l'\. \ 'olo ,inm. a rg nt'' th:ll the 'ig n is a 'itc or 'ocial COilll''-I;Hion . Thi~ mean' thal difll'll'lll grOIIJJ\ 1\ihin ~lCC!I strug-gll'. <11'~lll' :md cli , putc 1)\t'l lh c llll' <J II ing' or cli lrt J'l'lll ,jg-n s. In .\/onis/11 (11/(/ / l 'hilowilty o l .rlll.f!.'llflp,'l' ( 197:'.) \ 'olo~ ino1 arg-u t'' th a l it i' clas. , conllict th a t co nditions rh c )>trug~l e O\'t.r ' ign ~. BaklHin', idea that an~ tcxt rcu1tain' multiplc I 'Ol'c'\ \I't hi n it hao; been cleldopcd 1)\ Julia KristCI'a ~ ( p. ~:,2) influe nti al COI1Cl'J)I or ' inlL'I'll'Xlllalitl'. This idL'a con et ns tlw rdarion ol' a g i,e n ttx t 10 nlht. l' te xh . \n ~ rc xt , it i~ arguc d , ' can h t a n a l ~secl in 1LTI11 ~ o l' liH o thl'l' te:-.t' t ha t it ha' absu liWd ancl tran . .,f'nrmtd. I'h11~ intcntxtu.tlit~ tm lu.ttl'' 1Mio11' fonu' ol ll'Xtua l hornming and nhoing. ,uch ao.. :dlll\t 111. p:ll nrh. P"'' ir-lw .lll d q not a l ic111. r h e ('011 Cl'Pl allnll'\ ~~~ 1() :t pprt-c i:tl l' 11 11\1 a 'l'ic i1 Cl' fi n ic111 lll~>lit li l..e Fl/(1111' f-1111 11111 d r: 111~ 1111 l !l J( h han l-boi ll'd ' rl e t<T ii\ l' ~ loric~ a ncl j!lm 11oil ,, intt'llt'Xh ( 7/u \ Ja/1!11' Falmn. 7111' llif! Vn1. l'l< .l. \\'ltat \' ~l'l' in IJ/adl' llrt llllt'l i' il11 intn1p111.11ion .uHl,JoJnl.llionolilll'-.e in1l'l'lt':-.h in ,lll lltlri~ti c \l' lling ( 11ll' 111u1il' i' , e l i11 ~ (11 \11. :\Jost .,f t lw an ic111 1;1 l..e~ Jlla re in 'h<icl<HI: rtH >Ill ~ u r al'Ll'l' dark in pourh lit publi r plar('s: tltt lilm ~ h e 1o m al..t, ,1 lil'ing otll o( a t echno l ogira ll ~ a(l\;mccd parody ol the cht"il gum,hot role: tlw IHToinc cln,-,e~ in 1!1 1 0, retro ~ 1\ le: likc m:uw jtl111 nrJi 111 01 ie~. lll t' clt-n lo pnttnt of th l plnL i~ ;11 1in1 cs o paqnc ;m el. ;liso ikl' 111:111\' 1110\'t'S ol' thi' gt nrt. il1 th ~ 01 ig in:d I'CI'Sion or Wrult Nllil/11'1' th l h tro prm i de~ '1 oice-owr' 10 linl.. 'rene~ htt .tbo <;eUion 1.:\.-11. J3, dt-rou,tntctiug Blrul Nt11111n in ll'llll' ni ih intl'll <':-.h it ht'COilll'' po"iblc lo n.a li ,t ont po'1~ 1111 Cl11r<d i '1 pre mi ~t. ' th e d e ath of' Lllt' au tltm'. \\'hat thi~ 111<'<111.< i ~ that tlw < lltilwr'< int e ntion' are a c!judg-cd

irrelel'<llll 10 tlw int<'rptTtat io ns ol the text: the te:-.t i' a 'eparatt' and auto n omous e ntit)'- Thus, inste acl of 'llld ~ ing th e in flttc n ~ on L il e a utlwr ancltl w ~nurce' s/ h e dre\1 upon in ;nuhol'ing th t ttx t (a nn w rion!-h co ntc lll <H I'> int e rprt til't stra tq;Y). tlll interprete! is left imtead 10 con sidcr the inteJtexto.. figuring in a gil-en text.

J. 41 Cultural studies
\\'hat. th e n . is r ultura l stuclics: Throug h o ut thi' ch apttr \\'C' h al'e 'tnssed 1h t betW<'t'n <;Oillt'thing that ~~e hal'e calkd cu ,~ud i e' an.clthl.' di,cipline:. ol .' orioloh'\ l_ili.!m). gcogr ap ll y. En g ilshj nHI a~~ ro~O!:,':' \\ e h a\'t' cl i,CliSSt' d a sct of lot ~ for th esc ~ (1is(ipli ncs, a rg ui n g that. g i1 e n th t: ir co111111nn intc rcsts i11 c ullllrt. 1h e r e are ISSII CS ami problem th a t th t, all mu t ad dres.\. r h e e foci we call tlll' co 1 e is~\IC' ami problemo.. in th e swch of c u lture. lt i the sh a red intnest in the topic ol cult u re :md thc recogn i1ion o f co rnn;on th e nt('l\ that h as broug ht prani 1i omr~ from dilkrtnt disd Jlincs tog ttlwr in th e lxlid' th a t it i~ thro u g h COOJ)('I a ti n n a n cl collabmatiun th ~ll undno;ta nding ami cxplan a tion 1,ill den lop most pm,e rl'ulh. -, h io; clust<.ring of clilferent di,ciplinan persp er1i1es arou ncl a commo n ol~jcc t o f ~11 1d~ olfe rs tit e po~s i bi lit y nf th t d t'IT lopm e nt o f a di ~ tinc til'e a rca or ~t ud y c h a rac tc rised b1 II C\\' llll'lho cls of ana h~i_,, ,.(L.i.'s._ljli'con figuration ol.wlllibm:a tiu~plines a!l'l!lllL.t.hc. wpic ol' c nltnre that 11-c ~ee ro o .,titutin g both dw sn b~ta nre a mlthe metlHH I' or cultura l smclie,. T h e an' n :r in 1rhich this tilkcs place i' labe lle cl an ' intc rclisntrsi1c spart '. c qmnin g- th c lluidi1 y a ncl foc us that ch a rac tcriSl' cultural studi ts ami ro nua,dnglh e ('lll(' rgcnt. intllll'< ll my th t nJt ~ in subst<uJ C(' a ll(l met h od " h ich aril't' 0111 of' collabora tion l\'ith the traditional. l'n>lution ary th e m cs ol sing le di sc ipline~. T h e 111C'l:tph ur or sp;l('(' a l ~o dra\\'~ attcntion lO lhe pennea bk na tu re of ru lwral s tud ils: 1h e re a re n o fi xe cl bounda r ics :tll(l 1 10 fo l'lrt'SS \\'alls; th cories ami thc111e' are dra1,u in from cli rip lim, and mal bacl.. in a --' transro n necl stat e to innu tnre th inl..i ng th e rt. Ri c h a rd Johnson ( 1986) h as puintcd 0 111 tiH dan ~l' rs n ( acad c 111ic codili ca tion in regard to cultura l 'ltldie1>. suggcsting th:ll its )>lrL'Il){th l il~ in it~ opl'nness a n cl h encc it' capadty for t ran~forma t ion and grmnh. Hl' :wgtus that cu ltural <.lUdies 111i1 ron; tlw co mpk xin and po l y~l' mi c q11alitits nf' th c nbjt.ct of ,, s ttHI~-. <tdltl rt'. Tllt poll'er ol cul ture a ri ~co; l'mm its dill'ust'lll''': th e 1e rm i' u~ed ,,twn i111prt.'l'i,ion ma tlL'I'' ll'h cn rigidit~ \\'Ollld ckqrm 1\'h,ll it ~l'l'"' (() IIIHki'~I.IIHI. Ctlll~COII~IH'" .tlld 'ollbjl'UIl~ olll' ker terms in.J o lnl,nn ., p01 11':ll al o J r nltural 'llal ie~. Cun't iou~ll l'" i' ll'l'd in tlw ~lar"i 'l sen st of knm,led ge :1ml a lso i 11 a l'l' llt- x il't' -"l'IISt' lO g'I'l' the idea ol prodt lCIil'l' :I CI i1i ll , Subjectil'i l\' is ll~tcl lO rdcr lO th c (()llSII'IICiion indi lidual' bl tu lturt. C:omhiiillK these two ronrepts leads ,loh n so n to de>rribe tl w pr~jl'CI of Cll~tll l ~JI stuclie~ "' bein~ lo )





'abstrac t, d escribt ancl rt'l'lll1,titute .in concre l.l' th e son~l lt.ll'lll~ thro ng h 1d11Ch0 hun mn h c:ings "lil'e''. becmm ron~no m . su st:llll th e nsh'l'' su ~Jl'(IIIT h . T h i pr~ject ha' been inHt-ptT ttd in cu l~ra0tudie' in tenns of th ree l~:t~lcl'i of r ese:u-ch: (a ) t?rocluc tio n-based '!..!_l_<!i.t;': ( b) t~d..sJ.U.dic.:: (e) st~li ~'--Uiu:d cTttH'l'S.As 1'0 11 ca n see. tll e 1 e is a clost coiTL''JHlnden tl' h c re l\'itll th e thrt't' .sen ses o l


lntroducing Cultural Studies


c tdllt n whic h ll't l'laho ratecl lal'iie r in 11li' c hapltT. Eac h o tt t o l' Llt t''t' .trea' has a diflerent locu.: tlu: fir-.1 dra,,, .nteJHion w p r oce"t'' imoh-cd in .111cl '>lrugglt' me1 tht prodllttOil Of" tu h ura) lt'lll~: t he ' l'ConcJ itl\l'Stigalt'' th e for111' of t'tlllltra) )J I oclnct: tht third , co nre n wd ,,ith r c prl'senta ti o n .. Jo ltttsn n poi tth 10 llll' ntcn~ari h in rn an p le lt'n t" o f' tiH'~<.' \'t' lllli i'Cs: likc dt t ll'i<kr :ll'l' ll :t in ll'hi c ft lh tl' opn:lll', lh tl :lit' fcd IJ1 i nt trani~t comllll lnica ti on . [at h om 1-{il' ' 111 ami tal..c, l'n11n th t others. In 'nmman. \\t' ,uggtst .tpproachin~ c nllu ntl \ll tclin :han a1 ea of ac ti1 i11 1h.11 g ro\1', rro111 llll' raction a nd l'oiJah o l :11 io n 111 procl ti Cl' i s~ m,, and thl'lllt'' ilt:ll :tl'l' llt'll' and clw lll n g-ing. C: ulLma l \Lltdie' , ne~t an i .~ land in :t sta o ( di~t' iplim ' but .t l'lll't'tnt t h;u ll'a~ lJ t'\ th e SlJOfl" o f ot)lt:l' d\Cp)ilt'\ lo U'l'.\1<' 11 ('1\ aiiCI Changing formalillll,,

Communication and representation


R e-cap
In cultural studies the concept of culture has a range of meanings which includes both high art and everyday life. Cultural studies advocates an interdisciplinary approach to lhe study or culture. While cultural studies is eclectic in its use of theory, using both structuralist and more flexible approaches, it advocates those that stress the overlapping, hybrid nature of cultures, seeing cultures as nelworks rather than patchworks.

Further reading
Although lhey are not always easy reading, the best place lo begin explonng the issues raised in this chapter is to look at the acknowledged early 'classics' of cultural studies: Richard Hoggarl's The Uses of Literacy (1958), Raymond Williams' Culture ond Sociely 1780- 1950 (1963) and E.P. Thompson's The Moking of the English W orking Closs (1968). Each of these works has had a profound influence over the subsequent developmenl of cultural studies. Graeme Turner's Bntish Cultural Studies: An lntroduc!ion (1990) plots the institulional development of cultural studies while fred lnglis's Culturo/ Studies ( 1993) offers some singular interpretations of its history. lmportanl stocktakings of the fiefd's development are Lawrence Grossberg's Morxism and the Interpreto/ion of Culture (1988) and lhe substantial collection edited by Grossberg, Cary Nelson and Paula Treicher, Culturo/ Stuclies (1992). )ohn Storey's An lntroductory Guide to Culturo/ Theory ond Popular Culture (1993) connects debates about popular culture to the concerns of cultural studies. Richard )ohnson's 'What is cultural studies anyv>'ay?' (1986) critically charts the possibilities of three models of cultural studies (produclion-based sludies, text-based studies and studies of fived cultures). The collection edited by jessica Munns and Gita R ajan, A Cultural Studies Reader: History, Theory, Practice (1995) atlests to the dlversily of cultural studies in the 1990s. for original recent work in cultural studies, the reader may wish to consult the following journals: C J!!turol Stud~v~mations and Social Text. You will probably need access lo a university library toread these periodicals. - --


In this chapter we explore a number of important aspects of communication and representation. The idea of representalion immediately raises a number of issues that have been the subject of much philosophical debate over L he centuries. Many of time will be addressed as this chapter progresses. However, it is imporlant to be aware of some of the dimensions of this debate ) immediately. Thus, it can be suggested that we are all familiar with the idea of representation in what might be termed a photographic sense (see further Chapter 9), where the image is a representalion which seems to capture the whole of what is fram ed . The picture is thought lo be a copy of what exists in sorne form. In Lhis sense language mighl be seen as a representalion of ~ what already exisls in that it describes or copies it in sorne way. For instance, it is often thought that the language of natural science captures the nature of the world in this sense. The example of the photograph immedialely introduces a difficully in that photographs can be cropped or ~ framed to re-present the world. R epresentations, the.n, do nol simply copy lhe world, they produce a version of it. Con~, re.present~ons are involyed ia.lbf.Qroduclion of a vellion of the world, the~o not simply cop~it. ,Alu!thfu?.osition is reached when it is maint.illnecl that t~tio~ ~entrally involved in the constrt!0Lon._9f l~orld. Al Lhe extreiJ.lC, s~ch positions imply L hat t11e world is thal which is captLJred in l~uag~. Thus, returning to thc idea of the~n belweenscience and the world, it can be suggested that scientific language does not simply represent in the sense of describing the world, or capturing certain features of it, b~at tl'lf-Oatur~ l..l<.'t'.Oilll. iuctually defin ed through the lang L~9~,!:'d co n ce~used to discuss il~or e~~eca u se we havc a concept of 'radioactivity' in ~ur language, we are able lo perce1 ve risks thal in a real sense did notexist for people lacking lhe concept. ~ - ::;consider these is;esand others, we begin with a discussion of the centrality of language to human culture and society as il is Lhrough language that we communicate. In section 2. 1 we consider the main attributes of language and examine debates on culturl relativity of language and thought. This is followed by section 2.2 which focuses on the important approach known as semiotics which examines the construction of signs and meaning in language. This approach has been very influ ential in cultural studies, in particular in the analysis of advertising which is


44 lntroducing Cultural Studies


Communication and representation 45

discussed in seclion 2. 3. These sections on semiotics, signs and advertising raise a number of imporlant issues concerning the relationship b~ween languMJ_e.__representali~n ai}Q_ p_ower. These are addressed more specifically in the next section, where the dimensions of class, race and gender are emphasised. This section also considers sorne of the discussions of the ethnography of speaking. After this lhe chapter moves to consider a specific instance of communication and represenlalion through a discussion of art. Again, the dimensions of power, class and gender are addressed. Finally, we explore sorne dimensions of representation in the mosl importanl contemporary cultural medium: television. This discussion will lead to consideration of the complexities of contemporary representations and discourse (p. 30). Alllhrough the chapter we shall be pointing lo lhe importance of representation and communicalion to relalionships of power, bul also lo lheir problematic nature. The learning objectives for this chapter are to: introduce key debates concerning language, communication and meaning; examine different ways of sludying representations; explore particular dimensions of representations in different media.

Box 2.1

Achievements based on semantic universality

To ,hart' infonn.11ion.
Tu h:1111 the anttt nu l.u n l kiiO\\'Iedgt o J' IIW I co11111 11 1 11 1 1 1\'ih o tJI h al'i ng L o ex wril' I\ Cl' t h i n~' al li~ t hand .

Tu 111.1l..t' both 'lll't i lic a u el

ah~t 1.1t1

'>l:Llt'ltll'll h .

TP ~flL':Il.. in tl w pn,<.'lll ;1ho111 t'H'Ilh in tlw pastor tn .ltllicipall' t'H'llh in tllt' rutll l'\' - lli t ' cl i~ pl : i ('(' lll e llL ((: a lt tn' or l:lllg' ll:lg<..


Language, communication and representation

tlHHt,and and the ll'>l' ni 'inp111 ' "' hoth a noun .1ncl a \l'L h. Tlw~e rh.lll).(l'' an lt:.lllll'cl ))\' lll l' JI1 b<.r~ o ( a lang u :tge cn llllllll ll ity ; , ti H\' :~ cqu irt c< Hllt'llli ona l la n guagt l11 111

1 1~<1~(.' Ita' ht<.n l'l' l'l 111 11CII in flllt' ll Ced b1' tlll' ' IWC :tliwd la1tgt 1 :tgt or ('Oill llll ll'l' 1 echnolo~\: .m e:-.ampk of thi' , tlw ll'idt,plt'.lcl 11'1' ol th t lett11 K' to nlt'.lll o m

.\ll llllman soci~ t ies h a,tlan~uagT. and 'o intimateh t'llll n cctcd ;uttlte rcquiltintnts ol ~ori<.t1 1\ith thc: lt-.llllll'' ol lan g uag~ that it is clillicult to imagim h cm a 'mic:t1 mi~ht e:-.i't 11ithottt it. .\s :1 minimtllll co ndi tion lor ex i~tt'lltt l n H n <m ~ocit'l\' ITquilt'' nnkn:d ami q.~ uhi r re la litlllships bttlnc n indidtlttak tll t' l'tTog niti o n o J' shartd 111t'ill ilg' :1nd ilw abi li11 tu tr;ulS IHl k L tOII'kdgc and inlurmat ion .l lllollg' a p opu l.uion. l'lw\e lu n damtnt a l leaiiiH'S o( 'ocict1 ckptJHI u pon .1 llll':llb of 1 tlll'-litutin.: thc ohjl'rh and ewnt' ol ltum.m exptritnct' alH l coilH' I ng thti meaning in .111 elllt <'lll :md t'lk clht 1\:11. 0 1'1' 1'\ l'h e lmingh'. L l1 o ug h n o l tx cln~i,e h . l is l; ng uagl' th a t l'ullil' tlll'sc r<'q ll ilcn te n L s.

in i'a iiCI' t h roug h t h t l > l otl' '~ kn o11 11 "' sucial i ~a Li on 0 1 accu h lll'a lioll. l ltl' 11ll'< lgT o r meanin ~ ,111d nt cnnlt'n lional 11'-agt in a lan~uage cnmmunit1 i:> 1lw -forg l.lllll'd , 111>1\kclgt ol tllt' n.uiw ll'l'l'. 1 ht ttl11\l'111ion:tl 'tand.ucli,ecllt'alurt' ollanguag<'. tllc ~o-ca l k el 11'111111/lir 1111hrt 11dil.\. en a hit- 1llt'l1l hl'r' oJ' .1 L1ng uage ce H lllllll 11i11 lu d e1 e lo> 1he ahi liti l's li'll'rl in Hn'\ ~. 1 . Tlt 1 l..ncmltclgt .111cl iultlllll:llit 111 1ha1 , ccllllllltllticall'd in l.utgu;gt , an artil.u 1 of languag1 iht'lf ,ill< ,. 1.111\!11.1!{<' i' rnlhtitulecl 10 iclcntih .111<1 gin 11\t'lltin~ lo 1111111.111 t'X ]WI'it' IHt'. Th n~ tht t '\t' ll l ~. ohjtrl\. wrson,, t'llln L nll\ <H iel '>O o n tl1:t1 L it<. la ng ltag<.' ide nlilies Hl'l' 11 0 1 di ~rn t t' t'lltit it' in hum a n experienn ~~ ~~a iLi ng a [;l w l to bl' a l11d to t hen1: tlit'' are con,ti tlltecl th10ug h l<lnguagl' and the m e .llling g iHn 1 1 language. In this ,,;\\' l.111g11age ~1ancl' lor or r c p rcscn ts (p. l) l l 1hat which i1 n;unt''- ~incc langua.?;t' i~ r11 llllral, tlll' Jlroch tll ot' h u man in tera<.tion. tlwn l c.111 lw ~;tid tllat it i~ 1hrnugh f la 11g ua g<. tll a l llunt ~lm d c li nc t ll \lll~t he:- a11 d tl w ir 1m !'lcl .u:aisl'onl. l ! l~ l ).


The attributes of language

r Ling ui,li c

an al\'~is h as id e nti licd

syn ta. \

that all hum a n

hln~t 1ages a re

b u ilt ttpn n co n11linatjons

-- - -

o~ u t ds n amed fJhunel/11'.1; th e p~ 1 g....oJ SQ!!_12cJ2. ~;~ri~~~~ng tu

g.roce~ses,-;s ~lw
- - - -

the e patterns and

l ~cugnition of ntain palll'l'll~ "'~ord-. are all cuhur.tlh ~pecilic

m a languavl' -....., 1"1


come1Hi~ ahout ho;. 'hlntences or


Language, culture and thought

phrases a re co~fi! . T lll' cnl tural a 11 r ihnti o n o l' 111ean ing ., th t ou 1cum c o J' < 'l't'llls a nd processc~ in pa nic u la r socia l ~e lli n g~>. aiiCI a lth o ug-h mean ill ).{S a re sta ndarcliscd a u d coJIH'1llional. thl'\' do chang<. owr time :1\ .1 rcsult of th e actio n ol social allCI cultura l lo rrn. SonH'tnH~ t hi~ changt' b ,ery rapid. at other tilltl'S it can he \'cry slo\1'. ll mn,er. a lll.lngu agl' II Sl~ a nd m e n ing c hangcs m er tim e as a l't''111t n l' th t c han ged t mi ro nnJ c nt~ in wh ic h th tv o p e ra l<'. Fo r cxam p le , 1lw la n g u agt of C h .u1 n't' or o f Shal..l''-IWare is clil fcrcn t from th e lan guage or latl' l1\'l'lllitt h-C<'IIIllry 13titai 11. (.'\'ell 1hough tht,- :1re alllabclled 'English'. To take anoth c r exampk. contempnr;u~ English


lf lan g uagl' rq m't' lll ~ 1ltc 11o rld a~ ddirl<'d lll' htlnlan .~. ra11 lang 11ag'l' tlt c n he 't't' ll a' tlw rcprt''>l'lllation o l lnn11a11 thnuglll - are languagt ancl 1houg h 1 nnt and lh t 'ame thing~ lntl' lt''>l in 1he ll'lalion,hip hel11een bnguage. tultute ancl thougln ha~ a long hisL on: .\ ri swtk (:\H 1 -:t~~ nc 1 ,;,, 11nrch ,,., l''\pression~ ol mental cxper itnce' ;111d o;o for hi111 thoug ht c:1 1nt' be lu r~ 1\'0 i'd s in . i ) p re hl'ndin ~ th c II'OIIcl. T lw . \n ~ t ri :nl p hil o~np h n l.uci11 g \\'itt~('ll'ttin { IHH9-I\l:"'. t ) p1111kd ahout tlw li11k' bt' lll<'t'll in- di1 idual t houg l11 . pt i1 .u e languagt .111d tlw lauguagl' ol t h1 puhlir n.il111. condudi ng that 'tlll' limih ol 1111 l;tng-uag<.' a~_2!n1i1o; ot 1111 IItH Id' (\\'illgt'IISlein. HIHI ).



lnlrocfucing Cultural Studies

Communication and representation


. \nt h 1opo1o~bb in tlwi r '111die, ol orlwr tul! un< 11 an: repon t'd llw t' Xbtenn ol' 11 ig ll h t la b oi.Jltcl lcx i rnn~ (() ck,criiJl' itnponanl ''l'l' Ch or ,oci:ll t'Xpl'ric:IH t'. In ('Ol11l'lll>O \\e, tern ,ocil' ti l'~ :1 ~i ntibr k.t ll ll"t' ha.' 1wen dou ii11Cilll'd . p:1nic ul ar h 11i 1h rden: n cc lO 'ubc uhull'" h te ( haptt1 X ) ancl to pnJ e ,,ion:ll group' ('t'l' bt'lcm 'l'C1ion ~. 1.1 :tuc l ( .hap tcr :~) . l ilc'v :mcl , jmi lar l'lncli ll).{' h aH. prompltd que,tion' abu111 ldH'th t r hu1g ua g l' , tmhtillllilt' ol thought anc\ pt'I'Ct'IHion: can IH' "llllll' IH111 pt'nplt think lm n 1 tht' l.u1 g 11agc: t htl IN'; L>oc:' l : t11~11a~l' n prt''t'lll allCI CCllllllHinicatt thougl11: ~onw in1 1orluuion 111 tllnc i"ut ' can be lotlllcl in Bo:-.. ?.2 on C: lltlc . spo n a nd
l;,llgl ttlgl' .

She lielckcl m1 qut,tion' 1\l' ll

\'o u' n 1\'il\' ol r b.t'l'

y011 're h.ll lin g I.!HIO (!'lllfl. !lro)
\\' hat an thl' g ound ruk<


1 1\'ollll

ltl lllllt la all tht ba'l''

He ll'l' l1t 111 h a l lilr me

1k ha'

\II' O

s11 ikt, .tgain'l hi111

Th.11',; 1\ill' out in kit fi1ld



1 k eh ill'' mt tlp tit e 11:tll

Cattle, sport and language

He's a tc:un planr (:1 r lt 1tcll phll'l'l )

Shr ' ' an o<lclh.1ll ('<Tcllha11. Ion] b ;11l )
lt '~ ju''l a hallp.1rk t' ~timat e

T IH :\1H' I an c ut k-Kt't'p ing pt'npk 'lltdil'llil\ tlt c all thropol ogi'l 1-:lall,l' ritch.lrd in th e 1!1 :\th in 11h.11 11:1, 1111'11 t1w \n g ln-Eg~pti.lll Stul.t ll. E1an, l'ri1rh:ucl ( J!Hill: IK- I!ll a t'g' tl t'' t l\:11 : \\\ ilal'f 'l't' ll in

t-.. , 1 , ,,1111 1 .1111 J, 'II.t,ill in Briti,la 'eH itt,. Tla L languagt' o l. r (IOL 1 >a 11 .1nc1 tt't "~ l'licklll in ~u e h t'\.l' l 1cl:1~ l'X pn "ion~ a~: \lolin g 1he gc>a l po'h ht.d>Ji,lling .t lnd (;iltn tll t rtcl c m l
Takin~ ;111 tarh b:11h

hril'i' '111 l'c'l ni ~<l ll lt' .' \ucr in,lllll inl h .utd ru,lcotn' 1ha1 1110'1

o f lhl'I 'o!.11 hdi:IIIOIII diH't1h Clllllt'l lh tlwir Cll lle . . \ fulltl '! U d~ o f tl lt'i l

( lil l111'l'II'Clll ld , 1011 t'l't'l'\ ld1t'l'l' tltl' ,,lllll' clliliiII.IIll llll'l'l''l ll (,llill'. t'.f!;. 111hd1 ln(._Jclll'. 1 ll,tcl '0111l'III1<'' 111 dt ,p:til 1h:11 f llt' \l' l' cli'l ll"t'd ,lJl\ tJJing II'lil lh l' \lll lllg lll t'tl lnll li H,tnl k and gir l'. and t ' H ' II tltt' 'llbjttt ol gitl, ltcl inc1itabh- 111 (.lltk . ..,1,\11 llll llh.\lt'\l'l' 'llhjnl I IIIIIIICI. ami :q> h l lrom ldl:l lt'll' l' olll g' il'. II'L' 11nulcl ''Hlll lw 'lwaking ni tnl" :me! oxcn . hl'iltr, antl 'll't'l''. 1a111' ami 'hl'ep. ht-gn;ll, :111rl 'hl'g <>ab. t .111'1', .uHI la11 1b' and J,. ick 1 11:11\' a lna<h indi, :ul'cl illal thi, "h""ion- !111 'lll hit 'l't'llh 111 .111 oiii,dt't - i< dut 1101 nnh to i11< glt'l l ccnno1n i< ,a iul' ol r: nll c hu 1 " '"' 111 tlw I':I CI 1h:11 JIH'\ arl' li 11k< i1 1 tlllllll' I'OII' , o cal rdalion,hip' . .\.:ut'l 1nul 10 ddilll' all 'orial pro ct'S~t'' antl ll' i,lt<lll,)l)l' ll ll' l'l ll'> OJ' lil t'I' t:t llil'. ( hl' ll "'ci;Ji jc)jtlll l j, ; iJ IJI'ill' iciIIIII.

pla' in~ lidcl

lki11g a ,aft pair ol ha11d' Pl:11 ing .1 -;traight i>a l L l'l'icons burgton

captlll t' sig- nillt :111t ru ltur;d cl't' tl h a nd l wr:ttl~t ol tl1 ~ir

Frnm 1hi' qu o 1atic111 it can 1)1' ~l'l' ll th.ll ra til l' <111' lh L Cll l"t' ol' 1lii' ~oc il' l \. El'all~ l' ritt'li;u d h11 ill('l d t''l 1iht' 11111\ pol' ll'\. 'iOil\,\ 'i. lml' llta._illg'. 111,11 ri,lg't' olllcl l':nllih. rl'l ig ion a nd ~ pirit11alil1 . cl i' Jll lll' an cl ._j iJiug-. lift- .tnd dl'a d l. arl' .dl t'(prc:.,l'cl aml tn< ll111pa,..;td in the imag-tn ni ':ntll'. 1 ht \IJC.lhnlarl' liH t1 w colours :1 1 1d lll a rkillg or C:tll lt. IIH' po~i li on ol hol'll' on lh t lwatl. lltt l':lll l{l' allCI kngtlt ol honh. and 1111' ' i11 ancl ,)l;qw ol r.ntlt i, t':- lt' ll, in: auclunnpkx. 11 <:111 lw 'll){!:{l''lt'd lhat tlitlan g ll<l\,\ l' .111d ima g-l'n nf 'pon i, 'imil.1rl~ pt-rY:t,ile i 11 rnn tt' lllj)OI :11\'. \ Jn crit :111 ;1ml B1it i;; h 'ncil' 1i t~. For ex: nn pie. Ferraro ,.o!. ( 1\l!l 1 : 2\H\) dtlail a lon g , ol t' 'P"'''ioll' 1111111 h.l'th.lll l,l._<'ll lrom llitktN1n ( HIHO: 1 11-t) 11hi c h kallll'l' ht';ll ill' i 11 l'l'l' l nla1'. \i lll'l'Call l an ~ua~\ :
1 lt- III:JCk ,1 ~r: tlld'ti tiHI phtl'

pena,innt' ' ' thtl :lit' ll'tcl idiomatic.dh to raptun :md coll\t'l 1ht 't' ll~l' ul c~ullt' difft'l'l'lll J'l'alm' l'Xpt'rit'l\(l'. Fol' t:-.uHplt. lhl' hlll~llagt u( 'POI l. Jl:ll lit ul.ll" ul 0111 ball. i ~ 11id l'11' ll '<' cl i 1 1 tht s ph cre ol' pol iti t ' Thb 111.11 bt :111 .lll t' llljll h' politiria11, 10 ro 11 ~-t'~ politir .d ;u g tnllt'nl throu g h popular t:-pre"ic.llt.: itm.ll be an ;!lLL'IllpliO ; I ~SIIt' iat.t' SL'Clill ll:ll illll'l'l''h ll'ilh lll<l~S pn p tdar Clllllll:l': ll l~ aJ,o litt 11'1' of la 11 gu.1g 1 from a prl'domin.llllh mak 'Pht' lt' to cap1 nn n.ll1nlml 1"11t' ' antl "' SIICh j lll:tl J't\'t'H lthl' ma,n tlini ' l :tSSillli) HiO il ' o J politil' <l ll' ,lilO III ldl:tl lhl' 11'11rld is likt ami ho 11 hest 1n coiiH' I 1hat nH"age. 1 hi' poin l i~ dahoratcd l.llt' l in t11l c hap ll'l' in tht' 'l'Ctiou 011 geuderl'cl bn~u.lgt . You 111iglll )._,. 10 il1in._ ahenll. otht:l


1 xpnssi nn .~
t' X:l lllpit-.

lro111 cl illtrtJ11

:tl't ':IS

ni 1ik tha l

ll )>t' I':U l'

in tllt " '' " o l 'pon 11 1 tllt.'

..,lit' thn11 me


e 111'\l'


The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

.-\n l'XpiCl ,JIIl'lll>l lO ,\CCIIlllll Je )1 1h1 nl,ll iOII' hl'lll l't'll lall ~ll:tj{l' ;tncJ 1hought j, tlll' !!llil~L'' ol 1 on 1I1L' t'Xbtt n n in ;di l a n . S(ljJir- \\'lmlf h ~po ih l');, 1d11l' h b.l"'' '" propo-.a' .


lntroducing Cultural Sludies

Communication and representation


'lwciali,td and el.tlmrated k...;i cons ckcli< atcd to the clt,n iption ;uul uncltr<tauding o l imponant katllrt'' o l 'nci:tl ancl rult ur:tl lik. lt , pri 1 11.1rik <ollCL'IIll'cl 11iil1 tl w !-:"' amma1ical 111 lc... ,1 11d ('<lll,ll a in 1s 11))()11 1h oug-h 1 a nd pnc vp ti nn. lk n.j:11 11i11 Le< \\' lwrr. 11lw ll'il' an e n g i ll lTI h1 pro f't"io n . IKcm lt intc1 < ''Lcd tlnoug h h i, l\lll k i 11 t ht 11 "' , 1 h.u 'P('Cialiwd gnH1ping' " 'tcllan~uagt- an iutcrc,l that <k~tln r wcl nHIIt' ,b,tr.tuh intn .1 co usi ckr:11 ion or illl co11nectic111' bttii.L't.'ll langu: tgt. u '\t.'. cnlt 111 i1 1 nt v. lll ing a nd " " s u f th in kin.l.(. In the l ~l ~( h th c .-\lll <'rica n :utthropolog i't Ed11a rd ~ap i r h ;tcl 11Ti1tcn th.u thc cln<'lopllll'lll ol 'Pl'tiali~ed l.tnguagn n ,uhtcl in thc Cl'l'.llion of langu.tge commullitie, 11 hirh in h;lbi te d di,l i n r 1 II'Ollcl ' 110 1 nwrely 1 IH 'l llll' 11 orld :h l'l c' ITn nt t' l'v 11i th di lrc n ' lll lalw ls a tl at h c d to t'l't' lll~ < 111 d ol~j l'Ch. ,1, son1e ha el ~ ~~ggcst vd (~a p ir . 1\1~9). \\'lwrl clrt.'ll' o n tlli ~ work 101 lli, rc,< an ht., .unong 1hc H opi ..t nati~t .\ nwriuut pcoplt>. l nlikl' mai n -;treanl .\meritan ntlwn 1d1ich e:~.plt'''e' lht UIHlel'it. u Hiing ol tintt' in -; p a tialm t Laplwrs- fo1 txanlpk . ''lll' II HII s:11 j , :t lrmg li111"' in ce . . .' c1r ' it ll'i fl h.tpp e n in a ~/11 /lillll: - LIH ll opi l':")li'L'\'>l'd t'H'IIl~ a.; h appc11ings 1aking pi<LCl' i11 a '>lolll' o J' /Jtil!g. a tundition that d ol'' not kllCI itsdl tn hdng r:H tgot ,l'd in llw ,anw "" ;h mailhlltam .\nwric .111 n o tion ~ oltime. ~imil . lrl~ tht l t' ll ~L' ' ufll11 llopi l.lllg"nagc clid not coiTl''jloncl wilh r\nwri can cu . . IOi ll< H'\ 11n 1i ons ol p:'' ' p t'l''t'lll a11d l'lllurl'. T hc 11 0 1k nn lh t ( lopi. IOgl'lhcr II' lh ~ap it ~ earlitr a lla h-.i .... ('tlllll i))IIJtd 10 tlll' lonn ul ation or lht Sapir\ \'lw rl 111 pothe'i' '' hidt ''lll'' 1h:n l.tngnage crt:llc' ment :ti catt'g oril'' 1h rongh 1111 ic h h11rn a n o; lll:tkl' ~l'll'il' o f tlw ll'orlcl. Tlw proposi tion i' th a t lil t' 1 1 o rld i' fi ltl'rtcl 1h ru11g h ll11 concqHu a l gricl, produt c d b1 la n g uagT ancl t ht llilttilu: a nd rq:{u l:u ll\l' o l p;uticulal i< ngt ta~t'' prodll tt'' h abitual lhoug h t )Mtt<tm 11hirh aat e h '>)Jt't ili r. 1t , th e~e ndt u r: tlh '> pcrifir li1o 11g ln palll'rn ~ th:ll S.q >ir :11HI \\ 'h o rr 1 t'lc r to as lho~tgh t nw'llls. \\' horf ex prt'"l'' th t: iclt-a in llw lollo11'i11g 11 .11':
\\'e cli,,tt 1 1 1.111111' .tlong lill t'' htid do1111 h1 0111 n.11ile' Tht t:llt'.{orit, and tqw -; th a t lit' ,ol.ll t' fro m th l..' ll'll1 lclnl phcllnmtna 1,.,. d o llt>l finrl th crt l wr: u L~t 1i 1c1 starc t'l't' l ~ nlhe l l'l't in th t l':tcl: <111 1he co11l1 arv. ti te 1\'o t ld , pn,tnttcl iu a k;tleici<N'II)>ic lit" 11! illlj>ll'''iclll' 11 hit h ha-, lo ht organittcl h1 0111 111iucl~ .md thi' me;"'' largel~ h1 tht lingui,lit '' ' 't'llh in <1111 1nimk \\\ c111 n.llurt 11p, ()lganite i1 i111 u conCl' jJI, , ;111d :t~l rillt' sig11ilicat1 n s ,,, 11'1' do. l:trgt h be atl'c 11e ar partics ,. an .tgrl'l'lll t' nt lo orga11itc it i11 thi ' "" - .111 agln' lllt'lll th.ll ho ld, 1h ro ugh our 'Jll'tch tOIIllllllllill :111<l i' l odified in tlw )>.lllt'lll' o( 0111 u.tgt. rJw .tglt'l'lllt'lll i,, of COIII''it', :tll impl iril ;111d llll,l:lltd un e . /Ju/ 111 /rl/1/1 1111' 1/II\PIIIirh oMi!!;rllm) : ll't Cllllll!l 1:tlk ;11 a ll e:-;up l lw '"l>~cl'i bill.l.( tn 1ht ll g an it:Hion :11 1<1 cl ;l~~ ili.ra 1i;" o tl ; 11 01 11'1 1ir h 1ht agnT uH' Ill dccrn' ' (C.trroll. 1!l:) li: ~ 1~- 1 l. iu Blatk. 197~: ~l/ )

0 11 the i" uc of llll'fllling- the nwanittg that peoplt gin 10 anion a nd thc meaning :tttribtllt' cl b~ u ll1 t11al :mh, ls- a ke~ ro ncept in c u l11u .tl 'llldit.;, ;1.; ll'l' han 'L'l'll in Chapt l'l l . Tht ron 11e< ti<Hh betiiTt'll languagt .llld ro11reptual tlHllt~ht th.ll .11 e ...;pre"ed in h e 1 ~~~ p o t h e<.i~ are 11ide h acrep ted b~ n lit tira 1 a ~~ ' 11<111 t'l'lT. 1ht'lt' i, le,, .tg reemenl ah oul lh t cau., al rdation, ll ip hctll'tT11 th c m ; so llll' quc,tin ll wltult t l' lll l'l'e ,a dirc c l unila teral re latiomll ip he tiiT<.n lang u.tgc and th o ug hl 0 1. 1iCt' n :r,a. bt'III<.Til though t and language. Ot he rs CJUt,tion 11 htt hc r it i, po~~ible to d i-.tillf.{tti,h thnu){h t !ro m Jan g uagt. Somt' s uunu r;tl i'ts ( st:t' l'ull hn stctinn 2.2) co ntc nd 1h a t i L i~ i111 possi h le 10 loc:ne forms ol th ough t f rom 'pokc n or '' r ine n lang uagc ~incc th t''l' are ~im pl~ local (c ultur.tll~ sp<.cilic) manife ,lation s ol th e pron" of th c mine! 11orki ng un tmironm e n ls. In this <~pproac h th c r awgorics of tiHHtg hl ;11 T la tc 11t. th c~ :m loca te d in 1hc working' o r llw l111ma n mine!. In thi' n,pectt h t' art subco n~ciou~ .ltlcl a~ )>lll'h the1 artincapahk o f dirtr t obsen~11 io 11 m a nah ~ i ~ througlt su rfan ph e n Oilll' ll<l. F'rom thi' point o fvit-w l.111g uagc i~ a co nlt'Xt-s p eriric (c ultu ra l) rcpn:sc.:nta1io n ni' 1hc 11a~ th:H hidde n th o ug ht proce~~n .tnupoll l' tll'ir01 1111tn t: o n t' 111;\1 lea rn about panit ular l'1ll'ironmellh but n oth in g ahou t t hc 11a , th e mincl " o rk.: th a t attah~j, l i c ~ in tlw field of na tura l scie n ce. probably in lhc dbc ipli n e biochemistr\'. " Soria l :111cl cu l1mal an a il,is 1a kes tiH st;n1 cc tlt a t care l'ul sc-rutin y o f wc ia l ancl c u l tur<~ l p lwnomena is rt>l'ta ling a bmll !'o rce' th:ll ~hapt a nd ch;utgl' soria l life. Tite argument i' th at m:~jor prin ci pie~ of o;ocia l ami cultural or~a n isation a re gi1cn exp re -...ion in all() hro ug lt la ng uage SO th e Mud y of lang wtgT bL' )lOII'iOUI' is boilt IT \Iarcling a nd iiiSi fiiCLil't'. In this ~~. n o;c la n g uag t ca11 b t saicl 10 re presen! ( p . ()l ) sorial ancl c ulturalromtruct' . Thc fi dcl of stuch know11 "' IOulingttillin b con cerne d 11 ith th t. broad ;11ea of th t conn t'c ' 1ions bc1 11cen J a n ~ ' t;t!{l' u se ancl social rl'i:ll io n' wh i le 1he arla ol' s tucl~ knmn1 as 1he p/fuwgmJ!y of''/ll'flhiiiK look' at ~pvcc h ans in .~ Jxc ili c ' e ttin gs. '




Tlw cu lturall~ ' lwc ific nallllc or ll10ng h l. lang u;1 ge a 11 d a c1ion . ll'lti ch llw S:tpir\\'h orr l11 po1hesi' pnrpo't'' rai'l'' que~ tion' abut ll t he po ~' i bi l i t1 o l ulld t.'l''landing and rt' j)ITSl'llti ng thc llH':tllill).t~ ol otht-r nduu es. ll n11 can lit' repn'-t'll l tiH' th o 11gh1 ol u1h er~ ll'lil' ll lhat thou ~h t i' ~x pr<ssecl i11 a langu;~ gt. 1h :ll i' 110 1 our 11\1'11 anclwhi c h h :1 ~ ils 011'11 (dil kren 1) lllt'lltal c: ll q~ori cs~ Si111 ilarh . h o11 do e, , Hlt' tramla tv an elahoratt'd Sl'lll;liHi t dclln,till in lllll' langu,tge (u litllll') 111 :IIHIIhl'l ).lllgllagc (CIIIIIII l') that clttl'' 1101 hall' suth elahoraliun: Q ue,tio n' .tbou1 thl trn,l.ll ioll .111<1 i11tc1 p n t:llion o! nd tu re an 1cn iii'I)Ortant i11 t lw p ra t lkc ol r ult11r:d swd ic.'- .;in n 1h t'se prucc"c' bear dinnh

r\n und e rl ying a~~u mpti on or .sociolinguisti c ana l ~,;. i' tha1 langu.tgc' an r ultma lh specific phc n o nwn a amlthat languag l is ~nHinclcd in ~o< and cu lt u ralt> 1 ie n ct'. 1t is th est c h arac tcristi cs that make l:li) J{IIagt a 1nluable so tu"Ce uf Cllltural and socia l anal ys i.... Socio ling-11isti c ;111alysis e mpl oys se111iotit a n a lysi'; a llle llt ocl nf ana ly, i~ that is p ossibk b eptu -c langua~~ in its g ram mar (~llli:IX) ami 1ocabuh11Y (kx icon ) , ~on~en tio n a l a ncl inckccl 111 11 ~1 he so fo r i1 to be ;m cff<:cti1 e mea11s of comnHIIlt raunn. Stan dard iscd m ts,agcs are g i1c n in language bet:111se t il c rc are 11'<:11-kn o wn a~so c i a ti o n ~ for word ~ . m eta plwrs a nd l'01 n1s of sp ctc h and ll'riti n g. In thi ~ wav languagt nprcscnh th c sig n ili ra nt flaturcs ofsocia l ami c ult ura l expt'l icn re that are regula1 11- and ICllllitwly comm 11 11 icate d < llnong speaker~ and writ er~. h is is ex plai n e d by tl w Engl i:-h 1i L e ral ) ' a nd cull ura l critic f. R. Leavis in llox ~.:t l.tal'i' in his 11Ti ting ~oug il1 to e mpha,isc th c orga nic d<.,elopmclll of socict1 up w incluo;tri.di.;m~ rupwn: 11 ith 1he traditional. Tit ~ lcd him to cC' rtain concl11'inns abo ut l:lnguagl' 11hi c lt haw b ee n l ri licisecl lrom o 1ht' t pe rsptc ti ~ts. as ll't.' shall S<'l' bdm1 (stt ti o n 2.-l).


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Cornmun ication and representation


B ox 2.3


A sem iolic analysis of a pholograph

Leavis and language

Sttnioti<' (ur St' llliolo:;l 1 , IIH ,,.,ll' llt<tiC ~lllth o l ~ign,, Tn illii'Cldll tt ,CIIllt' ol th 1 (lllll'l'Jih aiHI idt.t, '"oti.ned 11i1h tht,t .tppro,trll<'' \l'l'\<111 con,iclt'l tlll' pl u>LO~ I .tph ol 1110 111<'11 1eproduncl ht' IL' in Fig111 t' :?. 1. CtJI,tin k.lltllt' ' ulthi' pholtl~t.tph ran hl' icl<ntificd imnwdiateh. lt ''10'" 11111 lllt'l1 emhl.tCIIJ.{: OIIL' j, hl.ltk .111<1 Olll' ldlit'. 011 dtN' in'(ll'CI011 il , j>O"ihlt 10 'tlg)4l'' the,e are 11111 'J>Oil,lll{'ll .uHI thn look likt thn h.llt' fini,htd ~omt kind ol 'JlOIIllJ.{ acti\ll. In tiH' I.IIIJ.{tt.lgt oJ' 'L'Illol it ' IJj, , 1\'hat Lht J>~1Logti!1~!.~-~ 1~/1.1. \~ l an undcr!>WIICI. u1 rln mlr. 'll< l1_ llll'aning~ fai:J~~htfonl"arcl l!,l<llll1t'l'. a' thtl art rcbtileh 'objt< ti\\''.
Huii<' H ' r. 1ht~"l'"ion o l othtT knmdcd~t m a~ faci li t.llt ' non deta i le el tlruulmg of lll t' p lwtngrap h . TIJtt,. t ia running l' JHIJu.,iat ma~ l't'l'O,l\'tlist tltal tlll''l' ll'<'l'l'

lndi1 idu;ll human b~:ing-., can m er in ntL'.IIln!.l in{l' - ot let 11' ,;, a ~angtt.l~t . llll'aning thl' EngJi,h l.tngua~.;t ( ltu rht'l'l' ,no ''Kh thin{ :h l.utgll.l){L' 111 ~L'IIL't,IIJ - ir, 101 dtt' lll in <111\ plntnr .t li\ing .tuu.lli11 , organir.tlh at Oltl' \\th lltt' ' human '"'riel' lhe~. in f.{llmiug ttp into i1. h.l\l' n.ttttr.tlh t.lktn lo1 gJ.ttiiL'<I. rltt'IL' , in languagT a renrral tclll' in "hid1 lot gt'tH' t,Hi"n' indi1 idual 'Jll'akn' lt.l\l' lllt'l '0 th.ll llll'l'III,!{ takl'~ pJate ,J\ \(IIJH'IIIIIIg' III L'I t.tbl\' and llllllt'd,tlt' in 1d.uion to \\ltirh it Sl't'llh .l\ra1n irou' to Llaink of ' lll t'l' lin..( " l>ting imo h td in lllL',IIlillg . or uf co mcntiom at a fl .

1i,IJt'1':- in 1l1v n1nlll'I S .111d th t \'t' l') knnll' ln lgtabk fa11 Lhat t hest II'L' I'C' t ht fir' 1 1\\'0 li 1 19:{5 I.onclon lo Brig llloll I'Oad rat'l'. Fnnhcrmorl' . h l' o r sl11 tnig ltl k111111' Jl1 a1 th t''l' :J I'l' htHh So tlth .\lri ra n I ' I III I H'I'~. l'a rt ir ipalitlll o r IJiad. anc l llili tl' Sott lll .\f' it: lll' ill Jlli~ jlll :ti iJ k ii('\ ('\'(' 11 [\ j ~ 11 0\1' ( UI])I])CI!l l)li\l't', (( CI\I'l'\'l')', ll )!):-);) t ll S \\'ilS Oll il ;l\l l'd ;11 1rl


Signs and semiotics

thr p ;1rt idp:11 ion n i lllt''t' l llll n l'l'' Cll l~l'd grl'al contrmers1. Thl' ' IH'C i irs o l 1his
cnn tronr,~ ' llOtt ld 1 101 t'OIH'<'I' Il 11s lwrt. a~ \\ha t i~ impunam a rl' the l'tl llht l' l;llt' l'' n i

:tn 1 :1tu11 ol llll';t ni ng ha.' hc en influtnnd b~ s truc turalis m (p.!! 1) , 111 d sem iotics (or SCilliOiogyl (p. :1 1)' Onl' 11llpo1t<tlll 'Oi lJ'( '(' or \(I IU'IIIrali,lll 1\ " ' 1ht l ht'OI't'' uf t lll' ~\\ is, lingni,l h adinand d l' S.Ju,un ( IR"i/- 1!11:1). \\ho,t i<ll'.t' \1t'l't' <lt\l'lopl'd in the J!llil), b1 inllntnti.ll \11 ll't' '11d1 '' .-\hhu''''~' Bar thes (p.."i!!). ( hont-kl. Foncau h (p. !!K). l..tCIII .md Lt'I-~It.tll'' ami L'tn ( 19/."i: 1:? 1- <il idtntih tht ntain katn1n ol 'nlllttn.tli'lll " lollo\1'<

\ , ll't' li ;l\t'

'uggv~lt'd abuH. tt tn ch rl't'l' tll 11t iti 11g on IIH rn llllllliiilation .tn d npr

nwaning. n 1 ro JJJro/{1/itml, of' 1h is pllo1ograpll 11ltic lt ca n br huilt up on tht b.t,i~ ol tltis kno11kd g-t. lt migl11 lw pns~ihlto 111 arglll that tiH' rt'p roduc ti on oJ' lh t photug r:~plt i ~ ~ llg'g'L'' ' ing th.ll b l :~rk aiH I \\'hitv ra n be brought tng lth t'l' in 'J>otl in Sott th . \!'rica. or 1h.ll t lw di1 j,iun~ lw111 <'l'll hlark and wh i LL' han bren nH'I'L'Il1 p iJa, i.,ed ,,, lhl'st 1\\o runntt ~ look plta~td to lw in tach uthn~ compam. .\lort'O\t't . tht implica1ion 111,1\ he th.ll 'J>OII 'hould h<' ahon poli1ic' and frel' lrom interlctTiln.

.... l . ~1:-lt' llh nnt,tlw 'lltclil'd ,,, .1 -et ofintt't rd.ued t'l tnlt'llh. l mli\ idual dttJH'nt' ,hould 1101 lw 'L'l'll in ,nJation. For l'X<llll(>k. in a,,. ol trallit lighh. g~ttn onh 111\':ttl, ~o !}( ;ttl\l' ltd llll'otlh 'lO>.


. \11 Hi l'lllf>l lo di"'('O\'l'l'


"lltt< tu n :

lit" luhind


ht' J H.:ult ''"h:u ,, din:t 1h

kncm;d lv.


T lw ~ll.L;,l\l'' li o l1 tli :tl th l' ~lrlll lt11'< ' hehind 1he clinrth 1,,k :~n d lht cliJn 1h , ,iiJk j l ~l' IJ <ll't' IJot iJ j)l o d litiS of \ II'I ICllt i'; JI prope1 1il'' o( 1ft l' 111 j lld.

l. rJw lll l'l hod' o( lill,l.{lli,L t' ' C lll be app liecJ lo ot iJ t t , Ol'< Ji a n d hl llll;t lt ~C icnn ~.

:"> . ( n l1111'c l':111 he :t l1 :t ly,tcl in l t'l'lll~ uf' hi 1 1a r~ o p pno;i tin 11.' : J'o1 x;un p k . bctiiTl'Jl ,l{nod
< llt tl h;l( l,

1\. ' ( he adoptin n ol ;1 di ~tIItLtl l l ill' I\\Tt'll slnciJro tlic (,L,II<' ) .111d di ac hro 11ic (c h :u wiu ~) .ula h't''.~

~ '1ht aliL' Il tplto iden tif ~ , 111 ilar 'tnlfllll'l'' in cl iff(t t'111 ~'(H't 'h o l ,otial lil t.
Figure 2.1 Two runners.


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Communication and represenlation



Roland Barlhes: semiotics and myth

Qnt' ol llw bt,t-1-..noll n t~.tmp1 1 '' of 't'lll< Hit an:il1 ,i, C:lll hl' f(l1111d in Rol:111d llarthcs' nagat illt' /'11.1'/1 .~lalrh ( 1\l/(i.). fltis ( I91 ) - Ht)) :tll:lll, is ~( .1 plln l h l'rom ~ h t 1

Key influenre 2.1

Roland Barth es (1915- 80)

Jhuwg r:tph 11.1' pubiJ,Itccl .11 da lllllt' 1\'IH'n l t.nHt 11a' tnthrcllkd 111 llw umlltu o~tr :he tkt olnn i~a 1ion o( . \lgt'l i:t . . \, \\' 11 hl' 'l't'n. th i' con tc~l ol con (lit 1m l'l' tmpin i.; 1l'l\ sivnil it::nll to thl' ll1 l' :t nin ~ a1Hl ana l\ o;j, o( tltv plwlogtaph. B:n tlll'' '''Y': ' 1 an1 .ti thc b~rbtr ,. ;mcl a cop1 of l'rnll-.\lnlth , ofkllrl 10 llll'. ( 1!1/h: lllil. 1k tontitiiH'' o11 tlll' . .. 't 1111111 "" o ;\eP'ro i11 a f11 'IH h unilonn , ' :tltnitw. ll'ith hi ~ t'll'' tlpliltttl. prnhabhcO\l 1 L'l ,.., (i ~l'cl on thl' (olcl ol' tia tricolo ur . .\11 lhi~ , lht /1/l'flllillg ol' tlw pict m c.' lbnlln ha-, identiliecl thl' dt'IH>t.tliH m t .tnin ~ ni tht photo~t;tph . ll .till ~ clmw llti,. Batthl'' dc1'l'lnp~ hi ~ .t n:th,is. 1k ~a" :
Hit l. ldlt'lht'l n.tin l~ n1 11111. 1' t'l' l l'll ,, di" hat it ,gnilin
ltt nw: tlt.ll F~<llllt' ,a ).(l"l'.tl ~ mpilt', th.ll .111 ht'l ' t llh, IIiht>lll ,1111 1 ulotll di't 1imin.ll ioll . l;tithfulll ' t' l\ t' nndt'l hcr 11. 1 .;-. :~nd th <~ 1tite,,. , 1 1, lJt'llt'l < 111"''1 '1 '1 o 11 w <1111 :tclnl' ni :111 allt-g-l'd colo11 i.di"n 111.111 illt' /t'al ,ho1111 b1 thi' :'\q~ro in 'I'I'I' il~ IJj, ' oc ilkcl <~(>P" ' '"".' ( 1\ll i\: llli )

Roland Barthes was a French literary critic and cultural analyst. His development of structuralist and poststructuralist (p. 24) ideas in the context of writing on aspects of everyday lite was particularly lnfluential in the early development of cultural studies. 1 Barthes' early life was dogged by tuberculosis. He taught in French lyces and abroad before being appointed lo the Eco le Pratique des Hautes Eludes in 1962. He was appointed toa Chair at theCollegede France (Pars) in 1976. He died afterbeing knocked over by a truck outside the College. Barthes' earlywork concerned the nature of language and representation from a semiotic/ structurallst (p. 24) point of vlew. Examples of his general approach can be found in Writing Degree Zero (1953) and Elements of Semiology(1964). He worked on the formal properties of literary texts and carried out influential specific analyses such as Sil (1970), which addresses the structure of a novella by Balzac. His identification of proairetic, hermeneutic, semic, symbolic and referential codes was innovative and consequential. Barlhes was also concerned lo apply the ideas of semiology to aspects of everyday life. He wrote a regular newspaper column in the 1950s which covered toplcs such as margarine, the brain of Einstein and wrestling from this point of view. These short analyses were collected in Mythologies (1957): a bestselling text which encapsula tes so me of the key aspects of decodings based in a cultural 1 studies approach. Barthes sought to dig below the surface of the everyday for deeper metnlngs and to show how those meanings were implicated in relations of power (p. 94) and structures of domination. He mounted an attack on the role of such seemingly innocent representations and activitles in the ldeological (p. 84) dominance of the bourgeois class. He also examined fashion in The Foshion System (1967). The somelimes playful nature of Barthes' analyses beca me more prominent in hfs later work which, under the lnfluence of poststructuralism (p. 24), is less con cerned with the methodical mapping of codes and meanings and more with the interrogation of pleasure and the self. Examples of this can be found in The P/easure of the Text (1973), Camero Lucida (1980) and Roland Barthes on Roland Barthes (1975). Barthes' attention to everyday lite and popular texts from an academic point of view was is likely thal his la ter work would have developed further in parallel with the postmodernfst (p. 400) emphases on identity (p. 224) and pleasure. He remains, however, one of the seminal figures of postwar French thought, who influenced a variety of disciplines in the humanities and the social sciences.

,\ll er irk111il\ ing th l''\l' contll l!atium ol the plwtog r:t ph. lbr1h 1'- lncalt'' his di,t tl' siun \l'ithin i111' laug uagl' ol 'l' ltli<HC': 1.tnl 1he1 d olt' .lg.tin f.lttd "ith .1 gn .lh'l 'l' '"lt'lll: tht'll' ,a -,i).(nifit-r. it-1lt ;dl'tarll l'ol'lltl'cl ll'itliII :t pre1in11' ,1,11'111 (a ltl.u k -:olditl , gil'i11 ~ lht Fn11 r h '"'"'l') : tltl'l'l' , :1 ,j.;nifj('r] (il i' ht'll' ,1 (HII>O'l'fll l lli'-Illl"t'lll l'll'llthlll'" .tnd III('IW"l: ;uul fin.tlh ,, pn't'IHT oltiH' , jgnified iltHngh 1h1 ,jgnilil'l. 'l'cral itnpol'l:lltl puit11' .tbout Thl' dio;cu"ion Di' thl''l' pholograph~ ha' iutl'lldllCl'd M o;cmiolic' 1dtiC' h t an ht 'umm.u i,td ' ' ln llm":
1.. \111 imagt o1 1ex1 ran ht 'aid tn ront ain dill'l 1 't'lll l:tW I'' or lt'l'tl..; ol mcaning. In

pat.ticul.ll tltl'l'l' i' a di,I IH'IOil bt'l\\t't'll l:t inl'd. 01 1hv

~llllltliiH iing

dtl/11/lliht'a lld

1111//111/f//l't' ltl~~ (, ,

2. 1 ht' nalllll' ol ,urh llll':tlling. ' ll'ill dt"pend 011 tiH' rutll1~1 i11 ll'hirh 1IH1 art r on-

r irt tllll,l.lll l'l' ,\1\-an illg' i'

~oc ial

3. ~omt o ( tht k~tl' ol nH'.IIlil!!, o1

oth crs 11'ill ht' s:Hur.Hcrl \litll

ltHit\ an tl'l.llil'l'h llt' llll'aning,; 01 tlbco111 s<"s.

objcrthe. lllll'reas

-1. Tlw nc ov;11ition ancl ducicl.uio n ol thc<.t clilftonnt lllt'attin){' inn>ln, a nah'i' or d,nulilw 11'11 it 11 olttn rltwncl' nn tl1l' nalut l' o( 11 H' l-..111 H,Jt-clv;e .m d l'~ [WIilnn

h11 tttgl11 10 thl' ; uta l ~ ,, , ,

Mytllologies is a great place lo start Barthes.

L',ing tlw l.111guagl' ol ~t mi o tic~. tlw pll~lo~~ aph' rothic.kll'< .l lwlt' .n ~ ar ao;; signo;. Tht~de.ut l:.Jli.,~ :-tlt C-~l f4 1llli i.:Lill.lJJ ll.ll.:-Sl~J.lll tnU lt . \11-\llillt' l' '' ." SOUIId, !JI illll'cl 1~ llj' i.Jn.gc .Uld U lC hlgJl( itd , a IIII,'IJJi.!LCUW . :q u._l ltt' '11'\lllllrt' IS reprt''<'lllt'd in Figt11 t' !! . ~ . (,___


Sontag, S. (ed.) (1982) A Barthes R eader, london: Cape. Barthes, R. (1976) Mythologies, St Albans: Paladn. Culler, J. (1983) Barthes, london: Fontana.

S i ~n llitl



Figure 2.2

The structure of the sign.


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Communicalion and represenlation


1 Si~mii c1 !. S1gn


~ i gn iii NI

1SIGi\11 lfR
111 SIGN


se n irc. - htJ 't' is ~onw clq~rtt o !' t'lt courage llll' l1 1 ' " bu1 lh l' pmduct. ;\l:ttll ach't rti ~l'111 e nl ~ in 1h c lrtt localn tl,paptr, i11 !1rita in are o l 1hb II'IH'. In compou ucl achl'rtistnwnl' tlu..tT i~ 111ore e n courag<'lllt'lll. ,,h ic h lll.ll b<' ol ,,
~ubtlc kind. Piet11re' arL" mot <' p<t ~~~a~in a n cl h m:l\ ht <o nt.t ined in tlw rop1 th.u acCO iHpan i e~ t h t ach'L'rt~l' tiWIIl . Tltt~ pin 1 n't , ofte n 'glo"'. a nd it i' t lw i lll t'l11 ion o f 1lt t' acll'ert ist'l t ha1 t h e rl'adtt wi 11 a ~~oriatv llll' procluc t wi 1h t lt t 11Jw ll' i 111 p ressio n cn :!led b\' t h t pic llliT . .-\cln:'tl iw ln ttll~ i 11 t 111' 111a~a ti ilt'' a~~oria l l'<l 11i t h lll'"''P" J>L'I'S ;1rt' thi' khHl. In complt-x ;ulll'rti't'lllt'ill' thc bad.grotillcl lakt' \ 0\l' l :111(1 tllL' o ftt'll product uwrgt~ i111o it. lt i~ 'olllt' l ime~ clilliutl1 lo ~<.l' p1Tti~l'h 1dtat , lwin).{ ,old. T hc 11 ho lt imagt (.' oll\'L'I'' a 111 t'"1gl' nf statu~. lll':t llh ami pull t' l . Sophisli l'< ll <.' d :1ch'erti't' 111 t i11S nlolt bt ~ nncl su ch ce~n ) ll' X achl'rl i st' l1 1t' lll ~ anrl Llttl c>ll l'll co ntaill :lit :tlll'lll)Jl to dr:111 upon h idcltn t'ed ings tlt roug h ... ubtk " "u c ialie~n' . \ dtcp-,t:ul'd P"d to logiral

Figure 2.3

Language and myth. (Source: Barth es, 1976.)


Sam~u l'l'.

The ~tm io 1ic appruat 11 . 11h ich 11as d t\'l' lopl'cl 1ro111 1lw '! tH \\' o/ l;111g uage ]), ck ha., IHtn a ppl il'd ,,idl' h. Th 11,, 13arthes (p. ;", ~ l :1rg tt <'s ( 1~171\: 11:\) :

takt .t IJ \.. pt bhl t: 1 r .u1 ltt:tkt it ,g ni ll in ,e,era l ll':t'' it i~ a mcrt ,~nilil' l : htll il " dgh it 11i1h a ddinilt' 'ignifitcl (.t <k.llh 't'lllt'llet'. lw ithlanu. in au .mommou' ,otd. it will lwcomt ,, 'ign. BartiH', ~ h o11 s ho11 difft'H' ill le1-c l ~ ., llll'n nin g art a~suri:llt'Ci. Thi... , , hown in Fig ttn
~ . :~.

a>pl'al i. ot lt'll tu aclt.


A semiotic analysis of a sophisticated advertisemen t

Thb dtltHl ll' trates llt t' t dation:. h ip httll't'l' lt the clt' IHII.llii'L 0 1 ro lln nt:llilt' lcn: l' o l "1 itt'' lwre a ho111 th< di,timl ioll ht' lll'l'l.'ll la ll~nagL" and tm th. Fnr Ban ht~ . 1111 t hs ~ h on up txisl ing 'l i llrt llll' " ol po1H'1'. ,,h ic h !:11 o u r t h l' bourg-coi' class . .\ In l1' 111akl' 11 ha1 i' h is10 ri cal ur e h :lng tabk a ppt':n 10 b e na tt 1ra 1 a nd sl: tl ir ami arl' 1hus ickolo g ical. Thm, tl ll' 111\'Lh co n , trll Cicd in p an b1 th t ph u logra ph of't l~t blac k ,n)dier ll'otllcl ~nk tu ll'l'l'l''t'll t th t .-\lgt'l i:nt co nflic t in t h a wa~ a' to pnHn l r h a ngl' ami dtroloniali,alion.
nwanin~. 13;utht, al~o

,\ )tlllliOI'<Ilt' ,, cntitl tir :111ah ~ i ' o f a sc,pl1 i,ti ra ttd aclntl i ~t'lllt'lll (a t'! ltltl'llljl<'ral'l' adltrtiSt' IIWill f'm the ciga n ttt S il k Cut ), to ntained in tht t'XIr:ICL from Da1icll.odgt''s ( 1 ~1~9 ) nmel.\'ur llillfl. l nthi,non l a uniHt,illlectutet in l:u~li,h. Rob\lt l'cnro,e .lt:h bec n detailcd lo ,haclow' :111 i11dnstri a list. \' ir \\' ilcm. IIt h tht ai m o t t n couragin g g rc alt r mutual uncll'rsta nclin g ht'l'' 'l' t' ll a ciCitJnia ami bil~i l ll' " ~1 ult o l tht ltn nwu 1 i11 tl ll' nmc l rt,ollt, aruund tl ll illttr:Htio ll h t'l ll'l'l' ll tl ll' t11o 111 <t i11 r lia ral'll' l '~ 11'110 n prL''e nL nn dilfl'rl' nl ll'u1 lch.




Advertising and representation

Si_n' an organi~ed into ~\SI C ilb \\'hich tom:q ..J.neau.iug: l h t~c s\~tt'll h art ol'ten callee! end e~ in ~li'l l t lilrali., t and,tmiotic appr..a r h ts (Fi,kl' a11d llart!t-1. 1!17::\: :'i!l). Onc uf'tlw
: n :~ a.s ll'lat t-c s u: l ~ cocl ~' hal'l h cc n 1110 ~.t ' "~di ecl i~ :tdl't' lli,in ~ (st'l'. tltost imponantly. \\ ilhanhO il . l !lt~). ,,Jn c h fotnh tit e to m ol tl11s scctl o tt.

A semiotic analysis of a Silk Cut advertisement


Different types of advertising

1L i ~ 111pcnta111 to recog n ist 1h c r;111gc of' cliff( rtnt I~"J>L'' of'ach"cn i ~i ng in coll ttmpor:uY
soc i e tit~ ..-\ 11.\l'ful ca tego rba tion o l' lin. dil'l't Je nt t ~pts ha~ h tT n ,ugg<:~ l cd ll\ G. n~c 1

( 19R2) " ho clistingui,lat, bttwcen itlfot malinnal' . ,impll'. compoun cl'. compll'x' :md ':.ophi,licalccl' a<h'c rt i~t'llH'll l ~.
ln fun nati onal mh-crti~t' lll t'll h ar<' likt lht classifil'<l achl'rtist menh linmcl in 11 l'\\~ papcrs. Tltl' ~ are often hrid <t ncl sntal l, .utd 111 :11 conl ;lII l'l'i'\' litllt c laltoratinn o J th t

ba ... ic lliL'""I-\'<'. Si m plt a<h'c l t i't'll1 l' IHS art l.t rgn ; han i 1tl 'orm:t; io n a 1 a<h't' l'ti ~<'111l'l1 " hut 1he1 ~ ti ll r ont.tin rclatild l' j)lt'risc aud ('ll'.1r i11f'unnatio n about a panind.u produn or

.\ t~-pi ca l in ~ l : ut et of' 1l1i ~ 11':1' 1h e Curie~ u o; arg tlmtnt tht' l1 acl < 1hou1 th t Sil\.. Ctll <tC h'ertiwllt L' llt. T lwy ll't'lt' i't' lll nl ing i11 hi' r ar l'rom ,.i,i tiltg a folnldt 'l' in lkrby th a t liad lwl'n I:Jkl' ll Cll'l'l l11 '"l' l-,trippt' l'' 11hn liT re w lli11g nllan atl lOillat i<. co r<. nHHIIcltt \\ 'ikox \\a, inlt'll''tcd in . though it hacl tlllllt' cl out to ht 1oo old ,,hiotw d fr h i-. pmpow. l:~t n le'' mill',. i1 'l't'mtcl. l h t\ p a:.:.ed tlw 'antt hu gt j)OSlt'l C)il l'll,tcbick h oard ing .... ; ph o togr;tpltil clt-picti011 o l :1 rippiin g t'X J)<tllSL' uf p11rpk ... ilk in ,,lt iclt t h l'l'l' 1\'a' :1 ~ i n~lc ..-li t. as if'tll(' tnal tri:d ltad hc c n slash c d ll'ith a nt1.or. 'lhl'l'l' llt' l'l' n o llord~ n n th c ach't' l' ti ~e mL"nt. <"Xn"> t tor th t (:ol'lrntnt'lll llealth \\'arnin~ abotll :.mokin.{. T hi' uhiq11illlt1~ imagt. lla~hin{ pa~1 .11 l"l').{llla1 i11lCIYat.... ho1h i1 ri 1atl.'d ancl in1rigmd Roh~ n. :tlHI 'he bq~.lll 10 el o htl ~emiotic Sluff' un th t dt e p Sll'lll llli't' hiddc n lw n l': il h it ~ bbnd ~ lll'l':tn. lt ,,a~ in lh ( lir~l ilt,l:i11Ct' .1 kind o [ riddk. T hat is to ,,, in orckr tu tkro dc it ,


lnlroducing Cultural Studies

Communicaton and representation


I'Olt had to ktun1 th:H li ll're ,,as :1 brand ol cigarettes ra lkcl ."ii lk Cu1. Tlil' po~l t' t ,,as liw iron ir l'l'j>l't''t'll i:Hinn ol':t t tli ~'ing tl:llllt', li kl' a nhtt,, Bttlil tl' iro n ,,.a, :d'n a ttH't:tphnr. ' J hl' 'h itn tnc ring silk. ,,ith i1 ~ l'tllupltunt' nt tl't"' ;111cl ~ 1 muoth ll':>.llttT. ubliou'k "mbolit.:d tht il-tn.tlt buch .tncl tht l'lliplical ,Ji t. Jure gtmuukd b1 a li~hlt't colour 'ho\\ill{ IIH<Htgli. "'' ,jiJIIllltt ollliothh a 1 agin.1. 1he adnn IIHt' 'PJ>l'.tled w hnllt ~~n, .mcl ,,,di,tir intl"'''''' the de,in to ll111til.tll' as 11eiJ.t, ptnelratl lht' l't> boch . \ 'ic \\'ilco:-. spltt tll't td ll'it h tHIIt".t,L{t'd d eri,ion ;" sl tt' l''\j)Ott t1dcd 1hi' it 1ttr j)l'l'la tion. lit' .\ ttlOklcl a tl if'fi: rt nt bra nd . hittN II . hut it 11a, as il' l11 i'l' lt h i ~ ll'hok ph ilo,op111 ollik 1\'a, thn:a tcnccl b1 RoiJ,ns anak'i' o [ th t ach't tt. Yottn1u't ha~t .1 111 .,tcd mi u el to 'l'l' a ll tltat in a pl'rknh hattnlt,, hit o l t lollt.' IH "a id . ' \\'Ita, tlw llOill ni it. lhcn: Rnh111 thallengtd hiut. ' \\'l11 u~c dolh 10 achtlti,t cigarl'llt',;. '\\'l'll. lhat, IIH ll.tlltt ol l'lll. ,n l it? Si lk Cu1. lt ., :1 pinnrc ol llw 11 a nw. i'\othittg- nwn: ur ),.,,, ."inpHJ.q tltl'l'.lill qd :t p icturt ol':t ro ll oJ' , jJk cu t in hall - ll'llU id that clo.J ttsl :t' ll'l' 11:' ' 1 ''tppost' ~o. \ .' 1d11 no; 'Becatl,t' it ,,ould look likt' a peni' n11 in hall. th;u, 1d11. 1k lorcccl a laugh 10 CmTr hi<. t'111h. ut.l"ll'l'lll. '\\'l11 <:111'1 11111 pl'ople l:tl-.e things a t 1h cir lace l':t lut': ' \\'ha t pl'nple :111 ~ou rl'f<'rril1g ' ll i gltbro11.~. lttt tll~ ~ ltt :tb. \',.u rt :ti\\ .ti S 11 1i n ~ lo fin el ltiddcn IIH':tll illg-, , in tltings. \\l1yi- .-\ t ig.ll't' llt b a LigantLt', .\pi<< e,. si l!-., .1 pi,.,. n i 'ilk. \\'l11 tHII lt':tlt' it :11 that: ' \\'lwn tht'l .lt' II'Jll'''t'lllt"<l lltt\ atquitt' .Hldition.ll IIH'.Illlltg'.' ':tic! R11h111. ''.ign, an ne1 er itn1t JCt'lll. '.l'm iotir' wac ht' ,.., 1h;u.'


r ~;11111' up II'th .l hl' idt:t o l ripp ling ~ill., ll'ilh." l'llt ill it. Tl ~t .. rg iHall1lt'l<1p hor is 111)1\'
rcprl''l' IHCd ltttr;t ill'. Bttl llt'l,. ntelapiHtt lt al r.,n no lalll>lb anrttl'- sexual O JH'" \\'hcther illl'l' 1\'l'i'l.: cothciott:.h intcndtd 01 no1 do<'slll rt;tlll' m;ntcr. lt ', a gc.od t=-:.1mpk olthe ptqwttt<tl 'liding ol tht 'ignificd undtr tltt 'ignilit'r. acutalh-.' \\'ilrox chel,'l'd on tlti~ lnr a ,,hik. lhtn ..aicl. ' \\'lt~ do 11oi1H'Il "lll"ke thtm. lhL' tt. eh: 1li' lritii1Jllta111 t''\j)l't'"ion ,h1111'tcl that lw 11111ng l11 1hi~ ''"'a 1-.ttot kcJ01,n r~ull l t'lll. Jr ~nH ok i n g Sil k Cu1 i' .1 J'orm .. r aggral.lltcl n tpc. a' 1ou tt 1 reo 111:1kc tllll. hn11 ('ot1H' \l'lllllt'll 'illilkl' l' ll l t oo ~ ' \l ,llli' I''Pilll'll .ttt t tt:t~uth i ,ti< h~ lt'lll j>L'I<lllll'IH.' ,,Jid Roh1 1 1. 'Tittl\ , karlltd 1\'lt:n~ cxpeutclol llwn1 in .1 pau i;ut ,ocie ti.' ' lla ~ \\'leo'\ t'" 1.1n1t'd. w~'ing b.ttl-. hi, lll'.1d. 1 111i~ht lta~tl-.llo\\11 1011.<1 halt' 'Oillt' daft :IIISIITI'.' 1 clon' t 1-.tHJII 1,)11 1'11\l.rl' 'o 1\W ktd u p.' 'l:ticl RoiJ\11. ' lt ', 1101 a~ il 11111 'lltlOkl' Si l!-. Cu1 ltll tr,l'IJ'.' :--.;.,, 1 .;mul-.(' ~ l : uiiHn o~. F1111 11i ll' t'I IPttgh . 1 'mol-.t llt t'lll hcr.tll'l' 1 lil-.l' JI , t,l,ll'. 1 IH'I .111' tiH om, th.ll h.llt' !IHIotll' <1111hu1 acl'.111'11.1 !IHI: '1 '-ll)lj>CI'l' lh,ll 111,\kt'- 11H' ,\ H'Jlll'"t'd Jto!llO'It',11,tJ. dlll'' it: ':\o. it'~ ,1\t' ll ,ll,lightltli'IIIIHillli'IOllllllit llll''"11-('l'.'
~fctollhat ?'

1. S<ntt hrigl11 spark a1 rhe 111 1paign 1n g il't' tlt t' brand a hig h ptolik agai 1



'Stllt-II'h:tt~ .

sl'miotic, . Tltl' slttrh ,. , ig-ns.' ' 11 tear ltes lh to lt:tl't' <i il'll tnitHk il l'llll ;.;._ tn t.' \ \'111' el \ ou t h i 11 k tia 1\ll'ld tl'cl'lll'' IH'rt <a lit' el Si 1k ( 111 111 tlw ti l'll phi< t:- ' 1 dunno. ) , j11'1 .1 n.nlH:. ., good ,,, ,1111 other.' "Cut" ha~ 'OIIll'thi11g 10 do11i1lt lill' loh:ttto. do!'m ' t ;,; rJw 11:11 tht 1obann i., ntt. Likt "Pla~t-r, i'\mY Cu t" - 1111 ttllclc \\'alter ll'td 10 ' IIIOK{' l htnt.' ' \\'c ll, ,,IJa l il ill' d1 ws'' \ 'ic ,;jr( II'Urih'. ' lh u ~i l k ha, 11utlting lo do ll'itlt to ll:tCI'P. lt '~ a nwtapltot . a tlll'l:tphor l h:tl llttan' mmtlh ng lil-.e ... ,tllooth a' ,j lk". '.otndwrll in :1 11 aclll'rti,ing .lgt'IH'I drtamtup thc n.tnll' "Sil!-. C:u1" In 'n~g'''' .ttig<nTllt' lltatii'(Htldn't gi1c 1011 a ,orl' lltrnat ora hacki11g <o11gh 01 lung (,1111 t'l . 1\ut af'tet .1 11hilt- lht puhlic got u,ed 10 1ht 11 :une. 1lw ll'ord .. Si lk .. u,,,,.d 111 .,ign ih. "' lh<' rll'cidcd 1o h:lll' :111 :H ll'l'lti.;ing

'i\ ktnn1m ir. 011t' o l tl1t' lu tHiotiiH'tt l;tl IIHJ), ., 'l'lll ioti<' i.; tht d i,tit1('1"II ilt'lll'l'l'll llll'I,IJlltut ;t llCII tll'lOilll lll . J) \oll\1':1111 1 11(' [11 t''\jii:III l 111 l'llll ~ ' 11'11 P""" tl w ti tnt.' ht ';ticl. \ k taphm i' ,1 ligutt' uf 'Pl'l'lli h.t,td < 111 'i111 il.u i11. 11 ltt'lt".h 11\t'lllll\'1111 , h:Nd on ronti~uitl. In uwt.tphol IOll 'uh,lillllt' "lllh'thing ,,., tlt, 1hin~ 1011 nw.u1 lot lht 1hiu~ ihtll. 1dwn,, in tllt'llllll 1111 1011 '"h,tilute '1111111' .111 1ihu1t' or C:llt'~l' or l'fft'l'l or tl w thi llg lol tltt 111ng irwll .' 1 dnll .llllldtr,lancl ; 11urd lutt 'rt ':t1 i11g.' ' \\'c ll. take o i H' of'1t11 1r utottlck Tlw hoii O IIl hit i' ra lll'd tht rlrag bcca u ~e it', clraggcd acro~~ tht Jlom and tltl' top l1i1 , ralkcl tllt' copt l wratl~t l coll't' lltt' houom bit.' 1 wlcl 11111 tha1. ' \ '' 1 kntl\1'. \\' lotl clidn't tell nw "'" tita! "drag" .,a mtllllllll\1 :11111 "cope" , a llll't:tphor.' \ 'ic grtLutcd. ' \\'h:n di lf<:l'l'lll'l' rlm, it nta kc:- ' lt , j"'t a qu<stinl1 ni' uncltT'-l:utdi t1,1.4 ""'' language l\'ot "' 1 tlto ugln 1ou ll'l'l'l' illlernr,cl i11 ho,, 1h i11g' m11k.' 1 don 't '<'<' "Ita! i t'' got to el o 1\' 1h dg;~ne,.' 'In thc ca~e ol 1he Sil!-. Cut pmt<t. IIH pirt11n 'ignilit'' lht Jemale bnch' mctaplwricalh : 1lw ,Ji1 in ilw ~i l l-. , /i/wa ,agi11a-

58 lntroducing Cultura l Studies

Communicatio n a nd re presenlation


\ ir ll i1H hn l .n tlw 11ord. su 1nu ':" ." ',\JI l wl t~. hoiJm, 'J><ICt'S. fi,,urn a nd lold~ np1e't'lll tht lttn:tltl.\t'' ' l'rm e it." 'Frntd p1mT<I it. b1 hi ~ '-tiCTl'"fttl anah'i' ol <IH,m,." '.ticl Roh111. ' Btll tht .\ l:11 lboro a eh don't 11'<' a m lltltaphot ' Th:u' proh.thh 11 111 1011 ,mokt 1Jwm. .IUII.tlh." ' \\'ha t do 11111 llll':lll; he 'aid 'u~picio 11,h . \'o11 clon't haH an1 '' mp:u h1 wit h 1hl' llll'l:tphot ic.ll \\,1\ ol lottki ug .11 th i ng, . \ c igat t'llt' ,a l ig.tretlt' ,,, l:u "' ~011 a re cott nrnecl." ' Rig ht."
'T i a .\l.t l lburo :td doc:o- n ' t d i stt~rb th:H tt;\l' l:tith in th t ,t.thil itl' 111' tltt' 'ig nilil'd. lt l''l:t iJJi,lll'." :t 111l'lflll\llliC COil lll'CIi!ll - lO lll)> l l'td~ ' J>lll OII' o l l'OII I't', bu t l l':ilistic:dh pla usi hlv - IWtll't't'll ~nwkin g th:tt bt.11tcl .tnd tlt(' lll'.t ltlll . hnoit , nutcl\lot lil'(' ol' thl' cowhoy. B111' the r ig.ll'l' llt' .111d 1 n u htl\ tlw lii'L '\11 lt. o 1 tlw f :tlll:t'~ lii'tlg it."

whic h acheni't'lllt' nt' .1nd ntl llr ln1 1 11' nf lt'Jlll''l'nt:Hion con,llllllt lw 'J>l'CI:lllll tn It'll JJ('m ..\ kn iclt:t IHt t' i' th.ll \\ hvn \1t' loo k al panicular imagt'' tht\ an plaring "' in >artiutlal pmitioth ho111 \dtil'h lo n .td thtm. TJtj, , import:illl ,, thi' 111.11 lw 1 t'llll.tllo 1 . lt''lllllt'C . 1 th<' pro(l''' ol optt.llion ni ideolo~\. in ,,.l . .ti'L' J> 1 < ll't'C1 . tn tt'll.llll > O'itioth. 11hit h IH' do tHll tdlnt upon ( 'l'l' .tho 'l'c:tioth ~1.:1.:~ .tncl 11.3. 1). rJtu, tlll' !ti-.r11 ,,imt ol tht .tchttti,tnttnt in tlw l''ll al'l lwlo11 'ho'" IH>II p.ttlt!ll.ll teptt''t'lll.t tion' ol gencltt .lll' dlJ >IoHd in '11d1 .1 11:t\ a' lo makl' an appl:tl to nwu . In tltt''t' appt' ht ' 10 ~l'IHkl .tu el ,ulnni,i u~. aclnni,ing- nptt''i'llh 01 ton,uuu' paniutl.11 nuage' \\ lnt h l\11111 ihlltl' to thl' owration ol pn\\tr in tontl'I11POI,II"'



The invisible man

'J'Itj, \l'tlill:tll ,. looking :11 ; 1 11: 1 11 (,,Jw m:11 roi nriclt 11i 1h lh t l'l'< lcitt : lw i..- d ta11n in : htt 1"11cJ, an i11 l'l'Jl l ~ to lii' .,dt:1 1 ,,ill ''ll' d t ink:O' 1kt clt'l'" , llnhn llllll\'cl )11'()\Cl( :t tinh . indit\ lting ht'llllltl clnlll ll lh. tl 1lw im i,i])J, lt'l i1 nl.tlt: tlil' linal i'.tt'lol i, tiiL' cht" '~' ' \i,ihk hehind IHr. imph ing a 'l't ond pt r~on . an imimaL'. ll'l ddining lwr intcllenual qu.tli11 in rdation lo tht man . ,,, dot' htt dtt i<kcl prlfl'l'l'IH l' lor , l l'l tain cl1 in k. rht IIH',~.tgt i' ,Jtl' 1' .11 ltouw in .t ln,ut , 1\'0IId. \l.'l i' 't'\.\ : a1td 1101 in .1


' RultiJi, li !' sa id \\'ilwx. 1 hat ( JIIl' C< Hillll'~' <litd lite o pe n :ti r. l' 1 11 ,.c;u l'd 1o go in :t fi vJd 11i11 .1 Ce>\\' tl i1." ' \\\11 tll t'tl. 111.11he i1 \ lite solila riltl'. ' ' ol th t < 'O\\'bCJI in tite;([, ill :tl :t)liH':tl, l<> 11111 . ~t' lf -n l i:mt. indcpl'ndcnt. H'l"l tna r ho."
' trc ntg

'I'I L' llt'\t'l' ht':tlcl 'lldt a lot ol baiJ , in :tlltll\' lik." ,.tid \ 'it \\'iko:-.. ldtirh "'' langu:tgt coming l'rom him. ' J\JI, - no11 t ha t, an illll'i'l''ting l' t ...... ion .. ." Roll\n 11111wd. 'Oh 11</ ' hl groa md .

' \\'lwn 1011 ''~ .ttnan "Jta, halk . apptmin.l.\h. it', .tntt'l!tll\111\. llhtrt'ot' il 1011 '" 'OIIH'thing j, , " lcl( of (),JI,. or " b.IIJ,.up" . it', :t '011 ol 111\' t.tphor. lhl' nwtoll\ 111\ :tlll ihllll'' 1.1l11l' lo 1he ll':.tide:- ldtl'lt,-. tllt' ntctaphcn "'l'' tht'lll lo ckgr:ldl' '"IIIC'thing dw. t.lll. l takl :1111 llHIH' ol 1hi~." 'aid \ 'ir. 'D\ou 111incl il 1 'litokt; .Jtr...t a plain. rclin:11' rigm t'ttl:- ' 11 l tan han Radio Thrn on . ~.tid Ro h,n.



In aclcl ilit tll lo l'OII\ t'l'iltg' Rnb111 , < llt:td llllenl to tlll' JlOII'I'I' o l , ll , l<tilt t'd ra ti :l tt :lh, is. tlti,. t'X Ir:tn ;thn iltlrod llce:o- tht' impur1:1111 tlit'lllt' ol' gt'lld<r.


Advertising and gender

.\ 111111l lll'r ol'll'rit l'l'.' han dra11'n :tlll'lllion lo tlll' 11'< 1\ in \\'hith :ldl'l'i'tbttlll'lll' dl'plo\ Jl' n irula r 1t' )ll'l''t' ni a 1ic m' ol' g-encle r relat io11 ' Ftm in i'' "1 itl'l'' lt:11 < '1 1 gg l''tLd 1hat 1hL'' o Jlt' ll C"lil.ti 11 {le ,_,J~ C:ll C:Illl lt'd <JI Slt'l't'lll \ fll'd 1t'J>Il''l'lll :ll iCJII' nf \\ 0111\'n . . \11 intpnll.tlll lhl'lllt'. 11hirh i' clt' \l'lopl'd l.tlt'r in th i, r haptt'l . tlliH't'lll' thl' 11:11 in

P'"'H' ,,a,. " i:. '""''n '" l~t r uniJlllltlllltg' o l llt'r d t t'"" \\ Ollll'll ( il lllt'd ia ) ;tt'e 't'llli l't'h C 'Cill,.titlll t'cl .... b1 thc g<lll' t1l m :m ' . 1 Jj, 11o111:tll 11 l \\1111\\\ .. 1U \IUl R I :do n<'. 11 dtl'bin antl illt t' lltC ilt:t l: DI~YS/\CK ' Ft lnininit~ i' pu re. lrcc , pnll'ttl ul : \\torlfi611U "'''n lt,.'tft';.\fft h111 tnan is L'\L' I'~ \1 htrt < ll<illltd , J , . Pl'l'"L'' "11 .tll ,. jtJc,, li t llt:tkt s t' l'l' l'\ 1h ing- t xi ~l; he i' in a fl t' lt' I'II I\ 1111' f l'l':ll il't' <th~tn n .. . ." J'h v 111.111 in thi' piCIIII't' , ltoll littc antl t'\'l'l"~'dl L'I'L .t Jl t' l"':t'i't' )ll'l''C'IIl'l' d din ing" :mfl tkll' I'IIIllillg' \'\'t'l\th 11g . otllcl ll 1\'li Cl'l' 1<'1'111 ' liH' \\'Cllll< ll l mn't dc lint ht r~tll'. Slil' i ~ doo1 11vcl lo 'l'l' ltu,eJr th roug h , l'\'t'' tll''t rilw

{,(/ .

\l'illi.Uih"ll ( i '.li~ KO


lntroducing Cultural


Communication and representation


sot ,., t'' hu1 htr cdd enr (' ol' 1lw gtmlel i11g or adH' I'I i ~t' llll' lll' ca n lw lo uncl in llw 1mrk uf Col finan ( 1D7!)) 1d1o ll~t'' thC,l' t"\alll>lc' LO ex.1111i1H' thc n.tlun uf gl'ncll'l cli~pla~. rallll'l 1han in a di,n ,ion ol .Hht'rli,ing /11'1 11 (Snlith . 1 9~61. Tlw implic:uion of ,onw of II H''l' ~UL h di't u ''ion~ i' 111.11 :1 cri ticuc or un m a.< king- of ll1csc gcnder rl'pre~e lll atiom ll'ill l'llllt ribu tt lo t ht fig ht :tgai n't ~u eh g'l'lldcr inl'qlla litl' o r opprt,~ion. Sonw a~ wct' ni ronlt'lll>Oiill'\ utltma l poli1ic' Cwt (.haptcr (i) ''en initialh ha,ed arouncl ~urh p1l'llti't'' llo11 t'l t'l. mon 1e< t'lll appro.tdll'~ ha1c ll'ncll-cllo o;uggt''l lhat ;uh tni-ing ha' at ll' f>n.,nw 1er~ poll'l' lilll in contt' 1 11porar~ 'O( l'lit, a' :1 1111111 ber o l dillcrcn 1 j ll~li ltl l t 111' hal'l' :tclo 11 t'rf pr.H 1Ct'S a111 [ f'or111s o r I'Cfli'CSCillal ion (p. () 1) 1ha l 11 l'll' < ll lCt' lht dtiiii.In ol acheni., ing. IIHI' in tiH phra't' n f .-\ncht'll \\'nnid. ( 1~191 ). w1 illlll',l'ill{h Jilt' in :1 'prnllll>littll:tl Cllhlll'l',

Dejini11g ronrt'fJI


R epresentation and realisrn\


Prornoliona l culture

\\1'11111 k' Jt)<)J .ll~llllll'llll' th.ll 1('1'\ 111,\111 COilll'lllJ>Ol .ll'\ iu,lillllIIII' ,tlld J>l.ttlitt'' h .llt' ,,.,.,l iH' l.llllt'l lik(' adlt' 1li ,ing. 1 hu'. \\'nnitk txamint'' thl' prnnto lion.d , lr<lll' git, ol IIII\t' I~I t ~ :111cl ll po lii l'.' lo rlr.t\1' o ut tl uir sim il;lritit, to acher li ~i n g. Fm t' \;llnplc .di unilt' l',itll'' 111111 lial'l' logo,, 'imi tar ltl llltlllinational rorp01.t1io11~. Furlh~l1111111 ' . poluit' , 1111\\ pl.t\td 0111 in ll'lllh ol ,ouncl-hit~~ ,,hich a rl' t.lllwr lik~ .uhc11i, lll){ <.)cg.lll' ('1'1' lt 1 1lla1 Chap 1 ~ 1 !i). 11 i' nnt tlw de1 ail o l tlw casl' tliat 111:111<'1'~ fl111 tlit 'il,l f>fl.l pii i'OI\l' 1h:1 1 11i ll .lll l'<tl l < llll'll lOII. l'rilll(' \[ i ni ~ l l'r'' Cj lll'Sl i\111 IIIIl' ll th~ H1 li'h 11<~11'1 ' o( ( 'onllllom i' ol'tcn dtl o tl'd lo tht txdmngt ol' tlll'\l' ITI11.11 J.., h1 tht 111.1111 p.llllt". In thi-.. 't'nw. ad\l'lli~IIg' h:h bcconw incrt'.l~ingh inlf>Oit.ull. nol jthl ht t .111'1' 11f il' IIH ll'.l'l'cl Jll't' \ :Jit'IH't'. htll hi'C:III.'I' of tllt' in lftll'JII'l' ni tlit l'<'flll'\l' lll<llnll ' i i<llq~ic, il l'lll lllotf ic' 1111 1 1 1 :1 1 11' diiTl'n'll l :i' !Jt'CIS o ( <:OIIl l'll'l' ctl hlll';ll nd 'UC:II Jjft- \\ t' l .111 1111\1 \'\:ll ll ilH.' \llllll' 111 th ~'l' "ll('~ o r pO\\l'l ll l<tl hl'l IIIOI'l' lktail.

2. 4

Language, representation, power and inequality

Reptt''l'lll.llitlll .111d rolllllli111r<llion ol nd tu ralmc:mi 11g 1ake' place 1hro ugh l:mg11agt ' l'l' of Sla nclard isa l o ns: tltl' Cl.l ~ lOlli<J I'I' 1 11(':111 ings <lll:tC ii~d [11 1\'0I'rfS and tlit t'll'lttllla1' '''"'' o l ~pe<tkin g- in g i,tll ,ocial and l'llllt1ra l .st ttin g-~>. l11 btll h in,t:lllces llll'llllwr-hip ol llll' langua~t COilllllllllill m:n lw lt'<.H:d or dedcll-d according to tlll' f.m1ili.11il\ ola hutguag~u,t'l'\lil h llw ronlt'lllion~ of'me. In cnn lr;"tto lht ~l'lllimt n L<. (1 [ thl' C fii Ol:ttion li'Olll Lcai' ~ ('l'(' Box ~.:~ carl ier). l:lllg'll<lgt liSl' in lhis ronnll la li nn i' SC\'11"' jllu/f,llw/11 ra thl'r 1k111 < llllOIII<ttic Th i' appro,lt h O\\ es 11lttCh 1 0 the dtHIopmclll ol 'u< 1.11 .1ncl nillllll llheori,iug 11hith ~trt~,l~ 1hc p:u tial and cwllt'l>lt'd na1un of ~ocia l lile:''" h 1hcw i'i" ~ i' of'll'll l.aht'lkd '" postmodc m (p. 100) 1 )111 i1 aho tharacteri -,t~ mut l1 lt'lll ini'l .t n :a h,i~. as ll1'1l :a~ racc. t' ll111 ic an d das~ anahsl'S. ht''l' iclt',!>. 1\IIcll CI'iid'l' IJtHll tiH' ll'aditionai \ 1 l'l;lph:t'l> or f.t':l\'\ :111cl Lht 'onwtimn ahtHI\l 'mech:anical ' ~nactul.di, .tncl 'l'llliotic .tpp1 tt:t< lw:.. h.aH bce11 inllttt' i11 lllllt h cllllllral ,udie~.. \ kt'\ 'ourct fo1 th tm i' IIH 11ork ol' the R11;.,ian
Jwc.tll\1' llf' l \\'1!

Raymond Williams (1983b: 296) points lo two meanings of 'represent' that have developed through history. A representation, he suggests, can mean either 'a symbol or 1mage, or the process of presenting lo the eye or lhe mind'. The meaning of symbol or image is particularly 1mportant. A represenlation re-presents or stands for something else. As Williams explains, this meaning is complicated by the clevelopmcnt of the idea of an 'accurate reproduction'. Hence, a photograph represents that which was arrangecl before the camera, but is also often thoughtlo be an accurate reproduclion of it. \Ve are familiar with the common phrase }b.~~ However, we should e1lso be aware that photographs may be cropped or doc tored lo produce il pMticular meaning. Realism in art or culture seems lo be simply cap tu red in the idea lhat it attempts 'lo show things as lhey really are' (lovell, 1980). However, such simplicity is illusory and realism has been hotly debated. Berger (1972) poinls lo the way 1n which realism in arl develops ata particular hislorical moment. Likewise Wall (1963) illuminates the beginnings of the realist novel, which used real na mes for characters and was set in recognisable places ancl so on. Some versions of realism allempllo capture the details of cveryday life in all its aspects. This approach was labelled naturalism in the n111cteenth century. The novels of Zola are hcld to be an importan t example. O!her forms of realism have wo rked through the praclice of typicality. ll does not maller, it may be suggested, that all life is not shown (incleed, how could it be?) as long as recognisable types are used for characters and events. However, some Marxisl (p. 97) approaches to realism oflen criticise these ideas, as they suggest that there is some deeper tru th or reality lo be known which wlll nol be caplured by conventional realist depiction. Somewhat paradoxically, the a ltempt to capture this reality is often through avant-garde methods. Debates between the Marxist critics Lukcs and Brecht pointed up some of lhese 1ssues, as did the later work of MacCabe. The latter used a very wide definition of reahsm, which he then criticised as being unable to capture the real. Des pite the clifficullies involved in clefining realism, lhe term is much used in everyclay discussions about fi ction. Being authenlic or real is oflen seen as praiscworthy ancl being melodrama tic a criticism. However, such simplifications evade the diffculties surrounding the terms. For example, soap operas are often criticised for lheir inadequate representation of the real: too much happens, they do not con tain enough ethnic minorities, whole rich families share one house and so on. They are no t empirically or objectively real. However, as Ang (1985) in her discussion of viewers' reactions to the American soap Dalias shows, lhese representations may convey ideas and feelings that viewers feel to be subjectively real or importan t. They may be emo tionally realist. Criticising or praising realism is not to be done lightly wilhout a clear definition of the meaning of the term.

Furl hl'l' rm di 11 .,
Lovell, T. (1980) P!Ciures of R eoli!y: Aesthelics, Politics ond Pleosllre, L onclon: BFI. H1 ll, J. (1986) Sex, Closs ond Reoltsm: British Cmemo 195 6-1963, London: BFI. Williams, R . ( 1983b) Keywords: A Voeobul01y of Culture ond S oC/el y, London. Fontana.


-- -------


lntroducing Cultural Studies o r languagt \ '.:'\. \ 'o( n, II C)I ( 1 97:~)

(~t'l' :!O~ l.

Communicalion and representation


.\l : u ,i~t a n a l ~, ,

Bakhlin . p .

\ 'olminm

argm, th at languag e h:h w hl' undl'l,tood in '-mialt"ontl'Xl aiHI in social anili11. l t i' 1 ( . thi' ,uc,, on ' ac1i1 i11 that , >t'l h :tp' ol t t'lltl al i1npo11anct to ,ub't'C( II t'lll cl ewltiJ> II Will'-. ,\ , Rapnoncl Williams (p. :"1) :t rgues: \\\ llt t ll llud 1 1o1 .t rt'iil'd ' l:tllg'tt:tgt .111cl ,ocie l\ 1nn a 11 .trt in 1111inllnngunw. :'\11r (to at pchitili't .lllcl Olthodo:-- nl.ltt'l ia(i,t thtotYJ i' thi' la t .1 ,impk ' tdlntion ' "' ,,pt t'''ion' "' m;ttti.tlle.tlitl . \\'h:11 11c hmt. t:tther. is a gl:t ( ln~ ni thi, reali11 lhrcoHgh langt~<t ge. ll'hic h ;, pran it':d !'<~l ht iull, lll'" , 'aturated h1 aml 'lll 11 .tic,, a l( " tt' i:d :tf l I'll'. IH l11 cling (li'Cidt l<1l\' .tt 1l i11'..\mi. \I It'l' 1h , g r.tpi ng is ""i.d and t <llllIIltuu~ (,,, di,tinu fnul tlll' a1htl.llt t'lltotllll<'l' of m.m .uHl 'hi' llot ld'. 01 '< lllht i"u'nt" :md '1ealit1 . o1 (.mgu.tgt .md m.llt'l ial t':O.,It'n l l'. l. it oc< nr ll'itlt in .111 .H ti n :md 1 h. 1 ngin~ 'oc il' tl . (\\'illi:1m,. (!177: :'J
~la un

o l .rrammar 11' 1'1\' a ll .t"l'"td and rnnkecl ag.ti hl tit e ~oda ( tlllll'l' ll lcll" of (1 ll '" \,._ :--. ' hn<Tuagt "' 11pifkd in 11ritttn lang uagt { ~lll't't . 199:~: L.tbol. 1!17:H. Tht"t' r.111kin~' o ' 1 1 1 11 ert c:x t1nde d to nt ltt'l :1rea~ ol '"' t'XJK'l'l'llll' atHI. 1h t e11 tg l 1 ti te m t' l :11111g o "1( 1.1 ;lc ti on b~ rt lhural 11a1'.' o J' sp eak in g. III'C'a ll)(' ,, ~~ 1nhnlic rtp rc ,e tllatio tl n i ll':li S ni lile- - a
(l ll

silllati<Hl llll1nHclup h1 Pulgranl in d1t' lollot1ing 11a1:


\\'illi:lnh look ill c.'l' iclc.::t H' IY ' c rio tlsh iu h i' 0 11'11 ll'lll'k- ~O IIItH h 'o t ha t la cltI'Olt:cl (''\lt'll'ilt M.'ctitllh ol n1a111 ol lti' 011'l1 hook' w tiH' t Oll'-idtt.Hion nf tht hi,totY and cltldopmelll in '()(ia( contt'' ' ol impo tt:ll11 counph. T ht /ellith ol tl1i' 1101 k c:tmc in hj, book f..',:rmnr/1 ( \\'ill i;ll m. l !l~:~b). 1d ti <h . t ppear~ to be a dirtiun:uT. bn 1 , ;tllt l:llh an o f tl ll' t'Oill l''-ltcl llll':t llillg' and "wia l lll(lllll o l' ~cliiH' t ~rnh a 11d ro11 r~-pt~ \\'illiam' t.tkt' tu ht nn 11 al in rnn tt' lll(lorat'l social ancl poli tical 'llllg~lt'> . .-\-, . .tg leton { 1!11{:1: 11 7) "Xllt'' <oncet ning \ olosittol' hut whit h < onlclequalh lw .tpplicd tn \\ 'illiam,;. ' lt 11':1' 11111 intph ;1 11~<llt c t cd a'k i11g "ll'hat tlH ~ig n nwant ". ht ll o l i 11 \'c .,, ig: u i~~ ~ i 1\ l':tri ed h i\le JI'\ . :ts C11nl l ir ti ng 'lll' ial grou ps. d : t ~St'' incli,iclua ls ;md di'<eHu,,~ , soug lll tu appmp1 i.ut it ancl intl)lll' it ll'itlt tiHir mm nttaning'.'

\\'t r;lll lt'tO~II,t' .t ptr"'" h1 hi, pttt h quilt' :1(>.111 hnlll tht mtelli~t'llll' "' lllt'lligibi(itl' n f (l j, lllll'l':.l lltt'. . llt t 1lll'l'l' phi ,t:t) ll l'l'' o l hj o; ' (WC ' ( lt. liiiHlt tllll'c( :wl tllll: ll icalh :mcl lll h:tbih . Mi ll in lor idt' lllilil';llion. 11 . i11 :lclrlitiolt. ll'lt:ll lw ':t" :111d how (ll' 'a" it. in othtr II'Orcl' hi, 11 k . pt o1 itle ltnthn t lll<'' all tht lwun. Tlw 11 ltat amll um ,trt ,oti.1lh tOIHiitinul'd. hul\l'll't , h1 llw pea ktt , c dtll'.llinu. 'uno11mlin~' prol'1.,,ioll t'lt. Di 1t't tor~ ancl .u 1or ni racli pi.'"' 1~ ho 1 .111111 l rn~11 , ., .1111 p:tl '. ol .llll' CO IIi l'lli' n f lhl' ptl ltlllll < lll t t' li,u:tlh :1n 1'<' 1 ~ , J..I IIlll ll l 1l w .11 1 ol l'c>l ll' l h:ll .ll ll' lt, a llclll. En 11 tlll' pwrhl': th t ttt llpcr:ull t' lll ni .t ptr,cH I find I':O.(lll'"ion i11 (ti, ' (H't'l h. 111 :11 nothin~ of his'l mood' .utd l'l'l'l'l lll'<tl'l' t makt' .tll'l't,tin l.thll' Jilcl~t' lll< ' lll o l a ~p<'ak('l ,imph on thl' h~t'i' ol '11h.11 he talk, like'. (l'lll g" . l ~l.) l. in .'\11Tct. 1!1!1:\t
.-\ cu ltlll':tl stu tl ic' ap proarll l'l'tllillcl' 11, t lla l 11h :n i:-: lw ing dc\l t'illl'd , tlll l ,j up l1 differ e u cc {p. 1:~~>) lmt hi,t.trc ltit, o l prl,tigt ll'hitlt art Cll ttn a ho lti t t .trl hit, ol puwc r (p. 9-1 ). "iltt'l' l ( Hl!l:\1 .tltt hu ~ to tht t t,on.tnn, ollloHk hl' :trgut, th.H the nt oltlw 11ord ' cJI1 e ''in ont k11o1". itllplit~ ~1:1111 ': lltl' tl't' o f tlll' 11111d ,,e can l' :O.Jll l'" so lid;uitl bu t ll'hc n llSt'd b~ a d or tn l', a' in 'a 11 d lto11 :1rt' \l'l' fn litl .l{ lc1d : 11 ~. Lcan itn p h' powt'r and ''"lll~ (Sti'l't'L 1!1~1:1: 7 11. Thl' ,ptciali cd lt,ilotb ;11\cl fotnh ol '(H't'<'lt th:tl c ltaractt' l i't' cenain 'm i.ll grou ping' ~l' l'l'l' L O (;('JitalC COilllllllllC<IIic 111 ,JI I1111lg tltO'l' 11 hn ()((ong 111 thC' grt~np ht ll excl ud t 1ht~s l' 111t o ' " '' eH 11 ~id t a u el c 111 1 1111 '()l':l k 1he la ng nagt'. lt is ckhat ab le ll'lt L' t lte r ,pcciaJi,t'cl ltxiro lh ,ctnantic clnmain' ) ran hl' raukl'd in ttrm' o l' ftllt ctinn:tl ""' ~omt ht in~ nwH' \t't'llll than othtt, ( ~tt wuion ~.-1.~. ~ . 1. :1 ancl :.1. 1.1 ) : but 11h.ll i' ccnai n , thal it , p o,,ihle 10 t,1nk tht ~ori ;t l grouping' 11'1 10 ll't~ p.trtintlat \l'lll,llllic dom;tim. so . for tx:ll nplt-. ill t' pmlosio n a l lang uagl' o l d o ctor' and la111er, i' lllll l't' pre tigiou' tit a n l lt;tl ol' 11111 th g1o11>' (~ ,.,. l>dllll a11d ( h .tptlT 1{). 1 a ng uagt ''a communit'< ll\'e l'onn 11hich H'Pll'\l'nt,, cnn,llnrh altcl t<produn, 'mial and ulillH.ll inequali11 , 1hc.: louh oJ' tht> ne:--1 ,,nion,.



L anguage and power

ht't' C lt:tpter lil int r11clun, thl' d inll' lhion ol' itttqu:tl itic.' in power ( p.

{'tf/111111 j1ulillll

~ll l .uul autlwitl in cnlttu.tiiOitn' and lhl' toul''''"lnawn: ol nt luu~tl practin: it ,


tlW'-l' concnn.; tlt:ll cl t l'l' thl' an.thi' ul'bnguagt'llltt'll it i' link('d ll'ith 1lw do1nains o l
d: 1 ~s. r:1 cc or g't' lldct . T I 1m. H ~ ll'ill lw ' llggtsted lw l""' la n g uagl' Ita:> btrn n 11 illtTea'-

ingh 1Hli 1ici.;ed :111 el imp lic lll'd i11 -,nc i.t 1 '' l ' llg~lt>.-;, t''(Wria l h i 11 ti 11 argtumnt' .trou nd politic,tl cotTtTIIH'" Con't'((llt'tllh . .u g nment ha' lllm tcl ltolll 'tTing bngu.tgt a' a lll'llll .tl ll'>trnnH'Ill lor ol~jtetilel~ rl'prt''l'tll ing and tou n nuni< .ui ng tht 1 it'\1, of a u nilit m gro11pi ng lo '>cl'i ng l:1ng uag" "'a politi n tll ~ a1H I ntltt ll a llt dtargt'd m c dium un1 tdli ch gn u p' 1\TI'.' lle lo 1 ('lllll rol. lknedict .\nckr,on ( 1~1!1 1 ) clrt11 :lllt'lltiuu 10 tht tcle ofprin 1 lan gua!{c~ in tnabling tht t j, :mrl spn.tcl ol natiolt:tli,m. :\t pn' 't'llt. it , ~ulfi< ietll to ,ll ~le o n1 1hat thread ol .\ l)(k-r,on 's arg llllll'IHlhat sa1, th ;Htll t illll't1lin n nl'p1 int lang u;tg l' g;11c a ' n t'll fi x it1 111


Language and class

lan~n:tgl' and c re:uccl uagt' ol (HII~tr: p:1rtiut la r lonn' o l' la n g n ;1gt' lwc;lll1l' dolltill.llll. Spoktn l.tngnagt'' 1hat lll' lt' clt"t' in lonn and lll< abuh11'\ to printecl l.tng n:t).{l' 1nre tlll' nw~t ptt'tig-inu~ (. \ncler<;on. l \1\11: -l-1 -.-). In thi, ,,;11 1ui tten l:H1gt 1 agl' C< tlll t' lo bl' I't'll'l'd as m ore cor rcct' tlt :111 'POkl'il l:lng u.tgt :11 1cl ora l t'OIIIIIltlllie<nion 1\,t,. and o l't t' ll ~ Lill is. l'l,tlll;lll'cl ~ocia lh anorcli 11g to j, rk g rce ni'
l'l''l'ttiblance to II'I'tttn language (Sti't't'l. 1 !1!1:~: Ltt<h ,al.. 1 \1/-1~) . In thi~ prole~ ol t' lalu.ttion. 11al ' ol '(Waking 'lldt a~ clialtt t (loc-al 1.1111-{lla~e ). :tcrcnt. choicl' ol word,

T h e II'OI'k of tlll' \1)( iologi-;1 l~.ti l g l'lll,lt' ll ( (q2..J-) b an iniiiii' III:t l t'X<lllt(>k or rcsearc h lin king ,oc ia l c lass. la ltg llagc :11t d 'Pl'tr lt. Ed ura ti oual polic ics ami pr:1 ni< ,., in Britai n and tit e L nittcl ~talt'' in lh t l ~)(j(l, IH't'l' mu c h af'fectl'cl in tlttir d ('si~ 1t an d implcnwnl:ll ion h1 lt i~ explanationo; ol th t lai lurc ol 1o un g woplt'. In cssen re. lkrn,t tin aq.~ tt ed 1hat hi' l'l' ' t'arch<'' ~hollt'cl th a t IOII't'l-t la'' 11ll'ltlbl' l ' ol Fng lislt socic t ~ spokl' a l:lll.l{llag't' ll tal 11a, n 1/!'I'/1'1/ in co n1p;1ri,o11 11it1 1 t hl' frrli(ll'fl/1'11 roclt tlll' tuicl clle d,t\\L'\, T hi' l'l'\li'<'Il'd codt hauclirappcd lhl'tll in tlt lir C[lll':>l lnt \liC ia(


and erotwmic bellt' t tll<'lll bc<.tn,, rhook '' hidt ll't'l't ' 'l'l't1 h1 lknt,tl'in '' tlH < hid agent~ lor ,ocial mnbili 11. requirl'd tl w tht' ol (' labor.llt'd rodt'' El:thor;lll'd eodt' IH' I ,.


lnlroducing Cultural Sludies

Communicalion and representation


nc c l''''" 11!1 the in td ke lll:tl :u til ll ni k.1111ng :111d l01 1111' ~ot i;d ami poli lit .ti p1 1 1pmc, o f ctccil ing- f.11ou r:c hl, ncog'tt ili~>n lrolll he r,. Rl''-1 1inl'd 111 pc 1hlic '!Jt't'c 11 rodc, ,IIL' r h :cr:JCit'l'i ~ ccl l11 lll l' followin g: l . '-,lcn11 . ~ I'<Ctlli ii :C1c.tlh ' i111pk. o("tlu uulini,lccd 't'l lll'lll'l'' ,,, .1 1>oo r 'llli:C<l lcal lo1111 h 1n"ing 1h1 :cl!II' 1oiu l.
' 1

\inq>ll' .llld rq>e1 lll


of e on jutH 1ion' ho. tllt'n. het.lll,t'l.


1 il llc "''' nf 'llboJclin.ltc' Clall'il'' lo doll'll thc ini1i.1l t .H q~olit, ol' tiH dc llllilalll '-lll>jcc L.

l. ln< 1hi li1 1 lo lwld a lo JJ IJ:I I '-ll bjen lh mug l a ' JKn h '-l'<j lll' IH't: ""'' .1 cl,lot., ltcl llfo 111 1 1:11 ion ;tl l <~lllt' ll l j, bi' 1 i l~lll'd.

Ri ~id

.mclliui1tcltl'-c' ni :cdjct 1in, ancl .H h c h,_

lnflcqlll'll l lht' ol intptJ,oH:cl p1 ououu' ,,, '"hjtc '' ol tOIHiiliou. tl d:cthl''.


' l ccuc'nl ll'-t' ol ,l,llt'lllt'lll' ldlt'lt' tltt 1e""" .1 1 1d t; llldll,ion .lit' 1 o uf(HIIlcll'd p 1od 111 e :c c.u q.; nric- '-lalt'll lt'lll .
H.. \ ltll'gv 11 11111hn

ol' \ l alt' lllt' ll l ~ ph ra't'' llt:tt ' ig 11:d :t l'l't II I'l'lllt'lll lnr lll t' p1 'l'\o ll ~ '-IH't'l h WC] IIt'lltt' 1<1 lw l'l'inl'orced: \\'o ulcln ' l l ~ Yo11 ,,.,.;. You l.ucm : c' ll. T hi' ll cH t'" , t<'nne d "111p:t11 1t'1t ti rn d.u it1 .

'l. flld \du.d ,cf,c 1oll f111111 .1 _(I'Oll> ol dolll.llt piH ,I\l''- 01 wqliL'IlH' IIll flt'Cjlll'llll\
11 '

111 .

10, lf ll' ind I idu.I J f lll:t li(it :IIOII , implio l in IIW '-l' lll t' IH'I' 0 1g < uli,:ction ; l i' ni lnp lit l 1 11\',llli llg.

f,u lg ll,lg'l'

'' 1 o~it. l uu,difit.uion' and 'ttl,, ut nu<h.tled through .t g-t,tl11111.llicalh tnnlplt' '''l lle'llt c < on,t lll< 1iu11 . l''IH'c:tlh- 1h1 cu ~h tlw ll'it' o l .1 1.11 1 gc of' 1 IJiljllnttiulh .cncl ' llholl .iJl:llc c lotll'l'' .

'lll 11'-L ' o( prt' pu~ i li tlli S 1h:1t ll( l it; tt t l o~c~d rl'l al i<~n '- llljl ' ~1 < ll l'll ;t~ prt pcl'-itiolh :\. IJt'<l lo 111 .11 i11clit .Ht 1t' 111p111 ',d and ' l).lli;d <OIIligu itl .
l. h 1'1111 111 "'l' 111 tllt' pt'l ,1111.11 prollollll '1' .
.1 . . \di'-< lllliII.Ilil' '-l'lt< 111111 h 11111 .1 l.lllg t ol ,tdjnt\\'' .uul :uhc1,

fi. lnd l qu;tlilic .11 ion " h ich i~ 1t'l h:tlh lile el i:lltd tlll <Hig'll ti te l c l a1<~ Il,1Jip' II'th u :n1 rl hl'tlll'\' 1 1 '-t' lll t' l l<'l '~.

-; n

lllll l't' ,IIHI

r , lllt''-'I't' 'll llhiii,III 11h ir h cl i,c rn linot ll'' IH'III'I'<' n 111C'a n il,!.i''- ll'i ll li ll ' IH'l'C h 'l'< llt' ll tt'' l.c1 1Hr than lt'illf'orri ng clolllill.lll 1 11111<1' 11r p hr:l'-t'' 111 :u rump.u11ing tite 'l''llll'llc ,. in a diflu,t. gt'IH' ralis<d 111:111111'1.


1 olll~ll.lgt 11'1' "hilfl p1ill' 10 tlw po"ihilitit, inhtJ t'lll in .1< cnH qHnal hin,lrtlll le u tlw <llg.lll'-il~olt:o-ptlieJHe. (lkrn,ttin . l!lfi l: l!i!ll .. in Dit1nt :ll. 1!1/fi

l\o-n,ll'il IL'I j,('(( tlll' c dl'll'l i'-I C\ of l l''-I I'\'l l'd o iiHil'i;lhe~l'; l t('d codc' a llttlllht'l' 11f I 1 11<'' i11 11 11' lig l11 oltm pi l'ic :ti a nd tltclll'l' II'a l 1\'nrl. a nd l'IC'11111:1ih :l i ~<lllduncd 11H'11 1. 11

;_ hnport<tlll 111 not l' 1hat tl w ( h.lllg' ng to nlig ur:nioJh l't'lt:t l th l' dill1111ltto, ., idtntif\ing .1 M'l .,[ inll l't'c'll l t h:nae 1<'1i'ti r' .,( l' lil1111 :tl 111111". ' '' lw i:1lh 11lwn . "' in lhi..; c:c.<l'. lh tl a rt lin l.t'd in o ppo~ ition 1 11 car h o lher. Bt l n~tei n , ckpicli olll uf lh l' Jc l :uiu n ~ h i p ht'liiC:l'll L 1 11 .~ ll :lg'<' :u1d da" 1' 1t' lllllli' t'lll o l tht ')api r-\\'llod lllpotht'>'; ndl'l'<l it , po,..,ihll' 111 l't'l,l'-1 Bt'l ll'lt'lll , .lll,dl'-1' 111 lt'llll'- ol lollt'l- and 111cldk-tl.1" !.{lllllj>' llttii>\ilg clfltl t'lll ' tllottght lle~tld' 1\cllh ~, potht'" '' gi1c l~ti~ht tu 1lw effet h ol 'ouali,:uion in e,,hli,hing l.tktn-tw l'l.tllll'd ,,;~' f 'L'l' ng t ltl' 11111 Id 1h.u ronn llw le ' XII II l' o l IIHIIIg'lll r011 g'I'OII p llll' lll h tJ ' \nd in l>o lh ca~l'~ 11ay~ of 1hi 11 kin g :1rc: a rc., poll\l' lo ~nO t'CO ilOIIIir t'll\ ir.,llll\1' 11 1'-. BcJJI'- It'ill\ 1mrk i' distin c til'l' in lh:tt it i ~ itHJk in ~ :11 la ng uagc: 11~1 II' ihi n :111 .tpp.11<'1Hh ho1110g'l'1H'0LI' l,lllg li:Cg't' g'I'O ll>. lllll'll':l' S~lpir '._ <tlld \\1101 d '~ '-lUdi e~ lcl;l[l' l\1 CJ II ilt cliffelt'lll :111cl di,t IH t l.nlg 11agc grou p': thc 1110'-l 'tanlng clilll'nncc lor out plll po,, , Bt'lll'-lL'n, of 'f>l'cch ancl l.lllg'll:l_(l' ll'ith thc: ,uuc lltiT d IH:qualillt'' ni IIH' Engli'h cla'~ SI '-ll'lll . For Bl'rnstcin. da,~ha~td languagt , not ,jmpk \,UJ,l! nn h111 rdk ct~ the hiera rc hii:.; o l 1ht Engli'h da,s '~,,m II'th tht const'!Jlll'IH t' tlt:c1 'illi iH' hcng 11 age~ aH' 'oci:tlll' a nd n tltllra ll~- dcHninant. Surt'C'S' Cll l lll'~ to lho,< ll'ho ' ilL':tl- 1l1l' clolllin:c n1 l<~n gu; gt :u1<l uw iL.s ~ l.i l b . 1\l- Jil\l t' ll <~ rg u es L ha l l'orn1a l o r t l:thor:t ltcl languagT i~ bt'lttr t han puhl ic or lTSI rlll'cl l angt~agt lll'CIII't' i1 is UJ11~1 Lll tld tln oug h tlu: owration ol logit a ncl .dhtrau tho11g h1 - q11al itit' that are fHnninn a lh llt'tt'"an for k.uning. l.oll'l'l<:la,-, lang uagt' i~ mo1e conlt' X1 bnund a nd t'III'OIIragt'' thl' :1'-'l'ltion ol Hnifonn i t ~. no t tlw :1ppnciatiun of dilkn ncc In thi' ' ' '""' lmH'It 1.1" l;~n gu age i ~ a k ' ' C<llllj)l'lt llt Ion u 1h :~ n mdriiL'-cla's la ng u:cgt and i t ~ ' IW:tl-c" :cnd uS< 'I'' are: n u t ahlc 1 0 lw ndi 1 l'rom <dnn ti<\11 ll'hic h rtqurvs cli-;crim lnllioll :nHI log ic. lk rnstc in '' a na[y,s '-llgg't'<h tha t tl w t la" l m~c ni' Eng li' h -;oc ic ll' , wrpc ltla lt'cl .11HI mack l'i,iblc throug h l:u1 g uagc; la ng uaK(' bmh n:o pesents (p. Hl ) a ncl ' "" 'lillllt'' tite cla~.., W'-lCill. i\e11 emph.t,c.. ~ in 1ultur.d ancl :.ocia! tltcon. more cmpi t it .11 'lttdit' aliCI l'h:l ll ~t'' in poln making and incpl<'lllt'lll<Uiun haH' c:llkd n to que~ tion malll' ol thc cunch1,ons Of' lkt'IISII'ill'S \1'()1'1, , C:ulnlli'IIS<tlOl'\ cclllt:11ill1 \\';" l'l'C01llll1Cil((tocl for c hildrcn II'IJII !Jacl allq.('edh su iT rl'cl li1 1 g ui, 1i r d e pri1a tiu n . a cond i1i ot1 s:lid to be rootc d in lht lwnw li't o l' thc child ancl in p:u1 ic ula1 in 1ht llloth c r-c hlcl l'l'latonshi p. Sm h po li(n ha1c 0 bt 111< re al'<'lllllllllHI.Illlt)\1' bL'cn sii' tc htd w working witl1 ' ' lwo J, tu enabl<' tltt'lll 1 inK to a ll ch ilclrl'n. 1101 ju't thO'l' ,,ith I.II Ollll'cl cultural ch:u a rti'I'tic' . Thi' '111t h lt;, bccn p rom ptcd ll\' tmpirical <~mi thetll t' tic.d 11o rk 11hic h h,1 , ,ho1111 that a ll l .ul~l l.ll,! t' ' are.. ch ara c t eri~ec\ bl' t he ca pac 11 for logical argume n 1 a n d .tl> '-1 r:wt tiH11 1~ 1t 1: 1hc prI ikg ing Of Olll' fo Jl'lll 1 1f ],lll_gll<lg't' .1gai 11 \J 0 111\'1''; s a jill/i/imf :llld IH >1 :1 1i 11g11 i'l ir .Ct'l . Conscql ll'n th thc l't.':I'-C llls 111 :11 c hldn.> n l'ai l mnst he soug h1 in lht realms n i' "'t ia l < ulcl politica l !'conom1. 11 i:-. in lht;..e an:a' thaLt iH' 11'11rk o!' lkrn,Lc in l't' lllOIm inlliH'IIIi .ll. as h i~ linking of .;.ocia! '-ll'l ll'llll'l.: II'th la ng uagc opened up a 11ckr illl'l''-tigation i1ll11 idta' ol' domin;mt c ullllrc..' a ncl th eit fo n11ation . tra n,mission 0111d maintc nanc<'. g, eh ,1\1 ing allt'lllion to tlw ~oc ;d ami political d i n lt'n,ion~ o l c ul1111 a l lon11' lkrn~H n l t' hlllll'd 11H' con tC'nton th011 lang nagL' is ~ mpl~ :1 11'<1111ical de1 icl' lor llll' rcprc..''>l'llt:llion :n11l COilllllllllCa tion ni r nl1ttl't'.



lntroducing Cultural Studies

Communication and represenlalion



La nguage, race and eth nicity

In 1~lli li Bttl'ilt'l ancl En~d t ll appl itcl lk t ll ' ttin, IIHot ,., hl tlw l.tnguagl' ol hl,\( k <hildn:n in llw L'11it('d ~l .llt' ' .me! cnnt lwkd th.ll 't hl' pool lltdlet .tl>ilitl o( BI:Hk 1\1/ti: Stl a11rl tht lmn'r da''< llilrlrL'Il , re ll !'l'lt'd inthl'i t ll:t(Jtoqn:ne ~J>t 'l't h' C 1\ :1 dl'l'iCt' I(JJ :1\'CJl iI'i llg .I IHI c hildnll shn\\('d ' ; total l:l< k or ;thi lill 10 ll>t' l:mg ll :tgt' < prn c e-.~ i ll g illl(mmiioll . l.:111g 11 agt I~ J t lh t' lll io; 1111\l'il'lc h <tncl 1 1nt ,.,.,, INfttl ' ( lkH ilt't ancl b lgl'h n.tllll. 196!i: :~~~ . i 11 Di u mar. 1!171\: ~ 11. flll'-"t' t o m hl'ioth ,;.l'l't' 1 h.tlktwl'd h1 1 ahm ( 1 9/~h) lrom iltL li nd 11g' of a lllllllhtt ol 'llldt'' 1h.u IH <ondtu lt'd 011 1ht~ ''t' ol 11011-'l.uul;u el E11gl'h In l>l:tt k IIHttll'. 11i' 11ork dt' IIIOi h ll.ll e cl 1h:11 iiJt l:lllf{lla.; 1 ol hlac k 1'0111l1 ( 1\l,tt k E11g l,J1 \ '< 'l'll:lCIII:II CJI' Bl:\ ) ll':ts diff(rt'lll lrnm 1lt<11 ol llt cldil'-r l a ~' ' Jll'l'Ch l'cot nh: IHlll'l'l<' r. tu dl' ~tri bt B l~ \ :ts .1 1 m11r l:ll lg' Uagt ,,;t., ,111ph m idd ll'-d:1'' iclcolog1. 1 a i)C)I critid,l'CI IIH dat.t to lln1io11 11\t' iltcd, o l HtTt' it'l a11d Lngdt11:11111, ~lllch on 111o toll tll': (a 1 tlll' data did 11111 dnt rilw black lan ~ll.l~l' "'t' de,piH purponing In d1 ' o- in l tht lllaHI g.nhl'rl'd 11a," '1'1 ol l'l''jllll1'1'' to i''llt'< 'L'I In t)ll' l'l'Sl'<ll'<'lll'J''; (1) t]W illl t'l\ itII'L'I in IIJ t' '(11()1 ll:tS :111hi lt' .HiiiJI - J.:thm l'll lll l' ll ti~ ill:il \ ildl ; JK' I'SOII\\'CIIilrJ IJl' ~ ('( ' 11 h1 IJ Jad, 10111 lJ ,1\ an :ll lli tol l l ffg lll'(', ; l l'Jllt''l'lll:III.t' 11[ ,1 do1 11in a11l n lh tl t ltltllll'. lo 11hom tht'l II'O Uid IH>I 'JH',Ik l11'1'h .md opvnll. \lih nugh lht u itit 'ill , .1 metlmdolo{iral o11e. it , anotht'l' remi11dt1 that J.ut~ll.l~l ' a11cl lan!{ll.tgt lht' .trt ami th ;u it , in1po11.1111 111 ll't':ll tritit:ilh' :1111 t l1h 1h:11 languagt ' l)l'ak' fcll t'H'I\1111('. Cl'l'I'III'IJ tn . :11 ;IJ lillll'' fl1c f'abt ir:11 ion ni la ngt l:tg'<' " ~a ll :llt ii':J I. poli1iralll llt' tltra l dt'l in 1d1id1 ' ltIJ, 1hi11g., "' the1 :lrt i, IIIH' ol il lt' IIH'<III' h1 11'!ticl1 I.Hig ll.tgt ;utd ll'l ltlt arf' a~"'< iaH<l. 1 ht'll' ,in E11gli'h < uhtu t' ht'litf' th.u n.lllllt' ami tlw 11.11111.11:tl'l' llllthlul .me! l'l'l iablt ,11ce tht' .111' appa lt'll lh otlhiclt the ll',lilll ol lu11nan tll:tnipul.uinn: l:mg11agt ,, ;" 11e h:tl't' ~l'L'I1, fl'l 11o hl' pan lllll.llt lrt a,it i ~ 'o ill,linniH.uHII.t ktlll cn g t < llll l'cl. It ,; , 1J 0 n gc :h 11'11 111 . T hi' d iscour,t :1ho11 1 la nunao 1 ' lt'Jl l'm111 lll! '.' t' : 1 ~St 1111 p 1 i o n s lo St'<' la ng t1:1 o lfer' 1lw "PJ>OI'lllnitl' 111 knoll' tnnll 11i r nug h la ng uagt. In Jj, rva,o11ing l.tngt;~g<.'"', t'' ll t'lllt'h JlOII'L 'IIu l lot i1 hod1 ron<.tit ult'' 11111h anrl gu,u.llllt't'' 1n11h. In 1hi~ lonnula 1ion. I'JIIC,tiolh almut I.mgu.t,gt ll'l' all() " !10 ,pe:~ k, 101 '"""n; arC' 111:11 wr' ol gn. 1t ,ig11 ilicant t' 1or 1d IO t'l'tr gi ~t' 1lit acn11 1 111 i' ; hle lo prononn ce 1he tnllll o l llli ngs. and:11d l:ll lg'll:t,L:t' 111:11 ~ ul'kr IIH' f:ue 11( 111 lltl, c l :~ i 111 i 11g 1 0 S peakcrs and 11'1'it'l'' o f'non, 1 spcak l'or th t' lll 111' or tlwir 0\111 ;1('(1111111' ol lluir 'iln:llCJII IH'ing dtd;ut'(l llllll'l lt' 01' tlltllo nlll o l allt' tllio n. Smh practi<c.'' halt' markcd tht cli,tipline ol litel,ll'\ critici,111 "lll'IT. lor t''\am pk. 11 ri 1i11g'' 1n un fonnt'l <o Ion ial COII11 1rin 11 1i1lt'11 i 11 111 t' lllt'l ropo! ita11 l.angnagt h '" t httn derl:~ rtd 11111 to IH' 1 i Lt'l:l 1urt (. \ ' IH rol 1 / ni.. 1!l ~\ 11 . l'h i' l't'l'd in i' dl'l iwrl'd n 11 1 1\'o cn unts: (:tl lor<~ l 1arian 1 ~ o l lllt' nwtropt1li1 a11 lang-uagt' ill t 11u t ll'g itllll:tlt for th t IITiling "l'liltr:nurl: 1bJ ll'l'il ing a ho ut colcll lial c)l' pm1 co lon ia l ,ocit' tl (r0111 lhl' l'XIK' rt'IH t'' o l 11atiw 1woplc, , 1101 :1 ll'gilim.llt' 'lllljt< 1 lor lii<T:tllll t'. ' J hi' l'Xampl 1 't'nt~ "' another illu ~u,uon ol l.mguagt .1, ' tlw meclilllll tln oug-h which a hil'rarchit;tl 'II'IICLUI'<' o l )>Cl\l't'l , )ll'l)ll'lll:llt'cl :nHI illt' llll'dilllll thl Ollg' h 11hic h COIICt' J>Iion' of " 1111th .. . " urdtl ". and " 1 t': d i 1 ~" he tOIIH' t'.,l:th li'hl'd' (. \,h crot'il'l al.. 1 P~! l ). In 1he l:itt' ol th l' iul ptriaJi , in,\.\ cu ltural po11er o f 111<' 11'tl1HI I i~:m l.u1 g 11agt 1he 11'1i1 n' a ud 'Jlt:tkt'l' ol loca l l.tri.uion' o l tht langll:t).{l' arl' t'11CIIll l'.tgtcl ), tl1ti1 tll111)l:tll iot' lo



lnglan is a bitch

11\ ' 11 lll .in, Clllllt' ICJ ICJIIII 1ni lbl' lo 1\'tJ I' k pan d i :liH I.dl gl'oll ll IJII I llorki11 ' p:1n di :mcla hg ronn i ll aroun 1'u do11'1 g't' l fi k111111' I'CHII ll" lngl.m i~ a hitdt derc , no t''tapin it Jng la n is :1 hil t h dl're's no l'll nnin ' ldlt'l' lt ,llll il

' t h \'i r 01111. 1htl' arl' lll'g'l'd to ' ln11g o lf tlw llll'lropol it:tn 1nat thc I;JIIg ll .lgt "' il' i1 w;1 llll':tllillg' :J IIcl a." ociat iell l' o l lh t )ang uagt :111d 111 <~ppropl :llt' i1 for l lli'I' ll\\'11 lhl' ;md 1, d1 e~C' auion' 'makt langu.tL:t' "bl':tr tht hurdl'n ul ulll, 011 11 culturalt:o.JH'ri<'IKt'. (, \ , h croll 1'1 al.. 1!1~\1: :~ll) in orckr lO "'comt'l in a b11guagt th.u , not ww, 01111 lht ,pi 1it 1ha1 i' elllt' ' mm"' ( 1!l :\~: 1ii. i 11 \ .;)H ro( 1 1/ lfl.. 1\ l~!l: :\!l l . . \n l':O..IIIlJllt o l 1hi' l'flll he st't'll in il w vx lran l'ro111 il lt' pot'll l ' ln ~l:tn i' .1 Hitch ' h1 tite black Hri ti,Jt pm1 l.illlo ll Kll'l'~i.Jo lt11 '0 11 ( ~t't' Bo-.: TIH' ll'tll k n i' Eci11.11'CI Said ( 1~1!1:1) ('l JH'I'' 1h e 'allll' ll'ITitol ,. ol t ullura l illl(ll'l'i.tlism a~ ri~tcl ahull' .tiiKi t 111 1i a pt'l\)>tclill tli.ll ilhuninalt'' h1111' III'll'l'' fnun uwtropolitan cotlllll il'~ h.llt', tlllottg h llwi1 lan~na~c. t l'l',Jll'd .111 iu1.1gv ni 'oiiH'r 'IKit ti t< 11hith is a procluc t ,{ languagl'. H i ~ arg tlllll'lll i' 1ha1. :tlollg,id t llll' cl t~: tlui11g orloca l c ullurc ancl n tltt1ra l prud u CI~ o l' 'uth l' l' ~oc i t lit>. a p:u.t lh- 1 pronss 11." I:I Kt'll pbuT i11 11'ltic ll lllt'li'O poli ta n H'r,ions ni th C''L' '"tittt'' ha,e btt'll t onlig url'd. Tilt''t' ll'l',ioll ' :11(' in arrord ll'ith tht in1a~i11i11 ~~ ulmtllupoli tall 'llt't'll . 1101 11ith llit'l':O.)lt'l l'IHt'cllt':tlilit' olnatil<' ~ocia) at hno;. ll w t-.:amplt 'l'l'\'t'' ,1, ,1 lultlier iJiu,ll~llion ol tht poiH'I ol l a 11~ 11.1Kt ' 1 0 l. cnlls tillll t' lhl objt'l'l e ( reg;1rcl and 'imnll.tll t'U ti,Jyartirmlll t' lllllh n l'th:tt l t'g< II'C Tltt fotCt' of illt' ('11111111\' 11 1' ahtllll tll t' polilic:llu 't' o r l;lllg ll:tgt 111(1\'t'S tll t' cJi,c u,sion ;\11,1\' J'rom J a n g ua~t a.; ; lt'till ti r al ll,ll'lllllt'lll ('CII\IIIIUili('ali11g' po Jitil.'all\ ll l'llll'.l l inform.uion 111 one 1lta1 ~~~ t'"t'' 1ha t langnagt t:tk t' l' lllt'.tll in~ 1ro m 1ht ,o<i.ll ' e u ing' in 1rhich i1 opt'l a le.,. \\'Jwn it , h1 tlw JlOIIt'rlill it 111:11 bt a .;ubtlt in,numt'lll of oppres,iun . llll' 111UI'C' ~o bt't':lll,l' or it ~ app: u't'llll\' ll l'lll l'itl alld ll:tllll'ill a n ihute,, In IIH'st c irc un1 s l ~ll l Cl'' iL , no ' urprisc Llt < ll a'pir:11H na tio na l gro up~ '<'l'k 1n recrca te o r r1,i, il\ lucalla ngu:tges w "111boli'e lhl'it iclt' lllill' ancl c.11 1,. tlie ll'eig h t ul 11ll'ir puli tcal ambit io11. T ht n1 ,al ol 1khrtw in tht 1 l't';llion ol tlw nation -~l<lll' ol hra d is om txampll': latlgll.l!{t' "' a politkal ,,lit' in C:an.tda, Sp.1in. F1.tnce ami \\',tlt' .tre o the1 t'X:tmple,. In .tlllht''>t' ca't'' 1111' in1 e n1 , w rid thtm,t'ln.; n f idc ntities (p. ~2 1 ) impu~tcl b~ tht l:lng11:1 g t ni' o l lwrs. Sudt pmnssts han- :~ l 'o htT II l't' n lral 10 lh l' d e ba ll'S ;IIJo ut ' political cntnt llll'.,!' and l .l ll g u ag~ in ill(' 1\I!Hk So 1ilt' l'<' )a;, lll'l'll a coi1Ct'l'll lo c ha ng t l.tngua~e tht' tn L'limin.llt' "Jlllll'"in 11\t'' a 11d impl ic;uion~. ~ollll' prolt"ional groll)>'


lntroduclng Cultural Studies Communicalion and represenlation



2. 7
BSA Guidelines
10 :1 111;111

t 'lt'l\lll l t>. llll.tllil\Oll'>h . I\' IIi tlll l t' " l'Jll ioll


111 anhn111' \ltll ki11g 111.111 1 11ockl' of 111;111

1 11
Ollt' 111.111 ,JIl\\


tonlt.rUI ~L I~IJ>l:l:o. ;u~d 111 1he dellltry of ~nth paper' .11 conkren t n ,111 cJ , 0 nn. 1 ht''t gnrdl'lrnt~ .lt'l' llllcndc:d toa,,,, BS. \ n 1trnber, 11 11, 1 cr .,, " . 111,.., 1 1 . ,,t,, 1 ' 1 .t llg narre
h i,. ~>

'.. 'x~lin

. . that

1~011-~cxiq . langna~e

,!Jo u Id be 11 ,ecl in ih jou 111 af,. in

'' ' 1011111.{ j)t'oplt ~onH ol ll1 e fm ll h it take '....' ,, 1 c! ''' '' '" .' ? ' ,...,~ t'\ 1l ll g' ;t llli WX ISI L~ lll.t lrl cs.. 1 htr ,,rJI hl'lp rcacltr, to t'Othidcr tlw t' \l l'lll 10 ldlkh :lllclth t' .a ~ 11 ~~~IIC'h ~~e t.thtr clt<tl l ct~gt or reproducl' iii:ICl'tr l'a lt'. ~e~i, and h et<.'I'< J~txi~l .t.'>'> l1111ptton ... 111 ou r IHlrk. fhc guiddint, 1\'ill bl' rclt-lant lO lt"tchers 'illd . l . 1 a 1tt h o"' i 11 ~CJr i o 1 <1" 1 . . t 11 ' .111 e . .,.
f . .
.t ltnmatt fon:f.llltl'r' louncling fal ht'l' o ld m.l'll'l''

lll:l~ lt ' J' lllj}l L k;tr Si r~ cf SSL'Ill 11<11 l', fm l<ld r: t~l 't'lll in ;d

11 1

11 o1 khu111' "<ll kn. 1' ''k in).{ ptt pk modd' ol tlll' I)L'I''on ont ptr,on d1o11 po hu ol flrcr fi rc-figh H'l :llll l ''lOI' loutHkr' t l,t.,.,i t ;ut :tni'l" donli!H't'l'illg: H'IY , J-jl ft tl top r op1 original lkar ~i r :-- Iada m iulonn . puhl icist c l a~~ i c:tl . lonna1in


Do 1101 ll~t '
t11 e; u1

lrttlll', tllt. ll' 1 ' 1r ".'l'tl 1 . TII< 'I'C' :lrt a lt crn: 1tI't'~: ,.., t' t",1 ANTI-SEXIST fJlTSOII . pcopJt,

SEXJST 111:111 rnan ki nd ki nd

Tite 'gt'lll'l ir' 'III0/1 . , 1dlt'll .IU'Illll l>a niccl h~ 1ht ~e n er i r' '/110: T lt t' '.(l'll l't ir ,,; should bl' .11oickd. Botli f'cllli ll IIt' a11d ntasn tlin l' pro 1 HHII1' cau lw 11\l'cl 1\'il l'l't' ap>ropr iate: 111'/.,ft~ . .1/ l!t. lti 1/ hn. t'lL .\il emaliH s tratcgic~ in cl11dl' (;t ) tl11 I L't' of he plural :111cl ( b l lhl' o111i"ion ollhircl pe r,un ponollll' l'lllrl' il:


tt~ p o ndc nl

l1as :hkt'd 1\'htIhcr he 11'b hcd l<) pan iLip:11e in th t



\IILY('I' .

nH'n and 11omcn. hnm a nit~. lnnna nkind

\~'htn rdt'll'lll'l' to both ~~xe' i~ inll'tldl'cl. .1 l.trge 1111111 bc 1 ol p lu "'l'' 11 , 1 IIW 1101 el 111.111 01 ollwr ma,culnH crlliI'akllb ( 1 . , r.11 t1,.1 111 cl ., 1 . 1 . . ...... ,. t. .11 ){t' 1111111 )t'l' o 1 1\l' PI ncn l IHllllh "'t tht ~ullrx 11/au . lht'rcb~ l'Xduding 1\'tllllCil lro111 ll tl pir 1111 1 t~l llit 1\wld. 1h<'St' '11011ld he rq)larecl b~ 11101 e preci,1 11011 .,1.,i,1 .tht'l ll:Hilt'~ ..., lhl tcl hdtm:
SEXIST lil e 1 11:111 in 1h c 'iiTC I lal'lll,nl lll ;nHnadt thl' rig ht1- uf lllall Chairlltillt l'o l't' 111 a 11 111 a 11 pol\'tr r r:t f'hlllalt ' lllt'll lll< lllllIIg A:\'TI-SEXIST
people in gcnnal. pcoplt !:11 pc rson. 11 011 e~ wn ~~m h ctic. ani licial. lll :Hltti;H.Ittred pcup l e~' t ci li ; c n s righ1 ~ : th l' ri ght.~ of llil' i11rliridual C:hair

A:\'TI-SEX I T: i 11 IIH' '" l'\'~'1.

( b ) SEX IST:

Rt''Jl<llHit-nl '

a-; kt'd 1\'IH'Ih<'t they 1\''-hl'd lo p:t tliri p.llt' amplt- timt lo f.lnti li.ui,t himsclf 11i1h

1 ht t hild 'hould hl 1lw ll':-1 n1a1et ial.


A.'-'Tl-SEXIST: .\m pk lime ,flollld be .tllo1Hd lor tht r hild lo bt< onlt' lamilia t ll'ilh th l ll''l .
BSA Allli-Rn c is t Lang ungc: G uidancc for Good Practicc
Tfii ' Ji,f{ illg !1'/111 11'11/1 (/J/111/11'1/ /.1 /l lt /flt

1/111,1.!,1' 11/ (1'/11/1 b_Y I Ot'tf

lf'iJI/I/1 11'"1'1/

11'/ll'liii,L!, /IJ

1/(/.l f'd r11o1111 d t llllllt it.r . 11 i1 1~\ 1 w 1111'111/ 1 1111 1 '.\ll!lllllil, /i.11.

11111 rt drjlllith, guif/, , . \1

1 0tia/ ltitltlt \1.\ .1hun/d {l(mt tnr'. failgua. w i 1 no/

lll{i~jl 1 111tl mjudil'l'\, fmt it i .1 ollfl 11.\'lll llllir.

un(r jJOll'l'ljuf a .1 i l llru l'l lll'l'' I/ IId o ill/lil'/'1 .1 As \ II t h , it 11111 11 b1 nmguimf tllfllilll'\1' allll
I/( /

olhl'l fl' /11/,\ u illl'l'-l'l/11'1 ,1!.'1', lw 11'1'1.\l'd 111 disltfllwu r rt/ 11 jrt\IPI mlr llta11 !ht g uill!fill l'.l 1110,1' !11 jm!J/i.l /11'1 /. / 11 tll/dt/IIJ/1 , lf/111' g llitf fill l' \ ~/111/1/d
II'/111' 1'1111111/ llll i l r.

~UJlL' I'I'i~u r

11\ 1111 ill l l'l'l'fUII!.f!l' 1tilftill // ,1(/1'10/ /hit! fftl' /f.\', \

1 11111111 IIJIIIIIII'IIIS 11 i ll b!' trtlm1 info atl'/1/1111 1 111rf l'l't 'il'wl'll wriodiwl(r.

1\'0rkf'orre. ,taf'f . labour pol\'l'l', t'lllpfont's r rafhptr,on peuple swJling, 1\'o rking. l'll lllling

nw US. \

)!.l'fl /1/1


u g ht\ /11 l l j ll'flll/11'1' IIII'S/' (;lliddil/1'\; 11'1'



ru li1111111!1 tlg1'" /f .\1111 f1111''' f/11\ 111111 11/t'll il ;,,. ltlllt'lllf lltl' /1/\ lo t/11lt' (;fidtlinl'l , jJ/1'1111 ' mll ltttl 11!1 /J.\ .\ Ojj11 1 ' f/1 t/11 odd"'" g;n'l'/1 uf 1111' tlld llj llil'.ll' CuiiMi/11' 1.


lntroducing Cultural Studes Communication and representalion 71

African-Caribbean: T his tcrm i ~ ,., uradualh l l'llhtinu tllt' lt'l'lll \ 1111- ( .;11 ' 1 '1 1 ,..., J Jt'an lo rd"t1 to Cariblwan peoplcs and 1h11st of ( arihbl'all 111 ig-it1 1 11! 0 are 0 .Vrican de~tt.nt. l t 'huuld al~o be nottd that thtn , 11011 "'lllt' t'l idt'II(T 111 ~ 11g-g-c, 1 that tht tu1n 'hould 1101 he lnphen.lltd and th:u indt't'd. th< dilftnnn' bet\\'ten 'll< h g1 0111>- ma1 mean tht term' 'hould h< kept \t'par.llt.
American.: \\'J.H.>II rcft'ITill{ w .-\merica. it , impo1t.llll 10 ht ,1\\.JI'l' of tlw ;H' that 1 tht'l'l' , .1 :\u11h .-\merica ami a Sonth .\ nu-rit.t - 11 ot 11, 1 tiH' L~.\. Con'-eCJlll'ntl~. "htn rde11ing- lo thc L'S.-\. it i' bt,, ro he txplitit ahout thi,.

t h i ~ cou n1 n ll'ottld bt to dt,uilw lhtm a~ ' Briti 'h . \si a n ~. 'Ch int''-l' Kri ti,h ' t'IC. Ont' acll'anlagt i' th at h1 1t'ltTng- to 111o cthnicilics it a,uid~ :1111 'ugg<'<tion th:lt a per,on ha~ tn e hoo't' bt'lll't't'n thtm lor thcir identit1. l lollt'l't'l. tlll' idea ol Bri 1i,h a h o implit'' ,, lal ...c '-l'll't' oluni11. \l;tn1 Scm< \\'tl~h .1ncl lri,h lt''i't lwing ickntificd a~ H1iti,J and tht ll'll itor~ dt'llOtl'd 1>1 the tcrm contai11\ .1 \I'dl' 1:11 itll of culturn. languagc and 1digiwa-.

Asi~n: .

(;l'lll'r.tlh- rekr~ lo )ll'opl<' fro 111 tl w .\ ,i:m ~u b-con ti llt' lll - n.unl'11. ln d i.1 . 1 1 ; ""'" 11,f ami J.:a,h 111 i1. Hm ,t lcr. under ~OIIIt' ci rt tlll l,ta n n~ t he rt 111;1 1 he c~~Jl't ii O ilS lo lll':tch.c ting tog-ttll<' r a 1 1 idt 1a 1l' ll o f cl ifl't- re n l c ultura l and t rhn K g ro ups o lh n 1\'ith l" tn diff('rc nt pt~~i rio ll ~ \\ithi11 Hriri., f .-.ocitr1. . \J,o, \CI Ill(' lll l'lllbl'l', o r panic uJ:1r t'illl1iC f{I'CillfJ' 111:1\ o bjc'('( fe l>ti1w rl'lt'ITt.'cJ lo b~ their 'countn or origill ' \l'il l'll thc~ ha l't he:n ]j ,ing- ~:~1' ' t'\'l'J'a l .1.\t'll l'la l ion ~ i11 Brit:1in.

Ci,iliscd / Chilisa tio n: T hi' tnm c111 ,,JI carn r;u: 'l oH:IIom' 11'11it h clt'l i~t from a coloniali't pt'l nptio n ol tlw 11orld. lt i' oln '"'odatecl ,,irh 'orial Darwi ni't tho11g lll :m el i, lt1ll ., ln plit it ,-alut jucl~c m tnt' ancl ignur;ut t't' ol tht hiswn of tl w n un-incJu,tl i:di,l'cl 11orld. 1lo iiTI"lT. in -;omt C:l'iC,. ' IICh ; , th l' 1\clrh. ol :'\orbert Eli.1, , cil iJi,ati"n ta h.c-; on a d irt t rclll mea ning ll'i tho ul rar i't o ltrto nc<. Colourcd: Thi ~ tt'l'lll is l't'g;mkd as ouldat td in thc L' K ancl ,Jtoultl hl' ai'Oickd : 1 ~ ir is g-cn c ra lll' l'iL'II't' cl : 1 ~ o l'f'l-11,il'l' ro 111 ; 111~ hlac k pl'npiL. \\'h en app litcl L" So utlt Ml'ic:t. tlw l t.' l'lll rt.ll vc l'- ,~ ti <'S ol e thu i(' d i,ide and ap:irthl'irl, and l l t'i' d ' t<, ht con textll:li btcl and ll'l'<l ,,ith ~ J H'<' ili r itl . In th l' L' n itccl S talt'.'- ol" .-\nll'rica. the tl'l'lll pcn plc ol' tolou r' i' ofkn U't'cl "'a J'onn sd l ~re f'ert n cc J'o r pcopll' ,,Jw " tf"fe1 f'ro111 raci'lll :md di't'l ilnin ;llion o n I I H' ha~is ol l"isihlt' skin cnlnu r dil f'trt nct tn th t 11hitc :mg-lo-saxo 1 1 (\\' \SP ) politiral 111.1jori t1' popul:uion.
1 1'>.\ \ n1 i-R:ui'1(,l llcll l innl~tl ( ,.,.,d l'1:1cli!t': \ l:tH it l\1!17

c r11 r: 1f ami . B~;IC"k i~ :1 COII CCJH Lh :ll t'lllbra ct., pcop le whc t'X]h'l i('11 et s tn 1 IIISIIIIIllona l di., crimina tio n llC'causc o /' tlw ir ~ ki 1 1 colo 111 . IIHI , o f'L L'll ll't'd po lttlc tlfl 'l 'll>l>t''lll 'II ICI .S<111111 \ ~1a n o ng 1 11 In . . to .rd i.1 lo . J)t'OJ) It' o l -\frican ( 1 11 ~ PII S<.'lida n ll ;.gw n-.t rari,m. llw ll'l'lll orig inalll look c111 polit ical c 0 1111 n 1;1 !Ion~. 11 111i tlll' n -.e ol black act il i'-1 11 in tl w L'S.\ in 1lw J~HiOs 11fl l'll ir 11 ;"'<.l "'.a SOII~'Cc ol pride ancl iclen ritl' in oppc>-i tion to rh t mam ncg-at ill' 01 11 ~ 10~ allc."~' rl'latJ ~~~ ~<~ t he ll'ord 'hl:tc~ in tlw Engli~h l.ulguagt ( hl.ll k Jeg. >l . u k lt,lllt .). In lht L 1-. ho,,e1cr. thelt' "antm-going- clt-h.1tt .thoutthe "'l' of r_ hl' lt'llll. lo clefinl' South .\,ian ptoplc:. ht'l':lll\l' ol' rlw l''i'll'n< t' of diltlw So11th .\'J:lll < iclentitie'. Some .\ ,ian gro 111h in B1itain objnt Lo tht u l' o/ tht ll'ord ' hlath.' being applied to thtn ,IJlcl 'OilH' 11 o 1dcl .ttg-ut thal ir abo rcmlu-,(:. a lllunht'l of t't h nic groups which ,iJnuld bt tnattd 'l'pa r:uch _ l'aki,ta ni'. Bang-ladt'hi'. 1ndians and '0 on.

now olf(:r ck.1r guid.lll<'l' on tht,t mallt'l ' " tlw txtran' from tlll' Ulifi ,/ S~~tioi"Jf""'
.hwali1111 (,ltiff,lilll'l -.he m ht't' l~o:-. ~- 7).

2.4 .4

Language and gender

lllt' r aplt:!lrsallnll oll he lt LtlT w i11 tllt' tc nn 'BJ t" 1 ' S -1 , . 1 J1. \ '-10111 al'l' 1 " >111 1 ll 1 IS -c rl slul t1n g g- mund .111 cl it should bl' stn:sscd i11 :1 1 social ... cicntisr~ lllTd 10 hl' 1 indl't'd confl :ll<' ck;u: t. har th1. l!'c o l' tlwsc t<rm, dtll'~ nor pric11 itise 110 1 l' tlllll('lll and Clllt:cn,hip. British: ,\ Ja ny m ~ttlcl argllt' tha1 rhc one 11a, ro d l'nOtl' mi no 1ill t th llic

\\'hiJ,~ Lht' l l' art lll :tlll d!lfncn ce~ hc tl\c'tn ancl ll'i thi 11 l'.IC h of t ht gro 11 p..,, th t 1ndu'.l.ll~ .ll'llll blac k n.fer~ lo ."10.'>(' ll'ho 11:11'(.' ;1 sharl'd f li,lJr~ of Ellrop l':t tl <OIOI.II.lll~lll , lll'Ol'olollla iJslll. llll)ll'ti .ll i,m . tthnoct nt 1 ~ 111 ;111 cJ r:H i., 111 . O nc :.olu t1 o 11 t.o th b i~ lo l'l'fcr ro ' blac k pcoples'. ' blar k con 11111111 ir it-., l'IC.. in rhc tn 111 1 ,p:fy that tl.ll~l'l' is <1 l,ttict~ o('~lll' h f{I'OI IJl' Ji i.\ a JS(J i111port:ttll lO IJe :11\dl l of. th~ l.lCI th:t l 111 ,\ Oillt' CCJIII CXIS "bJar k' Ca n tJ, 0 !)(' IISI'd in ; I'< II''l \l'n~<.

group~ in

Elscwhcre in th i, u hllllt' ( C:hapttr 1l rlll'H' i~ cli-;cus-;ion ol lang-uage "'a u cxplt'"iou ol patriarrlll. J n't a~ po,tro lonia l II'I' tl'l'' a nd .-:ptakn-; ni nun-'la nd.trd langu.tgt h.lll' protestC'cl lhat th l'i l \IIU'' :Hl' 111 .ttll' iua udihll o r ckrland ilkgi ti ma tt hl' rlw pollt' l of do nlin:1111 la llg'll:lg'l', ,o I\ CIIIll'll ;d,o as~t'l'l tha l ril e~ a re 1o i n l e~s in l<lllg-uag-t.. \,in th l c a~l' of la ng uagt ;HHI t 1 .1 " di -:ru" c d e:ufi tr in 1his c- hap te r. th t n msic kr:n ion C)l' lang uag<' ancl g'l'llcll' r :.t'I'I\'S a' .1 rc mindcr that a l:lllg uagt i ~ 11 11 1 ll t't'I'Ssarill o lll'\ o \\'11 en n il' ont is a n:li\t ~ pcak vr. J'h l' lllt':ming and the po,,cr of'lang11:1 g t is dtlt'l'lllinc cl b~ social prar ri cc: l'l'<.'ll a na1I't' ~ p eakn ma~ be mute ur dumb in cer1ai n ' l'lli ngs. T hc la1v ol 1\"0ilH'II lang uagc u'e rs. sug-gcs riun i-: rha 1 r h i ~ i' 1h1 In lhis I'C'-Pt't t. Echlin .\rdtntr ( 1 ~1 7--1) snggl''ll'd tha t 11o mt'll a rl' o i'Lt'll lllell't' "ina i'ICUJ.lll'" lha n 1 11 l'll ' ))~ 1\'hit'fl li t' llll':t lll that tht :ltl'll;t-; Of p11 blic d SCOIII'S(' <ll'l' t ~v i ca l l ~ dclmi nall'd h1 lllt'll .1 11<1 tl w l:tng uagt' of pu blic di ,co ur~c i' '(ncodc d ' 11ith ma k llleani ng-; (. \ rdl'lll'l', 1!17 1: l iii). T lil' i1 11plicalion of lh is ror \\ OIIll'll i' lh at thl'\' 11111'-l ~t rugg lc tn lw lw.1rd and th:u l hl'l 11111\l learn male bngu;tgl'. Rnbin l.akofT ( 197:i) i, .111 inllut' e.1rh 1uite1 in thc di ,cta...~ion of \IOill(' ll :111cl


lnlroducing Cultural Studies

Communication and representation


la ng u.1ge: IH'I book / .11 IIKIIflgt' ru11/ \\ lll/1'11 \ 1'/tr,. 11h ir h 11 ,,, ha-,td 0 11 1he oh-,tn .u ion of l ~ta cllln :1 nd her fril'mb' hcng uage u~c. ~c t :111 agt'IHia loa iltl' d i'c""ion of the lopic, arg11ing rhar ,,onwn 's langnagc , c haractC'ti,ricalh 1\'eak in foam (nor in rontt'lll) ami rha1 rhi' lir~ IITIIIIirh 1\'0illt'n~ 'uhordin;llt' pmilion l'IIt'l' lllt'll. 1 he tha t;ancTi-,alion of' ll'onlt'n \ lani{U.lgt ,,, ,,cal.. t'C\h on l.akofr' ,,,,earion th.ll II'Olllt'n ~ 'Pl'l't h h,,, more '1,11{. li1rm-, rh.llt nwll\ '>etTh ..\ L1p<'alex.llnple ola rag lollll , rlw 'lall'llll'lll 11, a nict cl;l\, i-,nl it:: in thi' example i,n't i1: , rhe Tlw '\>l'otkl'r i' 11tH ,cekilll{ infotnt.llion hui tonfinnation: thcn i' thl' dc,~;irl' 10 ,1( hit'lt' < on't'll'll' ll'ilh tht lw.trer a nd 1hl' ht'.lll'l" i' ill\ iltd lO pan ici patt i 11 llw '''"l' nH'lll ollld 'h:llt' 1ht IJll il'l. Lakof r S <otllt'lll ion i, 1hat 11 onttn' 'flt'C'ch i' IH'a kl' r 1h:111 nHn ' ll'" dtc i,i1 t' and fu nn innalhlt" "'elul. l.abm 1l!lliti). in hi" l'l'~tarc h 1111 l.tllg'llagc a11d d:h~. t!Oit'cl a g't'tHil'ltcl clifiL'I'l'lltl' i11 l:ll1g'll<l!-(l' IISl' 1\'ltich ~llgg't''iL'clih.ti \I'Oilll'll l\l'l\' lllOH' dl'J'cl't'lltial ; mclll'~S :1-,~t' tiI'(' tha n nttn . 1 k found th a t lo'''l'l' miclcl k-d: t' ' 110il1t'll ll~l'd fc11l'l' ~ tig rnari ~tcl f(mll' rhan IIH'n ,, tht -;;nnl' '"cial l'las,, T IH' p inllrl' 1h :11 l'IIH'r.(t'' 11<>111 iiJi-, 11ri1ing i~ 011 ~ o/' liiglil~ g'l'llcll'rcd ~ pcer h: lit e n :~re.: 'aicl to mt ron1 w1 i1 i ~t, ag.;n.,.,il't' ~p t'l't h ll'li ilt II'Oilll'Jl 's 'jJt'l't li is coopcratI'C.:. lkiJora h Tanllt'll ( I P~H)) oll ',l.( ll l'\ 111.11 clt:lr:tt'll'J'istics of't ll e 111'o lcH'Ill' nl'spl'ech a re so cl i-,tincr il t:n t:tl k hl'illt't' ll ll ll'll :II HI II'cHHt' ll rl'al l~ nprt''t' llh .1 l'onn ,,, < 'J'<Jsvcu ltu ral cotlllllllllit :tlicJII . In ilit langn:tgc of'l ht S;1pir - \\'lwrf l11 pCJ!Ili:, i., 111t'll :uttl II'Oillt'll i11h:liJi l d ilfl'l't' lll ihtHt.~ lil ll'tJ tld '. l l1v t li :t r:tne a,tic~ of' 111.ill' and f't'llla lt t: tlk (l annvn l~l!lfl) :1rv .J' folloll-,:


Figure 2.4
I C' I 'Ill ~

Communication between men and women. (Source: Flemi ng, 199 2.)

ol' do111 ina1ion :111< l ~u i Hli'Ci i n a ti on . . \ lthoug lt T :llltHn , l111di ng' :tll' hro:tcl il

COII S i ~H'Il l 11i1h Jlit"l ' of .\l'cltllt'l' and J..1 koff'. ht t illlt'l jll'l'l:llielll Hl't'''l'' l llhtll ..d

.\InIr 1 fl!l,

11 t''( ",., lttdqwtttft IH 1' lttlw lll:tliott \llt'ttl ion Hi~ t.tlk 'lupcr101 iJ, I'IIIH't lul

1 '/11(/h l id/: :\('1\\C!I k 1111 imaC'I

""" ing -;, llltltt'ln '>m.tll l.tlk fnll-1 icu i11 l't>l\l'llt"

l'ht b,uc.: ol <1o"-tlllllu .tlt onamtttlicalion ht'lllt't'll 1111'11 .uad 111 lllt'l1 i' .u ldlt'"t'ri in tlil' c.:.u toon h1 J .tt k1 Flemin,!{ in Figurl' ~.l.

differc ncc (p. 1 :\14~ I':JIIitt 1hau '" llt'l' :11td ,ubonl iu.nion. 'ihc thw~ ll<il ,,.,. I\Olllt'll" ]angu:rge ,1, inlt.aior lo tlll'll, "' lor lwa. 1he tilo langl~:tg~ , "."t: dinc ttcl loll.ll'<~' thl' r rra1ion nf dill'trtlll di-;course,<, (p. :~O ) .tbotll 11ie ,,otld. l'ht' chfft-ntH e d.,,., 11111 rntph that II'OIIH'n, t.tlk i~ 11i1ia l o1 h" lunuion.tlh ll'-eful rilan lllt'tt.,; inclnd '"l' 1\cHtld argue 1h.11 1\'uJlltn, t.tlk ha' 111<1111 po,iri~t lil'llll''. 'trnsing. '" i1 dot'' incl1hion r.uhc.:a rhan exd11,ion .md t<Jop~ 1.11io11 r:nhtr than cumpetirion. 1ht po"ihili11 ol irllt't pteling gl'tHit'J'cd '>ecch a<> diffcrcncc 1.ll~lt'l titan l~itt ,u ~ l11 tTlllilld"u' th.lllall~ll.lg't' i' l''\>l'l'"ill' .tllcl ht'IHl' nptn lCl llll'l'IJI'l'I,IIHlll .. \11\ clht 11"1011 of languagt a< a JIHaniugful "''lt'lll 11111'1 lakt an 011111 of Jlw lllt'llliolh ni iiHN' ll'ho lltll'l' lallg'llagt ,liHithow 11 ho htar tht lllll'l ;tll('L''- ll OthtT 1\'Cil'CJ... ltc111 'JWl'l h at h olll' trammitlecl ancl 1('( t'I'l'ci. '1ht t'lhllograplll of' '(Waking i~ (llll' ll'Chllique lhal l':\plot l ' ' hm, mcaning , gt'llt't .lltd :uad l'l'al uatccl i11 ' peech .tt h.


Language as culture: language as power

lkborah '1antwn " II'OI'h. i nt rcJclnccs tiH' ro n.-.itltt'<t 1j; 111 of' < 111 ill1 pon :ttll issuc in 1hv ~ tuth of' la nguage. l'tJJII tn 1111 ica 1ion and rcpr<:stlltal ion . l'hl' cli-,ut."ioll of' la 11gnagc.:: u'i ng a 'nt iol ing11 i~ t k 1nodv 1 11 as akncd m to 1 1011' langnage is t' 1nlwdckd in soci:li pr:tr 1i<'t' and l1:1' drall'll :tll t'lllion lo tht ll'a~s in ll'hicli l:ul,l.{ll<l,!{l' is ' 1tlf'nsl'd ll'i lli th t -,ig llirl r:lllt sJ1li<'II Jri11g pri ncipk-, of' 'ol'iel1 . \\'e h :tl'l' l'X:t mi necl l:mg ii:Jg'l' i11 l'l' la1 ion In t l.l'' r.1n. t' ihllkitl' and gtllckr: rgtt<lhl~ . thl're i~ al~o a c:t~l' f'or lookillg' ,,, .1 gv. \'o u llt:tl ll'isli Lo con ~ id tr 111 i ~ a~ a projecl as :r ,,a~ oJ' putl i ng i1 11 o n w rar io11 'onw oJ' tltl' idl'a' all{l :llt<lfl-,i, 1h :11 \ou han lwen pre~c nt ed ll'illi i11 1hi' clt :t >lt'l. Tltt 'ucinlillgui,rk .an:tfl',is ih;n Ita~ httn c.:'111plmecl in thi~ chapttr ha.; link<cl l:r ngu.tgt 11 i1 11 hivran hic' of' pm,tr: 1ht :11 g tlltH n t ha' bcnt :t boul iiH poli 1it" ol' la tH.; n.agc t''(lll'"t'd lllt'l :t phur i<.t 111 i11

2.4.6 1The ethnography of speaking

Erhnograph ic inqui t'\' ' l'c k-, lo 11ndcrsr:llt rl < IIHI account fnr ~oc i a l lwha1~o11t lro111' actors' poi111 ~ o l' de,,, l'ht nl c tllnd ~ :11c.: ohsena 1n 11 and inqtliaY; cla1:1 are tnlet )rt tc.d 111 ICrlll S Of':t ll'idt 'Ol'ia \J il'itl - tii C i1ll l'11 lillll i ~ l OIIO(l' Jlw 11':1~,.; i11 II'IJil'li ..;ct:i:tl hl'liai'Jc )J ir is lin kcd 1 0 t'\'t' J1h, itkas .,,. ill ' liluticlll' 111:11 are prc..;t nl in 1h c lil'ld finq11i 1 ~. '''llt'i litl cxpli c itl~ or 111pl il'il l ~ . TIH: l'tlinngraphl' or ..;pea kin ~ t' X <llllIH'~ ' Pl'l'C' Ii :tri ~. l> nlh natur:tlh uct lll l i11g ;nad txpc tinwntal (~l' l' :tl-:n L1h<ll. l9 7~b) in o rdtJ lO dctt'l'llllllt' th t prinr i >1~' 1haL Kt' lll'l'alt' a nd ' " :~ w 'Pt'l'c h i11 a giwn ..;ocial -,i 111< 11 io n . In 11 tHil'l'l:t ~ i11K llw re!>t>arch, l'l'l'\' dtlai lcd infur111:11inn i' IH'cckd about 1he panicipanh - ihl'lr backgrou nd. inrerc'" , and pn-,onal charactnistics. thl'ir inarr-,t in lite \petc h cnroUill~'l'. c 1 c. - ancl abou1 llw st ui n ~ - the pu rpmco; aml inwn1 of the spe('Ch


ln trod ucing Cultural Studies Communication and represenlalion 75

Selpc 111 l' J"ou,11h"' or pa r.lfll;l11atlf 1clii11L'IhiW1 1 me1,1phor In ahb c:l,t', allh o11~ h lfl t'l't' , ' ll''P' Hl,t' it , :111 inapp1 opa ia 1t' eme in lt'l "'' of tite e n count er :1' dc,nilwcl ( ialht ' ' ' n' l betll'ecn 1110 acquaini:111Ct' '): l01 ll'h ;1 lt'\t' l l't':J"n .

--+--------- 1111(-(CIIl\ 111\

Figure 2.5

Cumhin,1111e ''nl,l~m,J i il el mtn-1 on

1'\ rcp lkd 1-ith an tliiUlll\l'lliona l t hoil'l. Tht inlt' lll 111,11 h:tH' htTit to clisconcta 1 . \ . 111 .11 o id 1t 11 1h t a <on1 t'l',at ion. or ht'tau 'L' B , dl'al .m el 111 t 0111 "'td a bo11 1
he ~itualinll in 1dtich thc t'lltlllllllt'l , takin~ place. \\'hill' 11111. llat rtotclta. au,l\ gttt'" ,,hic h , tlat mo'l likth t'\f>l.m.uion . tlll' 1r:m"ni11erof lht' llll' ",lgt (. \ ) ttli~hl ht .1hk 111

Syntagmatic and paradigmatic axes. (Source: Fiske and Hartrey, 1978: 50.)

f hl' llludd o l )J.II \ ldigmatic and ~~ 1llagn1:ll ir e haim u-.tcl i11 tu lt 11 r,tl a nafl,, h ,l\t l>t:tll t:lktll lrn111 11urk 111 ~~ruc lll rallingll i~tit,. T lw lllOcl l' l h;1, )11 11 uwd (':\ ll' lt,iwll in tll.lll\ folllb nf s lru c lu ra lls t (p. :?-1) illquin (' < '1' 'l'( lion J )) Tlt . . r 1 . ' . .. 1 . -- l ll lll ll 111 ti l )(.' .' l ll l.lg lll.tll( l Lllll rl'fl' r' (() l h l' 'l'CJ II L' IHT 11f lh l' l' IHO II IIll' l' : h i1 C l('\'t')()p,; i11 l II I(' IIIIC l'\'l'lll :t ftl'l :II Hll lll'r' \1'hc 11 l'X j) ' ~ c) 1 ' 11 1 ' ' . . . , . " l t"l g l.t)l li LI \ l lt'"lll:t,~ I II : IIH' I'h:t lll is tlll' h oriiO il l:tl .t:\ 1 ~ o l tit e ll la ll'l x - Wt' h,l!;11 re ~ .. 1. 1 ll' ~~n t :tgllla t l c :1x " 1 ll' lt' ''a corn,; po n d illg ft-~ 1 11ll 't 011 l h t 1 P~ '.C ~ I~ lll,lll~ <t~ " ~111cl Lht seq utnr~ n f t'\'l' ll h ll ll fi,Jcb :t' :t pi'Odt ltl 11 [ lh t illlt'l piar 1 >lllltt l1 lllt . tilo .t:-.l'~ .. \t t'\'tr~ pnmt 011 tht par.tcli,!.( lll:llit :t:-.i .; 1he 1,. , a ra ,,.c 11 I)()"Jbl t t ll nJn~ :tl < ti l:1hle : in ~landardi.;<'d t'IHOIIIIItJ, lh t 1 t ' ll'l' comt' llt 1 ' 111 . 1 ,., . . 1 1 . . . ( .1 l':\flt't'l;tliOih >ou t 1 lt' e h u llT thal 1 ~ madt. For t'X '1111J>I , 11 e . . . '. 1 an1uaiJllann~ llll't'l 111 1l1t ~ ll'l'l'l 111 E n g la nd a l1piraltllrcHmttl might 1)(' a~ (( 111 01":
. .. . ,. . . . 11

plact'. lht rcl:uion~hip' ht'liH't'll tlll l't' 11 11 0 an pani< ip, _ 11 111.f.: lH ..01Jl of liH lt,l:.ll(h lncthocl, o l cthnographi< illlntig.lli<~lh ol' l.u 1g u:we , . 11 111 t'X.tlll lllt ' t h l' paradign1~11it dwin,; macll' 11 'fl('.d,tl, 11 'Pt't'< h at t, . ' "' t h

~n~o~ llllt'l'. ~~lw.n

i~ 1.1king

111 trptt'l illl' 1t,poll,t' llllll't' fui 11 (.tllcl pe ,_,ihll mo1 e acn11 .ut'll 1 ht( att't' , hl' "ill h.11 t'
acCC'~ 10 otht'1 inlcnm:uion t h.u , dilfi< 11ft lo U111\-t'\ in 111 i11en l.utgll.tge. Tht ll''f>CIII't'

b\' B m :11 haH' btt'll ~ltllt1ltrl :111d ;uomp;~nit'cl b1 lhreal~:II ilg g t''lllll'' o1 i1 lll:l\ halt' b~t' ll ,ajcl Cjiil'lh 11i th .1 'III IL a11cl th t 'j>l'akt.T . \ ma1 knu11 1ha1 t h i' app:llt' lll llai,l'ltl' actuall~ at' ltr, tn .1 p i1a lt' jokc lwtll'l't' tl illt' 11m o l thcm aiHI -;o, tnlin: lr intdligihll. The p n inl aL _,ll l' , tltat 'fWvdt at l' h all' llltnecliatl' c on,cq utmc fnr th l' tra Jb allill t' l' ol s peer h :1ncl illl' l t't't'\l'1: t'<J IItiii1111 r:ll il'<' r< HIIj)t' ttnn rtquirt, 1h:ll l)() lh i11l t'a pnt Ullti';Jll('t','o in ,1 -.; lli,f at iCI I \ 1\':t\.
T h c lllt',l' lll't' lll l' lll ol tll ll lii 11111 t'.I II't l'lll il lll'lt'llt'{' < IIHl t h t l'XIl'll l lll 11 h it h l i ~ ac hi tl't'cl in >ptt r h :tt' l' is

ll' t' llll ic a l .ut d ' IH'c' i:t lbtd hr:111 c h of' ct h llog r.t p h it i11< 1111 ~

For t'll' l'\ l'\'('111


and imu l\'l, lht p:t i11 .;1:1ki ll g t'ot1 1l l in ..: o l g t. ll l llll :ll i r~l l it'al iii'L'' i11 n rrlt-r to cft' lllt> ll '- ll':ll t'
~p<'Cd l pallcl'l1:-> :ut rl lh l' n egol ia tion uf' aue:11ti 11 ~ ht' lll't'l'll tran s anitt tr aiH l nnilt'l' o!'


!III C'r;tll((',;, rfll' 'l';ll't' h f'o 1 tlt t'OI l'' \l f CO lllllll iiiC<IIO II ti\OII'l'' I1',;1 11g ~ j>l 't't ' fl

;1(' ),;

ll a


n11ict~ oJ clif f'lore nt d tu a tiet n,. " llllt'Lill t'' Jact' tn J'ace. a ' in ll at txam pk ahun-. :t iHI

som e l illl'" 1dll'l'l' j>l'oplt t:ll tlltll 'L' t' t:tch o1 h e 1. as in lh c c aw o l lt'lt IJIHHH' ('1111\t'l'':tlio n ~. Rt,ull.; fro111 lh t''l' l'\)>t' l 1lll' ll h in dic:lle that it , on ll H ' 11 rarl'h 1hat pvop lt i11 C011111lll ll C.ll il't' :t('h 'flt'olk ,lh-.ohlll'h .tcrording lO Lht' 1u le~ of ~a.J ancl IIW ftl ll ll:t l principln of l.111gu. t ~t. I IH co1111111111t'.I I\l' < h:lllltl'l , ,1\,til.thk. lor t'X<tmple

.\ :

( ;ond 11101 11in~. ho11 .lrl', o u~


.\ :

\ 't-r\ llt'll. 1ha 11 k \cm. and 1011; l'm fint. l.o\t'h d a1. i'il.l ;
Yt'' l \. l' m looking lcHwarclto 'CIIIlt' g oocl IH':IIhtJ.

on ,,,, 111, ll'lttn flj, clot'' happe11 lt' IHIIO lw '' htn o11h o m 11 hc.:11 u'in~ llw ll'lt'phollt'. l11 'urh .111
11 ho

instanre 'IH'< 'dt lt'nth In ht .111<1 lo~iral in an allempl lo coll\t'l t' \an lll t':tlling. Rccnrdi11g'> ol 11:1111ralh o<< 111 ri11g- 'flt'l't h art ollt'll unimcllig"ibk lo lwartr, llt'll' 110 1 pal',t'lll al IIIL' II1H' olt ltt at'< onlin~ h111 lh<>'l' 11ho ,,.t'a'l' then can tllake 11111rt 'l'll't' bccamc thtl .trt ablc.: 10 Ullllt'C\lllali,t tlw rerorclccl .;pl'l' cla :tiiCI nlltt' JIIIwr t'H'lll' th:u g< li'C llll';lllillg 10 p<111tl11:11 ,l,lll'll1l' lll'. \\'a llt'll illTIHa lll' of ll:ttlll.tfh llU 11 11 llg 'fll'l'l h
111:1~' bt' l'l'l'~ 111 j,ll' ;c]j 11,~ llllft'" t lit'\ J>l'l )1 icft ttcf l'.1l ll ll:' of 'Jll' td a Jl<l ll t'I' IIS, 1lllll'.
\O lllllll'

COJlli nw in thi, lt'II lo1 "11111 lim 1 h111 01 P"'l><ht'' of !IJt olllo tlhh ht' lt' 11 1~ 'llflll'lt'lll lO .;;11 th,ll 1he 'l'(lllt'lll'l' . \1' \ 1' l' 'l)ll""lll lla l' "lll:ll'lll;l(l(' . . . . . ), . ) ' " ' <. h 1 ~ 1 ' t l~ll'llt:ul:lr lt'~pon~t'' '.".~:adt Ollt' ni llat''t' p:111inda1 poi111' lt'prt~: t., a 111 lht p.ll.!dagm;ll lt dfftITIII t lw ice' htT lllll.tclt lh t ll lht't'lll'llllllll~a t llllllt 1\0idd h all' h.tcf :1 dlfkl't' l11 lO lllt' lll olll<l pta hotp' a difli.rt' l1( f()) 111. (ti )' l'Xo llllj>f t:

.ll~e t~ 1 11 1 t'l ~.nic!" mi~l.ll



.\ :

C:ood 111orni11g-. hmr n \'o ll : :'\o1 \l' 1~ 11'<:11 :111cl 1 don't 11';111 1 LO ta lk :~ ho1 1 1 i1. O h. f' n t .\ o rn.

and pit c h :tn cl th t ,L(t' ll l'l'a l dt'lllt'.IIHHII of th c 'Jll'akc l ( ~). "' lht t'X t lm 111 a 11 a ll q~td inciclt' llt i11 a lllltrd t l' ~~~~~"' ('t'l' Box ~.K) .

B: .\ :

t'llt'lllllll tT Lo t l1<1 ,tfJI. 1II)I fl '~Id llll'lilllplt-te h . or <il lta-; lo 1 '111 1 .1 le" 1han t'XJ>t't ltc l c ottl''t'. .\ ll11rd lt r~ l o n oJ lhis romer,a tion" .11101ht 1 p 0 ,, ~ :

l ll l llg'~ l 'h ~1~ I IU I't' l h~.-. rc~pon:~<'. \1'hi k n ot inappletjll i:~tt. 11 ;1.' )11ol >ahl~ ~ lid .'11 . "'ol' ~1.'11 t' ~ ll c dltTl o / cJ sconnrti Jlg 1h e ht':trtr :11td c ; 11 -.iatg tht

11 lt' .'eu;11 cl tx:un p ie '.li t' co n i.LT!'atin n i' l' ll l ,IJo 11\' 1lw p: 1rad ig 111:1li1 e h o in ltla cl t 1)1
11 11 ,


t'Xflt'Cil'cl I' Rn' l 1 1 l llR:

An alleged incident in a murder trial

.\ I r:\ . l lll' poli tT ill:tll , II Oll:'' ,lllht~ Iilll' of'quc, li olli ll g at' ll<ll l \Cil ll

:111.- .\lt' l' ln f1j ~ ' li11V111VIlt to \'lllllft:tt hl' bl'fil'IL'cf th;ll \lll l ll1lladtll'<f \O ll a llift ;, ,
.\h~ :\ :


.\ :


(;ood lllOI'Ilillg, ho11 < 11<' nna: .\ ' ingk at'llll'll lick<~ l. plt-a-.e.

ll lllrclnc.:cl lwr. \\'hat i' "1ur rt''])C)il't' lll that; 1 1H'It' l ,;;ti el tlta1 . "11.11 1 -.a id 11;as 1 ( illcreclu loll' g .a,p l 111111 de red
(di,bl'lid ) lwa ( lllt'JJogal\t');


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Communicalion and representation


Tht pm cl'~~ ol' .{iling arco unts o J' th c transrll i,sion a mi rt'Cl' llliun of m ean iug in lll t tt hu ograpln ol 'Pl'a kin g dra,,, atttntion to tlw cli,tinctiH' lt',tlu re' o l in tontnHmicouing iuformation a n d rq >rncrHing i cka~ <liHI thotrg-ht. 1! , th ro ug'h thc o iHe na ti on :tnd a n :1 ll'~i' ol langu;r ge u~c th a t 1\'t' un ckr~ t ancl h m, l111 i tl \l< tii Cl'~ ol' lllltlllal irHerp t't' t<ll ion 1\'iliclr make trp ~ec iallik ;uc possiblt ( /t' ttkith. 1\HII ).


Language as cornmunication and representation: a surnrnary

oflanguagt 1\ ll not ptolide a hlu c pri111 olt lll' truth olt h ir1g': indccd tite llcxibi lit' a nd indctt' llllinan o l lang11a!-{L' ma\ m;hk meaning. olr tn ddilwr:ueh '-el. Ptople m.11 u,c )a nguagl' e, Jie: otlwr~ m ay c mpl m it w cent c:1 l th e <tc tnalitl' o! tltin g , . f11r c x. unple. e ttite d e lihcrate h n tll'll te 11inn al lang uage 111 :1 ~ lll' ll~td [el ceH tllten:IIH't' bru t;rl ac ti o n l:r ngtagl' o l " " pnr1idc' ill u,tl.llions " ltcrt solditr:: going into :t< 1ior1 art' to ld 10 cleal ,,ith' tlll' t'llt' llll. Lmgu.l).('l' ' cC'k' to t' IH omp.l" c nlture bnt dul'' n o t ddl1ll' it. l.a ng u.rg t' map' th e social [l'l'l;tII ofa ' fH't'< ' h ('llllllllllllill bllllll'\'t' t C oloni st~ it.


Tlt<:re St't'lli S lO bt a paradox at tll l' h l':tl'l or lan g uagl'. O n O IH,.' ltand j i' el'ft-ctil'l' ;, a 111tam of COillllllllliCation a ll cl I'Cj>l't''l'lllatio n beca u~e j fonn :tlld its a"ociatUI1\ <11 t' Kll()\\'11. regul.u :111<1 C0111't'l1lional : 0 11 t h c ut lwr. the 'ucce s or lallguage \(:l'llh to ckrilt' from itS option;d llallll't' - l i, arbitrary SO <.pcer h COillllllllli ti t~ (;lit <.et' t1lill g l~ 111:11-.t oJ' it a11 ~1 hin g th at tlwy c Tltt argunrc nt h c rt is th:llthi~ appan111 n mtradit' ti nn i~ Llw es~t'IICe of la11g uage: la n g uage i ~ 1'1111\I/ulnl lh11111Kh di[jil't'llf'l'. l.a nguagt i' llexihlc htc:ru~c it i ~ 'imu h aneo u ,h' both rq~u lmecl aiHl crc:ative. In a n~ spccch an ci thtr frecdo n1 or rl'g tt la tion m ay he <. trc~scd httl tlw othn is a]\\'<1\',, 1hlrt a nd it~ preS(' Il Cl' carries l\illl it tll t' pll' llli:rli t ~ ora 1:\ihll'l' ( f ( OI11ll11111icati on. So cla l lil t', 1\'lltch is madl llp nf' ll~ l ;t ll Cl'' o f' llHilll:tl illtcrpl'l:'lOition. i., ]XJ'>'i hJe bccaLJ~l' Ja n guagl' offc r" tht po-.,ibili ty ol tht negotiation of nw:rning. Tht room fr ltego ti a ti on ma~ d ilftl acrord i ng 10 tlll' 'ocia) situ:u ion ami llw sc rnan 1ic clolllOI 11 : ,,e lta1c ' l'l'll ta r lit T in 1h t c lt ;~ ptcr that St11H' SCI1101lltic clormim h mc I'Ct'l' spcc ialised a 11d precist h1ng tragl - th t langr 1 age of tit e law is onc ~uc h exampk. Yet c'l't' ll lwrc then i, n egotia ti o n . indcl'!l lll<hl legal arg n nwnt i ~ ah0111 tlw m e .111ing of lmgna~e. Thi~ negotia b!t: asp en of Jan guagc S :r111 pJ ifi t>d b~ tllt' /111~\'11'11/I' c Jt a ractl'J' of Jan guagl' - II'Ort ( ~ )t;)l'(' 111 a 11~ 11ll.':tni r1gs. lt j ~ 1he <1CI nf ('Ollllllllll iCa ti OII that rt'l'(a Js tit e pat'l :r ( am ) tlt(' IIC'gttiatecl c lta rac ttT o l' languagc. :l', \\'eincr ( 199 1) ~:11~ 'un'ipokcn la ng uagt i.; la ng nagc ta ktn li>l .:rantcd. spoktn language , la ng u agt pmb le ma tilcd all(l thc rcfore cuhure p robkmati~td . In Olll' llllSpokcn la ng uage ,,e ma1 cs tabJ i,lt cle arl y, linca rh and logicall )' t lw nr e:rning ;me! tltt se nsl' ol' our th o ug lt ts. 13ut in illtnac tion 1\'C canrmt g u:rr:rntCl' :111 ag rcecl u ut con1l' in m e anin g. 11 0 1 Jc:r, l bccau't' 11ltilt la ng tt:1).(l' i<. linea r t hough t i~ tll' tii'OJ'I..-Iikl ( 13loch. 1991: Park in. 1991). T h e a u e mpt lo an ic ulat(' .1 pn:c i ~l' nwan ing nra~ make a pcr,ell1 s peec h ks~. habitual lang uagl' is 'gnclt ttoug h ' for routinisecl int e rac ti on nnd. ns Bourdicu poi111s out. mtldr soc ia l ani1ity i~ on tlt t 'h itlt n~ide o l lan g u age'- tlti:. , III/II'II- anion , o habi tu a l. , o ta KL'Il for gr:t lll t'cl tha t 1\orcJ, are 11 01 nct<kcl l>t'cau~e tltere i' a pr:rttical lll:l,ll'l~ (/tnkith. 199 1). Beca ll'l'la n :,.:n <~ge , ']Wl'i lic. nut gt r1 eral. tlt l' n .rltt'mph lo irttWI <ti C'. w bt c re:Hil'l'. lt:r1 e l o L a ke plaCt' 1\'thin 1h t metapho r, o J' th e .~pl' c ili c bt ngu:rgc il' meaning i~> to bL' <outlllllllicatecl. l'hne arl' lonn' 0111(1 s t1 le~ ol' l;mgt ta!ls ll'l' ,,Jti clt -'l'll COII'i('OU\h' Sl'l'K to COIIH'\' 111l':lllin~ thi'IH Jg h lltt' incll'tl'l'lllillat 1' of' l.lllg'tl,l).(l': poetrY i' OIH' l''l(alllplt-: hnmour. p an icu la rl y tlrt ll'l' j)1111\, ~ .rno tlwr. T ltl' Cl l':ll ii'll' ol k11r g tr:tgc L'Xpln t t'.' rh e upponuniti c~ to tll'go ti:ll t' llll':llling in repr<'~l'lll:llio n and co rllll lu ni cation . Those 1\'lrD :tl'l' not pt>t'l\ hu un" lang uag t " it lt II UIH'I't'h:tl gt''Lllno; 1\'h id t cu nn1 nrc'illl in~ ( \l'l' Ch.lj>LL'I' 'i) .rnd ex ploit tire 01\\ociat ion~ ol \'Oiurllt' and pi td 1 in ~J'L'I'Ch lO (011\'l'l' m e .ming .rnd. of l'Olll 'l', ~ikmt 111<11 speak j)lll\'l'I'IU JII', I"IH' .rna]l-,i-;


Art and representation

So rar in thi<. dtaptl'l lit' han I''I(:IIIIlll' d ; rall~l' of dilll-rent approa( h e\ 10 la n g u.tgt ami commtll1ication. \\\ h.llt' hcTn part intl.Lrl~ co n nnwd 10 ickntif1 dilft l ellt me tltod' w th c stu cll ol' represct11 ation as tlw1 co nn cct to tit e ex{' rc is(' and di ~ Hr,itio n of pnll'e r . In d enlo ping this r ot11111t' t1t ;tn . 1\'l' c:111 no,, l'n nt' on Slllllt' llH > rt ~pcc ilic form~ ol rq>rtscnta l ion . 1n th , 'l'U ion 1\'t' l:'X >lo re ~Oilll' '"Pl'Cl' ol ;u l.

2.5.1 1john Berger: oil painting, realisrn and capitalisrn

11 1\'a.YI nf '11'1111gjoln1 lkrger ( l\17~ ) coll,idcr, a 111111l btr of clill'ell'lll dimcn,iolh ol th c Euwpt.ur tr:tditioll ol' oi l p.In ti ng. !11 ht ec hol' ' tlll' arg un1 t'llh of \\'alwr lk 11ja1ni l1 connming- th l' dll' c t ~ ol tlt v cx tt'1Hkcl rc prnduc 1ion C)r pairllirtg., (see C h :rpt;r 9 ) . di'(' liSSl'S tl~t' l'l' f>l't' \ t' l1l< llio t1 ;tnd r on,tl'l tl'lion o l' ge nd cr. ancl lo Cillt's tit e oil painting uaclition in thl ckwlo pn tl'll l of \\'t:-.tcrn ca pitali~m. In this sect ion 1\'l' "'l' Berger', :11 ){llllll'll ha' a ~ta rtin g poin t for ronsid < rat io n ol l he con n ct tion o fth e rl'pi'l''l'n ta ti on ol painting to pattcrn~ ni c la~~. capit a lism. g l'ndcr and scxtr:t litl. Berg e r lirst o l':rll le~ca t c~ oi l painting histm i ca ll ~. Despit t tit e l01ct tlt:ll tit e ltT httiqun imoh-tcl in thl' produttiOII of oiJ paint h an h l'('ll kilO\\ 1 1 ~ill CC' i\IH iCII I Iille\, (\erger ( 1972: R 1) argue, th at the p r;H'tin tha t is l.mriliar a~ oil p.tirHing ,,w, 11111 ptrftncd until itwa<. tl ~l'd to exprl'" a p.ll'linrJ, r 1 it'll oflifl'' . . \ rco rdin g to Berg<' r. th is occurred i11 th t sixteen tlt ('t' ttllll'l'. 1[(- J'unher arg ut' ' that . ll'lril t i1 i' 1101 possiblc tn datt rh e end ni th e traditio11 of o il . pai r11ing etndu,il'lh . it "'' lllldtrrninl'd b1 lr npres~ioni,n1 and o\'Crthto\\11 lw Cubi,rn'. T h crl'lott. ' the pl'Lio<l of the traditio11al oil p ainting ma' be rough l ~ se ta ~ hl'l\\'t't' ll 1.100 ami 19110' (197~: :-{ 1). In ~ L r~e r's arg tll tll ' tlt t it ~ tr:tclition o l' ni l paintinf.{ in,nll'l's rl'alisnl. T lti~ d ues 1101 m e a11 th a t it ~imph c:rpturl'<. tlrl' n:r l. btll ra tl wr tltattltc ni l .rllo ii'S th < pai lll <' l to crt;u e th c 'ill11'ion' thatii'L ' alt' ~t't'i ng tite real. Thi' lllllllL'C I ' 10 tht ''a~ in ,,)ti< h m:111~ ol thc painti11 ~;. cli ~c ll ~'ecl h~ Ber~e r clcpi< l objl' ct ~ "' 11'(11 :r~ ptopll', " , '""'''11 h~ ll n ll wi n , A111t11swlrm (scc Fi ~ un In illl irnpon;rnl 'l' ll\l' tll l' lt a ditielll oil paIIl II ~ dq > it ,.. tltt P<l"t'\\Oil\ ol' thO\C ll'h o '' trc pa i llll'd. or '' hn rorn 111 i"io11l'cl tlll' l.lin ti 11~ i 1,,.f. Th i:-. for rn ol r l'J"T~l'lll i ll io11 , con cerrll'd 1\'ith po,,l',..,io n in othtr ,,a1, ;r, 1\l'll. Fir~t. tit e p:rinting' 1\'t'1 'l' tiH' tll\t'II'('S




lntroducing Cultural Studies

rc pr{' scnlatioll ~

Communication and representation


a l'l' prl'llontin:llllh l'l'albt. hvg:111 to brtaJ.. clo11 n i11 1h c la tl <' l pa rt o l tht' n( Clark ( l!lN.J). wlto :tnah'scs the itnpn,.;inni'>t 1110\t'llll'lll in an in lhl' collttxt ol lhl Lh:tllgillg n.1111n of Par~ in the ,~.con el hall ultlw niiH'letnth ll'llllll'l. 0 11 ctl't'llth Cl'lll ll l'l. Thi'> l':lll hl' illu'lratecl 1hroug h tlw 11ork


lmpressionisrn and rnodernisrn

Figure 2.6 TheAmbossodors(l533) by Holbein. (Source: reproduced by courtesy of the Tru slees, The National Gallery, London.)

po,~e~~ion~ "hich can lltll\ bt exch.angtd 1011 markth: lht~ :11 ro mnHHiit k~" hirh olttn

Clarl.., argullll'lll , complcx. h11t to ,lltplii\. he atgll<'' th.n lht rc-dLIdoplltl'lll o! thc ('tl of Par' in .acconl 1\ith th t granel 'dll'llll' ' o l B:11o11 llau,,manll. "hctt' the b<Hl k1ard' 1\l'l'l' d 1i1tn 1h rough p1,., i o11~h dln ,lh pop11 lat,d 1,orki ng-cl.t" area,, w:1-; part of a JI'Ot'l'~' o ( Sl rugglt IWIII'l'l'11 'e JC' a J rJ:l SSt'~ . IJ;t I ISSIII:l 1 111 II'<IS pattJ~ ('1 11\CCI'llL'rJ ll'ilh facilitaling the ckploYilll' lll of lmops :a rross th c citl' tn ('Cilllllt r a111 1\'otl..i llg-cht" rcvolt. h11l tht clcleloiHill'lll ol these 1oacf\I':IIS " '"' al'o a 11:11 to ratilln:tli'l' th1.. cli,lriblllion ol capilalbt p rorlllCh w mal..t ll~tm more ea,il~ .llail.thk. l11 mam othn wa1, Par" l\';t'i a 1 1he lord ro111 ol 111<' dl'lt'lopmtn 1 o!' modnn 'orial ions. :'\t'\1 <k~t' lopmt' ll h i11 slwppi 11g :111 el o llw r ao;1 wr1.' ol kisu re too k 1 ) la <'t' lttTl~ ( Wt' ( .h a ptcr ~l). For nwch ni lh t' nilleltT1llh t'L' Illlll'l' J>:u , "'" a c it1 in tlll'llloil. C:larJ.. argut, tlaat impressionist art (a nd tht :111 tl1a1 immedi:ttlh lolltlln:d itl 1\,1, a procl11l't ol 1hi' cuntc:--1 ami i11 suhtl ";11~ acldrn,td m;m, o!' thl' i"llt'' 1hat it rai,ecl. Thc painting' clcpiu funns of citl lik .tnd cit1 ~p:ttl'. :\llHTulcr. 1he1 ol'l<n clepin the olll~ki tl '> ol l'aris and

lctcl t t~ xlrcnwh high IJI it l''. Stcond . tlll' \\'al' 'lTilg lh al is Cl) ll,ll' liCit'd hl tlw paiming itw lf impli cs lh :il 1hin~s :ntd plop ll' ca n be po"l''~t'd. Tht gatv o f the oi l painting tt,tclition , onl' o l po"V''iun. In lkt~tt, ;uguuH'IIl tlll'~t :t'-pech ol oil p.tinting :tll' tiiIII;neh cotll ll'Ctcd 10 lht dewlopiiH'III of capitali,m. 1\hich .,a tnod l ol prodnnion b,t,t'd on tlw ptnduction ol good-. 10 lw htntglll allCI .;uld - 111 be posstssLcl in .. uch a 1\:ll' 1hnt th t~ c:m lw exchangvd. T h e dui1111illll r lass of Mtcl l :1 au ocle ol' production i ~ 1h t' ca pital isl or bollrgcoi' r la ~s. 1l'laich 01111~ lht prupl' rt ~ c tp.tbl<' ul prodlll ing tlw goocl' 1hat are L'Xdl<lllg't'd 011 thl 111:11ktt. In lkrger, I'CI\ tht Jl' l iod ol tltl' do111inance ol oil painting rotn,pmtd' 10 lht tl:t'>\cal ptt iod o( tht domin.tllt'l' ol thi' el." To ~implill hi-. argtt tlll'111 ,Oillt'\\hat. il c.m he ''').().(l''tvd 1ha1 1lw p:tr:tlll'J, bt'l\\'L'l'll :111 :tllciiiHllk of procl ttCIon in this p eriocl are of l lw II'J'L' dt' J> t' ll'd i11 Fig m v '.!..7. Thi' rd:IItllbhip hL'lll'l' L 'It a nntpl'IIil' ctpi ta li.'-111 ba,td <tround IIH frcl' ro111 pttition o l a l.lrge llllllli>l'l ol rdati~th :-mall comptting capitali~t'. 1.-ltl'rl' pictori;tl


Figure 2.7

Realism and competitive capitalism.

Figure 2.8 A Svnday on Lo Grande jatte (1884) by Georg es Seurat. (Source: photograph 1998, The Art lnstilule of Chicago. All Rlghts Reserved.)


lnlrodLL cing Cultural Studies

Communicalion and representalion 81

""""""'' ''

1 ' "'


Figure 2.9

Modernism and monopoly capitalism.

art'' of jll'li/IH,III'Kf'"' (mi cldle-cla ~s) Jci,ure. rl'lating- to llw <klt lopnl t' nl oJ JH'II lt'i,ure :teli 1i1k~. JWII' cl.t.,, rcl:11ions :tJHI ~ u burba n lifC.. Tht''l' p.dn1in g' ;tl,o hegin tl ll' brl'a h. ll'ith 11 1l' re. di 't li 11 111 . .' o d esc ribecl b~ 13crg tT . . \ g<~cod l'\<lll iJJk ni llli..; can he li ntnd in St'tll :ll , . 1 S111111rr_1 1111 l .rr (;lllndP.fallr ' ('-ee Fig ure ~.;-{). The't' d t'l'dop ll ttn t~ rep resen ! l h<' h egi nn i ng ol' .1 1ll'll' St'l ol re l.ll i on~ . . \ g ain 10 ~ ir np l iJ\ '-0111\'ll'll :H, lltt' n ew pauern i .~ as nprt'.~L' JIIt d i11 Fig ttn ~-~1 . 11 , pu~~ihk tll c n te Sltggc'l that t lle se r:llht l' dil't'tnn t f(H 111~ ol rl'prc,cJH :uion in < lll - rcnlis m (p. (j 1) :uHimodcrnism ( p . -10()) - :tre r u tl nt'llt'd lo pa 1tc 1 ns o l' " c ia l changc~ Hucl j>llll'l'l n l:11ions. 11 hi c h lile~ bo1h re prt'SL'Ill anrl Lo llll il>l llt' lu. So lar. th t pm,e 1 H' l : llion ~ cli ..;crh..;cd h a1( b e<'n one~ of c la": ecuall1 iurpo11a11 1 :trt lhn..;t ol' gl' ncler.


Art and gender

lkrgtr ( 1!172) ..;how~ holl' gt'IHitr rcpn~tnla t ion , in p.riruing art inhNd 11itlr pmHT. \\'ollll'll are clepiCll'd tu he lookcd at b1 nttn ( ~tt al,o ,ntion !1. :1. 1). Thc ohliou..; Gl'i(' ol th i' i' llit nucle. ll t-rgtr argue\ 1h:11 tlw 11ucle i, a 'J>tciliralh \\ 'l''il'l n .11'1 lotlll . rgain par1h ron,liiiUl'd 1\'ithin tlw Eurowan oil painting tr .ulitioll. 1 )(: :trl{lll' ' 1ha1 IIH' n 11d t i' a nlll\l' li um: \\'t 1.111 11011 hcg in lO '<'t' 1hc diiTen nn ht'll\'t'\:'11 ll.tkedllt''' .rnd n11di11 in thl' Elllll)lt':tll 1radilion. In his booh. 1 111 Tlu .\'udt Kentltlh Cl:11 k maint.rim 1ha1 10 be ":tktd , 'i111ph lo hl' 11i1huu1 clothes. llhtr-ea' lhe llltCk ,a liot 111 o f .111. ,\ tT ntcliug lo h1111. ' 1 111tle , 1 101 1hc .\lilrlin~ pni111 ol a painting, b111 :1 11,11 o l 'l'l'illg ll'h icli th 1 p:li 111 it1g :rcli t'I'C''. To m mt degrl'e. thi, , 1rue - a h lioug h ll lt' 11':1\' nJ ~cd ng- a 1111de ~ 11111 tll't'l''i~:u ,. confinccl lo :111 : ilw re an .d., o n11d c J l holll).\1aplr . nudt po'l''. nudt gt.m rrts. \\ 'h:ll i' 1l'llt' , l h:11 lite nudc , ah,a, ~ c1llll't'll l ion :rlittcl - :rnd 1lw <lllthoril.l' fo r its I'Oill'l'lli<Jtl' d C'rI't'' f'rom a cc nail 1 lrarli1io1t o f :1r1. ( 1 !1 7~: t1 :l )
Foi J m, i n~ ti lis. Bergn arg uts that:

in tltt~t p;ltllin~s <li t ' pa,'l.' a nd pu,,erles~ ( Parkcr and l'ulloc J.. . 19H I : lll)): th CY are th e -.ubjt(t ol 11le malt g.rte C'd uh'e1. 198 1: ~ee section 9.:t 1). fh u~. 1hi' co r; ,.e 1 1lional a n cl hnni li:n dq>iuion i, ,,lllll';llt' d 1\'ith po11er ami rtprodme' i<ka-. ol fcmininil\ a ncl m:hutlinill: 11mncn .rre :wailablc to be lookcd at. the' art P"''ilc ldHre 111 en are actiH'. dre1 an: 1a in in i mi tin~ t he luok ofmcn. and ..o un. A' Berger 'll~gt' 'h . t llt~c forms of representmion are not confin ed lll tlll' high .111 u-:~diti on of oi l p a inti n g. lllt' art CITl'\'ll'h ere in comcmpm-;uy popular cuhur e. mo'l notabll 11 tlH pagt'' o l m.h, tircuhuio n tabloid ne'''P:lPCT~ ami achtni,ing. T he 11 aditions o fth t''-l' t~pt' ' nf'reprt' 'l'lllation h an 1 1<11 go ne : 111; 1\ . dt,pitc com ing undt:r .111:1ch. front fcm inists (p. 1~()) am i lht clnelopmtnt modernis l ami pos tm odernis t (p. 10()) fonn ~ of reprcse nl a t ion ( p . (i 1). Hol\'t'HT . lkrgc :r co rne nd ~ that iltt' flg-nre o ! lllt nuck becam<.: mu r h lts!- impol'l < llll innrnckrni.'>l :lrl . ri1ing the c tS<' of \lane l, painling OlrllljJio wltich . hl' suggl'~l.,, l.' halltn ges 111<111~ of 1h e l'OilH'tllions of thc tHt ck (~tt al so ( :JarJ... 1 1'1 '-II'< IH'gics han al~o cTilii'~td a nd redeliul'd th e rl'prtscnl < llion ofilrt 1985). Feminist < fe m a 1t- body ( l'arkvr and Pol lo ck, 1~)~ 1: l'arkc r and Po llo ck. 1!11-17) . In thi." ~e r tion 11'< h al't n l:lltd sonrc paniru l:11 f( ,rms ot' rcpresl'n talion in :111 lo re lation s hip ~ o[ powcr (J>. \1 1}. 11 ran lw ~uggc~ t c d 1hat in 1er~ bmad LL' l 'lll~ dut llin:ull fonns or rcpnSl'lll.tio n su ch ;, n :rli"n (a.., in Tli r '. \111/ia,.lwf111'1 ) can hl' 'l'l'll Lu clt'l'l'iop in ;,oc i l'tit~ of .1 paninrlar IIJll'. l n1his ca,e . it i~ a socie LI' ami a c u ltlll"t' that ill cna,ing h cmp lt a~i~t 1hl po,'-l'. o;.,ion :111d IIJaLcrial ancl >llllbolic ce llt ra li tl o !' pmw,..,ion ul go1 Hl:-.. As ~ocie!l .111cl r ulltllt' s ltilt. 'o do J'onn' ul rcpre~c11latiun in a complt x manntr . lt C.lll be ~urrg(~tecl th at thl' ~ lt i lt lrum tlll' duminancc of realist (p. Gi l lorm' to th:\1 ni b, modernis m in hig-h utlurrt.' connec t'> 10 thc cliflerentl\-pe ol po,~c"-ion :111d rq>rt''l' lll .tlio n ol conutwd itit-. that heg in' to dc1T iop in thc late nimtttnth C'l'lltlll'\ . Furth trmol'l'. it can ht. -.u~gt.' 't td t ha1 1 h o~e fonn., knoKn a..; poslmode rn an a l'o rl'l:ut'd to diiTere n t -.trunurt., o l p owcl'.


n:-~lc spectator. inl'lllng hi:; looh. rath e r than challe 11g-ing it (Sl'l' al'o '-l'Clnn 2. :~).


2.6 1 Television and representation

So me ol' th e mn'L clctai lcd ,,nrk n n rc prese nt:nion h as bee n ca rriccl nnt on tdl'ision. In an ob1iou~ ..,cn~e this ~ll'lll " 1ro m 1he nr11ral importancc nf tt'l e,isinn as tllt. clomin:1111 form of t n n lt'lllporary rt.' PI't'Sl'll l:llilln a n cl C01lllll llll iC:11ioll. \ llllllilK'r 111' difkl't'lll dimensiom ol'1dt1isio n han ht'l'll su hjeC11o dc lail cd ana lysis (stt' .\lwrcrombil'. tmHi). ) \\'ithin nrll u ra l studk.s " " in1por1an1 t.'lllpha,is has bccn p laced on lh t ' flnw ' o l tc ]c,ision prog-r:llliiiiIIg (\\'illiarns , Hl7-l) in that it is recug nised that watching ll'lt.'l'ision is oftcn a11 expe t't'llLt' or a c til'itl' in it' 0\\'11 right. The co ntrast is with 1ht idea 1haL ce na in progr:tllllllt'' are ~L'il'Cl ed carel'ulh lo be 1\'atchccl (11hi c h or C'ottrM' lllil' ."l ill happen) ancl lO !h e idea 111 :11 !Cil'l'i:-iun S Ollle Kind of S lillllllll~ lO parti cu la r fnnm of bchal'iour. ILnm1 be cultun: in 1h e scn~e of a tcxl, but i l is also :1 cenit al pan o l l'l't' l ) dav lifc. 1-lowtn r. dt,pitl.' tlli-. t'nlph:t~i~. thtn hanl wt n a numbc r of impona nl anahsl'-. o f diiTc n .'tll p;tns ol ll'it.'' i,io11 p rogra mn1in).{. For txample. examination of'tele,i~ion llt'\1 ~>

In thc :ll'tragl' Europl'an oil pai n1i ng o r !lit nmk tli l' pt ita ip:r l prol<lgonist is ncnr p.titlltd . lit' i' lh t ~pcc1 :u or in front uf't lw pinun .111d li t , Jll'l'~ l llll t'd lo be :1 111:111. l:l'l'ryiltt1g j~ cJdn,'-t'd lO flim . J-:ll'IYthing lllW.[ :lJl)>l':tl' l O f>l' lfll' ll'~ ll l t nf flj , fwing ilr trt. 11 i, lor him 1h.11 11ie llg nrt;, han "~'llllll.'d tiHil nudi11 . 11111 ltv. l11 cldiniti11n . , .1 'lt.tllgl'l - 11 i1 f1 h , dollw. , ,ti 11 011. ( 1\)/~: ."i 1) fh l' l''Jll'n,ions nf ill t' nuck. in Berger , argunH'IIl . trt illl ili ng. Tht\ g:l/c tJll( al lht


lntroducing Cultural Stuclies

Communication and representation


dt'IIIOil'll:ll<'d th,ll l lOIHbIIl'' ,1 lllHIIIJl'l 111 dilfcrt'lll tht'llll'' 10 ploChl<l' ; p.utindar nll'~~ag e ..-\s ;11\':1\ ol brin.~ iu g- toge tll t'l' 11! c ,,,in l'o r i ol't hi' c h:qJitT 0 11 ' Pl't ilic H.' j)lt' \l' lll<ltion.ll lt'Chllifllll'' ,111d lllc' 1''\l'lt bt of jlCIIHT. 1\L' wi,IJ 10 ( Clll( hu k\\ i1h \Clllle consick rmic >1 1 ol illt''t' t upir ~.
11 ,1._



ll\n ,iclc, ot 111dll,ll\

\1 \N\GE\\ENT


The language of industrial disputes

d.11 111. dtm,lnc1. di'< li'>'>on
lhl l 'o l l , llllj>ll'<ll - - - -

One o J th t :l l'!.~a ' o r lt'l'\''>OII tha t h:l' t' lll p ha, bccl llt' IIII'<IIII , 11\'11:>. -, deli,ion ncw~ 'tTk' to loJ\\arcl e l.tilll' o l objec t i 1 i 1 ~ a nd :1 h~c n u ol' ])j; , , In :1 ' L' I't'' ol ~ nu l ic s rl:l ti ng l'rom tlll' mid - 1 ~ 1 7/J,, thl' Gl a~go11 L ' n i ~tr,i tl :-. ~toclia Gmup h,t, 'oll!:('ht tn auah~t ancl lllt im:u ch 111 to ntt'' ' IIH ''l' e l aim ~ . lt' ll'cll k h,1, ra ged :tt l'!l" 1he rq>nr tJlg' < JJ it ldu,trial di, putt'' tlw Fa lkl:lncb \\'ar. thl' 1nace tlloleuwnt ol tlll' 1!lt\U:.. thc 1\riti,J mitHr< '" ike o l l~lK 1 .md . \ ID ~. ~nn11 111 tll t' nw'l rk ll'd ana l 1 ~b e x: nni ncrl tht 11 ~c n l lang nagc :tnd \ j,ua l' in tlll rq>ot ting of 'indU'\11 ia) c(j,putt'' in llu i ~)jfl,. 1 ht'' l' di s plllt'~ 1\'l' J'l' rep<>!l l'cl i1 1 lcn ns o!' a t' Ja, h betll't't'll lll'n ~i t k~ . u~ i11 g :1 re i:III <.: il' n;IITOI\ 'l'l ef 1\'Ul el'. In lhl' clcla ilcd cxand nati111 1 o J thc l<>t.lhlti,Jn IN'cl 1\c' hall' dtlnon,ll.lll'cl that iu cli'Jllllt'' thl' 11 :1 di tio nal 'olfct , n f lll.IIJagt'llll'lll .liT inL"d t.lhh ( Ollnl c'l'l'd l\1 ti H 'de111<111d'' nf 1\tll ker'- 111 tl!c poin t " hl'rt llOllll' ancl \1'1IJ, clt,n ihill!{ m.uJa~l'llll'lll :1ttinth .11'1' gt'IH't,!l h po, ith t 1\ hill' thl' lll:tlr hing- \'llr :t h ! I>I' II'<H k<t , <lt'tion~ i.~ mg".Uilt'. ((;1 .1'\.(cm L II\'l'l,l, :-.kclia (:wup. 19HO: 1 01) ;\ l,ln:tg t'lllell l \\'as Sl 'l'll ,,, be lll:tking olll' l'' a rca'iona hk ' ac tion . 1\h t'l'l':l~ II'<JI'ktr, lll'l'l' ttllrt',l'onabk in utakill){ '<letn.uHt,. T IH '11).\'Kt''tion i~ tha t t he la ngll.tgt uf 1h e m\\.~ rt' porh i111 pi its th:tl 1,..,, kt r~ :11t C:ll l, 11g 1rouiJk l'o r 11 lt' lll:lll:l){l'llll'll l a 1HI l ht ('<Hlllll'\. -llh' conn-ptu,tlot g.111i,,uion of incllhlt ial ne11s i' 1 q >l'l''l'llll'cl diag 1< lllllll.lli c ill ~ in the

l - - - - 1

oill'l (OI1(1.'''ion. lh rt.l l, Jl'\ljlll'<ll



111 rull.'




,11\,ml, <h;al. ,\greenwnt, 'tlllenwnt F igure The concep tual organisalion of industrial news.



The conceptual organ isation of industrial news

T ht., e ddici t nc ic.' . a bsl'n re~ a ncl cli, tortin n' !llal ht~t bt illll'ti':Ht'd 1 ia a cliag r:mtm; n ic l't'( )J'C'~t' lll : lli o n o l 1hl' n HlCcpt u a l org:u1 i.'al io n of i 11 el tl.'il ri:d th'\1',, ( Fig ure l. Tite ' trt'c o t diagra111 , maclt up o l tht 1110'1 lrcq llt'lllh nccllt'I'II){ tl't lll' i11 tiiC' barg-ai 11 ing. hrl'akdol\'11 :111d l't'Mllut ion st agl'~ n f tlt t' ind u ~ tri : ll rc l. u ions proct '~. l t , arrangtcl H' t ticalh ,inn it H'(>lT~ttll' .1 ttmporal a' ll'el l :1' a logic:1l ~t' l(lll ' ll \l'. Tht n lttgorit, :dio\\' o nh tlH' 1110'1 si 111ple <li ... tinnion' to be lll<tdl'. T IH 11 011 11 l'orahl il;ll 1 clot'' 1101 prm idl' a hala tH l'cl ,l'l ol' clt''ictiption ... of tlw ~~H alled free culkrt in harg-a inin.( :1ppro:1c 11 lo inclthll ia l rt"l. u ion'i. 1 1' 'u eh a p l ura l i ~ ti c a ppt oach 1\ t'll' 10 OJ>l'l'at< then :ut a lllllHiwr ol ke1 ll'l ll h '' h ich ate <tb . . e ntll hirh

1\'cHlld ltal't 111 he prt''l'lll. Fn 1 1xantpk. laho ur II'Oiild oll ~'l' ai!Ci tn;lk t CCHit't'"ions and 111 , 111 , 1 ~~llll'll t 11 ould 111 ,11, 1 daillh :mcl clctuantk Enn lt'"' d o tltc1 .tllol\' .~~olll fol' tltl' l':\ pl'l~~II Il offlllid:tllll'll l<IJ cliffcl't'll tl'.<; p( \':tlllt'S li:l'l'd 0 11 das~ oppo~IIIOI\. )l'tt' unitu \ h ' lllH: ol rdet tnn ,J,e,, td to11.11'<b tnana~emtn t. 1 lt' <lll"ll<l~l' llll J '.1 . ' ' . 1\'l!o e=-t~rris<' conllol a~ ol' ri~ht'. Tht d u mi 1 Lilll 1a lue assumpuon~ \\'hJc h are e ntailecl b1 thi' 1il'\\ Jimit a nd q 11 ali l ~ t h e n~e ul cau,al an<l interprct;t ~IH' conc~p t <> (t.g. co nCt'ph 1\'llit h llolllcl L''\p la in bl h.llio ur in ll'ltlls uf .d a" l ll' ' r<.ICitl'.:ll ' lm bi o ru o ll ~ a~g"l'l''~''T l'!Jilll()tallotls). o ppu~I I!O il llb t(.',H 1 o1 'milil'ln t' . 11 ith ih . Th i;, d d ic ic n t 1 i, JI tllc 1110 1 e wrio u.- ht( ,lll'l' nnnt \\'o r k b~ :-.t oo~ l w mc on po litic 11 con,r io u-.mss :tnd hd ich aho111 cht~~ in 1\rit ..lill rt'lt'ab th.ll 111 till' ;.,... prrnption o l tllt da"' \\Sil' nl i, clidmtuntou' . l t " l'lT\ r. l o~l' tu th c "' ~~el 111 ' tltcm ' 1i1. 1, . \\'ht'll d in a pnlitkal ro tll t':\1 \\'h vth e l the re '' cla~~ ~lll t~gk _111 Bl itai n 1110, 1 pl'opk sccut 111 bdit~t th.ll tl wn ,, C.tll up , JIIHH'clt h.ll tn ~la 1 -~ ~~ / -~ : 60 pc 1 ('t'lll uf thc respo !Jclc Jll ' hclil'l't'cl lhat tlll'l't' 1\':IS ~la!>!> ~ll'llgglt: ":'".lt. ~2 pt~l u :nt olthe f)ail\" 'lih-grttf'li poli in thc ~alllL' l'l'.ll' al'o bcltt'I'Cd th::u tlu: t~ '''' ' cl.1' ~ 1 r 11 ggk . 13tll ;;~ the hiii ~Uaf,\{' ul ll L'\''' rcponing riL:ar~ ~ rt'l'eab. t l u~ do cs tHII apptat 1111 0111 'lll't'll' 1t , lc " t i11 the pnKt''' uf tlled tal!on. ( ,1 "'1.\'"". L II\tr'"' ,\ kclt .t <>tH> p , 1\l:-\11; li'Hi-)

. '"c.'


lntroducing Cultura l Studies

Communica tion and representation


t'X Ir:1 ct frn1111h e Cla~g-o11 l 'ni\'ersi l,- .\kclia Crnup \\'l1 id 1i' t''PI.liiH'<i in lhl' arctl lll)l<Hllillg l<"'\l in Bn'\ ~.\!. .\ccorcling tt tht Cla,gm1 !{rc>up. ,-i,ual' in ntll~ lndk1i1h :ut al,nu~ed in .1 ,l.,111L'<I' lll<IIIIIL'I'. I n the ~tal\h of thl' per:-on 11ill aflnttiHi li,u.d IL'Jlll''t'lll.llion. l t is ohLn ll<ltl'd 1h.u 11'1Wn the~ appear on tele,i,ion. at.tdlmic' .tl'l' H'l' ofll'll ,IHm n in front ol .1'. Thi' mm he taktn 10 'ignif~ (or cknotl') thl'il k.u ning. b111 alq lOillt'l' (ol connotl',) ~ome nea<oure ofauthori11 . IJlltnitlling .111 .tt.I<ILmit 11hill' he or 'hl' i' c:ngagt'd in ~onw other :hfX'ct of 1lwir lile or claih HHIIHl nlight np<.tt ~<mt ol 1he~~.. conception~. fl~,,,are ttflt'll illlenit'llt'd 1\'hik hal'ing 1hdr pl.ll'e r nul... In 1he (.1.1'1-\''lll' l ni1er~i 11' .\1<-dia ol 11'o1l... acacltmic' llt'llT in lhL uni~tr~itl c 1 Gro u p~ a n al~~, ' uch cli,l i nnio n~ enn conw <Hll in l hl' natll rt ol lh< cap1ions 11,ed to labd cliflt'l'l'll l ,.i,11.1 l prt,ent:uiom. Eq ualh i1npon : u11l ~. lht-rt :lit' grc:ll ,imil.irilie,

Defming tolltt'fll


of society, is at the same time its ruling intellectuo/ force' (Marx and Engels, 1968: 64). lndeed, these ideas are part of their rule. They serve to legitimate their dominalion (e.g. the Swedish ruling classes legilimating capitalist modernisation with ideologies of both progress and tradition - see section 4.2.3) and to reproduce the unequal social relations from which lhey benefit (there are a whole series of arguments aboul how education 1s part of the reproduclion of class relations, e.g. Althusser, 1971 , and Willis, 1977). Generally, then, ideology (the realm of ideas) is seen lo be shaped by something 'deeper' - the social (or class) relations wilhin which people live lheir lives or even the economic organisation of society (or 'mode of production') which shapes those class relalions. There is, however, a recognition lhal ideologies have real consequences. They operale as 'maps of meaning', used to inlerpret and define what is going on. That they work better for some groups than others is the second componen l of Marxist lheories that Williams identifies.


Theories of ideology are an allempt to understand ideas in tcrm s of power (p. 94). This has been most fully developed within Marxist (p. 97) theory (see Williams, 1977) and what follows is a consideration of that tradition and critiques of il. Raymond Wflliams (p. 5) (1977) stresses the various meanings lhat the term 'rcleology' can have from cxplicitly acknowledged poltica! ideologies to more subconscious 'common-sensical rneanings' or 'taken-for-granted beliefs'. He identifies two components to Marxisl understandings of ideology: ldeology as the ideas of a particular social group. ldeology as a system of illusory beliefs.

/r/('1)/ogy r11 r1

1 _)'.1/('111

f!/ il/11 WIJ lwlitj.i

ldr ologits fH thl' idl'{{\ of a sorial,l!,nmjJ

This is the argument lhat social groups (and within Marxism lhe debate has revolved mainly around social classes) have particular beliefs associated with them. One source of lhis is Karl Marx (p. 97) and Fredrich Engels's The Germon ldeology. In this critique of idealisrn (a way of thinking that identifies ideas as the main properties of a society) they asserted lhat ideas were not independent. lnslead ideologies come from social classes in lheir social relations with each other. Or, as janet Wolff says, 'the ideas and beliefs people have are systematically related to their actual and material condilions of existence' (Wolff, 1981 : 50). Ideas, or ideologies, are seen to be rooted in the material condltions of the everyday life of classes (including their relations with other classes). Yet these classes are not equal; some ideas domnate because of the unequal material social relations of a class-based society. Marx sums this up in a famous phrase: 'The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the rufing ideas, i.e. lhe class which is the ruling moteriol force

This is the suggestion thal, because of their origins as part of uneqLJal social relalions, ideologies are a distorted representation of the truth. This relies on the points sel out above lo argue thal there are sets of ideas appropri ate lo each class, generated by lheir position within exploitative social relations, but that people may have adopted other ideas va education, the media, entertainment and so on. S ince a true class consciousness with an objective material basis is being claimed here, then people who do not think thal way are said to have 'false consciousness'. There is a sense that they have been hoodwinked. Their real interests are concealed from them and the real interests of the exploitative classes are also concealed (for example, nationalism which serves the political, military and economic interests of ruling classes might be said to be false consciousness for a working class that 'should' think of itsell not as divided but as internationally united). There are a series of problem~ with these ways of thinking. First, 'false consciousness' is always something that someone else has, not oneself. lt has a tendency to define people as 'cultural dupes' who can be led out of their ignorance by a right-lhinking vanguard or the visionary theori sl who knovvs lhe 'Trulh'. Second, can classes and ideas be matched as neatly as this way of thinking suggests? Can we allocate ideologies lo social groups in this way? Third, can the world be understood in terrns of class alone? lf not, do the form s of analysis (often rooted in understanding economic rela lionships) set out above work for social groups defined in term s of gender, race, sexuality or age? In response lo lhese problems the 1970s and 1980s saw the development of more and more elaborate and difficult theoretical work on the relationships between ideas and power (sec Alth u~ser, 1971, and Thompson, 1984). The main palh thal this took was through understanding language, thinking about ideas not as something 'free-fl oaling' bul as existing as words spoken or wrilten. 1t al so meant a move away from only studying class.


lntroducing Cultural Studies


This work has stressed that ideology is about the relationship between language and power. lnstead of thinking about ideas being fixed lo particular social groups or about them being untrue there is a sense that meanings are not fixed, that they arise in lan. guage, in communication and representation. This means thinking about many compet. ing ideologies, not one dominan\ one, and about a whole range of social groups. The connection to power lies in the ways in which meanings present lhe world to the advan. tage or disadvantage of particular social groups, and the ways in which those groups can attempt to fix or challenge those meanings. For example, a set of widespread ideas about nalure, motherhood and domesticity which served to legitimate women's dependence within the home benefited and were reproduced by men, but have in many ways been effectively challenged by women. As Thompson says: 'To study ideology, 1 propose, is to study the ways in which meaning (or signification) serves to sustain relations of domina. tion' (Thompson, 1984: 4). This way of thinking is very close to other theoretical concepts that look at the relalions belween meaning and power (e.g. discourse - p. 30) and has raised the question of whether we still need the concept of ideology. Those arguing against using it suggestthat it slill brings with itthe problcms of believing in something called 'the truth', and of being too rooted in economic class relations (Foucault, 1980). Those who want to retain il clairn that it brings a necessary critica! edge to rnakin g judgernents about the power relations involved in staternents (Eagleton, 1991 ; Purvis and Hunt, 1993).

Cornmunication and representation


lt'' To '1Chinl' thi~ \l:tlll~ tl ll'\' 11HISI he (.'lllelcil'tl h1 1' 1 cJ t' t t< . 11 .1ptc r 11H'' t, oJ1'. )us e : . l .. 1 :n tlll'ir l>mcl un io n . and bt capal>lc ol' being dtuHkcl bl ti H 1 1. 1 Hl 11 1 O S(' 111\ 0 \ t:( .. tcll thelll T h L I .11 , ._11cia l pltcnollll' ll<t 'u Jce 1 10 ' tnt.u; e .u 10 \l .t lic net"' \l 1 ' 1 1 :HIC . , um 111 11 ,,.el b\ 11 ,111 in th t di.1~ 1 a m repro< unc 111 f(.' ,UICIIh1liP' .11 t ' e11a1l .; T h t''t' ll' 1 F'l, o ,"-e '2 . ro. l lll , ll'k\,t>ll ll'XI lll , j<rn. \ \l'l'\ (enllplt': rllllll'l 1 ll\Oil l1\ ,llll (,\11 1-1'1 1 1 trg u t''> 1 '' 1t ,.. . . l' . . !el in diiTl' tT III wa\S h' lhc .ntclicncl'. 11 a ll idc nti fi c:; lh rcl' po,nten ' 1ro nl lJc .e~c e;c t ding' of ., tdt\ ,u al cJi,cotu,l' m,,\ bt cun,lluut<l' 1 HI~O: 1:\6). T h t>,t' he \I' III C 1 C eco .' , 'e' tit e ' tt <roti ' IICd' 'lllrltlt l' 'oiJI)OSiion a J' ( 1 9~0: l :'.ti- H) . .. JI ' tllt' ' Uilllll<llll ll').{l'IIHlll l . 'n ' ' . , . . . .. , . t' ~ . 1 . . ~ , <111 ( 1 ' 1Oti) th t ltwtc ol l h l' l!'lt\'lston p t ogt .111\IIH " rIn lhl' clom ll ta lll 1egemomc po ' t
gnne :d o n ~ \l'ith .

. . '1 , di, \'t'\le'l' 1.1l..t'> lltt ( OIIIIOit'cl lli(;';I II II!-i il<llll . ~;11. , tdl'I I 'IC~il ill'l\ ~l:l ~l ill \\ 1tll ' , . 1 l, 1. t1 . llll''' l!{l' lil ll'l 111 ' of dtt . 11 tlfair' prog .nllll1L' lu11 and 11. .tn< 1 < t Colt' '' . . . C\l~l~l :, ) .11,\1'lli<h j ) t' 1ll't' ll e'I1COilcd . \ll' lil)4hl ':1\' lll<tt l1 11' l'll'\1'1'1 l\ 1'/ll'lll//1:,1.! rd t' l t'lltl ~ (O( II ' (ll.dl. 1!1:-:0: 1:1h) 111/1' t/11 do11111111111 rt!llt.



Furthr r rrarlillf!
E agleton, T. (1991) ldeology: An lntroduction, London: Verso. Thompson, J. (1984) Stud1es in ihe Theory of ldeology, Cambridg e: Pofity. ( ~lfiams, R. ( 1977) Marxism and Literature, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

1 1 . l<f' 1hi' i' the end e of te le\'isin n n ew~ :1bnlll mcluqnal rl to;pule~. clCIIl.lll( l 111 ,-.. . 1 J' \ uc h l 'll'O . , ulir ula ttclth roucrh tlw p r o l'c..,.,ional p rat 1icc' o l' te l'\'l' l<>ll .JOUI'Ila 1 st>. ' !' , \ '\ ' b ' . 1 "11'\ \()l ll'l\' . . )rt''l' nts ;111 inllnentiallonn 11! cnmmon ' L' IISL ' 111 r n t11.t'I11P 1 > . :. . 1 CJ Thl' m golial l'd ro< k 1 11;11 '''o opnatt' \l'il hi n t hi' lra liH'\I'Ill'k. bu l \\111 .'tilo~' .1m. disavrc cntt'llt s 11 i1hin i1. T fw s. 1111 th t basi' of t'Xpl' ritnct, fol' t'X;1 111Jlk . Lht'll' lll.t\ ht


1 ll'i 11 bt accc>ted 1hat ti 1e ma nagt'llll' 111 d ut'' ma ke olf(.'l:~ a nd ~,or~t ~'' d~>

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o f t ht d omin .ll\1 fl':lllll'.

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Dttndi 11 g \\ ih in t11i' ttlgo/tlllnl l't t \11111 c:on t:t il l' :1 lill"llil l o : d cmc n 1, : it .1r\\ ll'dgl'' t1ll' lq -\I imar1 ol 1h l' 1.1l').\C' I1H~n tc dch n '".o n~ ~~~ m.'' .t ( tl)tt"lt' t) 11 1 1 ntort , ntn rt l'd. 'illll< lllllll' ' (,uu,lltdl h H i. 1ilt 11 a ran c1 ~1g n 1 Jt .l 1""" , .

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h t' I\H'l'll 1h e rlillcl'l'll l l t l ed~ion ch.t ntw ls in lile s on ~ o l pic tures :ntd graphic~ ll1at lh t\ ll\L'. h1 ll tt'\l' rc, pcn,. thcu. lll'\' " , roulini~td an d con\l'tl lional. In :tddition Lo tnakin g- th l' ~t c l aim~ lite C lasgm, g roup ~ ttg',l~t'' l that lhl ~u u c lil l'l' o l' lhl' 111'\\'' a iJow<. l lll fll ll rtilll ideologicaiJy ( ' L'L' 1)efin ing C.o n n p1 ~.~) ll t h:ll i1 pruclu tcs a \'t-rsinn o l' rtal il \' 1 hat J'an111r~ 1h c d o 1ninant el a" . 11 doc' no t do t hi' b\ ~i n t p h aCii n g as a lllou lh piect for 1lw g-~>\ CI'I11l lt' lll or :tge nlt'lll. bn 1 throug lt :1 'L'I of rt' llrl'~l' ltl a l io ll S \lhich \\Sle matic<~ lh s kt'\1' ~ l o rin i11 pa nicu lar dire nion' .


Stuart Hall: encoding, decoding and ideology

\ \'o rk e111 l llll ' d ia d l'\ d o ped a 11() opcra lion:.~l i~cd ~0 11 1(' or llw l..t'\ <k halt'!> 0 11 idcology. In p < ulicuhtr 1lw rt;c,nT h carrin1 out a l 1h c Binningh;tm Ccnlre for Conte mpornry Cuhural S rudics (p. :\27) \1as h u){c h infl n l'lllial. ThL conwrstonc of 1hi<. \1a, lht wotl.. ofSruarl H nll (.'L'< ' I'C'\' lnflltC'tH' t' :!.:!). In ' 1 ncocling clccod ing . ll a ll ( 1 ~11-i!J) ;u g uc<. 1h.u td c\i,ion pnJ~t~u n nH' ' ;mcl h) impJiC<ttlll ;111 eliiiC'I' fol'l n;, oJ' ll' XI. \ l10u ld IJl ltlldt r~ I(Hid ;, ' lll(.'<llling Ju J diSCOUI'SC'( p. :'.0 ). In lhe l.llllo{Uagl' o l s tntcltuaJis m 1p.~ 1) .ntd s emiolics (p. J 1) in tro d uced e arlit'l in


l~el.1l i t)l15

o1 productinn Tffhnir,11 1nir.1' 1 run urC'


Rcl,111011' pmdullion

im r,l ~I C'I ICIUI'<'

Figure 2.10

Encoding and decoding. (Source: Hall, 1980: 130.)


lnlroducing Cultural Stud ies

Communication and representation 89 In thl' oppmilio1 1 :tl po,ilioll ll w rl ominant fnune1mrk , diil'Clh n,i,led. i11 a l!,tnlmll\ um ( 11.111. 1\lXtJ: 1:1/-,1.{1. . Thl'"' poten ti.ll JlthiiiOII,\\t'll'l'lll)>ilitalll t<llhicllred 1)\ .\ luiltl ( l!lXO). Rtitt'latinu Jlw inllul'IHl' ol thl' 'ntiologi't l1,111k l'.ukin ( I\J7:1) 011 hi' :md 1la))', po,i lion. \lorle~ fo und t'lidente fo1 tiH' l'\i,tt'IH t' o( tlll' dille:>relll Jllhition' .mton~ ,orial g"lllli)J' lo 1 hich hl' ,IH>IIt'd t'\antplt' ol 1lw B1i1i'h ( 111 rem affitir,. m.l~a7ine progr;mlmt .\fltu111 1 !l'idr(,et' fu1thl'r \ ht'IUolllhit. 19!11}: .\ beiCJI>Illbie and,t. I!J!JK ).

Ke_v injluence


S tuart Hall


Stuart Hall is a l~born intellectual and political activist who can in many senses be seen as the crucial figure in the development of contemporary cultural studies through his own work, his slimulation of others and his continued attention to the interconneclions between politics and the pursuit of knowledge. Born into a middle-class family, Hallleft Jamaica in 1951 to study al Oxford. He was active in left politics and became the first editor of New Left Review in 1960. In 1964 he was appointed as deputy director (to R ichard Hoggart) of the newly created Centre for ontemporary Cultural Studies (p. 327). He subsequently became director, befare taking the Chair of Sociology at the Open University in 1979. Hall's early engagement with the New l eft stimulated his interest in popular culture and he published an irnportant text with Paddy Whannel, The Popular Arts (1964). This interest continued in a number of papers on diverse lopics in the area of media and communication including news photographs, the magazine Picture Post, and news and current affairs tele: vlsion. Hls ongoing concern with issues of race was combined with thls emphasls in the influential (collectively authored) P olicing the Crisis (1978). He wrote on subcultures specifically on l1ippies, but most importantly in the key collective text R esistance through Ritua/s (1976). His theorelical interests were developed in papers on ideology, which were influenced by both Althusser and Gramsci {p. 38). He was one of the first leftist analysts lo confront Thatcherism and from 1979 on developed an analysis and critique based in a Grarnscian approach. This resulted in the concept of 'authoritarian populisrn', The Po/ilics of Tlwtcherism (1983) and New Times (1989), both edited with Martn jacques. Confronting postmodernism (p. 400) led Hall to increased concern with issues around 'race' and 'identty' (p. 224) in the 1990s, when he also continued to reflect on the development of 'cultural studies'. T~1e i~pact of Hall's own. ~ork, centred on the interconneclions between ideology (p. 84), 1dent1ty, culture and pohtKs, on cultural studies cannot be overestimated. He remains al the cutting edge of developments, continuing to argue for the relevance of a sophisticated Marxism to the understanding of contemporary social formations, as well as a force for social change. Moreover, especially during his time at the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies in Birmingharn, he influenced a generation of researchers who were thernselves to become some of the leading writers in the field. His commitment to collective work 5 reflected in his joint authorship and editorship of many volumes.


Television: ideology, discourse and power

Fu rl.h er readi ng
Morley, D. and Chen, K .-H. (eds) (1996) Stuart Hall: Critica/ Dialogues In Cultural Stvdies, London: Routledge. Hall, S. and Jefferson, T. (eds) (1976) Resistance through Rituals: Y outh Subwlwres In Post.war Britain London: Hutchinson. ' Hall, S., Critcher, C., jefferson, T., Clarke, J. and Roberts, B. (1978) Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the S tate ond Law and Order, London: Macmillan.

Hall a nd .\ lurit'l .~ argu lllt'lll reprt'St:'IIIS a soph i.;;tiGHNl aCCOillll ni 1hc rt'lat ion 'h i p bclll'tcu media ua,~ag't' ' ancl idcology (p. X1) ancl powcr (p. ~~ 1) . .\ k di.t lll t'":l~n a~t (0 111p lc~ . i>tll CClllll l'('l lo llil' 1'\laiJij,llld J><lllt'l'llS of thl' di,tl ibnl iOII of j)OII't' l .111 d inOucncc. Tllt'~ do not ,iJnp l ~ rdkn tliis. ln11 ;m : ordered in .. nclt w:1~ s :t> lo tdtiul :llt'h rcprtsen t :1 par1ini1;11 l'il'll' .111d L'O ll>ln Jt lion o l tit e ll'orld. T lt csL' m c'.~,a~t, :ti'!' normnlly dl':tl l 11ill1 in ltnns ol lh e dnmi n:mt o r thc ncgoti a1 cd codt'. T lt l'~- n ~ lw ch a l l e n ~ed in a' ptns ol' dvl:til. bu1 not in 1lw ir l'lllire tl'. T lwrc is. tliL'Il , a IH'g't'llll>nir undc rsl:tnding and r<'JliTSt'lllation ol th c world. wh ich bc nelits poll'l' llul gro11ps :llld 111tich i ~ ~ h arcd . a~ a J'cmn oJ r on1n1o11 ' l'llSL'. b~- llit m:uority nf 1lw popuhnicm . TJt j, logic wa' 11orktd ou t lll 11.111 .md Jti, collahorato rs in f>ofil'ing 1111' C'ri.1i.1 ( ll all ,,, o/.. 197K), whl'i'L' 1h c llit>l al p:11 1it (~ct Ch.IJllL'I' K) m t'l ' mu){gin.( gc nt'ratcrl ])~ llil' l~~tdia in tilt' ] !)70s j..: l Cll111t'Cl!'d lO lill' sliiJting p;ll(L>IJl'> Of tltl' rcorg-all\llillll of' \lalt JlOII'l'l' in con lempor;ll'\ B1 ili,J 'ot it'll :tiHI tu the rnmmon '>t'lhc : o l Engl i'>h r;lt>Ill ht'L' funher Barkcr. 19!12). 1n tJte,c argnmen" t lit nwdia :JI'L' St'L'Il 10 act idcologically (p. .; 1). l hc, rcprcwnt a panial ,-iew of the IIOIIcl. 1d1ic h owratts in la,our ol thc dominan! ~roup,. 1 lit''t' :ne some of lli( llH>'l claboratcd ancl cw11plex dc\Tlopmcnts nf .1 ~l :n ~i'' aeccnnll .111d theon ol rcp rcscnlatiou (p. lil l. Ont ol lh<: kt~ prohlenh 11ith IIHm. hcm't'\'l'l. h;" bccn thl' Ulll(l'J>lll:tli,:uion a nd arrolllll or i(kology that lhl'\ conlaill . In p.minil:ll thcrc i~ ptHL' Itli.tllr 100 (]llit k .1 llHIIL'IlH'Il l lrom tlw ana l1:-i' of tlw -'llllrllln o l lli L media lL'~t 10 i1 ~ intplit :Ilion in tiH: rrprocluct ion of commo n St'llH' abotll iJHI!I'll'ial d isp tllc ~ or raci>lll. ~ l o rl' i'l'l't'nt 1101 k ha' sugge,ttcl that tlil' 1 ~ ~ 1 i' ra tl1 e1 llHII'L' compk~ 1h:111 lli L'M' :ttrolllll' .tl lo11 and tlia t its cnllllt'C tion to auclienct~ is t'll'l1 less str:1i:.(hllor11:1rd. Tlim i1 t.lll hl' 111aintai nl'd th:-11 lh <:s<: so rl ~ ol \br~ist accollllt ar~ UL' thal thcn i, :1 rt':di11 1h:11 is npn.'t'lil l'd in tlw media. ll'hicl ulli n;ltl'h ll l i, l 'l'J)I'l'~l' lll ~ thc ll'lll' pil'l ti i'C '. \\'hilt t lii ~ ll 'X l 111:11" l>c' CCIIl l j)k ~. a ll'lllli C:lll lll' J'OllllCJ. 1\'III'Ii i' Olllsicle I'C'j)r(''it'nl:lli on. , \p prcoa c l a~ lha l ofl l'll han ~011ll' of tlll'il' 1'1>111 ~ in tlit \1'111 k uJ' Foueau lt op ).,~t tlii' 1 iv11. 1krt lh l' 1 <'~ 1 i.' i t ~d r al11a1, rJ i,rursil'lh ro nslrnt ll'cl ancl slwuld IICil 1 )1' III Hll'I''I<HH I IIi tll in :1 J'r;lllll' e [ i 'l'Jll'c'~l' nlali o n (;hi t clot, 11111 tt'-j)J'c''L' III ) bu! in lil t' rr:lllll' ni ('CIII\lllll'lion . IL':O.l' :tl't' ('()lhlnll"lt'cl ll"illtin l.lllg'll.IJ.!t'. Tli i' \OJ'I ol' :lj>j>I"O:tl li pl;l! l'' t'lliJ>It,hi' Cl ll t} H' loltl').!Ctrl of dj ~('Oll l',(' (11hirli i\ llf"ll'll lh1d i11 litt llH II< .\l<u ~i' l ,H'lOIIlll' .1, l~e l l - .t l lct~~inL\ 'oliH' ' ll'.tkagt ht'lwt ~n ll~e n 1 ;,, lllliL"h 111 liw IIOI'k in 1he 1!JK(), ,uH ) 1\)\JO, nf 111 iltT' likL .\lo riel ( 1!J\12) and llaJI ( 1!1!1()) inclicalt', ), 1lm1't'll'l'. it don 'ug~L''' th.11 111,- l!'l;llion,hip~ helll"l'f'll the produnion, ,li'IICIIIl'l' and

Communicalion and rep resentation


90 lnlroduclng Cultu ra l Stud ies

. f . ~ u-e 1111 ,ch mon 1 ontingL'IIl 1han t'H'Il perll.qh llll' llHI\1 consumpuon o 1t x 1 ' . . . , , ., ,. s - r co ul ;d io"'' 1 he 1 onnp1 "' clbco 1 1 1'~l' ;l( 1 ~ 1<~ Jaci lil<lll' 'l iCh sop 1ll ~ ll catc. 1 '' 1 1' 1 1 '1 11 . . Thu' smnt ol 1ht' c )(Je, 111 C<llllJlll'x 1('~" ma1 ,,ell lw . con llll !{<.'IIC~. . . . . Jl o \\T I't'r. ot h t 1 s 111;1\ no l be or m;l\' bt' 1tk-ologwal111 cllffL'Il'l1 1 ''"~ ' - l-< 11 e~ampk. a ll'Xl mav wd l con,lruCL a di'c"urse uf eh'" 1ha1 mighl be 1hougl11 10 hl oppo,itional (tH' non-ickctlo~i call " 'hi le con,lrtlrlin~ a di,conl 'l' of rau lhat , h ighh idLologinll. T hus. in tlw rt'celll Brili' h lt' i!'d'>ion seril'~ 0 111 :-111111 i11 1/11 .\'ollh. a ~l'rie' ol dl'baa, ancl ,ruggll's n n1rcd around '1.1" and ineqn.di11 in B1 i1;~in si n ce lhl' l!l!i(l, wen: dramati,ed . hn L olllt'r pnli1ical i~~ll l'' (n<H.Ii> h o l racl') wert L'IHinh .lb't'11l. .\11 inll'l'l'~l in cJi;;cnur'e i~ aJ,o a >lt'l,tll'lll li.:'.t1\lrt .. r 'o1 ne cmlt'IIIJlOrarl' ' oci.d pwr holngical appmac ll t' ll'hit 11 c ri1icise lite :'ll ar"i't approach. Th , cmpha'i' on d ,cou1 ,t. opn<llt'' to mm l' cull1t'l1l i>"r.1r> rk balt' ;t\1,1\' l'l'lllll l'l'J>I'l''l'llla iLOII , ldlt'l'l'bl rta iII j~ l 'I'Jll 'l'~l'llltd i11 :111 adt'CJllall' lH inadl'CJll:lll' Ja,hion. towa1cl' an t'nlpha._,, tHI the 11a,, in 1d1irh difkrl'lll 1t''\1' t'O lhlllltl dbr<~IIISl'' wi1hin IIH'Ill 1d1 ic h arl' colnpll'xh- rti,\ll'cl 10 lht p rarlit l ' ' a11cl cli,tom,t o l' 1ho'e 1d1n produu: ami roJhlllllt' theu1. l'his .tllm,, a ~n.llt'l ~cope fill 1he Cct n,i clt-ration ol lht 1 11hi t h 1l':'\ ls a rl' :11'1iru i.lll'd ll'ith :t ph1t;tl i11 u( a'wns ol J>llllt'l' (Wl' ll'i<k 1\'a\S i1 Chaptt'l li).

This chapter has considered: 11 lhe significance of language and communication and lheir connection to issues of power; the semiotic approach to lhe study of signs and the application of lhis to advertisi ng; the nature of artistic and television representations in relation to social change and the d islribution of power.

Further reoding
An excellent short introduction to issues of language and representation, especially as discus~ed in the structuralisl ancl semiolic viewpoinls, can be found in Terence Hawkes, 5tructuro/rsm ond Sr?mloliCS (1977). The classic study which appties these lo adverlising is )udtth Williamson Decoding Ad1ertisements ldeo~ogy ond Meaning in Advertising ( 1978), which might be used lo prompt analyses .of your o~vn. Cor_ 1necllons between represenlation and power (especially ol class and gender) are economtCally and tnlluentally dealt with by john Berger in Woys of 5eeing (1972). ]ohn Fiske and ]ohn Hartley, Reading Television (1978) apply semiotics lo lelevision; Fiske's Telel'lston Culture (1987) develops the argument and approach.


Summary: reflecting and constructing

1ht conccp1 ol l't'J>I't'St'11la1ion . rill' sub~tqu.c l l l eo1 1 ~iclerat i<nl o l _i.lllg llag't' a lHI _ , nm c sp~rilic fi mn~ .1nd tx:unpil, ol 1t'JliT~t'tHalioll ha'. Wt' hopl'. >ollltl'd up ,omt of tht''t' 1\\lll'~ 11\Pil' \ 1 ; 1rk) ~. lkoad it 1\'l' han . ' kttt h tcl a 111P\'('111t'l11 rm111 CUIH'tptin lh uf hlllgll:lg<: th ;ll \ i1nph 1ha1 i11 sonll' ~t'll'L' it lt'J>I'l''t'lll' or t'ntoclc~ 1!11 11111 Id. 01 in n1on :\ l:u xi,l ;lCCotmiS n prtst n 1s i1 p ;tl 'l i; tl h . lo Olit' ldJ tn l'l'Jlr<'Sl'll lal ion i' i 1 1t rea'ingl~- pmbk 1tt a tic. h h:l~ ht'l'll argucd b1 ~onw po'l111ndl'llli-.t ancl po,htlllctlll~lli,t 111 i1cr~ 1hat thc ll'orld i~ actttall> madt LIJ> o f imagt., a tt cl disrolll''t'' Th i.' i' no11 lh t real. In malll ll''Pl'CI~ l11i' ,a mclical ll'l',ion of' lht idea thal langu.tgt dot'' 1101 r l'fJ 1 or l't'Jlll'. ' l'lll. bnt thal i1 ron~lrtiCLS. Co nttnuni r;11 io 1 1 :HHI rcprl'stntal ion 1h tn :l.,.,llllw c rttl ial i1nporlanct'. '1 hl' 1 irttll'lH ,. ancl ~alit nre ol co ntt'lll(>ol.ll'l' cli,p11tt' ' aboul langua~t "'l' and da ...sifi c;llitm are not. thu1 , ~o l lll' sidl'lin c 111 real ckiJ:Itcs: rl c~ are Ct'll lral. 11 'huuld COI1ll' a' 110 'lli'J>I i'c 1h.11 lht na1ning uf gtoup~ and attil'i1i t'' an ol \lllh \ignilit<\1)('(, rht J'ta J S IH>I, itt SOilll' ~('11\l', llllt..,[rlt- IJI!'S\.' l'l'J>I'l''l' ll l:lliolllo / Cllll'11llt' 1ions. Ra tiH'r 1han being jokc~ 111' ~idl' i~~llt'' ma11t-r.s ol lang11a~l' thl' '11d1 ;, 1ht' ti lll' 1 \ 1!. ;\l)d thc rl'cbi111 ing of IL'rtll' likc 'nggtr an a l th l' 11'1'\ h l'art uf 'ocia l a nd poii1i n d \.con 1c,lal ion ( 'L't' llll'llll'r Chap1~r {j).

~lll' hq.{inning of thi' ch:plt'l' 1\'t' inlrodttetd 'omt i"un rai.,rl b1

Culture, power and inequality 93


Culture, power and inequality



1.\HrJ gL' 101 fe,l Ol

IIW 1\iJild

5 1,090



111 HI

Sl11.111 1i l

S 1 i ih hl

Figure 3.1

The clevelopment gap in 1995.

The development and global expansion of a world capitalist system of production has generated increasing clisparities ot wealth, income and life chances within and between the populalions of the world's nation-stales. In 1996 the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) c~mplimented the British governrnent on its economic success in controlling inflation and reduc1 ng unemployment in the British economy but warned that there might be a high price to pay in terms of social disharmony and civil unrest beca use lhe policies of sound economics had produced a big gap in incomes and wealth in British society. Similar warnings have been given about the relationships between the induslrially developed and economically advanced nalions of the world and areas of the form er communist world ancl countries of the so-callecl Thircl Worlcl. This is a politicalterm which is used to describe poor countries in Al rica, Latn America and Asia, many of which were form er colonies of European sta tes (see colonialism and postcolonialism, p. 189). In all cases the warning is that there are dangers to social cohesion and political stability as a resull of the operation and continuing expansion of the capitalist system. lf we consider the global economic differences between societies, it is evident that the c~ntrasts ar~ very marked in ~cale and conlinuing to grow. Economists speak of these increasing d1fferences 111 lhe wealth of F1rst and Thircl World societies as the 'development gap'. One way of measuring lhe development gap is to compare the Gross National Product per head of the population (GNP per capila). This is the total value of goods and services produced annually in the society clividecl by its population. In 1995 the richest twenty-five societies in the world _ whKh mcluded the United States, Ca nada, Western Europe, Australasia and the Gulf states of the Middle East - macle up only 16 per cent of the world's populalion yet hadan average GNP per cap1tc1 well over twenty times higher lhan lhe average for the rest of the world (see Figure 3. 1). Of course what these data overlook are the very considerable differences in income, weallh and <mocittted lite chanccs lhat individuals may experience witl1in any given sociely. Even in a rich ~oc i ety such as the United States, the poor encounter real cleprivation. Neverlheless, the difft>rences between rich and poor societies in a global perspective are striking and remain an undt>1lymg sourcc of lension and instabilily in the conlemporary world.

lt seems lhat the pursUil of capitalist goals is 111imical lo social, economic and polilical egalitarianism; capitalism produces inequality. lt is also becoming more and more ilppa_ rcn_Lthat the sources and manifestations of this inequality are not simply produced by the globallsat1on of markel logics and mechanisms. The cultural dimension is increasingly significan\. T.llis...illWLer explores this idea: first, it examines theorising about the relationship of culture, power an~ in~ng al explanabons of lhe origlns of ineQ.llillily in capitalisl soc1 el1 es. Second, 1 1 cOscr"rs how and whx_1nequality is mainlained_ in capi~alisl socielies with particular reference. to lhe role of culture. Third, it Jooks al systems of mequallty lhat are commonly seen to be rooted a~essed in non-e~es, na~1elyr~c~, ethnicily, a~ e and gender. This will aliow us to examine the principal sources and charactenst1cs ol mequallly (class, s~us a~cas~~), the ways thal inequali ty is made acceptable to people, L hal is how it comes to be seen a~ leg1 llmate, and some of the leading cultural consequences of inequality. In the concludmg secliOn we shall examine the idea that differen t kinds of inequality interact to produce mulliple clisildvanlages. ) This chapler is designed lo enable readers to: unclerstand lhe main structural sources of social inequality; appreciate the various conceptions of the part played by culture in legitimaling inequality; learn about the Jeading cultural manifestations of inequality; grasp some of the ways in which cultural power is displaycd.


lnlroducing Cultural Studies

Culture, power and ineqlJality 95 monuments or the bocly - where we have tried to offer this sort of interpretation. What we fin d is thal power works in many different ways because, as Foucault says, 'power comes from everywhere'; il is part of alf relationships. Yet this is nota matter of reducing the world lo a grey arena in which we are alf totally dominated and controlled by capilalism or patriarchy or 'the system'. There are always resistances (p. 258) (which we need to think about not as qualitatively different from power but as forms of 'counterpower') which - logether with the fact that the forces they oppose are often in conllict produce a vibrant world of many contending people, institutions and discourses engaged in never-ending contests over resources, meanings, spaces, identities, positions ancl representations.

D~fining concfjJI

J. ]

Po 1er has come L o be one of the crucial concepts in cultural studies. lnterpretations of / cu ture that draw up_on ideas of 'cultural politics' argue that everything is political and, as a esult, that power 1s everywhere (see Chapter 6). For example, it is used in this book to ~ derstand relalions of class, race, gender and age; to interpret the body and representa. t ns_of people and places; and to make sense of our understandings of time and space. J s M1chel Foucault (p. 28), one of the theorists responsible for extending the use of ideas f power, put it: 'Power is everywhere; not because it embraces everything, but beca use it omes from everywhere.' To understand what he meant by this, and its implications, we need to look more closely at how power has been understood. S even Lukes (1974) argued that there are lhree views of power. The 'ene-dimensional iew' is_ that it means that personA can gel person Bto do something thatthey would not otherw1 se do. The 'two-dimensional view' is that group A has power to the extent that ~hey ca1~ defin_e not j~1st ~he outcomes but the 'rules of the game' to their advilntage. The three-d1mens1 onal v1 ew 1s where the powerful have power to the extenl that they can prevent people, to_ whatever degree, from having grievances by shaping their percept1~ ns, cogn1t1 ons and preferences in such a way that they accept their role in ~h e ex1sl1 ng order of things either beca use they can see or imagine no alternative to 1 t~ ~ r because they see il as natural and unchangeable, or beca use they value it as d1 vmely ordamed and beneficia!. (Lukes, 1974: 24) !his third view has many similarities to that which is pul forward in the notions of 1deology (p: 84) ~nd hegemony (p. 106), and it helps us to understand the importance of th: ~a~s 111 wh1~~1 the unequal distribution of power is made to seem appropriate _ the ay 1t1s g1ven leg1t1mation. Th: challenge _ that is offered to these views of power is that they are essentially negottve. They all uwolve trying to understand how people are prevented from doing what they want, defini~g lhe 'rules of lhe game' as they want, or thinking their own lhoughts. lnstead of th1s Foucault suggests that power is productive. Power lies in the creation of_ discourses (p. 30), institutions, objects and identilies (p. 224); power is all about mak1 ng. ~nd _ remak1 ng the world in a particular way. Thus, in his analysis, power produces class1 f1 cat1 ons of knowledge which defin e our understanding of the relationship belween people and nature; power produces bodies that can be made even more productive in fac tories and prisons; and power produces sexuality as the site that telfs us ~nos t about ourselves. Power is not about saying 'no'; it is about producing things, lcfent1 t1 es and 1cfeas. ....._ Taking thes_e views together, what we have are multiple forms of power. In each case, rather than try1ng lo lrack clown who finally holds 'power' and what thal power is in the sort of abstract language that Lukes uses, we can try to understand how the relations of power work. There are plenty of examples in this book such as analyses of orientalism,

Furlhl'l' rt'adiJ w o
Clegg, S.R. (1989) Frameworks of Power, London: Sage. Lukes, S. (1974) Power: A Radical View, Basingstoke: Macmillan. Lukes, S. (ed.) ( 1986) Power, Oxford: Blackwell.

3.1. 1

Theorising about culture, power and inequality

Marx and Marxism

:O.Iurh COIIIl'lll J>ol .ll'\ thto i'ing- abou1 culture-. powc-r ancl incqu.dit\ <le1 H'' 11 on1 l\latx's theorie' ( ~hll:\ and En~tl,. 1967: ~ld .L"IIan. 1977} .md ~J arxian anah't'\ .1ncl modd~ of the 'ocia) .111d l't<liHHHt pnln'''l'' ni da'' fonnation iu capi1 ali,t 'oritt\ .. \ , R:Hmond \\'illiam' ( 1\ll-tla: i()) ha, notld. ~lat=--bm ha, maclt au iuflmHial U>llll ihution 10 mockrn cuhur;1l 1houg-l11. !'H'II though ~lar=-- hilll\l'll IH'\l'l cleHIupecl a l11ll\ systematir thcon of ntluu ('. file hroacl otulinc-' of ~larxian an ah,~ dtlinl'att .1 historiral progre,.~ion lrom 'Ol !lil'' that ~larx ,a,, a.;; exhibiting primiti\'l' rolnmuni'n' 1h m u~h kudal .'or itt~ a u el iutu \'al iou' lollliS of' capitali't ~ociet~. fl'aclin g I'H'IIlU;tlh In a n\ol utioll in 1\'IIdl tflt agcUC l'' of' L he ~ tale \I'OU]d he 11\C'rthrtm ll .UHI a 'IH iaJi,l SOCl'l\' I.' IIH"Ige. Thel't' al'l' ' 11Lt1111W r or kallliTS or ;\larx ian ana l rse~ lh .ll :tl'l' ,jg nilit'.l lll for c on~idtration ol tht l'Oilllt't'tio n' lwtl\'l't'n cultun: :mrf inn 1 u:t lit\ : tia IIIICitl h ing < :Connm ic ~lfi i C ILII'l' of c l a~~ n equalit\: ~br=--\ emphasis 011 Lhl' OJ1J>Il'l'd ;llld ;ul lagon istic rdat ionsh ip bcl\\'lT I1 tlw d: ISSls: :m el thl' r nnnect ion hl'lll.t'l'll fl' nn-r and cul lllll'. 11s C'C DIHl lll (' 1 TiatiOIISI1ips lh;ll 11 11 <fnp11 ll<"<j lla i I ~ f'or ~ l ar;.; : ll :1fl k110111l 'Ol' l' l t' ~ (san 1ht l'<l rf )' S I <li t' of' pri 111 II'(' ('01111111111 '>lll) 1he re ha<; a(\1':1)'5 be e 11 the h:IS(' <llllf f'untla llll'llt:tl C OIIIIadinioll tl l<ll SOI1H' lll l' lllbc r~ of' ~OcLl' l l' haH 1\1\'ll t'cl :1 11cJ C OIIII'Oifl'cf th(' 11H'at" ofprotl1 1 r1ion ." t h.trarlt'l i-,tir thal 11<1" ~i\'l'll thcm pm,c-r onr th c l't'lllainiu.; nwmb!'l'' of so< i vl~ 1\'ho. in urckr to makv a liw lihnud, panicipatl' in produnio1 1 on term<; ancl tond il iulh \l'l b' thl'\C nlllll'l''. For :'llarx. incq11a lit\' in ra pit.tli ' l 'orl'l\ hil){l'' 011 \\'flelh l'l llllt' \ ,111 li\\IH'I of lht llll':lll\ of produCIOil 01' .111 0\l lll'l Of Ollt", labour . .\, capit.tli'm <11\l'lop,. tfw la" ''nnurc: ,;mplilies .trou11d ,,,n m.tin d.t"t''


lnlroducing Cultural Studies

Culture, power and inequillity 9 7 labour. IL i~ tlti' ant.tge~ni:-n t .111d contradinion at tht ltcan ol .,ucil' tl tltat an' ,,, tltt xploitation . .\ , i t ., iniHIl'llt in drnamic tltal prcoptl, 'Ol it' ll' 011 10 nc,, form-; u f c capir a li~n1 to l'Xp.urd and 1 0 dc,trm a ll otltcr frm:. of pre~rluction. tlu tdatie~n,ltip belll't' l' ll tlw pr inl i pal d,,.,.,,., , t 11 ~ lmnrgl'oi,il' (1he mnwr~ of tht mtan' of pt oclnu ion l and tht p1 okt;ll iat ( tht. 011 th'l' of 1 heir labour). bl'coJn e~ t'\'l'l' 'lt;n pcr ami ill O ll' anlagoni,tic nlltil l '\l' lllllalh rht prokt.triat ri sc up in ren1lntion al)(l mtJtltro,, tht

K~y i njlu e11 ce


E.P. Thom pson


Edward Palmer (E.P.) Thompson was a very influential English Marxist historian and political activist. His education at Cambridge was interrupted by war service in ltaly, but he returned to finish his degree and then took up a position as extra-murallecturer at Leeds University (1948- 65). He was also a Reader at the Centre for the Study of Social History at the University of Warwick, where he influenced a whole generation of social historians. As well as writing on history and theory, he was an active campaigner for nuclear disarmament and a novelist. E .P. Thompson's most influential work is probably The Making of liJe English Working Class (1968). This social and political history of the working class in the English industrial revolution attempted to present a 'history from below', one wrillen from the perspective of an increasingly proletarianised and politicised working class. lt sought, as he put it, 'to rescue the poor stockinger from the enormous condescension of posterily' and lo presenta history in which the workin g class were active in their own 'making'. In doing so he offered a challenge to Marxist interpretations of history which saw the history of capitallsm as foretold by the inevitable movements of modes of production and social formalions. Thisaltention to agency - the power of people to shape history - was stated in opposition to Lhe structuralist theories of Louis Althusser in Thompson's caustic attack entitled Tlle Poverty of Tlleory (1978). lt also offered an understanding of class and power which saw them not only as economic relationships but also as social and cultural ones. This led to studies of law and custom that considered class relations in eighteenth and nineteenth-century Brilain in terms of the ways in which classes defined themselves and were brought into conflict over queslions of criminality and customary rights (see Whigs and Hunters {1975); Albion's Fatal Tree {1975) and Customs in Common (1991 )). Thompson has been criticised for failing to pay sufficient attention to issues of gender and race in the 'making of the English working class', and lhe role of agency and culture in the history of capitalism is still a matter of ongoing debate. However, his impact on cultural studies has been to stress lhe importance of theoretically informed histories, especially 'histories from below' (see postcolonialism, p. 189), and in attention to the active role of culture in the making of class relations.

Key injluence 3.2

Karl Marx (1818- 830

Furf lier l'f'(tdillg

Kaye, H.j. and McCielland, K. (eds) (1990) E .P. Thompson: Critico/ Perspeclives, Oxford: Polity Press. Thompson, E .P. (1968) The Moking of the Englisl1 Working Closs, Harmonds worth: Pengun (orig. 1963, Allan Lane). . (1978) The Poverly of Theory ond Other Essoys, Lonclon: Merlln. Thompson, E. P

nuh-1 :11 :11HI I H Hli'J..~l'(l i,i ~ . Tht rel.lliclll 'hip i>l'lll t'l'l l IIH'M' cla''('' i' :t,\lllllll'll'ical: lht rt '' .111 tntcqnal clb11 ih11tion ol' pcn,lT lw LIH'l'll lhtrll . In tlt l Ulllll'XI nf rile tlltcltrhirrg t'lclltolllil rdatiun,ltip tlti~ a"lllllll'tric cl rdation,lt ip i~ : 111 :t lll .tgoni.;t ic onc , h tia """''"' col thl' J1l(';lll' o( prodttnion inc-re,t,i11gh' 'l'l'k 111 ~.,p lu i t tlu prodckr' ol

Marx's work hasbeen widely influential in the social sciences, arts and humanities. He did not write much about culture itself, but Marxist cultural critics have developed his ideas and those of his collaborator, Friedrich Engels, on alienation, ideology, history and value. Marx was born In Trier, Prussia, In 1818 to a J ewish family which later converted to Christianity. He studied law at Bonn and Berln. In 1842 he became editor of the Rheinische Zetung, and in this year he also met his lifelong collaborator Friedrich Engels. In the 1840s 1 Marx began to study French utopian socialism. Combining socialist ideas and an intcr ' pretation of Hegel's philosophy, he developed a theory of consciousness as a product of human labour. In the writings later collected as the Economic and Philosophical Monuscripls, he argued that capitalism is the l ast in a series of modes of production that alienate workers from their labour. E arlier modes of production include primitive communism, the si ave mode of production (employed in ancient Greece and Rome), and feudalism. In 1846 he published The Germonldeologywith Engels, in which they argued lhat: 'The ideas of the ruling class are, in every epoch, the ruling ideas.' The Communist Monifesto (1848) proposed that all history is the history of class struggle, and predicted the victory of the new industrial working class, the proletariat, over capitalist society. The demise of capitalism would lead to socialism and ultimately a higher form of communism, where alienation would be atan end. Marx's radical political views meant that he ran into trouble with first the Prussian, then the French and then the Belgian authorilies. He and his f<~mily were eventually exiled to England. Here Marx worked on his most ambitious project, Capital, a detailed analysis of the development and workings of capitalist political economy. At the centre of the three volumes of Copita/ (only one of which was published before Marx's death) les his account of the commodity. He noted a contradlction within capitallsm between the market value (exchange value) of a particular produc~ and lts v~lue as an item that somebody might actually use (use value). Capitallsm holds the market 1 value of goods and people to be worth more than the people themselves. In effect, both goods and people are commodified: they bf COme no more than their exchange value. The capltalist allocation of goods by their market vale leads to] inequalities of wealth between rich and poor and large-scale wastage of resources. In cultural studies it has been Western l\1arxism, and especially the work of Georg Lukcs, lhe ~o l (p. 109) a~sc (p. 38) that has had most influence. Marx's


lntroducing Cultur<ll Studies


Culture, power and inequ<llity

F,lmil y 'I I UC IUre~. l(el igion o l llrl
~\'~IC'111S. tllflll'



theory of alienation has had a profound impact. Marxist cultural theorists view culture in relation to the mode of production, as a historical product of human labour rather than representing timeless human values. Marxist cri tics have understood art both asan expression of human alienation and as having the utopian potential to imagine an unalienated world. Marxist-informed theories of ideology have allowed critics to interpret cultural artifacts in relation to social structure. An understanding of cultural production in relation to poltica! economy has been a vital part of studies of the culture indus try and mass media.

oi poltlil,tl

orgJ 111<,lt i 0 11 . <) ~l l'l11' ui 1,,.,., J ncl l'dll(ollion

t,Lo\TERI.>\L B.A~ [,

Further readi 11 g
Mclellan, D. (1975) Marx, London: Fontana. Baxandall, L. and Morawski, S. (eds) (1973) Marx and E ngels on Literoture ond Art New Yo rk: lnternational General. Kamenka, E. (ed.) 'rhe Portoble Karl Marx, Harmondsworth: Penguin.

1\ei,Jtinn< 01 pmducrion

Jt thco workpiJrc

,;ociJI rt"l,lllon;

\\\orker-~upto>n ,~ur.

,;gr~:l:'n 1ents COIKern in; IC'I'Ilb ~mp lu 111<'111.



properly rel,llions: l aw~ ,1nd

regu l,11ion' .lbuullht IJ\\ ner<hip 111 properly

rorcP n1 pmclucl ion

For \Jarx. in cq ua li1~ in ~nc iet y is gro undcd in ant ;tg<>nil'ti ralll' rl'lai cd socia l c lassc~. 1\larx addrcsscs 1he Cjli{'Stion of hnw and 1d11 it i ~ pos~ iblc: lr 1hc honrgcoisit to ma intaintheir posi1ion ofdominan ce ro, pro11<Kt<:cl pniocls, gi1e n Lhe !itn 1lmt1hcy an <1 11\llOrity in SOC il' L~ and g'i\'CII lite l en~ ! of opprtssioll ancl harclsh ip t:X ptriellC"l'd b~ the m ~LS't'S, th(' pro le taria!. Pan of 1hc amwer i ~ Lhat the bourgeoi.'> ie. thro ngh thcir economic po11-cr. a lso e xe rci-.e pnlitic tl po11-cr and sn s hapt and cotHrolthl' age nci('s of thc :.tale. Effecti n : control o r the siale appara tus a lso gi1-es 1ht'll l :1 monopo ly un tlw use o f force. :\nm hcr aspect nf their p01rer to shape ancl COllll'O[ 1he statC is tht Cltltllra( con trol excrcised 1)\' tite hourgcoi~ic . .\l arx sc('s the bo urgeoi~ i c prnmulgating and implemcnting be li c [~ and ,alucs that sustai n tite 11neq ual ~~~ c m of rclatinnships 1)\' legitirnising it through I'Cft' I'CllCC 10 non-eC0110111 iC clo ntain s or SOCia( l'X(JCI'il'll CC. :\l'l exa mple ol' thi~ i ~ thc real mol' spi rituality and rc l igi o u ~ be lie l. .\ larx ~t' l'.~ thc panicu lar bc lief<; of o rganiscd rdigion a~ hllllt'C'~sc'> ro ran uncqual , unju::t ~oc ie r y. Rdigion. in hi ~ cclcbratcd phra~c . i ~ the opia lt' of th t masse;,. Th 11s \larx prcscnts cu ltm c as icl colugy. as a panial. bias1:d prop for the b01 1rgcoi~i e. whi r h is fas hio ncd by thcm i11 1hc ir 0\\'11 intc rcst ~. Cultme as id co logy blu nt s thc unclc rs tandi 11g of thc prolcrariat: ir i~ tht ins trtllllCill or th eir ckr ept io n. occhuling thc ir ll'liC imerests. Cu lture in this St'1 1St' sta ncls as sonwhow op>osccl to thc truth of things. T lt is is an impo n am aspen o f' :\larx's and \larxistt ho ug ht and 0 11 ( ' that rc\'c rb<: r<lt('~ in l\'i(kr disc u~si o n s uf culture, many n f' which are discusscd in thi~ book (scc e~ pcc i ally C hapH r~ 1, ~ . () and S) . Thc propo~al is that culitt 1 T is panial. of"l en promoting a ri1lse cun sc i tntsllc-'~>. o l' tlw 1,orld and thercby acti11g as an instrumem of npprcs~ io n. \larx SCC'S alllht agt'IICC!' n f !h e qate opnating 1\"thin Clli ll!ral \a[UC!' that S(' 1 '\'C thc intcreSlS or the bo urgeoi~ i t . T hc bo han: puii'CI'. through th cir pO\\'CI' tit e~ haH' kno\\'lcdge ancl throu ~h thcir po\\cr and knowledgc rh c~ crc:11c the dominan t cultu re. :\larxi:-t thnug-h t draw~ attctllion 10 thc conncctions bc t"cen poll'er, knu\\lcdgt ;11Hl

lh( IJ11CI. r,1w mJteri,ll<, l.1hour pli111l. tonl< Jnd tt-d mologie' nccdcd lo makc l hi ngo;

Figure 3.2

IVIarx's base- superstruclure model.

culture ancl pmposcs a ~~ s tc tnat i c relatioll'-hip in ll'h ich culltt ral he lie b and practict's an a c ulw ra l coclt' l'or re latiunsh ips ol' >ol\'t'l'. i\Iarx s I'<1H>t1rcrl m cthorl 1( 1r colle<' IHu;d isi ng 1he se con nccl ions is thc b;1~c - ~u persuucrtt1T nwt aphor (st-e Figmc :t '2) . T ite formu la th at ~ larx prnposc.s is 1Ita 1 ilw eronom ic ( nr 111 :1l~ ri a 1} bast of' a -.ocit:L ,. clctenn i ms 1lte broa el charact t'l' or it ~ supcrstniCIIIrc. In o th t'l' \\'()t'ds, ir \\'( \\'~h [() unclcr~tand ih t prin cip:d l'l'<tl iiH'S or tllt' superstrtiCIIII't' (i.t. cultu rt'- in c l ud i n~ thc legal institutio ns, poliric d organi~;uion;o; and belief ~\ SltJillS) of a so C il'l~ l lll' 11 liT 11ll1Sl C<trc rt di\ a na l ~sc lite forres nr pmdt iCIion (proclucti\'c Lc.:cllnolo.(ie$, inqitutionaliscd propt' 1W nl:llions) and rhe ~oc ia ! relatinn~ ofproduction consl:'qucnt upon 1hcsc productiH fret'$. In" hmous passage ;\larx and Engcls ( 1968: 6 1) contcncl tha t 'tlt t: ideas of tllt ru ling cla:--. <tre in t'\'C1Y epoch the ruling ideas' (sce Bnx ~~ . l ). \\'llcn ni lll'l l'('ll 1h-ccnt u n capit alist Eng-land i ~ anal ~scd i 11 th ese tenns. i1 is no surpri~t 10 l't ndl h;ll 1he -.a lt' is tht' ' eXl'Ctt lil'l' CO II1111 i LLCe nf l he bourgcoisie. ( 1\Jarx ancl Engcls, 19(i7), 1hat tlw la\\, aml co1u r~ consbH:ntll' l;mnt r tlll' intnts l ~ o f' capita l as againsr tl1 ost' ofor~<~ni scd lahour. anclrhat Christian doctrine as insti1111ion<tli scd in tiH esrablishcd Clt urch e ndorses tli t' ng e rclt:ri ng 11r ~t 1Ccl ~ <tnd preacllc~ 1h e 1 irtlll'S o f' humilit~ to 1he poor. ,\hhough ;\larx i ~ som eli lllt'' tqu il'ocal abo111 hu\\' strict a rela tiun of d etcnnination obtains be twecn base and ~ " lwrs ii'II C Lu re. rlw broad 1hesis that lw ach-anccs is that lo rm-. ol' cun:,ciuusn css n:~ r:tll ise into cu ltural forn1 s and prac1ices \\'hich < 11T to be unclc rstood ~1s originating soc i ;1 1! ~ . Thc ~uc ia l rt lationsh ips thal prmicle

1 00

lntroducing Cultural Studies

Culture, power and inequality

1 O1

8ox J.J

guidt' in <Jlli l , ..


a o;olutinn . ll i, to l ical h . tllt ~ignifi c. un t h .lll t ngt' 111 ~ l a1 xian

Marx and E ngels on 'ruling ideas'

co11 ceptio/Hrlll'' i1TTlrrtk<.1 1 lit ol ~lax \\'cbcr ( l ~li 1- 1\l:!Ol.

Th<' id ea-. ol' tht r u li ng d;1ss are in t,c-r~ cporll tiH r 11 ling ideas: i.e. tll c class 11llic ll i ~ tllt ru ling 11111/niol force in -.nLicty is al tia -.ame tinl t' ih r uli ng inltllntual lorcc. The rl;l'~ wh irh ha' th c nwa1h of nnllt' l ial p rodunion a t i t~ di'l)(l~al. h a' cunt rol a l tia 'ame 1i nw m tT tlw 111t'<llh of 111 L' nt.ll proclnc 1ion , so th a t tlltrc b\', gtn c rally ' >eaking . tl 1v idta-. n f th o't' wllo l~1 d. il 1t' m ca ns o l m e nt a l prod11 nit;n .11c subj cc t to it. Thc ruling icka' an nothin g mon th a n t ht id eal txpn"ion of t h c d om inant lll<Hel ial n : lationship,. thc dwnin.u\1 materia l rdatioll,hip-. gra,p ecl a-. ick as: lu: ll t t' f Llll' rtlatiunship' ,,hi ch nlill..e tll t om t the ruli11 g o n e.

(.~ (ax l~'~bl'r ( 1 9/~)


tus a


therclil r c. th e ideas o l it.' cl01 11i n a n cc. l'll c ind ilid uals cu n1p o sing tll t r uli n g- cla~~ po--.c-.-. a mo11 g- u th e thing > con-.t iou-.nes!". ancl tll c rl'liHt' thinl... In -.o lar. tlwrefot. '' tllc1 r uk a' a da" a nd cletermint tll t cxlt'll l ami cumpa-... of a n q )()ch. it i.; .;d f:t.lident th a t thtl do th i> i11 it-. ll'lw k ra11gt'. htnce aHH Jn~ othtr reg n la tc Ll ll' prod n nio n ami di'\tributiclll o l' llw id ea' of 1hei1 ag-c: tllu' llwi1 idea.; an tl w ru ling idea.; u f' tht t'poch. Fo1 ill,t<IIH t'. in an a.{c .md in a cotlllll 1 "hl're ro~.1 l pm,er. ;u ran. a nd ho1 1rgeoi,it an: u!n ll ' I H l in~ lor ma~H' n ,111<! "hc n. th tret'nn. m a, L t' IY i~ ., h arccl. 1he don ri n e nf ' e p a ra 1ion t x prt-...ecl ;1' :111 ' ctcl'll:t l lall'.
t ll i n g-~ nd e a lso as th i11 ker. , , as prod tt l'l.'l'~

ropo,ecl a tnmpkx appr(l:lt ll to intqu.tlitl 11hir h txprt'''h, ~ o unt of nm - Oll\llllir dimen,ion' ol' ~ ami ill t'qn:tlill . .\ g:1i11't ~larx , \\'l'lwl ;ll:tinta ills tll:tl thc npt r;n inn n f p owc r ( p . ~l-ll in ~ocit ti l ..; b l't'l ll Hll't' fll n d;Hnt' lll:tl th:m 1cd a s IIH cap;1ci11 of' iucli1 ict. J a l~ 01 g ~tHtps to l'l'allsc diCI' no no111i c b;1si-.. l'oll't'l' io; ddi 1 thcir will. t'I'CII in tht f:H t' o l th!' oppo~itioll ol nl h l'r'. 1hi' ,e (cl, t l11ec. categcllit' flulclanl!'lll.ll w tht .lll.tll'i~ ol jpl'qnaliJ.~III, :_la/u' .111d uut\. lncq11alll\ Jll,\1 ht locn tc cl in t'ti! IWilli ta lh ddintd t l:t"L' ' (h tJt' \ \ 'l'he r t'111pha~be' 1narkl' t capari tl' i11 contrast to ~ l.1rx~ o;tn ~' 0 11 proptT II') htll < ~>tdd alo;o lw loundcd iu o;t:l lll\ grotl)>' (orgnni,1d :~roll ncln otilllh of p1ntige .111<l llonot ll ) .m el polit.ical par.tit, .utcl grouping, . In this e lab01a tio n lw ,o11ght to 1l'linl' the nw;t-lllt' lllt'Jll ol llll'CJUahtl .tllclto 'h011 1hc )Olt'IHia l ~i n gular i 11 col lti' critl'ria :1~ ,,c ll "' llll'il Ulllllt'C t l'dliL'~' Fo1 t'~< llnpk. pollt'l' b o l'tt.'ll ll nkcd to cla"-IJ,,,td wt'alth h11 1 it can lll' 'cparalcC 111 ' ll uau u n' \\' 1c rc poll't r ~ to knm"ed!t'. ~t a tu' rcfcr, to ~Lile o l lil'c. lt a h n rder-; 10 'ocial estcc n . tllc rcspcn a nd admiration accorckd a Jll'I',OII ancu clill){ w lli' 01 hcr 'odal .po,ition het Box :>.~ ). a n<lthi ~ c 111 l!l' lotal rathtr than '"'lll llll'a l ;111d t,li,l' a ccn u11 l ol tllttrwr:-.nllal

,, i<ka., , a n cl


"r p ull'trs prm es 10 be t h t. do m inant

id ea a n d i,o,

~u bj ec til i til'> , ~ J arx'~ ' li t''!'> 0 11 ~llll t' llll'a l rt:la t io n , ll ip~ :tnd 011 t h l' clupli< IIHIS 11;IIUI'(' o f cul;urc tl' IHI' 10 lw rq>lattd b1 .1 \'it'll <f'cla"t'' '' t.uth.('cl llitI.IIThit' ,,,. lixc< l _{rouping' through 11'11ich indi1 idu.11, mm ht 11lllbik. \\'h ik 1ht ctlt~o in .tre fi Xld aiiCI d.t"t'' :ut bo u 11 d ed. incli1idual-. 111;11. nonl' lh t k~~. c ll an g e tlt e ir r l;,,s p o., itioll . F't lrl lwnnnrv. \\'c lle r 's di~ru.~ -.i on cmp l ~<;,ises h clll' bcth e la" aiHI s utlu' d i ~1 inc tio1 t ~ c:11 1 a l'fi: ct l>copk'.; lifr rha!ltt'' tltat is. tiH c h:111 et'S th a l an illdilid 11 a l has lo 'liare in th t eco n umic. a nd
cultura l goocl' o f a 'ocit'l'. ~l:tlt' l ial aiHI <ulttll a l good' ,\I'C nhcn ''' mmc m calh di~tribtll t.'d :11HI rlas~ a nd ""'"' ra ~o; ,,illt' ll'>lll'e lh a t pt'o p lc 11'ill h al't' clill'eHnti;ll acccss to 1hc'L' good s. J'lll',L' f'ea ut rts n i'\ \'e her s 1h o ug h 1 ;ll'l' i 111 port:llt l L o ht:1r i11 111 ind 1dttn coll,id t ing non-d a:-.-; ba~ecl "'l t' lll~ o l' illl'CJIIa litl', The openi11g u p ol thc rel.tli<>ll'hip bct\\'tT II mquali11. lll t'.lll illg :111<1 nanift,t;tLioll a iJo,,; [( 11 tiH' con -.ickr.ll ion of "''t'll" of imq 11;1li 11' ot hl'r tllan cla~s. Th e 1e .ll't' 1a n ke el sucie L ies ll'll tre tlwrt b ll ll l'CJll;ll a cre., , to p ositioiiS o f' ~ t a tu s an cl prcstig t' a iiCi liH'St' ;11e 110 ncCl'-"'arih li n ktd Lo c.:-ron nn1i c ,,t:a llh .. \11 t ~amplc i' l'ound in t hn sc tradition:d Af1 in111 sorittics whe1T th e eh id:-. did not lile :11 a hightr 't:mdard ol li1 in({ th an their subjects a n d ll'hen tconom eo; ll't'l't' rcdi~tribtii I'C. th at i' th c ch ief' rtcei iT d trib tllt ' ll' h ic h h e th tl1 g:11t IJac k w h i-. f'o llown-. a-. ;1 mark ni' h i.~ sta tll' a n d la rgess('. T hc po-.ilion o f' m :u11 Eumpvan n o hk f;unilies ,a ronttmporan ~.x;llnplt- o l' r;lllktd .;oril' t ~: accts, 10 t.l.ti m .~ ti tk , limited. u' ualh to f.unih- llll'lltht ' a 11d 111;111\ u f 11H''l' titlecl fam ilit'" :lit' 11o lnnger ll'l',thhl a 11rl han 110 J>llll't'l !>1 'illnt uf thti nuhilit~ in thl'r ~OC it t I.'S. \\' ith in f;uni lk' l h l'l'l' ill'l' IIS IJ;Ii h r;ntktd OJ'cll' i'' Slllllt' lillll'S 0 1' _(L'llCI'al OII ~. ..,umetinlt'' ol Kl' lltT~Ilioll :111d ~l ' I Hkr . Onn o ne ''an-. Lo loo!.. aiHi nuti n . it is ck-:11 thal notion' uf ra11l.. ami il1t'l(llalit, .trt ptll.t~H' i11 Engli .. h ,mittl. In Englancl arnnt ,ill
~l'l'\'('!) a~ a telli llg sign ol stalt '' Othl'l fcallll t'' u r ~pen h paltt'l'll' :ll ' () e;oprl'"' '1ai11S

tht to ttclt;.tom lor Ullden.tandin~ cuhtn~ll f ornh a nd pract it t'' :nl 1ho'c prediratcd 011 tlw m o cle of' p 1odunion.
:\1 first sig-ht th is lorm ui;Hion snm,.. ' '' a lloC<II t' a . - .en melan ro le t.o nli lll l't' as a me re rcf lc nion o f' th e lllilll'l'ia l b;l'> l' ora ~li Ct' ll . ff UII't'l't r , (.'1(' 11 Engt' IS. II' hommall\' rcgard "' a 'imp(licr of' ~l;u:-;':-. id t',l'. bauii..S al Llll' im p iCaiOih of lhi~ p o,i tiOil. Jt i~ , ICII' gil't'' c u lt u re 110 -.i!{ni ficant rok in ~oci a! c h angc: lor exa rnple, it cll'nics th t po tentially rt,o lu t iona 1 : d k c ts art f'orm !' su e h a-. ti wa tre a 11d nmd.-. i 1 1 1r;111 sfo 1111 in g wople 's fl t' I'Ct' ption L h t \l'llr ld ;li te! 1hus t lll'i r a CIion \l'ithin it. Tite deba te fo c uw' arouncllhe clttt'l'lllini n.{ )>OII't'l' nf th t m a tl'ria l ba,t. amltht. d e~ret. of a utc>llOIIII' 10 he g\'C' Il to the 'l ljlt'r'll'll(llll'l'. \\'iJiiam:o. ( 197:\h: 1) 'll!{g'l''\h th at .\ 1 :11 X u se' th t lllllO il of clCll.'llli n alion :111d co n cli tio11ing 1101 in Lile n armw ~c n st h u t in a llllll' h loosn stnst ol' sc ui11g' limit-. cxcti 1 1g prtssure ancl do-. in.{ o J'I'option.s. 1 -k gcH's on to arg- uc 1ll a1 ~ f arx el id not



or su p er,l ntct u rt , lixcd ent tie, bul a' dn ta mi c a n cl ,hifling n :lationshi p ..mcl t h i!> llwrdore prtclucles am ,impl1 lonnula ic con ctptio n or t lw rdatiu n ~llip h <.' lll'l'l'll th c ,,,..,, fl clttl' nll ina tion i' to lw lllldcr:-.I(HH I a~ 't'lling li mi l~. t'Xl' lti 1 1g press nl 't' and c lo sing o ff options. 1h c 11 ll'h a t '''t' h an inst cad is <111 ag'l' lld ct f01 <:I II J>I'ical inquirv. Thi' i;. preri,d1 tlw 1 icll' taktll 1)1 l't r-;ioll' o f' t ultural ~1:11 xi"" (t.g. J.tll ll'l\011. 1mlt ). ll'ill'I'C l h~. ba,e- su p cr,nll('l lll'l' llll'laphor bt'('l!llll'' simpl\'" P' ohle m lu

~te t ith cr


102 lntroducing CulttJral Sludies

Culture, power and inequality




Weber on status

ranking-~. Studit, ol 11 l111 int l' tTuph 1dtom lt:t' fiHIIHI th.ll p:lll'llh inlt' tlll>l r hild nn. nJl'li inl t' ITttpt \I'Oilll'll. clonnr~ are 11o 1 10 la interruptl'tl IJI p:llitnh . .-\ll I I H~t an llu ~l rat ion, of th t pv r'l': tsil l' n.tlttre ol' 11 in:11d 1\' and qa t u, i>~t'l'<i i 11 cc u:ili 11 i 11 daHo d:ty 1 ing in ll'hidt a 'ori:t lh adeptmembct o l 'ocil'L\' 111Lh1 fll 1\'tll \l'f~Lcl.

l11 m ockr n 'de rn on.uic' ~oci e 11 ....111 txp lic ith n:gulaHcl sr:tl ll' prhilcgc' lor indi\icluah are dom :1\1;\\ 11'ith. [ In son1~ ol 1hc 'malkr S1d" titit'l only lamilit, bdonging ro hn1adh 'imilar mxat ion !-{1oup' dance \\'ilh t'<H h olhtT . .. 13tH '1a111' i' not ncce~~.rrih tcll111l'CIL'd 1\'ilh ,, 't l,,,, 'illr:uion': 1101 111alh i1 ~tan d s ra1l w r in g lari n ~ con 1radin i 111 to 1h e prc 1 e n~ion ~ ol' na kl'cl propl'rl ~ c111 ll t'r'h ip .. . T IH u ual ity' o f s1:1111' 11f' th l' .\ml'ricau 'gcntk'111:111 1'111d\ l',sio n in thl' fact th :ll ... it ll'o u lcl hl' rou~ickrl'CI th e h e ig ht ol h<td la'ill' - ldt t:' rtn r tlt t o ld traclilion pn,ai h - fr t'H'll tht rirhl''>L 'chit:'l. to treat hi:. 'ckrk' a' in ,un wa1 al all o l tll1l'C(Ual rauk. e~tu in dw t'\'tning in IIH' t luh. owr billiard' 01 at th t carel tabk. lt \l'otdd be unaccq>lahk 10 trcat h im 11 ith 1hat kind ol totHk,tcncli ng allahilitl ll'hich marks a dilkt t'IH'c in pmitiu n. and 11hic h tlw (;t t man r hid can ll l'\'l'l :11oid e n tire J~ - on t' 11! tlt l' mmt i 111 port:1111 1t':tsous 11 h~ ( ;t'l'lll:lll du b-1irt ha' llt'\'l'l lllill1 il)4L'd tu xl't'lll .xo a lll'at'lin: lhcre :1~ IIH .\n wricm cl ub. In con te n t. social '1 :1111s is uormalh txprt'''td a bmt <tll in dw irnpu iation ol' .1 'Jil'Ci lica ll~ regtii.Jttcl '''k ol lik w eH' I\ Ont 1d1o ,\'i,ht' lo hdong to tht circk. fh ,gol''- wgc1 htr 11 iil1 .t l'l'St rir1ion ol ,m ial' inltTcour'e- iltat i,. intercmtr't' tltat dm, not ~ene an1 t'c onomic. commt' t'Ci.d 01 othcr practicar pu r pc"es- indu d in g e~pct ialll' norma l intl'rm:trriagl'.to lhl' t irde of statuscqu.rlo; ... [ lnthc L'S.\ J llllt' c x:uuplc uf' this i ~ that on ly thosc: 1dtu rc~ick in a ctrtaiu "il't't' l ( 'TIH' ~un i ') art regard ('d as bc longi 1 1g 10 ;;uriey' and ~~~ li 1 l'or social int t'l'('(llii'Sl'. a 11d are a ccorcling h l'isi tcd a11cl lll'ittd ... Fm the l't''l . ..;oria l ,ta tus' i' murwcl 1>1 nnaitl f'amilit' 1dw h:tll' re,iclt-d in a t't'ttain area lor a I on~ time ( ,111cl 1dtu :tt-c. natur:dh. ('Ot'l't''iJlOtHiin g ly "l'll-lodo ). ~u eh ''' ti H ' FF\" or 'lirq l:uni lit~ of \ ' irginia . o t ilw dl',rcnclants. real ot .tlkKed. ol l h t ' lncli.lll prince,.-. l'oc:tlHIIll<b or th c Pilgrim failttr,, or thl' l-i.J1Cktri> (11' lhl' IIH' Illi>er~ nf SO illl' l' )..ll't'lllcl~ txcJmI'l' ~l'C I , or :tll kind" of' c:irck' ul :t~soc i :tlcs ll'ho lll:trk tht r n~ch'ts ull' b1 sot11c critcrin tl nr ol h n . l 11 t his case it i ~ a lll< ttl tTol':t purl' h c on~t uti n ll :t l social clil'l'e rcn tiation b~1scd l'" t nti:tlh' o n u~urp:uiun (aliltong lt tlt i' i~ admittedl~ tlt t uonn a lorig in o l' ahnmt all ~oci a l 'status') . Hu1 it i' a shon ' ttp lrom thi' lo th e kg:tl ,alidation of p rilikgt ( .111<1 lack of pri,ilq.~t ). a ncl th i" 'll'j> i' thtlalh ca'' w takt '' 'oun as, ctrtain :11 rangtmtnt o l tlt t social orcll'r h as lwromt d"lecli\l'ly ,tllkd ' and ha~ .tcclui rl'd Sl :tb ilil~ as a t't''illlt oftltt SlabiliS:t iOII ol t'('C111Cl i11C p011'l'l'. \\'ltt'l't' the l'CIIl, l'<JIIe iHT . .. are lnl lowe d throug lt lll lh tlimil. th l' 'talu~gmttp d c,clops ir 11o :t tlosed r((l/1'. Tl1:11 is, dislinniotl ol' 1-talu~ , g t~:tr:tllll'l'd 1101 e111l> b1 comtntio lt a n d law. but al'o 1>1' ri111al ' 'lllction tu ~uc h .111 e xt t~ lll that :di pill,ical cuntaClll'ith a llle lldwr ola c;t,lt' rq~.t rckd as jnkt ior' i' helclto bt r illtal il pollu t i n ~ lor mtmbtr, o l tht ' liJK'I'ior L"tl. a ,a in wh ich llllt't be relig'ionsh txpiatccl. T h c indil ca,te~. indtT<I. in part dt'\ L'lop quitt sq>aratc cults an d g-oc k

3.1 .3

Caste societies

Contp:trimn' a re o lttn drall'n betll't't'll ta, tt and eh" o.;od~ til''. Tlwse ro1npar j,on' sollll'IIIIL'' clra11' .tllt' lllinrt 10 thc :tpp~lrt' lll ' int i l :tritil'~ ol't llt' 'llllllitncl s~':'ll'ln ol g mup' :utd il w lixecl rcl.uin lt." hips bl' IIITt'll cc HhlIIIt' llt ~ro t rp~ . ll clll'l'\'t' l . it is tnisll':ttling to linh. th t l\\'n ,,,tetn' i11 tlti' 11~~~ "inct 10 do "l , to locu' upo11 ~ lltttllll'l' aL the to' t o l' Ol't'rlooki ng cult tt t L'. ( 'la" it1tqualitl' , h,t,td cttt trouoJnic t 1ilt'l ia :tiHI culluralil i1 i' optn 1o an indi1 idualto .tt hitw hi' o1 h.t. 011 n e 1 .,,~ pmi tiou . l.ncli1 iclt~al cl:t"' mohili 1 1.i' >os,ible in ela~',, ' ttm,, and inclt-ed th t' '' tlH' tthos ol mo't tncht, tna l cla'' ,,.,lt'llh 11 1 1 l 1' g1oll' . 1 . 1 . . (. lht' contcmporan \\o rlrl . Ca 'le S\'Sl<'t ll " art' h: t ~t c on r e 1 :11H l'llll:l crttl'n:t. :l'tt~ ra nnot lw ttll(ler~tuud i11 o.;en dar tt'l'llh ol' llit-riori ty a nd 'upe rinritl' l'o r t lw pri ll l'ipk iltal ranks th l' parh in tlt t wltole is rcligiou' ( Dr11nont. 19O). !11 llinclll India tlttn :tn fo ur c;tll').{oril's (l'arnas) 1dtic lt art cli,tillgui,ltt'd l'mm tlllt' anotht'l' ll\ dtgrtt..; o l ritual purill' ( p.~};~ ) a' L''tahli,lted in the Sa n ~k i1 tt':-.t,. TheH \,trn.t' arl': 1\ra ltmill'. 11'lto art t11(' prit''t:> an d ,cltol,u ': l,,hatl'il .1~. 11 ho ,ttt' 1hc ntler.;. tht \\';li t iot' aiHI ilw l.lllCit l\\ t\l't ': V:t i"~'~ 11'h o are tht t ntrlprttw urial micldlt- chl'~t': Suclt-.1,, 1d1o an tite c uli ii.IIH". 1\'ork<'rs aml lntclvr,. -lltt llarijan s. or Ulltonc hahk,. pnl'onn tl11 ntost 111L'I1.d la'h.'. ltt lh tcll'l' th t, lie ot t l~id t th l' Gtste ~,sttm bvc n tsc tl1 c~ are ritu;ilh itnp u re .. \lthoug lt th t''l' broac ,an~ai' art' a'"lt i:lll'cl " 'ith .occupa tion , in pr:tctic<' ll'it h ill :1 l'illage thl'rc ll'il l bt a 111 tmbtT of occupatinu~ a"ociated wi1h a partindar Yarua. "' a ltl w ug h th c s,,tt' lll , dear aud u nambi~ttOlh in principlt'.t'11tpilic.dh thertma~ ht \,lliL'I\ ami contpkxitl . .\ J>l'"on's ca'lt' tntmbt r~hip i' "niht'cl: 1hi-. a~n-i ption i~ g-iH n rdi~iou'h attcl i' dq>tndem upon tlw indil'id u a J', conchtrl in tlte ir p a'i li le. Rtincarn:nion i' a nn tr:tl doclt im: of llilldll lw lid'. :tncl tn lcad .1 ~oncl lil't 'o that om 111:1\' lw ~in 11 a f:11our<thle ca~ tc pnsition om lllliSI 1,.,. :tccorcli ng lH c:t,ll' 1:tlues a ncl cull\l' lllion'. lk in ~ .t goncl ptrson me;ms l'ullilling ra, tt l':-.pcctatioll~. (J' ott e i'ail., tn llltT I ca, lt' txwct:uicllh ihl'll inniltcantation o llt' 11ill co m e bac k ""a 111t'lllbl'rofa lcl\\'tr c:t,tl' or e1cn in I1Cill hun1;111 lorm. Tlw in<i,tttHt' upon liling accorclillK to ca'ic c x p(ctation' place~ ~rtat ,ahtt' on maintaining ca-;H bou11cl:u ie'. "in ce nntl.H t "i th lo11cr ca,tc' ma1 be polhtLing a u el otH' ma1 on h carn ou t tltn'l' 1 a~b tha t are lit lot ont , u11n C:l'-tt. I'IH con-.equ enn o( 1his is th:t.l thc;t is ,; hi~h d tgn'l' n i' o.;oci:d o;egrcgatinn ilL' L\I'ten ca,lt'' b111 . ol' mct"il) . a ltig-h rlcgtTt' ol' ccnrl omic ittt l'rrl<-pt'IHitnn a' r:t~ l t'' rc ly onot lwrs to pcrl'onn tasi..' l'or lli t' lll ldtic lt tlt l' \' th t m~dn' are l'cll'hidcltn LO c tl'l'l' eiltl. :\11 intpon:tnl a:-pt't' l ni th e maintt n;llll t' o l group bcHtndat i c~ , thal m arriagl' i~ t'tHlogamou'. h,u i,. iudil iclu:tl~ mu,tm.un 11 i1hi11 thtir cm 11 ('.1'>1 1'. Thi' is :111 import.Hll clill't rcnce frout da" ,m ietie:-. "hc'l't' marriagt i' 1101 lormalh ti t cum,rribecl hl'l\\t't'll cla ~sts. ,\hhough in prac ticc pcopk in d:tss ~ocictits 1end 10 m:HTY ll'ithin th tir ' ocial class. i1 , ll<'l'c rthd l''' lll'rmissibk to tll:tl'l'~' in1n ann thl'r "lC~t l cla"s a n tl thi' is :t knmm a11d sori:t lh- acnp1abk mt:tm .. r ac hi t,ittg social mobi li t~ t'.' lwcialll lo r 1mrmn.


lntroducing Cultural Studies


1 1 ~.').(< lllln u .o, gro nps of klll ll'itn < 11 ~- :h snci:Hl'cl 1\'ilh Cl'l'lai n o r e up:nio n.' . hl' ~l' locai ~u~ g P' o l ca~1l' o fl t'll l'o 11.1 p~ lt' 1\ll h <~lll' a ll<~l lt e1 1<11 r.lll ki11g i11 tite c;1, 1t. ,,,1<'111 and clnp1i ng the 11 .' ' ncll. llllll,ll.d a lo_ tal ~11f11o 'l'l'k. 10 lllj)IO\l' 1hei1 <.l,ll' 1.111king b1 ,1 n_ l.IIIIH'I a nd pral'IH_l'' ' '1 . .1 h 1 g-he r-ra nk1 _11g g rn up. 11 111a1 to~ kt I111t' lor tht,1 .~, 1 i ra ti 1 . s 1 1 1 to H ' llle t aiH 1 ltll: r l.11111' ,., bl' l't'ah,ld l>t 1 1 II IOil'llll'll l , po"ihle "il hill l he Chtc ~~sttn .IIHI bou_ ndane' ;11 ,. more (ll'lllll'ablt than lllight . 11 lirst Wt'lll p 0 ,,ihk. II0\\'1.'\'t'l 11 ~'ou lcl he a 1111'.' 1ke to .l"llllll'l h :lllll t' po. " i hil i11 ol'mohili11 r:t i\t'' aga in tll l' pch~i bili t\' o f_co m_ p:tnson 1 1 '11 11 c ht.,s "'te nts. T llt' 1nobil it1' i.;sue i11 tl~t c:1 ste ~,-,1 1' 11 1 is 1ha 1 tite rJ a ' 111 ol tiH nlt. tl w 1\ holt g-roup. 1 1111'1 hl' f'tToglti,tcl. llot ju,tlia clai111 o!' a , 11crlt indi1jd 1 \ 1. \1 . "' 11.1. < 11.111 . t'I<T ( 1\JhO) oh't'IYtcl th:tl in one ,-illa~e in \ 11111 h India 1dlich hl , 111 ditrlt httt' 1 ll't'1'1 .' 1 '1'11 ~~-1 h n t ra,tt~ 1\'h ic h g ro ull'd tite n l't ' l l'l'~ :~ rcord i 11g to ill t' 11 se ., J 1 e ,;1111 c ~111ok 1n g PIJW. l it e pro~ i'i11 11 of 01 din :11'1' food lo r co11111101 1 llll'al-. a 11d tlw pn 11 ,ion of lood lor least> 1h(' lnghtl castc' in 1he lillage \\'otile! 'h:trt tlw pipt llilil .lllllfN nll C: l ~ln ''"repl ~~~~~r: bttl\'l't'll III'Ch'C ancl , j:-; uc n < :1'11' ' 11 o1 tld ,rnokl' 10,'-:'t'l lw r. :il1lwug h in SOIII !' < ':t''.'' .1 cllff <'l'l'll l r lo!l l lll ll'\1 be p l:trt'd ht'lh'te n tlw pip(' all(lt il l li p' of' t!1 1. , 1110 k(')'. \ ll'1l'l' \\'1~IL'' l h.llt:htl'' thattnjowcl po,,er in1he 1ilb~c IHTe 1101 hhwahout 1,hat thtr " 1 so 1,a' al(,and 1111h 1d10111 1hn a tl'. l1 ,,... , tht lltiddle ra ng1 ol ca,1, 1 d 10 ll'l'l't 1 e 1 y f 1 1 'I't' l l\'ittd lo .1 f(~t.~ t b1 :1 mo n poll'nful group. 1h c 1 ll()n ld 11 ,~ tf. lo r ~ :~a mpk. ii iL'' II'L on h:tl'lll).( thl'll lood ~~.rncl ra1, and CIIT\ i11~ it ho mt 1o cook. r hl u nto 1111Jahlt, _ lht o u tca'l' .- an lill'l~lll~ on l,idc 1lw r:t,te '' ' '''111 ahogcl htJ. Ca, t1 cl i,trimin:uion , 1 101 al~C>\\ l'cl. 111 m_oclt-m l1 1dia. h11 1 in m u 1icc thl cli'lcr~i11 o / g roupings :t nd tll t' ('om ph:xilr n f r(' l:ttlo nslllps makt suc h a ruling d if'l icu lt to l'ltl'orn:. .. -~h c1c an-~t l u: r t~antplt, ol n l igiou~ ranking that 1011 111a1 "j,IJ 111 explore. J>rid \\ 1llt:un, ( Hl ,,)) llot c, 1h a1 h icrart!11' i~ a dd in ing- c h:traUl'I''tic ol Hll\' <:h r j, 1,111 0 1 -cJt1 u . l r tht 11 11 11 ~ . :utd o f 1 1 1a 11 ~ ot lw rs too . S l~t sl ucliccl :1 gro up o f' llllllS ancl rc ma rktd IIH ll'."al lll:l~t t'J'ec_l :utcl 1rltat C:lllll' lir\1 \l':t' 1!1<: i"ut o l ncanlt'" nr cl i~l .uarc fmm (;()(1. Tht ha eran htt'' ol tlw comc111 1\\'rt hit1.11 e hin ol 'Piritualill. 11111 po111- 1.
t' ll l

P H tlll tht '1!-{IIIIK<IIH . g_'I'IH1pmg' o l ra,tt 1n d:11-tn-cla1 rl' i.l1 io 1" h i)' ;111. thl' 1 1 11
1 1 011

. ':'~~".';u it~l _of ~~~-cupationa l _ranking ,uHI ".''' diHI,tl 1dthin 1 ill.t~t, lltl'.llh th,u in 1

Culture, power and inequalily


1 lll<ll' tokrau: 11 l'qualitl' ancl ,ubordi11.11ion. il 11111 .tctu.1lh emb1aCl' it. .\ peop ll 1.1 t ciiTl'l'l' llt ra ngl' ol' , n luti o n.; 10 th i-. j)l <lble nl g in-. m o rl' explicit a lll'lllinn lO 1' ' sol11 1 . th<' cull unll clill1l'll '-On . \\'t r on, icll' l'. lll' "~; l : ( l'illll ~ll " " . hl'.g't'II IOIII: tlw 1 r;lll~fur 1 School\ ckn:lop . llll'l1l ol tlw thlon olult-olo.,": .111d )mncltL'II 'thton olthe h.lblllt'-

1 h 3.2.1 Jdeology as common sense: egemony

O nc clt'l't'lo p11H'II1 of \ hux, thinking .1hou1 icln.'l"h" \\hilh h:h pn~1ed inlh,n tial :tJl(l o nce pt ol hcgemo ny lp. 10 11\. achatHt c~ h~- tlu: )rodn r thc in r n ll tn al ~ 111d l's is tl tl' < 1 'ltt'" ' l st \n1 o niu Gnmsci ( l N\l l - Hl:)7) (1. :\~l. 111' 1\':tllll'd 10 t''-' j)lalll lwll'. Ita 1 a11 ' ' 1. capi1ali'1 1uling ~ l.t"l'' nlllilllll' 10 r11ll'. Onh despilt' 111 anifl''-l t'' idl'ncc ol inequali1 ) :11'1 u f tl w c xplan.11 ion . (;t.llll' Li bllit'l L'cl. 1, ,, cltiL' 1o 1ullll~-~la ~~ t<l l ~ t rol n f thc 11H:'<l l1 ~ ~f coe rcio n in sociL' l\' ( th L 111 ili 1:u1 a11d pn lice) . \1 1hl' b:1c k ol l'l'Jll'l'''ll e ~t:lll' jlO \\'C I' lay hcgtnHllll . ' ; ~J)l'l,\1 J...ind of J>O\\'l'l - thl' pm'l' lll f'lilllll' . t J H tJi aiI~.;- and 1 Olll<l II o pponu nitics. lo wi11 a111l 11tau 11111\1'111. ~~~ th.u th e g 1:Ulllll).t o l legll1111.1l' . lll thl' dolllin;ull d as~l'1' a p pear!- IH>I o nh "s pollla n t o n ~ but ll:ltll r:tl a nd 11 orma l' (U.1rke 1'1

al., I 97:J: :~l:l). J l q~t m o m , abnu t ll'ha l pa"L'' a~ 1hc r oll1llllll1-'l' ll' ical. ll l~q ll l' '-Iot~ld backd rop uf rdkniun on tlw "orkin!{' of ~ocic 1 1 . Con,~.q~ ll'llth. tlll' l tr~;un_ on_ ,,h trh hege nH Jil> ' is \\on nr Jo,t , thc tC JT~I i n n i ~u wrst rt l ct u ns . l he n.nt ral ll l ~ ll l liii Ons ~J I capit;11j, ~oc t' ll'- its cou ri' and sch oob. ,, e hnrc h c ~ a11d 1 11 a'~ nwd 1 a- a rl' H111 11 ll rt dl~l ideas a nd lxlid' that p rontolt' rul i n~d,1,, i n ttn~t.;. T hl pctYasinne" ol h q~l'l1 1 0111' '' described b1 111i t er~ fro111 II H f\i n ll ill!{h< llll School lh u,;
A he).(L'Inon ir r ul1 ural onkr 1 1ies lll jl'tll/11' <1ll c111 1 Jll'ling-_ <ld itl.iti<?ll' < lf'.llll: 1\n r l<~ \\i hi.ll l!> mup. h p1u1icle' tiH' hotitoll ol 1 h ou~h 1 .111d aC'IIIlll 1\'llhlll 11'111th conlllt1~ .lit' fuught 1h rough. approp1i:utd (i.t. l''lwrietH l'cl ). oh,nlll'cl ( i.t~- collt ~-akd " 'n:tt ion al in1 i<',) u r colll.lllll'cl {J.t'. < l' lt kd tn lhl' 1rcs1 1,hi r h , Jtnulcl 111 1il' :tll r o nflin ing 1 pro li l oCthl 1uling d a, <) . . \ lt e~l' IIICl ll i c urdL 'I j>l'l''>crihl'' 1101 tltl' ~ Kci fl< l'OIIIl'll l o!' idea,, but th t limil ll'ithiu 1dtid1 iclt-.1, and conlliu< 1110\l' anclare IL''oh ed. ( ( );u kt tia l .. 1!l/:1: :~~))

The nn tio n uf' hege lllUill' , l'l' bted


tit e Clllll'l' jl l or icl vo l o~\' but can be di, ting ui.<:h l'cl


from it:

Legitimating inequality

\\'h cn~'l't'r tlw te 'Jl< of in l'qn;tli tl i' adclrc~~tcl. tltt qut'~tion that , 001tt'l' or latl'l llllhl be a<;kccl h : "111' do jll'n>lc :tllm, 'uth 111:111ilt-~1 inecualitit' cl i,ach~ull.lgt, a nd i11 j11,1 ices tn i'l' lll alll ;" :1 11 acn pl:th/c p:111 o / th t'ir l i1e~? \\'d)e r ~ :1 1 1.\ll'< r is 111 :~1 >l'oplt bd i11c in ~T I't;ll ~t lc~ lll lll~lll' f nrlll~ o f a n thori11 - .1 11 ordtl ing ni' 1ht 1\'orld 1dticlt th l'l acnpt a~ ngh t "' Jlhtllmbk and 1ta,nnabk. 1 hrn h,l'l'' ol lq.{ilim;uc :nu horit'l' a re icltn tiliecl: lmdllllmol ('acct'pt 1his. btral h t i1 i~ ,,ha 1 011 1 Hop lt 11 alt al11a 1, clone ' ). t!l!m smultf' ( acccpt f h is. 1Hr a 11se o f' tlw leacll'l' nr propiHt 's l'M~L' Jll inual po m 'J's ll'h ich c:tn t1 .11 1 ~f'orm ,our lifto'). o_ 1 /gniJIIIinmtl ('.1rccpt th i,, hec; 11 , 1 thi' i~ "'h;u i' ~rwcilhcl inthc l;n,-, .ll~cl-1'111~-- gmt'l lllllg' 0111' 'llCt'l\ '). nw~l' lclllll\ ol' kg it I11.1C'\ ' hOI\' IHlll' 1'11 1 111 1';1 1 ,hid t pnl\'n 1 ' ll l ~ ll lllli iHia li .~ l'cl ancl g il'l' ll 111or: tl grou ncl ing. T htl p ro1iclc the ba.-.l'~ 0 11 1

Heg-t'lll<lliY1m t J,., throu_(li idcnln)..r;. h11t il dot~ 11<<1 ~"1 Hl 'i' 1 ol l:d't' id l'.t<. P~' l't'l_' Pt i om, dl'i i11i 1io ns. 111\'lll'k> jlriutllrilr 1 > 1' in' t'l'ling tlil' ~ ll hord 111 a lt' rla's lll lll da kl'\' ll" ll liii iUIIS ancl ~uun 111 t'~ "h irh -;uppon dtt p l\\l'l' a11CI "11 i.1 1 .1111 ho1 l 1 ol dw el o mi n;Hll '" clt'J'. l t i~ . .1hm c .tll. in 1hnL ' " IICIIII'l'' .111CI rd.uiolh 1ha1 .1 '"hwdinalt' cl.L" /il n , .\1/bOI'I/ JJ II/tl/1, (CI:It'kt t'l fli., 1~17 :1: :1~1 ) Gramsci bd ie1'l'd that capitalism uHlld 11 11t be OITJ'ru mc u n til lite 'm rkin~ cla" dcnlowd ib 1n,n cm m ttr-ht~emon~ 1d1ich ~~~~ tl''-'lulh t lwlltngtd tiH txisling- 1ulingclas~

c ultural hq.{t'1lHI111'. Ex i s1 i n ~ po\\1-r rl'la i ll l l.~ a mi lll'Cjllalilit' .tri' th u' \la bi liw d 1 hro u ~h cultu ral hcgl'll10111. T h 1 cotK<'pl J,,, lwen inllutnli.ll in cultu ral '1nclie~ 'int'l the HI10' hl'Call,t'. it oiTt-rtd a I110i l' compk:-. .1n a h , , ni ndin g-c ht~' clumina tio n than o lckr 111ocle h of idtological clnm inm io n . Th t l.~irnt in g li a n l Scll ool lin kl'd 1h e cn iH't>t o f' lt egL'111Uil 1 . lil

106 lntroducing Cultu ral Sludies

Culture, power and inequalily


Defining ro11rejJI 32

The concepl of hegemony is used as a way of thinking through the relationships between cultu~e and power (p. _94). lt was. developed within the work of the ltalian activist and Marx1st theonst Antomo GramSCI (p. 38). His concern was to understand how so 1 groups .organise t~eir ru.le and, more pressingly for him, why there had been ~: prole~anan revolut1on. H1s conclusion was that rule involves both domination (the coem:e .use or threat of force via the military and the pollee) and hegemony (the organ1s~t1on of co~sent based upon establishing the legitimacy of leadership and develo~1ng shared 1deas, values, behefs and meanings - a shlred culture). Rule for GramSCI was hegemony armoured with coercan (Gramsci, 1971; see also Williams 1977 and Bennett el al., 1981). ' ' In his lheoretical and politi~al. work Gramsci's aim was to show how this consent (hegemony) had two chara~tenslics. F1 rs t, L hal il was class based and class biased. He wanledto sh~w that culture 1 s saturated with class power. As 'hcgemony', shared Villues shared m~an1ngs and shared beliefs are seen to act in the interests of the dominant (o; heg~mo~IC) class. The examples Lhat Gramsci uses are ide<1s like religion in ltaly and Ford1 sm 1 n Ar.11enca wh1ch promote certain values and form s of conduct over others, e.g. t~e. work eth'~ He connects both with the economic and political development of classdiVIde.d soCiet~es. Secon~, hegemony does not just happen; it is something that has L o be orgarliSed. Thrs ~lso cames the positive political message that the situation can be altered. In r~any wa~ thrs goes .beyond Marxist (p. 97) theories of ideology (p. 84). 11 rejects the not.lon that 1dea~ are f1rmly rooted in class positions and sees them as 'material torces' wh1ch can orgamse groups, shape terrains of encounter and debate, and define positions to ~e attacked or defended. lt afso has a rather deeper notion of culture and meaning ~vh1ch see~ the11_1 ~s basic to the formalion of all social relations rather than as something added ~n , the rCing on the economic cake. Her.e. class.e.s are..defined as much culturally as economiCally. severa! problems that must be noted. First, just as for ideology, Gramsci's concentrat1 on on clas~ mak~~ the concept of hegemony problema tic. Any suggestion that people ~ave Singular 1 dent1t1. es (p. 224) and interests and thal there is a singular poltica! proect 1 s n~tusef~l when trymg to deal Wlth the multiplicity of interrelated identities and power relat1ons w1thrn ';'hich "',e aJI live. These singular class identities also carry with them L he unhelpful not10n of false consciousness'. The question is whether we can extend lhe tern: to use il to talk about race, gender and sexuality. Second, the tendency to use the nollon of 'hegem. ony' lo imply the existence of one dominant, totalising ~ul. ture of .powe~ musl be avo1 ded. Grarnsci certainly did notmean the concept to be a rrg1d, sta~IC, un1 form and abslract one. In part this means talking about counterhegem~nles and a whole series of competing alternalive hegemonies. lt also means recogn1 smg thal heger~10nies ~re constructed: they are forms of rule that socialgroups try lo pul together. We m1ght th1nk of them as ongoing 'projects' of Jegitimating leadership

and negoliating consent lhrough a whole series of channels. He re is Gramsci on American Fordism: Recall here the experiments conducted by Ford and the economies made by his \ firm through direct managemenl of transport and distribution of the product. These economies affected production costs and permitted higher wages and lower selling prices. Since these preliminary conditions existed, already rendered rational by historical evolution, it was relatively easy to rationalise production and labour by a skilful combination of force (destruction of working-class trade unionism on a territorial basis) and persuasion (high wages, various social benefits, extremely subtle ideological and political propaganda) and thus succeed in making the whole lile of the nation revolve around production. Hegemony here is born in the factory and requires for its exercise only a minute quantity of professional political and ) ideological intermediaries. (Gramsci, 1971 : 285) These 'projects' are about the organisation of ruling groups, the creation of alliances ('hegemonic blocs') and the forging of collective identities (perhaps via religion, polilics or culture). They are also about the organisation of power-laden relation s with others in order to create a rnanaged consent. This is all to be understood as a continua! process with a whole variety of different social groups involved. In arder to understand this we can use another, related Gramscian term: 'war of manoeuvre'. This means seeing society as both a real and an ideological batllefield where everyone is trying to establish what side they are on, who are enemies, who are allies, what position they are in, what the terrain looks like, how lhe battle is progressing, and what weapons they should use. ll is a constant ongoing slruggle within which ideas, beliefs, values and meanings are among the weapons. However, what is importan! is nol any innale characteristics of these weapons bul whether lhey are effectively deployed. This sense of hegemony as a process of active organisation is a useful one which is not restricted to understanding class relations.


Furt!trr muling
Bennell, T., Martln, G., Mercer, C. and Woollacoll, J. (eds) ( 1981 ) Culture, ldeology and Sacio/ Process: A Reader, Mllton Keynes: Open University Press. Gramsci, A. (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks, London: Lawrence & Wishart. Williams, R . (1977) Morxism and Literature, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

All h usscr 's 1101 ioll or 1S.\ s ( iclt-ologiral SI :lit' apparatl lS('!( - schoob, eh lll'l h t'S, ll H: cLt. etc.. ,,IJich suppoat s1 a1 e icko l og~ ) to pn:,enl a mon compkx an: ly,is of lw11 class domination worklcl. 1k g l'lli O II Y tmpha ~ist'~ 1hat lht' ru1ing clas~ was itsclf' compos(d ol' di!Te rc nl rrac lions. lh :ll r la\\ lllk alsn re quired thc ,,innin~ o f' the comt'lll or th l subordinate cJa~, . and 1hat it J'ar ilitated the em pirical explor< Hion ol tlw i n ~liua ti on'>
throug h wh ich cu lt u ral h q~e m om 11ork~ such a'i ,outh subcuhlm:-; ( 1 lall a nd.Jdfi: r~on. 1976). schools (\\'illis. 197H) and broadcast n ew~ (Gias~o~~ L"n iwrsil\ ~kclin Group,


lntroducing Cultural StLidies

CLIIture, power and ineqLiality 1 09

1976) . lmponantly. the notion of h egemo n1 i ~ amc nable to h iswrical anahsis sin ce it is 1101 a 'giHn. of an r partintlar class or organis:uion htt l is ~om e thing that has lO be wo rkcd fo r and su, tained . So it can be argucd , for cxampk . 1hat hlgcmonic cultural d omin ation "as a more ~ign i fican t -,o urce o f' ,,o rki ng-class suborclina1 ion in Britain in thc 1950, 1han in thc Hl30s. T hat s t:~bi l is;nion 11as obtaimcl in tlw 1~~ ~~Os bv markct '' in the prospereffccts (tmc ntplonncnt ''~ an imtrumen l ol l.tbou r cJi, cipline ). l,herl" O ll ) 1950s \\O rki ng-clas~ cotbent wao; obtaimd th ro t~g-h the htglmo nir dominatio n nf an iclco log} uf' affl uc.:n ce.

Key influence 3.3

The Frankfurt S chool

3.2.2 j ldeology as incorporation: the Frankfurt School

of thc Frankfu rl Sch ool (p. 109), in panicul:lr T hcodor .\clonw ami \lax llo rl..heime r (in l>io/('(/ir of 1~11 /ighll'lllllf'lll. 1!17~) del't"lopecl an analysis of the patt pl<~~ed by the ~up c rslnt c turc in acco tulling for lllt' lailure of the l'l'I'Oiution :IIY ~oc ia ! changc 1hat \Jarx had p ndictcd . T hcv foCII'-l'd on thl' role playcd b~ m w..s cult tiiT. or ll'lllt they prcfe n ed to call the culttnc industry' ( lO di,tance thcmsehts fro m tlw - erroneousidea that mass ctillttre is a ~ponlatH.'IIltsl y t ruptil g' popu lar culture) in sccuring the incorpor:u ion ol tltl' \\'orkiug cla~~ into capi t:dist ~ocit t\'. Th ro ugh radio , 1\', mmies and fo rms o f' popular music like jau, 1he ex pamli11g culture indu<;trics wcre diss<minaling mling-class ickologies \l'ith grea tn c iTec lil'eness than \ lat X cou ld hai'C e mi~aged . T ite run htr del'elopme nt or {'(}115lllllt't sociel\ in thc ll\'l'lltieth n nutry po,,crftlly aickd the p roce ~ of' 1\o g-c la~~ iti C orpor:llion hy pronwting- ti C \\' llll'lhs ol cla~slcsstwss , and 1\'tdded tite 11orking e l;~, l' l'l' ll nto n.? tightlr LO acq u b i ti~t alHl propet tl'mming hdieh. E~t n o pposition.d aml t t itical lorms of cu hu re C:lll be mark<ttd (co11sickr \11dy \ \'arhol o r thc Sex l'i '-lo l.-;). 1 he dcwlnpmcnt nJ'thc ndture illdU,Iti e ~. Ollt' part oJ'1he supc r-trutttll'c , sel'llll'cl clcstilt l'd to;.llbiL'rt 1lu: 'ocia! rhan gc~ that ~ l ar:-. 'aw .t<> origin:n i n~ in '<lC'it-t,~ material ba,t. O thct Schoul th tori,ts. 1 101 abl ~ \l. treme, ro ncle11111l'cl tlw one-d illh'llSiona 1 i1 ~ nl tlt t ' socicl}' tlt ;ll th c cu lture illdll ~ tri e ' l'f'e ,Jtapi11g wi1h incrc.t,ing \li (' (T~'i. l ' t~l ( l rtllll :l td l'. tht loHc ol tltt ~dtool' ~ e ritiq ue 11,1, 1\'e ,tkl'tll'd h~ the it appare nth diti't el i' "1 ,,a) of' 1orm' uf popul:tt cult u rv. rile cc ki>ratcd - SOI11 l' tnig ltt ':11 11 () [ () 1 io uo; - l''<lllt p k o l' tlw Franklu t t Srhool's di-.mi~~iw a pprnat h to popular u tlturc i~ T ht>odot .\clorno, ( 190:~ -69) ;ma h~is of poptd; lr music. \\'t iting in th e lat t l!l :~lls and arh 1!1 10, ,\clnrno proposcd tha t tht indthtriali ~:llion o l lltllsir:d pt oclun io ll and lht comntt rt:iaJi,atio n ol' 11\lt,ical ro tb unt p tion hacl a h.lll'ful illfllll' ll< t' on 111\l' fonu . Popular lllll~ic h ael be< otil e ~l a n cl.ll clist"d: l';. 0\'t' l':t Jl StnlCIItrl' (thl' thin~ t ll'o-IJar ';tl l :l')W l l ~ of lllmi C:II 1( 11'111 - .\dof'llo illSI:lll C t horm ), tlll' ludie range . ~o ngt~ pes ancl harm on ir prog t-c" ions - clq>l'lld 11 pon pre cx i ~t i ng l'onnu lae ancl n otm,. 1,h irh ha,e thl ~tallh ' i nu all ~ o J' n de, , a re litmi liar 10 listc ncrs :t tHI henn are entircl1 preclictable ' (\ lidd leloll , 1!1!10: 1 5) . Popu lar llllt'ic ha~ beco me standard isl'd in to panicul:u tiTJC'- (cotllllt'\' &: wcstert1 . hca1v me tal. e tc ) ancl 1 d th in each II'(>C panicular lw mu las d en~ lop . .\domo con tr:-t,ted popul.n 11ith wrious music which 11as nol statld : trd i ~td b11 t d istitH ti1c and origi11nl. lkcthol'l' ll 's 11nrk 11a~ .\do m o's (xcmplar o ( scriott' mmic :"-101 onh' \\'l't'l' pop11 lar a 11cl ~t' d ou~ music d ifft'tTill
~ l c mbe rs

The Frankfurt School descri bes the social and cultural th eoris~s who worked for, ~r :v:re ected with, the Frankfurt lnslitute for Social R esearch. Thetr method, known as cnt1cal conn fr . . d .t theory', has influenced the study of mass culture and elements o emtntst, postmo ernts and postcolonial theory. The Jnstitute was foj!Oded in 1923. Al its inception, il was very much a prodLict of the freedom and olilical slruggles of the German Weimar Republic 1918-33. K ey cult members of the lnstitute were ax or 1etmer, heodor A o~no and He.~bert Marcus.e. Walter Benjamn (12:.) 73) was ao important associale. Along wtth Gramset .s (~. 38) wnt. s critica! theo_!)' forms the main body of Western (as .QEpos~ Sovtel-tnflu~ced) lr}9Jc , Marxism (Q ....2Z). lnrtuenced by the ideas of Marx (p. 97) aoclfL~d, 1 t r~s~sl~ systemattc, univ~plaQations of_gJlyraland .sodii[phenomena. In 1933 the ~ans nse to power rorced the lnstitute into exile in Germany. Many of lhe members were jew1sh and faced death f they stayed. Hor,kheio:u:r._Adorno and Ernst Bloch all went to .the Unted States. PostWemar, the School began its critiques of the Fascist system from whtch they fled and.t~e new experience of North American mass culture: tor example, Adorno's well-known cntt~ue ~f popular muslc. This culminated in Adorno a~d Horkh~imer's ~est-known work, The ~~~lecllc of the Enliqhlenmenl (1972, orig. 1944) whKh contatns semmal chapters ~n the ong; ns of modernity (p. 400), mass culture and anti-Semitism. After the war, the lnstttute returned t~ Germany. Adorno contributed works of philosophy, Neg_gt~Dial~ctics (1 _973) .and Aest~e.tlc tl!!ory (1984). H~h.hrendt continued the critigue of authoritanan regtmes.m T~e Orl~ms ~58). Ernst B loch and Herbert Marcuse exQiored the utOQJan dtmenston of_gitkal theory ill The Principie of Hof?.e (1986, ori~. 1959) and Eros..ond-Civilizaon.(l25,S). The polilical events of the 1960s ld to a reviva! of ~nle~est in t1. 1e Sch.ool's .wojs lls recoQJ1J~f.d.b~r is Ji.l!:9!~~rmas. True to its impulse, tn hts The PhlfosophiC~f Dtscourse of Mo{iernity (] 987} he criticlses QQ!!unembfiS....Q!Jh.e School an.Q. postslructuraltst.tbo.ught. The key to understanding criticaltheory is the recognition that ~l is not a unified body of thought. Rather, it defines itself 'negatively' against o~her. theoret1cal systems.. Eac.h strand criticises and debates in a polemical style. Each thinker 1 s best understood tn hts or her relation to other thinkers. For example, Adorno's apparent resistance to utopian solulions is best understood in relation to the more overt utopianism of Bloch and Benjamin. lt is this tradition of critique and debate that is the School's most important legacy.

FurthPr reading

Bloch, E ., Lukcs, G., Brecht, B., B enjamln. W. and Adorno, T.W. (1980) Aesthetics and P oltics: Debates between Bloch, L ukcs, Brecht, Benjamin, Adorno, Londoo: Verso. )ay, M. (1974) The Oia/ecticallmogination: A History of the Frankfurt School and the lnstitute of Social Researcll/923- 1950, London: Heinemann. Held, D. (1980) lntroduction to Critica/ Theory, London: Hutchinson.

11O introducing Cultural Studies

in fonu, th r~ encou raged cli!Tercnt r(spon e~ from li-.tcncrs. e dou~ 111 11,ic made challe ng ing demancls on 1hc liHener wh ilc popu l:tr music macle lilllc - popular m u ic had beco me just an otlllT tultif,i ng ekment of nmss cul turc . . \dorno mnimai ncd 1hat: .\ lusic for o.:IHf'rl:tinmclH ... .~eem~ lO co1 npkmcnt the rcduction of peoplc to silencc. the clving out of ~pctch a~ C'\prt"ion. the in.tbilitl 10 communicatc at :~11. 1t inhahit<. rhe pnckct' of ~i i c n Cl' thar rlenlnp btrwecn peoplc nw uicled b~ anxie ry. work ancl tmdcmanding docilill . ... Ir i pcrccivcd pmely ;h b<.J..ground. lt noboch can any longtT ~ixak. rh cn cn lainl\ noboch can :1n~ Jonger listen .... Tud;,1 ... (rhc j powcr ni rhc banal <.x tencl~ Ol't'l' thc 1~hole socit' ll . (.\ dorno. ruoted in :\liddlcton, l9UO: 3-1) .\clonw's ~cnring Cri tique of popular 111\ISiC pbces it a long~ide film. cheap hoJicJ;w, and comic books a~ a mo.:thocl ofi ncorporaring tlll' \I'Orking cb ss. B11 1 il is an ;r mtly~i s thal has a numbcr o r flaw<. (s<.'l' Longhurst. 199:1: 10- 1-+ for a Mtmm;rY). Thc popular serio11s di,tinction illlroclt ces a ,alut judg-emen t lwfore th e ana i ~si s h:rs bcgun. T I)(' ~cope of .-\clonw's thl'<H Y (;11 popular mu~ic uncler capita)i,m) secms lar too broacl ;ncl Adorno rlnc~ tHH appcar 1 0 apprccia l<' how tha .~copt mig h t he comtrainecl by his twn social and hi,toriral location. Some typcs or rmtsic Uan. hlucs) migh t h an non-standa rd structurcs or mig ht exprcss re!'istanre 10 domi nan t ideologies. T IH: dcHJc,pment o f ncw musical technolo{ie might also 11ork a,rain't tlw tendcncits that .-\dorno nmecl in popular music. T hus critics Mrg~~..s t thaL the daims or thc th torv cxcecd whnt c;n be rca,onabh ~n-.ta i rwcl. . \ ~ a cri tiq ue of fin Pan Al k~ in t he i 9~0s and 1D-IOs Adorno mad c ~o 1 n c scnse. but the application of his id t'a~ tn the prolifcrat ion of popular mttsic<tl ~t ylc~ ~inct tho.:n tclls onl~ a .small p:rrt of tlll' story. T ht contributio ll of tlw Frankfun School 11ns lo indicaH : tlw enonnou~ expansion of thc culture industries nncl their incrtasing in fl tle nct' in 1 11odo.:m capitalism. Leo Lowenthnl ( 1961) capturt'CI this change well in hi~ study of thc biogr:q>hical anicles appearing in pnp11lnr US mng-az.irH.'S bl't\I'CI'Il 189(} a nd l 9c JO. J k founcl that in the o.:arlier period it was predominantly captains of inclu~try a ll(l financc' 1dro liTre profilccl . T hi' gaw wny in tht la ter pcr ioclto a prepo nrkr;rnct of inte tvicws \\'ith mmie ~tan; and singcrs. T h ere hncl been a shift fromthc 'i<lols ofpro<luct ion 10 the 'idoJ, of rn n~umption ' - 1hc culttlrl's hcroc~ wert' 11o11 firntll locatcd in ~upc rs trucurral occupatiom. notthe material ba e. L'nlikc the cconomi~m of e;rrlie1 :..ra ndn n trad itio ns, l1 c Frankfun Schoo i auributes a sig n ifi can! role to 1hc do mai n of cultmc in analrsing rdations of cuh11rc nn d power.

Culture, power and inequality 111 . tlttrral habitus is Jrefcrrcd o~tr o thc rs. Schooling is a proccss in which dominant therr Cl ' . '. . .

k ' a .,,;ctencc of fai h rrt'. In dlen. one cultural '"'tcm of S)1Hbolism (p. 288) and pupt ' ' ~ " is im:>osed o n rhm uf ano the r socini gro u p - a proccss tcrmcd 'svmbolic ,. mcan u10 .olence ( Bourdieu ancl Pa~scron. 1990). . . . . 1 Bot~rd i e 11 i c'pcciallv interestccl in the 11ays 1 11 whrd r p~n ucular gro ups (clases) ur society 111a 1 k thlir idcmit~. th e ~nnbolic " ;11s in which t he~ cxprcss ,ah_ r e~ ancl se<k to 1 bet\l't'l'll tlr t msdvcs and other ,grou)'. lk d escnbes tlns a~ tllt' 1 ))Ollll(hries rna1ntnt ocess o l ctistinnion (BcHrrcliLu . 198-1) ..\gain there i' a ~tres' that tulture i' ~~ccptirc. \\'hill- non~lty and rrcatil'i ty i' acklt tndccl~ecl. thc <.'mpl m~is _l i~~ o n tlw . s in \l'lrich whal i~ lear11cd :mcl practisl'd i~ ;m alli rmatio n of ;n ext!>llllg st:t o i 11 11 hi:rarchicalll' organitil'cl S\'51CillS or rt'latiOll'-. Rourclicu's pn~ition ha' bccn descnbcd

,er works symbolicalh' to lcgitinralt' the ~llld~ of accomph~h_ment thal w~ll count cJass po1 leclgalJlc ancl \,onlw leat.ure' of th c hah11us uf \\'orklllg-class as nO 11 '' and w rt'letr;lle ,.,

thus: Toa ven largc cxtcru 11e do not choose o1rr idtntitl. \\'t' ncciw the cuhuml identi11 \,hich ll ;r~ been h:1 nded clown ro W fro1 1r pnl'i otr~ ~t' l1l'r<Uion ~.... \\'e adl11.: re 10 groups. 11hethcr clubs or politic:~l nr rdi~imro;. or~ani Latinns .. :rnd_ 1dc~pt the idcn ri fring iumgcs or social gmups. wllcthel' 111 h;llr-."lylt 0 1 r luthlllg. ~o .1~ lCI (()l)filtll our so~ial ickntit1. For thc :.<uue rca ~on. ,,e tako.: step~ to di,tingui~h oursdHs frolll those who bdong- w d i iT~. re l ll ~ruup~. 0111 rastcs ami our lifesL ) les han- no i n r rin~i c l<llue h111 serYt' 10 maint.rin tht' cohet'CIICl' of tht group ro ll'hich lll' IJtlong. (Robbi ns. 1!1\) J: 17-l )


.. 1

3.2.3 1 Habitus

T he wnrk of l'ie rrc Bolll'ditu (Robbirb. l!l!ll) ~ t ress<~ tht' learncd. 11nqucstiomd. takcn-for-grantcd a~pec t of cultural bd1:11 iour. He: p uL~ fon,ard thc notion of habitns. rhc cultural lram t'\lork ldlt're in and whcrcbl' thc habi tual aspens o f l' I'C r~ ch11 social th o u~ht ancl action operate. People', pcn Tptiom. tho ughb. tastt~ and so fonh are shap ed by tlwir habir us. Thes(' princip l<s arl' symbolica lly m edi a tt~ d in actio n and are karned throngh cxpericnce. llo\\'CI'Cr. the pm,er or the <lominant rlass<s cnsures thnt

Bourdieus focus on distinction' betwcen groups rathcr titan on the 11holc ~~s u m o l 11hich thev are a constitutivt pan contrasts with thc ~Ltrxiar1 and thc dominant iclcologr approach: Bourdicu sees cultural stril'i ng for indiddttal exptTs~ion as .a !'ham b11t in a v wav~ he has ; more organic approach to thc issut of mccualr~ than :.. larx. 111 11 Cr;u~1sci or thc Fr;111 kfun School. T his di!Tennct is expre!N'd in .1 sharpcr rorm bet\,ccn those t heorist~ 11ho stT i ntqua lit~ as funnional to thc op<.ration of socie11 ) (Daris nnd ;\loo re, 19-1~) and thn~c ~~~w se<.: i l as co_nll in u a i (;.. lar x_). TI '.t i ssu~ of crd tu re as ickologY is neutral 111 tltc "e posurons: rclcologtes that :.uppor t tlll ~~51<.111. ~uch a~ those based on religio n (" for cxnmple . the bclief in rhe di,in e right of tl w ~l't'ITign in mcdie,al Europe or the secular belief in dcfcrcn cl' in contcmpora1' ~ocic11) can be used to suppon cithc r r iell' of in cq uality. . . \ T hc e debate' aro und hcgemon1. inco1po1~11ion ancl habitm s~10,,. ho\\' mrslcncl1~1~ J l is lO th ink of culture as a lllt'rT su pcrstnrctmal ctTcct' d ctel'llll lll'cl b~ tite ma lertal base. In the 1iC\\S of th c theorists rcdcllccl in this scction. <uhun a pan in legitim i.sing ancl na t ural i ~ing many fcmm n f inequality. Thl exll'llt 1 0 wll idt dorninant ideolocrir' nre themsl'IIT~ gunran tors of social orcler has been cue~tionccl b~ sonw sociol;gi~ls. Abcrcron1bit 1'1 of. ( 1980) prnposc that tite dominaru ideo~ugv u nh bring~ coherenc<.' 10 the dominan! cla'' not tn rlte sociery a~ a 1 d10k. Suborclm atc cbs~cs aH incorporat<.d lw political ami cconomic cotllro l. n ot icleological clominan:t. A ~li!Tc1:er ll approach is takcn by oth lT thcorists ,,Jw arguc that the n dr nr;d . d ll lll'llSron ' ~ a signilic;nt ~CHIITC of inecualitv. \\'e ncxl considn a selcction ol stuclrcs thnt cxnm1nc

~S --

112 lntroducing Cultural Studies

Culture, power and inequality 113


Culture and th e production and reproduction of inequality

Key injluence J.4

n this ~e<t ion 11c t"\plort the rde1ance ol the explano~tiuns ol ineqt talit> di-.tu'.~t'c\ 1bo1T 1 .)'. mean ~ ol a t'L'I'ie11 ol ~o lll.l' t:tdtm:ll ntanik't:n~un' uf incqualit1. \\'e 'hall look a t :.tudlt'' that fotth on tite ktl' ,.,1 11 able~ ,f cla~~ - ethntCll>. gcn<kl and .1gt a' suurn~ of cultmal in cq u;tlity.

Richard Hoggart (1918- )

3.3.1 1 Class
Th e notitn that culttlral dillnnces l'olluw da~' linc' Ita' a long hi,toll . \\'t hcr~ comept ol ~tatth inrhlcle, 1h t notinn ol stvlc ni lile anclopt'IH thl' " " l'or t ()ll,ickring O l'trbps and di,paritk' betl,ee n r l a~~ and ~talll'. rl1t ca1ll da,-;it' ol tultural 'lltdics. notabh llogg;1rt ( l ~l;-}7) all(\ Thomp,on ( 191iX) ll't'l't' H'll mut h contTrntd 11ith thc , ) ; pi ng. e: h;m1t' ttri)>lir.' ancl denlopmc 1 1t or 1\'orki ngr la'' cnltuat. In mun rtcc all 1mrk on 1outh 'ubcnlturt, lhc notion of t1.1" nallnrc' ,abo promincnt {set Chaplt'l K) . Culillral cnmutr ntan h a~ Ion{ addre"t'cl illt' li fcstdcs ol tlw ri ela a~ well ,,, tht pom. Tlm'c lil'ing a t thc CXII'l'lllt'' ofsorict>. it i~ ~ometimc' ftlt . are 1 wrhap' 1e r~ difTennt in thdr ,,a>s of lik frunt thc i>road 111<tss in thc nticlrll c. In thi.~ w <tion tht i"t le ., da,s. culture :tnd lll'CJII.IIil\ i~ approat hcd lw nw.m' ol a '-111'\'t' l ol ex pl.111.11ion' nf tlw lil't, t ~ l es oJ' tht poor: 11c sltal l considcr intm11 thl' uil ture ul'ponrtl tltcsi'. thl' l'l'rlc of <lcpril-;uion tlwon ancl the ptllalit' l'IIH'tl-{t..'IHt' of .111 tiiHkt-cla~' / -lhl' t ulitlre ol pol't1,. t h c-;i~ ll';ts pnpt~lari,td i11 tiH' 1!l:'(h a n d 191)(1, b1 tite .\nwrican ,ulllll opolo~i:.t Chcar 1 ewi,, 'tuclie, ol tiH' poor i11 :'lkxit o. l'uetto Rit:t :mclthe L' nited St< tlt's. 1k 'ott ~h t to ll lt<lcl st;liHI lto11 i1 11a... tlt at (Hll'e rtl 'l'L'Illl'd tn rcprudHtl' i t ~cl f .tero" ~tneration': hm' poor IH'opll' ;1ppe.11 ccl to proclun' mort poor pcopk. ll i~ c;.pl:t nation ronl't'llll :llcd 011 tit e rl i~ t i i H' II't' n ilwral l'l'atuns ~hancl h~ tlw ~o-t allt:cl umk<et~i ng m cli,rqnnabk poot. l.t,,i, ( 1\Hil. HHifil pmptl'l'' th.ll tlw 1 111or h.11e a cJi., I IICtil'l' Stlbt lillll l'l ll ifL'\ [~)t- ll'lt \'h , likt :1 111 t til tll l'<'. is :1dt~ i g n J'or lil'il1)-! l h<tlllt'\liclt'~ a 'lrttclltrt .m<l rationalc cnahling tlu: IJOor to ~o on 11ith their lht'' ( ontro\ tr~ia lh. lw sugg-cst,<. t.h:ll thi' 11a> orl il't- is p:tsscd d nll'n across t he gt'llt'l'atinll ' throngh 1 he nwtl ium ol' tht.. famill' . .-\t thc et'lllrt' of thi' thcon i~ tht iclentilic11io n ol .1bout SL'H'llll' u-ait' 'aid to characlt'l'ise the culture ol' ponrty. -1he~ ilt C ittdt the liJIIOII'ing: Tlw poor aH 1101 1 (.-:trful of thcm.
i nl <.'~l.llt'cl

into tht major it"titttlion ... of tlH.' .;orietl' atHl l't'tllain


T iten i' a 1011 knl ol community organi,atinlt 111' ig-h bou rhu1 Hls.

iclt'tllifil;lliun ,,ith pbre i11 ,)um

Best known for his singular 1957 _ study of wor~ing-_class culture, TI~ e Us~s of Literocy, wri~ten when he worked in adult educalton al the Untverstty of Hull. Subtttled aspects of workangl s life with speclal reference to publications and entertainments', the book focuses on how ~~~king-class culture has been affected by mass p~blic.ations in t~~ de.cade~ leading up to the mid-century. The impact of Uses stems from tts ltterary cnttc s dtssectton of popular ublications by an author who imaginatively draws upon his experiences of being brought ~p as an orphan in the Chapeltown and Hunslet wo~king-class d~strict~ of Lee?~ Uses ortrays northern working-class life with a striking evocattveness, partiCulanty and VIVtdness. ft also marks a significant intervention into debates about the cultural value of the mass media and emergent forms of popular culture. The Uses of Literacy contains two parts. The first examines the remains of an 'older order' 1 of working-class life, a collection of cultural altitudes and beliefs.. H~ggart describes. the binding influences of home, parents and neighbourhood the orgamsatton of theworld mto 'us' and 'them'; the focus on the personal and lhe concrete rather than the general and the abstract; the attractions of the immediate, the present and the cheerful. The second part of Uses comiders some of the ways in which the old order is 'yielding place to the new'. Hoggart critiques the personalisatio~, oversimplification an~ ~an~ erin g t? base moti;:es of much popular journalism and questtons the real worth of sp1cy magazmes and sex-andvlolence novels. (In places Hoggart's critique seems dated, as in his denunciation of the 'jukebox boys who while away their evenings in milk-bars' .) His general argument is that the older culture 'of the people' is under siege from a 'new mass culture' that 'is in some important ways less heallhy lhan the often crude culture it is replaclng' ~Uses, 1958: 24). ~hi_le The Uses of Uteracy heralds a new sensitivity to the nuances of worktng-class culture m hterary and ethnographic terms, it also participates in an older tradition of judging its worth. In Uses, as in much of his writing, Hoggart displays a sharp appreciation of the subtleties of everyday language as a finely culturally differenllated communicative medium. Hoggarl's other pril}cipal contribution to cultural ~tudies was to tound the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (p. 327) in 1964 shorlly after he became Professor of English at the Unlversity of Birmingham (S~uart Hall (p. 88) was th ~ Centre's first reseacch fellow). He became an assistant director-general of UNESCO in 1970, gave the Reith Lectmes in 1971 (published as Only Connect, 1972) and later played a leadin~ role in the Britis~ ~rts f cpuncil. His long career as a writer, teacher and public servant is reviewed in three absorbtng 'V'olumes of autobiography.

F.uniliL'' di,pl:tl' tht follo11 ing- kalntT.,: - abscnct of' ,, lengtlw cltilclltoocl p lt:t~c ol !lw likn'Ck earl~ initiation int o stx - free ltnion~ or con~cnsua l marriag('' - high incidtncc ol abandolll'clll'il t'' ami t hild lt'll - l'cm;ti('CCtllrcd hou ~c ltolcl'

Fmther rrading

Hoggart, R. (1988) A Local Hobitolion, London: Chatto & Windus. Hoggart~ R . (1990) A Sort of Clowning, London: Chatto & Windus. Hoggart, R . (1992) An /magined Ufe, London: Chatto & Wmdus. ,

11 4

lntrodu ci ng Cultura l Studes

culture o f ~onn~ b ut h e fa ib lO sp c c if ) full~ tlw cri ll' ri a o f incl11~iou. 1t St'l' ll1S p la usi ble that ~ h i'OI~I Calh (lt>lll' pcople 1\'JI lead diSI IICII'C' ~ ~~ les of life . but L ht'~C ca nnot be expla m ecl 111 ]Hirch cult u ra l tenu~. . Th~s al-.o th c conclusion arrin: d at b1 ~ocia! ~cietHists in 1he 1970~ ch argccl 1, h 1me~11ga tu_tg ~h~ cl'ck of dc pri,ation. Tlw iclc:t r:1n1c to p ublic a lll'ntion in a spccch ~llade .b': Sir "C~th .1<~'-t'ph. t h c Secrctan Sta te for Social SeiYiCes. in 1 97~. 1k as ked , \\1t~ s ll th a t. 111 spne of long periocl~ ol' f'ull c rnplnnnent and rdatin pro.'>pl'ritl' and

l.c\\'is a rg uts thal th l' c ulture o r pmer ry on l~ < : nwrg es in sp ccilic histori cal :mcl social co ntexts. natrw h lh l' caril free t nt<:rJrise ll ll'lSl' -. ' t'1 1 1 ' ( 1ll<t 1 . , . . ' ' t>f el''"" " ''st 1 11 1 e ,, III C 1\'1 IStic captta l1 st SO Ci l' t~ l. xcl ud cd a re p1 TIitera tl' soc i c tit~ ,,lw r e j) O\'t'l'll' ~ n c> 1 ) te . 11 > ~nc 1 al ~ntegra t ~on ;mcl lit e I0 \\'('1' Giste;, of Ind ia ( lwcau~t castc m t mbn,IJi p b ;1 ~ <Hil 'C<' Of l ntegr~llon) . 1 he culture of po1er t1 is rcg-a rdccl a<; a crc<lli,e. adaptin: I'<'.'>(>Oil.S(' 011 th pan. o~ tire poor lO their material clcpril;uioll . \ n implicatio11 of tlll' Cllltun of ponn~ t lw~1s 1~ that thl poor \\'ill ah,a,s be 11ih u-. a-. long ~ their cult 111 e 1 , 1 1 .1 . 1 1 11 ~ ~ ' 1n 1< ea 1 1a1 ha, fcd propolll'IH~ of c ultural d eprh-atioll he<' '-CCtion 33.2 bclo11) . T he , thcun h as been ro undll CTi tici,ed (slT \ ' tl ent 1 \ltl1011g 1 1 ' 11 e 1<)6) . o . . 1 _e\qS 1eco~n1 ~es th.t fun damen t a l!~ matc l ia l orig i11' of POI'l'l't~. h e docs n o t allc mpt 10 a ~scss th e rc lal ll'l' unportan ce o f social and econon1ic comparcd lo c ultura l f: tc tor-.. He ass t11n c~ '.lratt.ll(' cu ll lll'l' of po1e n~ ,,.JI Ol'l'ITid t othc r c ulwra l tracl iti u 11 , , such s thosc th at 11('1\' lllltnlg r:lll l ~ brin g wi th th e m !le 'lgTtl'' 1ha 1 ll OL11 tllt']J<><> I' ]l'l 1 . " 1 lt'l]l:t l{' 111 t c

- predbpo-.ition to .111<1 frcqucnt u e of dokllcc ,,, a resoh ing co nflict - competition for hou~ehold m:nnnal alfen ion ~ib ling rh-al 1 \.


Culture, power and inequality

11a 1

11 5




th.c impron'llll'lll il_l 1 ;,ilC'l' tht \\'ot Id \\';u ' ami \ Jroblclll~ ol malac\)ustment '<> con-.plcuou~h pt.rsl't~ llts reph "''tu po'n a cycle l . . (sel F' . ,1 ., ..'') depri 1g-111l:' 1 1 ntmn In Sir Kc ith \ 1 ie11. paren t-. 11h o I\'C I L' th Lrn.,t h e~ d e pri1Td in Oll L' o r more ,,ays in childhoocl ll't' lll o n to b t:CC>lll t' th l par<: nls o l a nothe r gt:ll l'l'a ti o n u l clepri,cd childre n T his po liti c:i l inilia ti1e ,,as l't'C ISl in socia l scie ntilic 1 n111 ~ as ;111 imcs tig atio n of th e intc rgc n c ratio n a l co ntinuiti l:~ in ' di sach'an t a~c. a nwrt in r lul'il\' l l'l'lll th an cleprint tio n . 11 a b o co n ced ed tha t fano 1 , o th er th a n fa mil l' and c ultt1n migh t C<1 use di~ advan tagc. such as socia l grou p llll'lllht'rsh ip. eth nic cli.;;crimiu a tion nr re~icleu cc in a particular loca lit~. The outconw o l th i' IT\carc h ,,as to llllild a nmre comp1ehensi1e pictllll' ol the multipk disach :1111a~<.~ la('ccl especial!~ b~ nwmh<.1 ~ of' thc lnwe~ t ~ocial classe (~ce Ruucr ancl ~lad}te. 1\l/6). fil:tnlit\.{ tht p oor for 1heir c irct llllSt:mcc., is still a popu l<11 actility for cultu.-al comn i C iltalOr~. lt som e t ime~ ~ 111face~ in debates abo m th e ' und ercla.,~. lkgi nning wi th J\larx 's comme n ts a b o ut th c lu m pen proll't :1ri;n . c lass a n al ~sts h ai'C lo n g nco ;11 iscd t h e existc n cc n i a l' l a~s h e 11cath th c c s tab l i ~ h e d ll'<lrking class. t\ u cm pts han bccn 111aclc to idc nti f'y thil' ('}ass in stru clltra l ll'l'llh. that is. ll ll'l'lll ~ of' L h l' l'\)llcl iti ons of' lif(: e nCOlllltCI't.'d h )' p eo p lc in pa n icu lar t ircu lll"lauces. For cxarnplt:, iu th e L' ni ted Kin gdom the un ckrrla~<. is oftcn felt tu comprisl' gro up~ su r h a~ th c lung tcrm un e mplo~ccl. singlc-palt'lll families and t'ldlrh p en ,ioner~. In the l' n itt.d Stall'\ it b often <1\\0Ciatccl with poor bl:1ck resi den!~ ofilllll'I'Cll ghellO\. Structu ral l'xplanation\ olthc uncle1-cla.,s are uMiallv ad 1 anced bl' a('acltmic ~ociologis~:> ,,ho e m p h that these group!> of peoplt- h:ti'C mol.l lO I()SL' lrom procc,~e~ or COlliIIIl0\1 \ i ll d \l ~trial J'C'\ll'liCllll'ing

('()llllllllllit~ ~CI i~t''




Poverty and ill hea lth plague unskilled 'underclass'


than ~ million ptopk 11ho ld 1 ~dwol ,,jh a poor gnt.,p ol reading ha1e \li nk imo pon:1'11'. ill heahh and depre~ion. acconl in~ 10 a ~tud1 b1 th e Ba~ic ki li <; :\gene~. Fi nan c irtl inccn ti,es \\'ere ntTclt-cl to ge t thi p oten tial ltl ldt' IT iass b;Kk in to bas ic ccl u cation a ncl trainin g, 'a id t\ lan \\'e lls. director ol tl w agt' ll ('~. Those who bccanH: nwrg in a liscd 11c re not on ll' m o re like h to be out uf' 1\'ol'k or 0 11 low 11ages, bu 1 wc:rc lc ss li kdl' to l' ll' or belong 10 < 'OillllHII1itl nrga ni ~a t i o n s. \\'o mc n ll'i th l'e ry lo ll' lit l'I'<K~ II'Cre fin tim l~ a' lih.c ll' 10 be dass ifi ed as ckpl'l''Sl'cl ,1, th osc with g()o cl basic ~ki 11 ~. Eclucational prospects for th ti l chilclren. bein g brougl11 u p in 'stressful concli t ion~. 11ere bleak - parl'lltS ,,ere le likch LO slto11 a posi1ile atLi tude to ed u('ation or get inmht' d witlt sd wol. \ third o r thc adu h ~ -.aid thCI' had diffic u lty
~l orc


Figure 3.3

The cycle of deprivation.


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Cultu re, power and inequalily

11 7

rcadi ng a loud from a chilcl's book . .-\dult l i 1 erac~ Feelgood factor and Jtu mera c~ pmg r:~m n1 es ll ll t\l be expanded Percentage of 37 }'E:W olcb LO pt'CH'Il l large ti\Hnbers bcing excludcd. the ~alisiied 11 ilh liie ~o w repon saicl. O 1\\en O Wo111en \ 1r \ \'t' 1h said tite Con..-n nw n t had 111:1de ilnpn.>ling IJa~ic .'>kili:. a priorit)' in its \\'dl'a re to Verv low \\'ork programnw lor nHmg wopk. 'Thi<> litt>rac~ rtprHtcmph asi sc~ lh t dangl'n, 1\'C fa ce in d ei'C:> I~kills 45 opi ng an underclass of' excln<kd IH'op le- outof' job'. 1101 pa11icipat ing. imrt'.l'ingh deptt''"ecl. and oft<.n l:tbtlled :t~ f:tilttn-,.' L' , 11~ tlu: ~a 1ion:d Cll iId Dt,l'lopmc 111 Sur\l'l of mol'l' than 17.0()() ptople horn in 1 9!H~. .Jollll g, ntu.- r allCI S.tmantha l'ar,on' of C:it1 L' n il l' I'!>II' intenicll('d a JO 1 wr rt nt ,atnpiC' lro111 England and \\ .tlcs all!Hit th til littran and tlltmcran 'kilk job'. ltcalth . anciiiH'ntal mnlook. O m in liH ha el lo11 or 1 en lo1, litl'ra<. ,. and tlltllleraCI prol>lem~. ,,tid the rl'pnrt, // / )olll 'l (;!'{ . 1ny /1 1/f l'. Tltis ,,a~ :dntml cntai n 11 :111 tt nd<.l'l'SI lll:l lL'. ,,,el J>rol{ssnt B,tt lll' l'. \\'lwn tiH'Sl' mcn ami \\'OI1lcn kit 'chool in 197-1 lhl'll' IH'n'j11h~ ;llailahk. bnt. II'tho11 t qualilicatiom. illl'r cll:tllt'l'S o(' l' 1 11pl01 ment ltal(.- d ccl itH'cl steadil)' 1'11 e~ ~ l <tl'll'd I\'OI'k yo ttnge 1'. httl J'I'O ltl 1ht ,tgL' Of ~:1 1\l'I'L' lllOI'l' 1 (.;.('11 [O bt lltl('tll plon;<( :mcl b1 tlll' agl.' ol' :)7 '' lutt the1 ll't'll' inttn t'IH'd h;u l lttOI'L' 'lo, lt;n< ol lull-tinw 1\01 k. .\n m ng tlt<.n. J<i PL'I nnt ,,ith IL' I'I lo11l itcrat1 antl 11 pn nr1 1 11i ilt lcm litt-racy llad 11 0 q u:tlilicaliom. nnnpared l\'ith -1 wr CL'Il l 11ith good liiL't':tCI. Figtlll'' lot 1\'UnH'II follo11<.d lhi, pallet lt. T l w~ ,,l'n' 111nre tita n f(,ttr 1inw' :t~ l ikt l ~ to liH itt :1 lt ousl' llllltl l\'h<.' l'l' IH'itlt cr pannn ,,as working. .\ \tandard pwcltologic.ll 1<.' '1 rncaled rmn ancl. l''PL'rialh. "omcn "'itlt ,cr~ loll litcracy \\l'll' 111\ICh IIIOI'L' Iikdl 10 ~ h OII' 1hl' ~~ 111j)l01l1., of d cprc ,~i o n tlta ll ihOSl' l\'ith mcragc or g-ood ski lk


ct -- nlt'cl lot thl' 11tnhlem' ol lltt' tuultn 1,,,, clill!-t . S11 111 1ttr.1l txpl.m.uion' 1 11 . . .. . . .. . ' 'll llltCh-1 C):t" l>l'etlJitlll, :ttl' t'llOil'd 111 1111' 'Ol l,cl ;n 1 d l'l O II Oll ll C -,11 tl(.. illl . (S o] cmp 11 ,,, 1 ~t th ( '11 1tLII"l li'l llCllll ilt' o l' tltc: II ILde lchl'' 'l'l'k t lt:l11gt, to tlt t 111oral lahrtl u l . sonett <.'!>. 1u;r 1' rircunl,t.IIHl''. 1hl' dcb.tte betlll'l'll the'e 1110 in<l . tn< 111 cl tlwil lunih . .und . t't g of' thl' lltHiercla" t't'l'll ll' l'll'llll'llh n i a lllllt h oldcl Cllillll'<ll dt~ll11 C ll011 . stancltn, ' . . .. . etii'L't' lt lltc ctesl'lli ng ' :111d 'll nde,l' l'l ing poor' .. \ 11 a'Sl' I'II Otl ol cultu ra l cltlk l'tnce 1 sa 1 : espon'l' thal , apparcnth Pnh acceptable in tht lir~l caw.
sohttt Otl~

3.3.2 11 R ace' and eth nicity

Tlw ll't tll ran i' oltL'II pi.Ht'cl in llll'l'ltd nHnlll.l' in cultural 'ttrdit' to ' l., historical clubiou,ltl'" .tncl i' rm,tiun;tbk 'l:lill' ~' :1 1 1 .llla_h tie ~onnpt. In tl.1~ ninetetn 11t tTn 111 1 '1 thL'I'l' 1\'t't'l tlllllll'IC ill" altt'ltt pi~ bl' b 1rol~l'<lll llll'l'' ll ~:rtur~ 1o c- l ;t~~ ~ h )topk :record in~ lo rat ial group' ('l,hitt. '~tllow. 'bl:u k l ami a ... cnbe uuchang-ntg ~haracl!'t i~tics lo thcnt. lltc,c :liJcntph 10 ll'gititnatt ~l'b ol ~l.thk racial clill<'rl'lll'l'!> scienti lir:clh art 11e 1 1\' 11 ichoh rvg:trdtcl a' 'PL I I'O II ~ 1\ liln. 1~JN~I: 7111 . lloll'<'l'tr, rat t is a1 1 ~\'erycl; 11 <.e ;nnpt tltat pv~>pk 10111 i tll' 11 t'lll plm 11, rat q.~c ~~ iw_1htrn,t l ~t'' and o l htrs. \ ltn,pt<.till ol IIH 'Il'IHtlit utilil~ ol lltt H'tlll. r.tu '' \\Hieh hl'IH'It'clto_ 'l'lll' a<. .1 j poten! u l 1 lil illt'. tl cl ifkrc IH'L '. Tltt,t dilll-rtl.lCl'' ll'ltl'llttr tlt tl :ll'l' bl'ltt'l.l'cl LO lH' ~ro und l'd in t'tt lli ll't' 111 hiolo!.\' art o i'Lt'll Jltantll''t 1 11 l'XPI'l'" lllli' ol 1 an . lht g . . 1. . 1' discrimination .1~:rin'1 nilttr' nn tltt 1>.1,, ni lhLir llll'lllhtt--.htp ol ' IWI'Cl't\t'C raet:r gro tt J. Raci--.111. 11 hl'tt i t , pt :u 1,td lll .111 incl i1 idt t:tl lOI\ .~t d'. <lll. otltet llL't '011. i~ ul'ten c,1 11 ca n :tl'o l<lkl II IS!tlll llotta l IPrlll . a' 1d1c11 :1 ternwd r;tci:-t l p tt jt~ d i ce'. ll nlll'H'I. 1:1 .uucrl th.ll inHnigr.u_ inn _ , .1 _ ~mhlern . or ldlt'lt 'chonl' politir:tl polic1 t akt ~ it lur g 1 wsttm.ttictlh' lltHit-r,l.ttt tltl' u11111 ilnliI>Il ol ttltlliL lllttlCIIlltl'' tn tlw dl'l<'lop111l'lll ol ;{rl and ..;e i<.ttn all<i Jc:tt lt llbiol'\ 1h:11 lo,il'l'' .1 IHg;IIit' pt'trl' plinll eti .\lt ic:t nr .\,ia. lnstitulion:tl r:u \111 Jll:tl lw lltc>l'l.' dnph taktn l'o1 grantl'cl a ttd 1lt11' ltardtr Jo di sl od~c than a pnjudi< .tttitudt. So 1nttil11t'' thc lt'lllh c tltttit i11 . 111<1 'eiltnit ~ ~ cHtp, .t ll' emplo~td in an .11lt'111JH ICI pul ~onH d i-,1 atllt' 1H'll\'t'l' lt tite h i' ' o tict lh t'o lt ~l i111 p iir:u ie 111 ' ol' _rae~' : tnc~ t: L' lll phasi'L' 1hat il , amlnol biological clilll'tt'lltL' i~ tlw kt\ cltsttnt'ltoll. l ltl\ 1110\T ma1 not be ,llllicicnt 10 l'~Capt t ;JC'l collllot.ttion' ol dilkrttHl' ancl inll'riorit1. '' l\'(' can set l'rom snme ol tite rcsl'arrh carritd out em l:lll.{U<tgl' cocll's. Tltv 111:trking u( (onn' o l hmguag1 (bngtt:tgl' rll<lt' l a., prell't t't'clor di,pn-l'tlrcd in panicul:u rnnlt''" , a r o111111011 tlll'lltocl ol k gitimi,ing t 11h11r<tl itwqualitil''. In tltt iO-, ~ttin , 11 g-gt'tl'rl tltat J11c ,pctt 1t or 1101 king-cla" t hildrcn l':o..ltibitecl :t 191 re~tri t t td rodt'' col sitnpk ~c' l t l t' I H't' lot m,. ittet>ITl'l' t g'l'a11LI11<JIL'al ~u unnrt ~ ancl impol't't j,lll'd 1or.lblll:tll . ~ !iclcllt-da" '(>l'l'tlt di,pl.tll'cl .1 gt.l"(> 1101 01111' o(' liH' rt~trit ttcl todc: lmt .11--.n ol .111 'l'lahot ;mclrock'. tite ,ancl.trcl Engli'h of p11hli<. life md thc u t : 1 ,~ 111 ecli:t. ltt tit e L'ni ttd St;IIL'' til L''l' irl''"' II'L'I'c trans1:1lccl h1 ~or ia l !--rittli .'> h itt to notion' o[ cult 11 ral ckpriation' o 1 't llltural cldhit' <lk ttt ~lt' n quirkh rqJIH iiated tltt as ocia1inn ol Jtj, icka' ,,itlt thc~c tlttorir-': 't'~'~" 1\l\1:~: 16-l . ll)~)l. Tlw hecamt attach td t''P~'l'i.tlll Jc prtclominanth IJiack 111 h:tn ghrJtn pe1p111.11ion ~ 1d10~L' apparc nt 'l'erba l dc>rimticon ' rli~ach.lltl:tg-<.<1 tlt i' gnllr >. di'L'nl't.mclti,inK the m lrom 11 1l'

( .umrhan. I.Juh 19!li


:llld it., impact on tlw patttming- of\\(>rk. 13tti other comm tntator~. notably thc influential 1'\t'l'' Rig-ln tlworis t Charles \lu1 n ty. han -,cen this phc no nlt'non in pri111ari ly cu ltuntl (and by l'Xt<nsinn high ly llltii'<Jiistic) t<nth. \ltHT<t ~ fncusl.'s 0 11 thc sig 1 tilicance illeglill:lC\'. 111,11 lal breakcJOI\'11 , n:tcl<qu:tll' (>:lllt't'llS ni childrcat llg ancJ ('I'I11 llalil~ among thc poor (lot .1 r<.1 it11 o(' tl w rlt-ba t<:s abot n !lw IIIHicrcla"' in tl w Llnil ccl S tates sce \\'ilso n , 1 9!1:~; J'or th l' l flt ited Ki ngdo m . ' l't' Li, te r, I !I~H)J. Con<~p<mcli t t g l y. lltt


lnlroducing Cultural Sludies

Cu lture, power and inequalily


ma instre un uf .. The l'lftct- of thi' '"PI)mtd dl'litit tlll' ca u ~t of tlw hu lu n ni blad. clnldren tu do ,,.t'JI in ,t hool.

in,ti~t~tion' ~ocieti

11a~ clainwd a~

Tite tlt c nw of' r:H i;tl i~o;u e~

'P'" ! a

heg't' IJJonic et .,i, in Bri1ain 1dwrc t'<, tahli,

lite idta tllattlw l a n~u age DI blad. , cJwokh ild ren ( Blad. E11gli'h \ 'n11a1 ul:1r- BE\') IH.'.II' '~ flexible. <~S 'ubtle a11d a., dl't.likcl ,1, ,t,md;u el micldlt-da,~ lornh is thallel1gtd b1 Labm ( 1972bl 11ho. 1hrough n fktaikd .mal\,j, of .tttual i 1 hta nn~ uf child1e11., 'Pl'tch. p1 e't'IH, a 1en dillt nl1t pittwt. 1 k dtnwl1,tr;Hn tht 1irh .m.11 of gr.Hntn.llil'al cll'l'ice~ (p. ~ 1~~ through whi c h tlll' rhildrtn c(i,pl;ll HTh.d dextnitl and

unckr'\tanding~ .tlmul tlll.' ordc1 ing oltlhnir gro ups ce tllll' to be challcllgccl i' ta l..ttt up in T/11' J :'mpin .\,J:,., llatl: (C't' lllt l' for C:ontl'mpuraiY Cultura l Stuclit' 1 9H~ l. 1 Jt j, is lht.

, 11011 lltrt

,,0 ,-1., of St'H'Il nlt'm bt'l' ol 1he Bi1111i ll){ham cenu e" ho set 0111 to anal\ '>l' t~tcc and l\tCi~nt during tiH' 1!1/(}, 1ro m .1 '.111 c omm ittt.d LO blacJ.. re,i\tance. Thc1 cmp h a~i,c tlw lH:ed 10 loca te ntei'm 1101 in indil lhll'ht, but in lar~e-~cale ~ocia l procc''l''. 1 h c 1 clt~ 111 panicul ar allt'lltitll1 to tht r h ange in Hritain'<. ime1national po.,ition ,jnn thl' tncl ollht. Serond \\'orle! \\';u. lltt'l' '>ll~~l' 't 1hat tlw prominenct' of raee " an i"llt' i 11 1he 1!1/(h , connec tt'd lO lftt' ckclilll' of 1\ritaill , p o ,ition .t'> a m:tior 1radin~ 11.11ion . 1t i' 11 1lw contt'Xl nt thl'Sl' c lta t1gt'' tlt:tt inmtig ration policiL"' ttltnic h:hl'., of t'0111petitio n in h ou;;ing and labom 111a1 t'lt .. 11111'1 ht 't' l. In lhl' n i~i' of' ltegelliOIII faring 1\1iti,Jt c;~pi tali ~lll. tltt Cc n lre for Co nl c mporary C uhural Studies (CCCS) (p . :\27) coll t't' lI'l' maintai 11 ' tlw Bri t ish , att' i ~ 111ming i11 .1111 hnri tarian di l't>c t ion )> (ll'h ic.: h \\'en ~ho n h lo beCOilll' l'l'l' l1 1 1101'(' prot1 lllllll'l'rf ,1~ Tha ldt t'l'i\111 bl'C<\111{' l.'Stablishcd ) . . \ t t llC' )('l't l or Jii'Ccl expcrit'll f!' tll i~ ,~l i t'~ J( )l'tl t itt J'nl'lll\ of pe tpu Jar <lllthori 1:t r ian Mil 1 tf' 11'1 1ir ) l':tl' is111 i' th e lllO> t co n., pinlot ts l'Xan1p le. R;lc i,m. t h e n. c:11111 n l be Lt11CI<' r~ t ond as a ~in1pll' irfl'olugical phttt ollll'llnn . To :1ppt'ttiatt' its force rc qu irts a d c taikd :111d ,pcci lic anal\,~ u f chan g-cs in tl w l\t'itis l1 st;llt' atH I B1 i1ain '~ dun1ina 1t l ;tll(( ll'orki t1 g c l :~,sc.~. Tllr l:'llljlil'l Slri/u' /J((r/: ' P:tl l..ed a good dta l uf ro ntrmt'l'~l' ll'lll'll i1 appeartd. not lta,l bccattsc oJ'its tri ti ti~lllS o J lht rarl' rdation ' ind 11stn 11hich tltn sall' ,t'.ll'l Ollt'lllOil' insln tm tn t of' Colltml un-1 l>lat J.. 11orki ng-c la" cunnnntl i 1l'' The1 :tre t''Pt'Ci;tl h u i 1ical of 1ho'e ~111dic~ titat .tnount f(tl hl.1 c k dio;,ICI\antagt in telllh uf' f'r:ttlllrccl nu c lear fami lie' th:n tailto p1mick .tdlqu.tLL' lll:ll<'lial ancl emotio11;,l M1ppon to rlt ilclr< n . Such studie~ pathologi,t hlat 1.. 'ubnthllre:-. Tlll' CC:C-'i collcc tii'C are hl'i 'lllll aboul oiTcring 1e t Ollllllt' IHI.n iolh btl mHI a endor~l'lllt'nl ot hlacJ.. .-esistan cc (p. ~:1:-l). In the an.tfl,i, ol c f onu~. thi' empha'i~ on ;1 con1pkx .\l.trxi,m in ll'hidt do~t histori cal anak,is of political a nclt.'COilOillic d rctllll~lallet>' , co mbinl'd 11 ith a t ollllllitmcm to blac l.. 'llugg l<, ha' ht't'll t.lktn tn,ard nw'l notahh in tlw ''orJ.. of' P au l Cil r oy (p. 1()(1), Another pa 11 oJ tlttlargl'l pittll l'l' i11 11hich race' and ~td,m i' localt'd , tht hi~t oll and cntt'l'((lll'llCl'' ul colo tti a lislll (p. IK9 ) . .\lalll inllll t'lllia l umnption' uf r;1tia f diiTcr(llt 't''t' t ori~i11 i11 lite to lo11 i;tl cncounlt:rs ol Euro1wan pm,ns "itl1 tite socic ti cs tlt at 1htl ... on~h 1 1o clo111 i 11 ate. Cultural a nahsts 'llch a~ Edward Saicl ( p. H i~) and Ca~atri Spi1ak 11:1\l' lo< u,tcl o11 colt11 ti a l ll'Xt.' 10 co u,id cr 11ha t tlt l'l t t llu~ abotll opprcs~( tr and opprt'"l'd. :-,:ti( 1' s ( 1H7~ ) n1oll n111('11 la l qud~. Oril'll/oliwt (set 't't'l , 111 f.; ' i) slt m,s ho11 Etll OJWa 11 II'I' ti ng. f'ron1 t lw ni 1H'l<'l'l1 tlt cc n lttn Ol111':1rrl . colbll'ltCtl'd a concc ption n f tht ' O rit- nt ' ( tlt l' .\ liddk East in IMrl icula r) ;ts txotic. g l:11norou' a n cl dangc ro tlS. r ltis fiCII) t1:1 1, '111j)fifkcl fr:tllll'\\'OI'k ll l'ITI'I i1t'(e.s'> 't'l'l't'cl 10 :1('1 as a j)O il' lll cultma l g-ri d 1h roug h ll'lt ir h 1ht n tltllt't'' or lite East ,,e t'l' ap preht' llcit'd. Gil\ a tr i Spi1ak (1987) i~ morl' COIIC'<'I I1 l'd 11ith i~'\111'' of' po,,e r anrl rcprestn 1:llion. 111 a 1\'o rld dominatl'd hl' \\ 't''ll'rll cfi,('Oll t''l'' ho11 can tite ,ubahern stat u' of Thi rd \\ 'o rld \'OCl'' achin p:tt itl' in dialogut ll'ith 1lwst' o J t itl' \\'es t; Said ;m el Sph'ak rlclp<n om llndt'l',landillg' of rlilftt t'llCL' b1 u'ing tltl' t ool~ ofliteran and ctllt tt ral a n a fl,, 10 problenlll'>l' tllt' rcprt''l'lltation' of' the 'mher con ta incd in \\'e'tl' ln te""

argut' tha1 11on-aandarcl fo1111' art 110 lt" adtqu;m in t tiiiH'' ing ,, rca,oned ;u g u tm nt tha n 'tall(fard nticldll'-cla~' En,!{li'h ;111cl. f'tll 1ltn. lltat in '>Pillt' n ,pen' 13E\' l'"j)l't'''l'' ttao;ontd .tl'gunttnt nwre dirtt ti~ a 11d cogtnth tit a n ,t.tltdard form~. (Standarel l tt g fi.,lt. l .abm ( l~li'2 h: 222) cl<~im'. cu t be ,inntltan t' tllt'h m npanitular and l'ag ttt . llllttt' ' th t arctii1Hlbtil1,!{ llo11 ofll'orcf, burit, rarlwr th ;111 'trikt ~ tht targct' .) 131' llll':tth ol clo't' t:xamil1ation of actua l usagl' l.abo1 ' IHt\\'' lllll\' l'O IIIll1t'lllato t ~ ha\'~ fon t ~ld o 11 .surfa cl' clilft: tcn ns bctii'CCn s1:mdarcl ancl llttii,Lanclurcl t(l nns an d misl;tkLn ly (CJ11Chuil'cith:tt [\J-:\ ' is :tll inferio r llll'lhocJ f'ol' Cttlllt'l'illg logica J J'( 'a'OI1 1 1g'. l .<tblll' ami ltl lll'r socinling tt iqs cs tab lishl'd 1l 1t. ltg ic<tl :t 1 1d t'IH11 tlllllliratht .tdcquacl' of

Bl-.\ ' in tl tt l(t io~. Sinn tl ~t:n tl1 c idea h:h t tn e rgcd th:u l>lad, l a~tg u ag b l'SSl'I Hi.1lh' d i[krl'IH f'ron1 ~tandard Eng lisl1 ;nttl t ltat i1 ' h ou ld bt tau glt t i11 ,c( 1ook . \dl'llt'<tlt'' of' 11mits
$1lgg't.'' t t h.11 h111gnttgc , :1 f'tlll Ct ion nf pm,r ancl. i 11 01 dtr tu rnu tllt' r t'Siah li,itcd di stribu1i011' of' )Jill\'l'r. l is ncns~:m lO im ti llll ion a 1i'>c 1he teaciti ng ot'IH'\' Login it k giti man. (u 1lw Oaklancl Scitool Board ca~l uf 1997 it \\'<ts n e ntu:tlll' agncd that blad. E11glis h ~ hould tltt 'taltt ~ of:t ~cco nd langn<~ge. sincc 10 dtscribe it "'a p1 iu1;11~ l.mgu:tgt'tt ligh t imph a dispchition tu11arcls its acqui~i ti on th a t co ttld he ncgal I'l'h cot 1,1rttt'{l. Th 1 politics o.f muhi c uhuraledu catio n - thm is. cducmimt that i~ organi,td to promott' a recognition o f r ultttt al difltIHT - :t1e notminu~l~ co mpkx. Sdwoling- tal..t., plau in 1ht o 1111ext o t\lid er d i... trihutinn~ ol p olltr allCI h q~tmom .. \nd . " ' notl'cl in Ch.tpll' l' ~. '' :11., ol 1111amidahll' loca tt' ptr:-.on' in lll'lii'OI J..~ ofpm,el a nd di .... tchanl.tgt. ,/' \\' itt. r, 11i1hin rultu1~1l 'll ldit' h:11e le ndl'{l lo a1ni d tht .uwchn<' ltTminolo~ of 'etlntit i11 .utd lw.tded 'lmi~h t lin tht freighttd lt-rm in ;111 attt.mptto .I{I~I'P tlw l'l'al,,ollcl ~ignifiranres of thb dimension of c uluu al el'. te t. ancl t1t.qualitl . llt' carh ,lltcll' ( in tfti, tracfition . b1 S111an llalll'/ al. ( 1 97~). t' :nnil1t'l he ntoral l>anit , 11 nm11 th ~ "' l..'tllergt' lll't' of ' mu~gin .( as a social pmbltnl. ' .\htgg'il1 11.1, tHII :1 kgal ttn 11 (' robben ancl 'larn111' l'ron1 thc pn,on' bcing- tit e Engli~ -lc"g. tttms) IHII it quit J..h Cllllt' into popular a11d rncdia clisr o11rse f'rom 1 07~ . Tlll' ca ttgnl'l '''"' impcHlt'rl f'ront tht L' nitcd St:ll t'S antl. tra t1slatcd i1 11u Hriti ~ lt sucicty. it r.t lllt' lo , t.tlld liH' a pani r ubr kind of p('rpt'll'<ll u t - a yonlll{. b larJ.. m all'. usual ll' .H'tit1).\'ll'illt DIH' or tlllll'l' at'CC1111 p iiccs. ll;tll l / rd. tracl' tl w ckl'l'lnpnH' Ill o f' a 1110r:tl panic tltat lwars 'ontt n., trnblanns itt tnm1 tn tit e l'a rli er m oral pan irs ~ ~~ rro u nd ing 1~160s ~out h ~ ll beu h tms ( ~l '(' tlw rl isetts,iDIJ of' nwcls and rnc, in C:hapte1 ~). Thc 111\'th ufth(' b lack ltlllg',l\'1'1' cn ndt' ll '<'<i lllilll~ txaggnatl'd l'ears ~be t\11 ~ out ll . cri me and pnsonal saf(t~. r;1 cc ancl illllll igra t io11. 11 a l( , / o/. 'l'l' m 11gging as ;111 'Hkological rnnductur' uf th e 'crisi~ of' hcgc nwm of earh 1\170~ lki1ain . Th 1, sitoll' 1 1ow tlw mural panic mer mugging. a social con,,;uctl'd c.ln i:1111 lwlt;11iour. , ;twnhdt~s anic ttl a1cd dcqwr co nccrn' abnu1 13riti-;lt ~oritll. litt l'"<tggtt :utd n,pomt lo tlw prob1<-m' o f' mug,l.{i ng i' indicuii'L' of a drih LOII'ardo; morL' 01111 he u it.u ia n ,tall iltlt'l'\ tntimh.

120 lntroducing CL iltural Studies

Culture, power and inequality




l)j~Ctl'-'illl'- ab0111 rela t Uil \h p~ betiiCl"tl llll"ll :111(1 1\CIIll\"11 IIIII 111 111<111\ of tite :tt"){ll lllt'llh lltat han been di.;cu,~cd abon. ll , olttn nntatl,t>cl 11lt.llt'H't tite natnrc and 11 pt ol 1 d:Hiun,hip-. IJl't\\'t'l'll men .111d IIOIIlt'll in ldtatt'\l't p:ut ol the 11orld. tlwrt i' inequalit1. mtn .trt the dominan! 't''i: .111d att' rq~.utkd "' 'upttilll 10 ll'tHIWn. lt i' ,ug~t,tcd th.u there , ,, hitTan ~~~ ht'IIHTII IIH'II .111cl 11otnen .. t natural inequ.tlill. Suppon lor thi-; iuequalitl' i~ oltt'll dr,l\\n lto111 hi,tw it.tlt\denu and lrom collll).ll i'on '' ith the animal ,,orld ( tht 'rittH t' 11! t'tholog1. pe 1Htl:11 i,ecl b1 tlw 11 orl..' of De\IIIOild ~l oni,). lt 'l'l'lll'i that it i' illl]>O"ibk 10 thinl.. aho11t gL'tHll'l IIthcntl ahout h il'rarclll' (~ lourl'. 1!l9:~). O m sttg-l.{t''' ion .IIH>lit tlll' 'l't'tll ingh itH'I it.thll' con llt'C tinn bC\II't'Cil mak ,;uperioril\ :mrl ltnJale ini'triot i11 i' thi' thi 11 , congntt'tll ll'ith o ther p:llt l'l'll' o l thtHJght in \\'t,ttm .;;urit' ll . n.unl'l~ Lht hk-rarchical relation bttll't'tn nattll'e :md cnlttlrt. ~loon ( 1 \ t~t\ ). Oltntt 1l\17 1 and ~ tt .llh l'ln ( IU-.: 11 ha1e all dr:tll'll atlt'llli on 10 th c a.;;sodatioll ttl i'tnt:llt ll'i lh IIH ttll't' .11Hl malt' II'th r nlttll'<:; ((ntalt- ,,ith tite pril,llt' :t nd lite doHJt',tic .lll<lma lt ll'i th th t' pnhlit :ul<lt lll' collcctil'il)' he\' arg uc th at. in '-Ot'ittit''- ll'ht'l'l' ctt ilttrt i' S('t' 11 a!< ptt f't'l'abk- :11td .~ ll>t.' t ' io r to nattt t't' and ll'htt'l' tltl' public a l\1':11 ., tncompa~'l'' tlll pril<tll'. Lltl' l1 it i' inni tabk th<tl K t'ltdtr n.: l a ti o11~ 11ill bl' appn:ltl'lldcd in lt ierarchical ll' l'llt '-.

Defining conrefJI


F eminism

Feminism describes both the broad movement that has campaigned against the political and social inequalities between men and women and the school of academic criticism that takes gender inequality as its object of study. Feminists all critique the subordination of women to men, but they differ widely in their strategies for empowering women. Feminist accounts of the role of culture in gender inequality have been central lo the evelopment of cultural studies. Acrude periodisation of feminism might identify three phases: first-wavc, second-wave and postmodern feminism. First-wwe feminism describes the women's movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. While it contained many different political strands, first-wave fem inists generally accepted a fundamen tal, nc llural difference belween men and women, but argued for their polilical equality. The besl-known campaign of firs twave leminism was for women's suffrage. Second-wave feminism describes the women's movemenl fro m the 1960s on. This period has seen an enormous growth in feminist scholarship, which has employed various forms of understanding inequality. An early concept used was patriarchy. This was originally an anthropological term which describes a social system in which older men are entitled to exercise socially sanctioned authority over other members of the household or kinship group, both women and younger men. However, this term has been criticised subsequently, because it does not discriminate

between the differe t form s of inequ lity manifested in different cultures. An alternative concept, proposed b~~1Sin \~sy~ This makes use of an important distinctio between se and geoda.wbere sex describes or natural differ~e ~ 6es the social roles of masculinity and femininity. Rubn argued that different societies assign differenl kinds of-rolesbasedon biological differences. The objecl of feminisl inquiry should then be the kinds of cultural expectations lhal lhese roles presume. Research inlo gender identily has taken many ditferenl paths in lhe investigation of how gender is socially conslrucled. One influential strand ha~ost slrucluralist, psychoanaly.tiUe!nnism. This arg~eader identity is constructed lhrougb_la[lguage. In Western culture, languageis phall~tric, ~ Of_JJ]ale centred. Because lhey are excluded from full access lo language, women are refused enlrance lo a masculine syrnbolic order. However, psychoanalytic accounts have been crilicised for universalising male dorninance. More recently, postmodernist femin ism has queried the sex/gender distinclion. Judith Butler has suggested that it is a mistake to assume that there is a foundational, natural sex upon which gender identity is constructed. lnstead, she argues that sex itself is socially constructed. To use a usefu l metaphor employed by Linda Ncholson, we use lhe body as a coat rack to hang our cultural assumptions about sexual differences. For example, women's bodies are soft, passive and yieldlng, men's are hard, active and forceful. Butler's argument usefully problematises the idea that sex comes first and that gender is sornehow created from it. While no one argues thal there are not physical differences between men and women, Butler directs the spotlight back onto Lhe question of how culture interprets those differences. As white academic feminism has been challenged by the diverse strands of the women's movement worldwide, the question of cultural difference and the relationships between gender, 'race', sexuality and class have moved to centre-stage in feminist theory. However, there is a continuing and productive tension belween this emphasis on difference and feminists' desire lo assert a collective identity lo combat the abiding social inequalities between men and wornen. _)

F1111hrr l'!'fltling
Haraway, Donna (1991) 'Gender for Marxist dictionary', in D. Haraway, Simions, Cyborgs ond Women: Tlle R einvenU on of Narvre, London: Free Association Books. Nicholson, L. (1995) 'lnterpreting gender', in L. Nicholson and S. Seidman (eds) Social Posrmodemism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

The argtllll ~' l 11 i ~ silttiht 10 tltt cli,cttssinll o r r a:>tl:' ancl dass .tilO\ (', lt b 11 \ ' t'l' "ill'\ I n nndcrsta nd th:11 n d ttt n~ 11 w~ l w or~a n i secl clilfe rttHh' atHI c:-;pl:'rit ncnl dill'c:renth f'ro11t thost: in tlw \\'t ~ ;mcl tlt :tt il is import < HH not to fall inlll th e trap o l lltin king- ' tltat all societics strugg-lt ll'ith th (' ;.:nnl' g il'lns of' na turc. so th at a l! social liJtmatioll1' appcar eqnil'alt-nt ly anclt h w. holisti c tlh urga nit.l'd tn Lhc .sa mc cncl'' (Strathern. 19HH: :{ 1 ~- :~) . A gcnl'r.:tl thetttt of ll'<llll('ll : uuhro pnl og ist~ 11Titi11g about i-.sues ol' gtncll-r all(l incquali t\ (:111d ~O IIH' ttte n.twlabh .-\rdtJllt , 197-L and Et-ri11gl0n ancl (; l'll'l'l' ll . I H~7) , that much ol the 11 1 iting- 0 11 non-\\'este l'll sociLtics is fonuulatnl in tt-rm-. pf' \\''lll


ln troducing Cultural Studies

Culture, power and inequality


a sumption abo111 J>lT'on' a])(( relariomhip~; th c rt i' a \\'estern folk mocltl 11 h ich ~ces ocia! life in di chorolllOIIS tcrm' ancl rhi ~ i' imposecl onro rhe substancc o f other lhcs all(l orhn arrangcmcnr'. In making rhi ~ lim of argumcnr- naml'ly that t h t di c h otomies are a fcatu rt o l :1111 hropological di,coul's<. nor th e 'ocial aiiCI symbolir s,,tenJs of th e soc i<: li t:~ st udi r d b~ rh e mn h ropo logisr - rh t rra,o ning is similar to 1h:11 1naclr in d isc ussio n s <~bn ul 11'r i1 ing n il1urc (set Cha plt'l' :)). Erri ng tn n a n d Ccwerti ( 1!1 H7). who studie cll llt: C h ambri penple of Papu a i\ell' Cuinea (a peo ple made fam o us b~ \ l:1rg<1rc 1 ;\[eacl a ncl Rt:o Fo rrunc a' rh l' T c h am bulil. IITilt' 1ha r in h cr ll'ish ro explore l'a r iations in cultme a ncl ptr~onal i 11. \ 1ea d. paradoxicalh. llllcltresti m:ucd the t'Xtl' lll 111 11hich cultures differ f'rom o m anor her. In a complex argunll'lll 1he~ contraq \\'e,tcrn 1 it'll'' of pcrsom as cli~linct a ncl competcnt indi1 iduaJ, ll'ilh pr i1ate ~u bjectil'l' ~l'il't'' a n clu n ique rl isposi tion s 11 ith tlw C:hambri 1ic11 that pcN>Ih are comtilllled bl' <;ocial rd < Hion,hips. l ndiliclual ~ arl' 1 101 bnuncled en ririe' 11ho po,St'\~ ('('llain characterislirs a~ rht'l art ,aid lO be in the \\'t:'l (a nd note rhe \a tu e-lade11 tt' l lll 'po"l'' '. - den otin.{ a lllattrialisr 1 iew Of persom) btll JWrSOllS ll'hO ~ha re and 1\' ho ilrl' part of Oth el'\ tltrutt~h lhcir re lar io 11shi p1:- a n<l are tnu ltiph COJISiilllltcl (ste a J,o Strath c rn . l!JtlH). E n in ~to n ami CC'I\'t>rt7 ( Hll'l7) :il'g'tlt' 1hal II'Om e n < llll11g' tht C h:unhri : 11T ,e n dill'c re nr !'ro m II'OIIle n in tit e \\'e~ll'rll 11 o rld a nd g-end e r con npts lt ave a dilfcn11 1 mcan ing. The caution agai11'1 : 1 ~sum ing unil'l'r."al pa tt l'I'IL~ of '-li]Jl'l'iority ami inftrioril\' h:h a l'<l liclir~ bcmnd that of IIH' d iscus~ io11 o l gtrHier a ncl Ita' panicular impo11ance fnr discussiom about tlw wa1~ in 11hich pc:oplt are mnlriph rou~ti tuted in \\e'>lt'l'll ~ociet\ th rough l';l(l'. cth nicil\. da ~~. age ami gtnckr. r\11 1ht:~l' ;u(' l! tribute\ p t'l '011 hood aml the ra~k lor t lw ana l~ ~ ~ is to see 11011 lht''-l' cli fTercm :mribures constittlle 1lw pl' rson rather than a'~uming rh a r rh est: categu1 it'~ of clifkrrnce simph auach to thl' JH'rson (St ra th ern. IDRR). Thc rcflexil'e procc~' ll'itlt 1 e~ard to \\'tstern idta" nf JX'r~on h oocl a nd !{CI1dcr h aw bt'l'll l<ikcn runh e r b~ ~Oillt' 10 <JI II'Siion th c distin c ri on belll'l'l'l1 Sl'X a n d ge 11de r (Collier :nrd \'anagisa ko. 19H7: st'l' a lso C: h ap 1cr 7}. Colli t r :1 1 1d \':tll a).{i'ako ta ke fro m Fo uca ult ( 1q: lh) th e idea th ar stx is an e f'f l.ct ral h e r than a n origi11; ju ~ r a~ i1 has bee11 a rg utd :tb('ll'l' lll:tl ge nder is llll' Jli'Oclli CI of' cJisc ur~ii'C practil't'~, M I ;rJso iS sex.


co n 1 ention. a com ention in 11 hich IIH'll a H' prmninent - 1111'11 han n n.1i11 intere ts in the fnuning of' cultural comention' 11h ich gi1e 1hem powtr all(ll'\cludc II'OIIlcn from po11er. L' si ng th c dichotomous mudcl of \\'csre 1n rhoug hr. Su<llht' J 11 ( 19XH) statcs that wonll'll cxperi e llcc a do u b le arbi 1r;1ri n e,~: 1h e \ \'es rer11 di ch ntolllotts muclcl crea tes opposccl ca rcgurics so womcn are 11h a1 m t n a re n o t. a nd ~ in n ir i ~ lll t' llll'lro d ecide 11'1 10 111 e n a rt. 1h c n \\'o m e n are clnubl ~ cxcl ucl cd . These le minist arg tt llll' lllS rc~ t 0 11 th c cu ltur:1l cO nlt: ntinJI." abu ut tltc naturt o f' pcr~ons in \\'e~ tem soc i t t ~ . l lll' idea of dua li t~ and cJi c )I OI011 1 ~ :t ll() t it e COll lll'C'lt'dllt."'' of' tlt CSl' ideas lO the doman<, o[ lh C indilidua l and socl' ll' and to 111e n and wollll'll 1 malc and f'emale in \\'e~ttrn 'ocie11. Strath ern argtre.s 1ha1 titen i, in "'t~tem !>oCil'll a ~ocial contract l'it'w o f' !>OC it' l~ - culture i:. collcclil(' - hcld in comntcm .utd "' indi,iduaJ;; ll'illingh' ~ubo rdin atc rh emM:hes to it (Stral h ern. 19RS). Thb ma~k~ rhe n alill' 1hat culture is 'aulhon.. d '- 'it i' p a11 ia1clll' that produces nrl ru re, (Stra rhem. HlSR: ~2:~). The't' 1L'\\'S h ;11e also been .{iWIII'oin in discussions abnut " om t.ns participation in scien cc ( Jlarcl ing-, 199 1). ll'h crt il i~ 'aicl rh a1 lh t idea of' II'Olllan rh t 'knn11cr' is a ro n lr:rcl ic rio n in 1erm s. 1 -1ardi ng poi 111s ro th e m a le do rni na1iun in ~ci~. 111 ifi c fidds. The p roduc d n n o J ~cic ntili c kn01d edgl' tcncls 1 11 lw t h e pnwin c(' ot' lho~t "lw haH' maJe charac lcl'i'> l ic' a nd si n ce i t i~ precio m in a ntly m e n ll'h o h al'l' 111:1 lt eltaracte risric' so II'OiliCII are cxcludecl ( llard i ng. 1\191: -IH). Dalt' Spencltr ( 1!lH2). 1\'1i 1ing- ahout wonu: n in cducation. makc~ a 'imilar c ultural argument: lhat 1\0IIIen ran nor hall' a 1 oice "' producers of art ancl l..n1m ledge became the1 .m, n<ll mtn. pender cites thc mar.{inalisation ol m a m II'OIIll'll in th c ficld of litt:ratnr e ami wonH~ns right.s, f'or exanrpl<' ..\pina lknn, ;\tan \\'oll~rone croft. Catherirw ~lacaulcl' (see also Chapter !1). \\'hile lt:mini~m ha' St'IYtd lo rl'IO<' II' aucntion cm t lw n a1ure aml ~ourccs \I'Ollll' n_'s .~'" b(Jrdi n:ni o n i1 h as a !so, obliq tt t l.l. s t.imulatccl i nttnst i" . il tt (' h a1 :ac1cri~ti cs of' masc ull n 1 1)' and rlw so urces of 1n:d t dom u1 a 110 11. T lwrt " wl 1<1 1 rs \CHII C lllll t~ te nn c d ' hegcmon ic masc ulinity (Connl'l l. 1!){7) (~l'C' abo 7.-t-. :~). rht icl<-:11 fnn lwi n g a man: cn nfl g uration of couragt, pll\,i ca l !.trength ancl toug iH ll''~ rh ar b encllessl ~ parackd in thc ma'>s media ( et ah o C:haptcr 7). One codi lication ol t hc L'S 1 ersion i~ offe red b1 Bran non ( 19761 :



Tht notion ol .,t., made it pn,ihk 10 ){1'011)> rogerht'r. in an .utilicial IIIIII. anatomic;ll dellll'llh. hiological hmcrim h. 'ondlln,, ~en-.llion, .urd pll':"llll'' .11ul ir enahled Olll' lO 111ake u~c o l this lluitiou' uni11 :r< a principie. an omniptc,crll meanin~: 't'lo. 11': t' rhu' ahk tu functi o n ;-, .1 uniqul' 'ignilicr .md a' unil'l'l '"' 'ig-nifier. (Fonrau lt, lHX.Jb: l ."ll ) T his dots not nwan rh a1 an ato mical diiTt r't'n tes are IWL notc d bttt rl wse an: 1 101 n ccessa ri l~ rlw basi.s o f' a hi 11a1 ; sex c l a~'i fi cal ion (.\ loorc. 1 99~). No twi 1h sl:nt di ng th c suggestinn rh at pt r h aps SL'X tl:rl dif'fcre ncc' an ct rltura ll v COihll'llctcd. 1herc stTill' lO 1){' ge n eral agreen ll'lll a mon g con1mcntator1> ahou1 th t c ultural con~t ru c l ~ tJf .(l' nckr in \\'estl-rn societ~ (S trathe rn. l~lR~: :\lnorc. 199:t Brukr. 1990; T c h erke1off. 1 9U~~). Taking up th e ,~lll'-" of' knml'lecl~e ami thl' po1H'I' to impose panicular>l\ledgc construch on 'ocit'l\' " .1 1\'ltole. which ll't'l'l' con,icknd carlicr in this rhap ter. l<:minists hme deleloptd lht idea of patriarcln. rh e a l~ll1111'111 " that ocil'll is bascd 0 11

' no

~i&.\ ~udr

- the al'oidanct: of all kminine bch;wiollr':. and u aits

a cqui~ition

' 1hc big " heel'- t h e

~ H'

of \IJCCl'SS.




cOill J>Cit'ncc

' 1h e \ lllrdl' oak - !>trengt h . ro nli cknct: a u el i ncle JWllde n ce cm h l'll' - aggressio u , lio le n n .111 d clariu g

1n rece ni 1i me~ masc uli ni ty i tsdf' ha,, in so m e quanns a t ka~L. he come a n o th e r terrain . T h e pcrY<Isinrr <.ss of h egemon ic masnrlini tl' ha~ h een cmpiricalll' questioncd a n d it is sugge~tccl that thcrc are in fact multipk- discn u rses of masculinit,. rathe r than a si ugk ideal ( Edl e1 a n d \\'t rhnall. 1996). ;1 si111aliorr 1ha1 has lerl <;ome comnwmator.; 10 'peak in the plural ol 'ma~cu l i nitics ( llcarn. 19!l) . \l aswlin it~ 0 1 rnascu lini1ies are 11ndoubt edl~ n al bu1 11he1her the concept on it~ 01111 '"" much efficacy in cxplaining thc gcnd ered ba'i~ of domination seem' open ro quesrion.


lntroducin'g._ Cult ural Studies

Culture, power and inequalty


.-\ge ;u 11 age in~ p :mt:s~ a re, like glndt-r a nd the hoclv (sec Cha p tcl 7) . ap pareml) mllural p1o(n~e~. h tll 1\'111 come a~ 11 0 \tll p ri ~e tha t l\ illti n t his chaptt' r, as in tiH: hook as a 1\hok-. 1hc a rg umt'lll 1 dll be maclr tha t ,,ha t setms straig htfon,a rdh n<~t ur;tl is highh n dt t.ral and. cult~tra ll ~ spccilic, wi t h the <tddcd 11\'Sl th < tt tlw c nl1 111:< 1l o rd e ring lo cates ag-t.: 111 the b tologlr: tl ll'o rld . Cul ture 1Hilllr< tliscs agt'. a~ i1 also n:nuralises gcndc r racc. t.t h n it it~ - all th(lSt' a-, pcct ol huma n e xperien ct tha t ~el'lll to he ro,otcd 1 ; hiol og~ . . \ge i~ a cultu ral construct ~\'lll hol i ca ll~ locatecl in a biolo~ica l m etaphor ( pennr. 1!l!10). T ht> ap pa rc ntl y na tural p rocess of' tlw pc rsun ':. pa.,,age from h inh 10 dcath in. cl11 on ~Ji ogi c~ l 1i lile is ~rdc rcd . so m c tinH:~ co n trolled. bu t a l ll'a~ s shapcd b)' c u ltu ra l td c:h ul 11ha 1 s ap prup n a te a ncl Ce)I\\T iltio naiiJdtmiour at cntai n ages. .-\ge ha' cliJ'fcrc n t 111eani 11gs amo ng clilfc rtIH peuples 1 101 o nk lo t he indi1idual blll gc ~r statu~ fo1 a n ind il'idu:'ll m: al ~ ~h m<. ':~~h_,,hom t ht. ind i dual b ;~ "oci;_ned: a cha 1 n ohc<. otht lli 1 11 IIC\\' 101l'' :tllCI nlauo nshtps. A l ~o as ,,uh gend cr (~tc a hol'c), ' theorising- :1boutthe significanct:' of age m ust gi1e rcgmcl to, a nrl acconn1 for , tlw ,,a1s i~1 ':hiel! agt.' _i ~ mcdialcd b\' class. g'<' lt clcr. racc, clhnicill' aud a ll o lht c ullu ra l,ly ( Slg'~l l fi C<llll 1.11 a bl e~ at pa rtic ula r 1110 11\t'lll,o. ancl collli.'XtS.. \ small ex a m pie to ma kt thc poun ~~ th:u mo~t ptoplc ll'ho lill' in Bri t i~h l.ocie t ~ t n' al .tge al. if it ll':h a liut'ar pro n ~ in 11hidt Olll' i5 born ancl o nt pa''-l'~ t hmu~h lllL'<ISllrccl tim e 11 111i l onc's dt'a th. HOI,'l'l'cr. lll LTt' a re t h o~t' in Briti~ ll 'ocictl' 11hn bl'lieH in re incarn:ui nn a 11 d so tl lt' ageing P' o re" i ~ lor t hc m :1 circ ular a nd 11 0 1 a l in e ar j ou n c~. a nclthey look fo ward tn a re i>i rth - ~.qu.tll ~ fe JI ll1 o' t' ,,lw hl'licl'e in t he rcsurrt'c tio n oJ' the ~ pi r i t a m i or o pc ratc 11ith .t dillt.'ltlll '>t'll' l' ol time 1han 1hml 1\ho belie1e that clea th b lht: eud ofbei ng. In l,tu 'onll'thing th.u ~L'l'lll'- ~o tal..e11 fnr g ra n tecl .utd 1m n mal..ahk empiricall\' lllllb out to he .tn impo11.1111 principie o l' ~uc i a l o rga ni., :uio n and m:ul..<.: r ol ~oc ial d iffl'l t' IIIa tio u, IL ,. :lrg u:ihll' 111 :1[ agt an <l g'l'll<ll'r are llw 11\0Sl lll ]>O I'I<llll sha pcrs or ' ocial expt' l it ll cc Jor indi,iduals. IL ~t't' l ll' tha t in all , , nri...tic:- ptop le are 1l'l'aled cl irftH'IIIh o u t he b:t,, ol agc. ll i-. po,~ibk w 'PLal.. ol .tgL role,, tlw clu~tl..-, ol'tlalieul' th:u an m to n tain t ht nnolog-ical allCI ~tn lctu ral ag'l' b.uHk ~l ost al' 10 1 ,ociell'' h:tll' ton n ntiem~ a ho111 1he .1gc :H '' h ich it i' , u it:tblc JiJr illdilicl1 1 1101111 (t his n w~ l w gt' llrlnecl) . 1 11 l ' ll ~agt i11 ' e:-.n<il tc la ti ms. ;111 cl i11 Bri li, Jt 'eH ic11' 1hn c :ll'l' .1 se1 of agc-dtt ellll ilt l'd I:J\\'' lt'gard i11g t'lltplmm<' tll a iHII'I' II'l'lllt'll l. ' T IH 'igtlilit. < llll'l' ol agt. , no t jm1 a m.utn lor 1he iuclil'icl tal: it i' a 1 c:lational matttr ~ouc hing 011 _ho11 lll~l' l)('h.11 l'' Lo olhl'l ' T lw icll'.h ahotll th1. 1d:niolhhip .u t.' IIH 01 JlOI .u\d 1 11 to ' oua 1 l'" pcc1 :n ion' cf1<.'11 i1 1w 'Cie n 1i lir. 'II,Hur.ll' idc.h ab011L hu,, cl t iId rt 1 1 shn uld d en lop a11d how lht' \ ' hn t del lwhaH lo otltl'l'' T lw d iscip li n es o l' r h iId (J~'chu l og l :11tcl d cl e lopnll' lll al psyc ho logv a n d tlll' Jl~'c lt o l og'\ ,,f'agc iug rt'' l o n moclels of ' ' ( cu ll ural) t'' 1wuatious. 111 1ht iud ,-iclual li k cours<. tl w t'X IH'rit' net and practicc ol :t){t' roles is l'Ollll\Hlll ll'ith in tlw domcslir lifctl'd e . .\ l o~llwopl c gr 01 , up in t hc com pam ol ol hn., a u el k.trn tlw ag-e-a ppropriate bl'lt.l\'iour fo r 1lw ir sex. class. 1are or clhnic g1eH1p aud acrord ing 1 0 ~ciL nt i fi r :md mcclical knull'lcdg-<.. ll_ iste ic tl ~ ,id t." n n siHJ\1', 1hat o tt r icltas o f' agl'ap propria tt be ha1io111' ha1e c hang<.:d cu n ~ICk-1 .t hh 111 tlw n nn t pa't in \\'cstt'l ll ~oci t. t ~ ..-\ rin ( 1 9ti~ ) ha' wrill t'll tha t t hc idea

of r hilcl hood b :t recelll o nc. :utcl ~ l a~-hl \\, ( 1\lliH\ 'll l'\\'1 ., tlll' Lco ndon la bnuri n ,~ -1 ' 1 1 thl' ulidcl lc of thc 11 il l' ICl' tll h Cl'lllll l'\' ~ Jt m,c cJ e lc.ll h tlll' r la._,.IJ,I,Cd CX)JCI'I e1a'i'>l'~ . . ncc of rhildhood. \la1hl'\\ cll't. larcd lntmd l app;tlkd lll tht. l.trk o l ..-lu lclhn.,c] lnr ~heS~' cltiltliL'Il. 11111 ing- hcl\\ thtl lool..ed oldt.l 1 h.1n thtir 11'.11' .uHI liuding- t hildHn "' ,oun ~ :H 6 or H'<t r' e,I d ,,tn 111.1king :1 1iling- 1nr 1h:n1'"'" ,., i11(\ t'j>t'll~ll'n.t h ~ 111 llw strec t,o. nfLolttl<lll. Rq11l t ,, ll thl' ( ' ( ll l i L' II lJ H li ': IL ~ \I'Cirld o iH'II ' IH':tl.. n r tlw ln.!,lt 111( Hk ll((' elf child la ho ur in -1h ircl \\'o tld tonll ll t"' ld Hn C' h il< h tn :11 ... 'l't'll :t' a l't''!lll iTt' tn tn.tkl , ron trihu tiou 10 IHHhL' hold L'l onellll ie .... ( a l dl~t' ll ( 1~~~~ ~ JlClLII\ out that tht llo1' ol 1 ;T,tllti'Cl'~ Jrom p.11Till' lo l hildnu iu .1llhH'Ill \\'t~lt.'lll 'e u itlit.., , \\'IH'rL'<lS j 11 h inl \\'tllld I'Oliiii i't.'S 11':-0lliTl'' JI0\1' ho th \1:1\\ 11lll'll 1 h iJcli t.' ll '1;tt l IO III<tl..t. a con trib utio n to lltt ho tlst.hold . In o;ollll' ~tlf.' i t l i e~ tlw t r:11 1 ' iti o n ICJ llt'll , t:tltL' m ln h.l't'd upo 11 :t.!,\' i ~ lt igh h . SuC' h h ig h l~ 1 11\o\'e lltellh .Jl't' 11anwd 1itn u l P'"agL 1h L' ,.._.minal ituali,ed 1 1\'0I K ou rilt'' ol ll.l''gt.' ,,,, t.lllit'cl out b1 \,11\ Ct.nntp ( l!lliO ) ,,J., t,t,lhli~lwc\ a COillll\Ci l1 tln t'\'ltlld p.lll\' 111 in 'lit h 1ite': tht. ph.l, \' ol 'L'P.IIIlion (ldll'll thL' initialt' lcal'l'!> ole! ~ ..,,nri.ttio m a nd rvl.llion,hip,J: tll t' limil t<tl ( li lll ho ) ph< t-e: .1 1 HI tht pha'l' o(

inr or)o ratio n in l o thL' li t'' ' ' ' "' " ' lt .., pn.,.,ihle lo ickn til1 'l'ln<tl 1 i L~.~ o l' pa,sagt' in tge bu t IWl 1110 d n n !'ocitll . \\'t clcli ng~ <tlld lumr;tl' ~lll' hot h loo,eh a"miatcd 1\lh < ncn,..,arih -.o. 1 hL'l'l' .tre a lt''' 1itt'' ni pa.,.,.t~l' are ti~hth linkcd 10 .tgt .11HI 10 major ~hi ft , in lif't 1 wn ,L'.,, Tlw rollllllOIIL''l L'X.Inlplt. in \\'t.'l\'111 'eH it.'l\' , thal ol thl bar lll III':t h for ~ lll lll ).\ .) l'II,J 1 >1'~' (;utd ha l mill\ :tlt (el! gi1l' ) 11lti t h I,L Kl'' pl<l\t' .ll'OII Il d tiH' :1!:(<' of 1 :~ ldl t'll bol'\ iJL 'COilll' 1llt ,t]h- J'ull :Hhtl t llll'lllht r' o ( iiJ t' re ligin11' t'O illl ll l l ii I ~ . Tht IH',t-1..11 <1\111 Ct'l'l'I1Wil it, n i ,1< 11\ 1~ ('ha n ~t .ll'l' to lw loltllcl in .-\ rri ra n 'nt it'l in. lor ex<uuple an1 on){ th~. ~l ,lllcl 1he l l:11da 1anpk. \'oung 111\'11 . ldHn the1 al\' initi,unl into 1J.._ '!al 11 , ol 1\ arrie u-~. b\t. olllt.' t ht: ht.'l dtl' ol t attlt :md '1'1'\ 1' in 1hi' 1o k for '<'H' )'t::lrs until .1 lll'll ntl1o rt o ( ~ ot t n g llll' ll < lit.' i1 1i tia ted . Rill'' !J I Jl"'' t).\1' u ll t'll im o h l' sca rill ca 1io n o t o ll w r f'o nt ts o J hod ih Lt ll t t il ~ tt io ll so th< tl tht.t'L ' , a IK'IIIl:t lll'lll. ,j ~ibk sign of' c h.utg ... cl ~t:uu, _ S o l'io l og i'l ~ h,t\'e taktn thc'c idea' lillthl' l', ad1anci ng thc idc.t th:u -.t;llu.., pa".lgt. Cia'l'l :11ul ~trau~'- 1!171 ) i.; a 1'\'1' t. enmon kalun ol modcrn ~oc i e tic:>. F(ll t,.un ple. nt. t upation.1l lik i' in t. 1.... ,,ingl~ lnqnt.nth thtHH.:ht ol in 1.11 tt.r ll'rlll'i :lllclllll' \1:1111' p.l"<lg't'' " " ilC':Htd 1\ ilh lll <llllotio n . II'I I'I'IIH'Il l .tnd \11 lo 11 h :ttt.' lllj)On:tnl e't' I'L 'IllOil :JI O('l':t\OIIS ll C11'~, 111 ba i OII:t l l't il lll l't'' :\JI J j, lll :t \ ' \ t lcJ tllt' III,Jt , l( ] jn ~ IIIJli'I'\\UII tlt .tl 'l:tll l\ p:t",IL\L'\ oll'l' J>l l' j>l ogr.l lll lllt'd hr the ndwn .tncl unprnhlt'lll:Hic.ll h "''Pl'l il'IH tcl h\ tllt Jl.l".tL\n'. Olttn tlwre , comid e ~t bk indi1idual di11r,it\ nf t:Xpclilmc in ttt'L\<lli.ning 'l<lllh J>l"tg .. -,. l'll'll a mong perso11' i11 hroatlh ,jnil:ll ... itu:tti ulh. <.on ,icle l llll' 11:111\lit>ll 11 <>111 ,cJw ul lo II'UI k. .-\ lt houglt i1 is bl'cnm i11g i n r rL'ao; i n ~h' k s.; com nw 11 lor tlt i, u,tm ilio n In he madc :'ll the agc uf lli. ll ltl il the 111id- l!l ll' th i' "'"~a ' t:mcla rd tr.t jt.< 1or' ln r \1'1'\ 1 11 .111\' P.ri li,lt schoolch ildHn (a, la te "' 19t\ onh ~:) IH'I < t'll l ot J>HJlih " :IIL'd 1111 ht.leHHI th,il ~i-.; t (cn t h lt':ll). \l mo'l .1 q u.u tt.r ol ~~ hool-k.llt'r' t'tll\'1etl tlw l.tholu '' ith no tclura tio qnaliticalion,. :'1 !.1111 e nd np in poorh p<tid oc t lljJ.t1 iu u.;. 01 t < ll tr'l'. 1h L pro ccs~ i~ uo t random : th i' i' :111 im ptlll.ll tl lll Oill< 'IL I of MH'i:tl .nul r n lt u r:d lt.'lllotl nc ti ou. r\, Pa ul \\'ill i' po i n l t'cll ~- pt tl ' it :

1 26

lnlroducing Cultural Sludies

Culture, power and inequality


1 lw clifficult thing- 10 ~,pl.tin about ho11 llliddk cLh" kid' g-t' l 111ic\d \e t la"job' , ,,h 1 othL' I"' Je t th t'J tl. T lw dilfl cuh thing 10 ~" pl . lin :~buut hm, 11orking rlas~ kid ~ gt t 1\C)J ki 1 1 g rlas,job~ i.; llh~ the~ let th t'I IJ , e h'n. (\\'illis. IU/7: ) )

1 11:111 if'l'SL<IIions. Ol'ttn po,,er St'l'llt'- LO lw cnco mpa~sing- in li1rm . lo clged in 11tt da,~ stnl Cill t't' nr e thni c h ivrarc h y or instittlliunalisccl arr: u1 g't'111 t' nts bt111ec n 111 t'tt ;tnrl lll' 1\'0tl iCil. But. a' Fou u wlt I'Cmi ndedtt'. poll't' l' i ~ abo ~O il H' 1lti n g- di lf t"ccl thro u.{hotll L .orkin gnf a ocictt'. So pnt,t r i~ abo local ami can be unckrstoocl com e:-: tualh r;tlft tr 11 han snucwralh - .1 rt(omnwncl.uiotl lor a lwrnll'neu tir approach 10 unclcr,Lanclingcuhure. p ower .111d ineq ualin. This ca n lw ill us lral t'cl bt ti\O stucli t , ol p011Tr ancl tontrol itt ,,ork orga n i-.:niom:
~ l : tl colm \'oung's '1t1d~ o l th c pulire ( l! l\ H ) and Sallic \\'< .;tll'ood ~ study o[ ,\,i,tn 1\'0 1111'11 g anllell l. 1\'orhl't'S ( 1~);-( 1). ) 1\ bol h t' ast'S COilll'fJI 11a, i 11 Lltl' hattds ni' llll'll . :tttd ill

"lile comtn t ion;d so ciolo g-ira l ,,isdoJn i111 o k es a dL-.~cr i ptinn ol' da's r ult u rt llta t ~ll.(gl'' l' th at 1\'o J'king-cia" ch i(d rcn an l'll llll''h td in Cttltu ral llntion' '\liCh a'; (,t().. of rldcJJ ecl g-ratification, 1\Tak or ab~t'lll ltnutL' cu icntatioth .111d tlw likc. For \\'ill i, ,u eh txplana t ion~ are douhh in adeq uate. li1r thtt fa il 10 ,ug-g-t,t tlllL'rt tht'M:> anitttdc, originatl' ( 1977: 1-11 ) and th ty 1\'0 rk tl'itlt a notion of r ttiiUre a~ somtthing- pa"inh' ai>,o1 b cd by thc childrc n ratltn t han ,,, al leasl in p ;llt ac tit't h cons tn tctccl. a prod 11 r.L or c() llc ct in hum a n mtx i, (\\'illis. 1 ~1 77: 1). Tht rn rt o!' \\'ill,, t,planatio n turn' on his intc rpret.tti o tt ni' tltt' (ach' < 'Otllllcr'< hool c ulw rc. lli' l'lhllograpln ol ~cll'l'l''- in thcir liual ll':tt at ,chool cli,ting tti,llt, the 'lacb' ftolll th C' lllotT conn pupil' (L h c 't',ll 'oll,). T lw lacr, ndtlltl' i' 'l'X'>I and tacisl. "' 1\ tll a~ a n I'-clHJol and :tlll -<'CIIlH'Il lUn,tl 1110r;1l ill. ~ lo,l of II W bch 11ill en el up tl'ith un skilll'rl . lwa1: lahottritlg ,iob' tlta1 pal' rl'a,on.tbh 11 e ll ear\1 on 1>111 ,,hi r lt ,,jll ~oo n take thl'i r liill on L lll'i l' ht':tl 11t. l roni c: tll~. thi' , :1 lu turt that tlw bcl~ clwo.~t and ,,illingly t' IHI>race. \\'illi' clnc ttl11t'lll' tlt t katun, o l' tht lacf, <Olltll tr-;,c h uo l e uhure - drinking a11d 'moking. ~ticki ng up for thl'ir ruatc,. 'clo:-.,ing. hlag-~ing- ancl ~~agging. ' h ating .1 lafr at gm tha t Llw <oumcr-,rhool ntltun , bmh i<kologiLtl i11'.ll'1l'l' and a r a ti ona l n,po n s< tn 1lw rcalitics of 1hcir ,itu:nio11. rlw hui' n tlllll'l' , i<ko log ira l b t'c tttst i1 f:IC'iliLa tcs Llwir '111Ciolh 1ran~i1ion int o ckacl-encl 1mrk. .-\~ ;1n id tology thc c ulitl rt' ma.'-k' lhc re :t litt' of' 1lw lacls' siuwion and dTtnitL' i ~ d u pts tiHm itt lo acc<'pting llw II'<H'St,ioll'gcoin g. Bttt 1h e co tt ltl t'l'~c hoo l cu ltttl't' i~ alsn a considtl'< 'd , t a liona! re ~ pon~C'. Tit e l.tcls po~itil'l'h " tlu e 111an ual 1101 k 11ltic h thct rl'gard a~ nw'< uli n c. a n ac1i1 i1~ infuwd 11ith marhi,tno. :\lotTmcr thtt do not much can 1dt:tl 1\'01 k tlwy do prm icling th.u it i~ a m.uwa l job (t,h itl' collar tmrk 1hc1 ddim ,1, dll.mi n .nc). In t h c it in d i!Tl'ten n L o on upationa l ('hoicc Llw I :HI~ cfkctiHh rl': tlfitm thvir rnntic Lion that .tll job~ art t~~cnlia llt tlw . ' a me . . \nd thi,, f'or \\'ill i ~. rc j) l't'Sl' tt l ~ a p t' t1 (' ll'<l1ion u f lh e rta l t'c lllclitions ol lltt'ir t' XiS1t'llC(' as a das.; - it , it prol'o11nd txpn:s~ i on tlfthc n :alitt' <lf' 1l1e ir 'il tla lion . . \' rapita lhtn a ch-an ct,. l,tlour btcomc' ntc lt't' ab~trat'l a ndthu ~ it tn ;tll t' IS fe,, and k" 1d1al occ u pa tion n111 11ork in ~o long"' 1011 11ork. In 1hi' scnse tlw lacl' ro tuJLtr-~dlool ntl ttllt' i-. a ration al a"L'"-IliCIH ol tht rtalitt ol tlt<:ir si tuation in tlll' lahmu rnarkcb ol ach:ulrtcl capitali,m.

1he case of 1h t L1 r IOI'I' 1hl' e un trol II'<IS t'X 1wr ienrcd Lh muglt 1ltt d isc ipl inc t~l 1ht openuion of a ra piL.tli,tic t'lllcrprise. T h t lirn1 ,,as. \\'e~lt\twcl ,,a~s. a rt' putablt :tllcl

pattrn.lli,ti c li nn. ll'hidl '''l'''l'd good tillll'h tTpin~ and ma:-..itni,in~ ou Lput. hlt t' :-.epar:ue c.m lt'l'lh for managcmt nt Call mtn l and IHJl ht'l\ ( mainh- " omtn l ancl th e n tnre con~idt l abk difkrenccs in pat ancl condition~. tdLh Llw managl' tt ll" ll1 rccdl'ing co mpam cars ancl :tll!ll\a tHT!'. \\'t'''" oocl clescribt' IHll\' Lh c ,,omen dttd o prcl 01 slt npfloor cul tu re ol rt,is tann ;m el nil'bt a tic n ' . E l :tb<~r:tl t ri 1u.ds 1\'l' t'C e ngag'l'd in 10

cclt'llr:ll t' th e ctcnt- ol

11 1d

1\'CI IIICn's lit't' ' (tdding~. l'ngag't' l11 t nt ~) ancl Lltt' 1\01111' 11

rompan~ time an cl t'l'\Olii'Cl'' lor tll t' t U\\11 .tffair,. llt t 'hopllnm c ul1tllt' ''''

.llld 'o on. He gol'' on


0 11 e 1hat tmpha,i-.tcl lt L'nd,hip a n d "'liclaritl. T lw pl.11 fui antir<. ol th e twlllt' ll can bl' regarckd a' t, of' re,i.:L:IIH t' '' hirh 'el' e el to l'lllpha'i't' ,istl't hoocl ancl ~trcngth again,t ti H' p. u ri. trcht .rncl g't' tHll'r itwqualitie' ol tl w compa nt ( \\'c~ lll'oocl.

198 1: 2). Tht' tmlllt'll pnlicc p f lin 1 ~ dcscri lwd ~~~- You ng hacl ~CII'II o ppollttnity Lo dcl't' lop a COlllllt' I'Clllturc lO tlt l' ltc;w ill' ma~c u l iiH' t'tlll\\ Lht poln for n . Tlterc \\'(' \'(.' l'l'\\'l' t'


won1cn a nd the1 tl'ncll-d LO be murt bol;llt'cl. . \ddi1i ona ll~ th c~ \\TI'<' n< H 't't'll a~ legi tim atc memb<r, o! Lite li'>rce h~ t ht polinn1en. Yo u ng cll,clih<' (1991: 2 1 ~1 . 212. 23:3) 1hc 11ays in tt h ich LIH twmcn 1\'l'l e m:ngi n a li<;C'd all{l cknigr:necl bt tlw mtn. ginn <~bu~i,c a nd hum i l ia 1 i n ~ namt"' a ll{l rtpt.ncclh sul~j ert to ~tX ttal innttt'IHio in :111 oq.;anbation that 11as clt'dicat<'d LO .t tr;tcl i1ional masc u li1 H" t' 1hn' otl)(l imagc ry. Yo~tn g re mark~ th :t 1 tit e Sl<llt' ol' thl' instittt lio n:tl n tincl kcp 1 \\'0111t' n i11 n iliTmd~ dclincd roles ai1CI .~ 11bjen to th e f'nrmal and informa l dutninaLi; 111 uf m en. In Lhi~ la,t ill u~ll';Hi u n thc p o 11l't tx<n i,tcl was in tc rtn '> o f' g-endt'r hicrarc hit'' a remindcr th:u t11mkrn socictics are ,ul~ject 10 tnam w~Lt'lll' of d ominatiotl. n ot 'itnph 1ha1 of class. 11 hirh lll'\'tnhclc'~ Lene!- to lw tlw prl'dnmi na n t 1\j)if\in.{ ft':ttun ol mo clcrn indu~tria li wd ~<iC l' t~. l'o t,t-r a l ~o 1\'<11 kt'd in a ctpi llan l'ashion. in 11ta1 it "'' Cl'iclc nt in c\'e ryclay arts :11td 11ll'ir implica tin ll'\ ancl co n M'<jLL l' II Ct'S. lf1 h ere arl' difl'trl'll1 h inarcl ti l'S lh I'Utt ~lt 1\'11 icft jlOII'(r i ~ 't'Xl'I'Cist'Ci' . 0 1 ' cli I:t'l'l1 1 fonll. ' of puwer lfl 1'011g'it which domination 1\'0I 1-.s. lto\\' are tltt~t ~~., tt n, of clomina tiun intcrrdatcd? Tfti, i~ !'omc tim e~ form ulatt'd a~: 11011' do race. gend c t . ag-t a mi class d isaclt'a n t agl'~ relate LO each ot h tr: :"\ole 1h a t the l't'l' 11.1\ 1h:11 thc q uc~tion , fcllutuhued di spo\t'~ ll\ IOII'ard~ a ~trttc lll r:tl nuhcr th a n Fo u ca n ldi a 11 coucqHion of pcmer. \\'i th in the frame ' l' l by a stn1c nmd appma c h th crc is. a' ,,.t. sa11 in co nsidl'rin g tlt l' c~cl e o f ckpril':llion. subs tantial cl'iclc n n th:u econo mic ancl cultural Ernors can m cr l:1p or int <ran lo prod uce lllll itipk di.~:H il':ttl l agc. Bc ing a b lac k 1\'oman ca n itt CI't'a'e the likelihooc\ of 11tt


1Structural and loca l conceptions of power

o ro n clucll' 1lti' se~ 1i o 11 ca n makt ,,,o gtnc ral obsena 1i on~ abcnn thc workin g-~ o!' ultutT. put,er ancl utcqualtt\. Tht<>c r o u l't'l'll p ml'tT a' a phenorncnon ami th c \1(.'11 clat ion-; or \\ ~1('111' ol do m in a ion and di,ach <llltagc.\11 1hl 1hcuril's rl'l it'\\ ,.d a bol'e Ll'ncl to takc a n ohjectitisL ,, n ICilt ral ,icll' of jl<ll\'t' r and int'fJUalit~. T lwl' ckr ock th l' cultu r;1 l lo n tc:a l tiH' Ll'lll' natttn ol' tltl' rdatiotl\ltip' tll'oht d :mcl . a~ ha' ltct n .trg ul'cl. nwdt ol' t h:t l retda ti o n has ltll'lttd o n power an <i its


1 28

lnt roducing Cultural Studies

Culture, power and inequality


pc ,o n bcing lnuncl in .111 11 de re la" lot ation . . \ J)OOI' b lad. ''oma n , likt'h tu late.: di,.lch-antagt' th.n ththt' ,ilu.ncd hig HT up el a~' rae ial ancll,\elldt-r hier.ut hit' 11illnot. J) w~t ,lit.' IH'JI,11pptl1lt'd l;1l'l' . rJ H.' I l' j, :1 ri,J... hoiiTITr. o[ 111111111g' :111';11 \1'ii J1 \ UCh ).\1'!llll l'll icil llH'l,IJ lhnr' 1ti 101 e l'iappi ll ,l{ d .<;tcl\':111 lag'l'<>1 1< Cllegot t'S of c Ja <~. ran. g'l'lldc r .tnd ;tge. Thc,c lanur' tt' llai nh- cJc,u iiJt 1hv bn1;1d pallcrning o f cli,ach .llllagt a nd thc opprc"ion' (t.H l'mt. ,"i'm. <l.t" opptt'''ion. l'IL) 1h.11 l'l''llh . \\'lwllu:a 1hc1 illumin.Hc.: th t' paniculaailit' ol pl'opk'' ordina11 culaural t' Jll'til'tH't i' mo te npcn lo quest i1m. a~ in 1'\'l'IYda\' lik ll'l' ;tl'l' ;di gndtrccl. t.ucd . c);sst tl .11HI agvd .ttHI lltt:'l' c;llt:gnrics 111ay hal't' lari;dJii- rl'l t:l;tlllT lllhllll liT ;ll'l' ll'l'illl'cl i1 1 p.ll'l icu Jar imt.ll1l'l'.' ill l'\'t'f\Cfal li(c (~t'C \\'t, and r t'lhlt'llllaktt. l!l!l.l ). For iu,lann. 1\l' 111:1\' ~Oilll'lillll'! le!'l Olll"'l'h'l'' lo he haclh trc;ucd l>1 ,, ~hnp '"i'1;1111. b th i, hecnl't' 11l 011 1 ran>or da" o r gtnde r 01 agt; In :tu u.t l in,;lllt't'' llw all ~ll'tr c;nt bl' l't' l'\' 1ari:~hl l' lo 1 n n ~ gi't' ll lk' l',oll , 'o it ca n he l'l'l)' d ill ic ullto pi 1 1 doll'll 11hid1 pal'lirt source ol' d i,achan tagc i' ctpe raling. Thi' dilllut hl' dm... 1101 dt'll\ the tcalitl and toan ot thl'<(' di,ach.IIH.lgt,, Hall it doc, 'l'l\l' w rurthcr unclcaline l'otttauJt', lunclament al }I) ill ahmtt the ni1111presenct ol pm,er .tnd n,i ~~;m ce : dcHni nat ions ol < la <~ eH ';H't' Ol' gcndt'r are IH'It' l' 1 nmple te 111 lo l.t l a nd can IJt t.'laal lc ngcd i11 tlw 1 IJIHi un o l' 11111' l'lt' lin '

Further reoding
hel fui survey ol the base-superstructure debate and beyond can be lound in Jorge larrain's The Concepl Af id:Otogy (1979). Some of the ramifications olthe dominant ideology debate are explored in Nicholas ~bercrombie, Stephen Hill and Bryan S. Turner (eds) Dominan/ ldeologies (1990). Ruth Lister's collcction Charles Murroy ond the Underclass: The Developing Debate (1996) contains short, lively contributions about the concept and reality olthe underclass. On race and ethnicity, The Empire Scrikes B~ck ~ 19~2), collectivel>' uthored by members of the (Birmingham) Centre lor Contemporary Cultural Stud1 es, IS Sltll an engagmg ~ead. There is a video ol an llluslrated lectu re by Stuart Hall entitled 'Race as a Floaling signifier' avallable lrom Media Education Foundation. PO Box 570, Wembley, Middlesex HAO 2XN. Judith Butler's Gender Trouble: Femmism ond the Subversion of ldencity (1990) has been inlluential in shaping recent debates on gender. Many or the olten overlooked cultural dimensions or ageing are discussed in Mike Hepworth and Mi ke Featherstone, Surviving Middle Age (1982).

3. 4


'\c'll' hro.tth.l,... cl.aih Jll < l\itk 11' 11itlt inloamallnn .tboul tlae clillcn: IIH'' lll' t\\'n n 1 1l'"llk. TIH i taeqt~ .l l i ai t>,. pr1nai,l'd un tlwsc dilit'tTnrc , an lit e IJ.t'i' o l 111;111~ "' i.d co11flir... ('''iiiH'.' ' lc11 txaanpk . 1lac longl llllll ing Co 1d lit. " in t h ~ B;h iJIIl' ng io 11. '\otthem la l'iand a n d tlw lu nntt \u).{o.;,Jmial . In 1hi< <la;tptt.'1 1\l' h.llt' aclitIH'cl t''plan.uion' ol tlll' ot ig n1 ol incqu.tli tl in ctpit.tJi,t ,ocittit, .111d toahidtncl ' onw of 1hv k adi 11" 1111 o re 1ical id\'.1' - hc<t'll iOitl . i l1l 0 11>oral ion .1 1 111 !1.11ti tth- 11 lt it l1 ha1 t ht.'t'll " ~' -..,.:...._.. usl'c l to C''\ pl;tin laco11 i nn 111 a l i 1 ~ i~ j u<li lil'd .t nd I'I 'IHlt'l'l'd < HTt'Jli ;JI)il'. T h1 daap tc r h;h .tJ , o loul>t'd 11 11 tia t. 11 .11' tia al tlacw iiH'l Jll:tlitic, ;He 111ack naanilc,t tluough char;u lt'l' i'1ic tllhllll'' ol dib,'. t.tlanit i11. ~e n dl 'l .utcl agc. Tht comt'J>" 1hcu1 it, .tncl ~t ucl it, t t'l it'll<'d .tiJ0\1' ,Jw" 'o~~~ tlil-li.u11 ~' in 11 la k h all c nlt11 1 T' are ,lttlnured in d~tlli I \all ('l ' . l la i:-. 1\C )I k ll th!; bo II!' I !J..l.l..l...:ill~LII :IIS ill ll'iJ k ll stra l c~s or n , i ~ t ;ll l t'l' 10 '"lt'lll' o l d ; Hll i 1101111 t 111 ig 111 lw 111 ~a n i'cd.

R e-cap
This chapter has: reviewed lhc principal structural sources of inequality; surveyed explana tions of the ro le of culture in legitimating forms of inequality; examined how class, race, gender and age inequalities are culturally produced and reproduced.

p a rt ll
Cultural studies
4. Topographies of culture: geography,
power and representation
poge 133

e e

5. 6. 7. 8.

Culture, time and history Politics and culture Cultured bodies Subcultures: reading, resistance and social divisions

181 221 267 316

9. Visual culture



Topographiesof culture: geography, power and representation

Cultural studies is becoming increasingly aware of wha t we might call the geographies (or, ) indeed, topographies) of culture: the ways in which culture is, among other Lhings, a rnatter of differen t spaces, places ilnd landscapes. One sign of this is that the language of cultural studies is full of spatial rnetaphors. Chapter 1 of this book, for example, understands culture in terrns of 'fields', 'maps' and 'boundaries'. Yet there is more to it than this since there is also a sense thal culture - particularly when it is underslood as something that is diverse, fragmented and contested- cannot be understood outside the spaces that it marks out (like national boundaries or gang territories), the places that it makes meaningful (perhaps the Statue of Liberty or your favourite coffee shop) and the lc1ndscapes that il creates (from 'England's green and pleasant land' to the postrnodern shopping rnall). What this chapter aims lo do is to use a variety of examples, both historical and contemporary, lo show Lbe ways iiL'IY.hich is~s of culture, meaning and repr se..!J!ation ilffLQCogr~l..m.allfr_s. lt does this through discussions of issues such as )iaee, ter riality, landscape, travel and globalisation (p. 159) which connect culture and geography a ery scale from the local to the global. In addition, these examples also serve to introduce a r e of theoretical issues central to cultural studies and to this book - issues of power (p. 94) representation (p. 61) - to show that these are geographical too. Whal all this demonstr is that there is a broad set of fascinating interdisciplinary issues that connect cultural studie nd cultural geography, from the basic connections between iclentity (p. 224) and place, lo re complex relationships which concentrate on flow, flu x and change. lf all this is new to you s worlh starling with a brlef look al how geographers have understood culture.


arn about the conneclions between 'cultural studies' and 'cultural geography'.

see how culture can be understood through its geographies: from the local lo th0 obal.



lntroducing Cultural Studie.s

Topographies or culture: geography, power and representalion

1 35

To understand the various ways in which spaces, places and landscapes (the subject matter ot geography) can be interpreted in terms of cultural issues of meaning, representation and power.

4.1 1Cultural geography

4.1.1 1 Cultural geog raphy 'o Id' and 'new'
( l'c rhaps i1 , unrem~1rkahk tu !>Uf\"~t~t thal Cttllurc's han gcographic'. \\'e o ftcn think _ ll't 1\'a tclt lY or 111akc tntlc l plans - of cl ill'crent place~ lta\ tlg dilfi:ren l cultmts and in cloing- so w< map otll a more or k" 'ophi,liratcd cu llltral gcograpll\ . Yc t ju, a~ cuhure is a collll''ll'cl co11ccpl. ~o i' ru lnual gcograph1 . \\'e h a\'C? 10 1hink e<Htfully, anclmake se d ou~ choice~. abou t hm, ll't' uncler~land Jw-.e map., of cu h ure' ancl ,,hat liH'ir i m pi ic u ion ' are l'or o u rsefw, :tiHI mhers. In el ce el. 1he re are man~ ''av; of ttiHkrstancling 'ntllt t1 ':1 1 gcograph~ an<l man ~ ll'a~ s of underl:tking a stud ~ nnckr 1his ll < llll l'. lt is also r kar th:ll 11 hat pe upk un ckr~ wnd as cultural g(ogra pb~ is clifftrl' lll in cliffi.'l'l'IH parh ofthl ll'(orld .111d ha' chaug<:cl dralllatiral l ~ owr th l' Jaq thir11 war,, \\'ha II'C ,,;uHto do hert i, 10 t<>llccmrate 011 1d1al ha' bce11 callld 'lll'l' cullllral geo~raplll'' ''hit h b char<Kted,tcl bl' i1s <.trong link, w 01he1 ~tra1Hh of n tliural ,udie~- and ~how IHn, ih practi lionn-. unclcrs t:md ndlllrt's topographies. In orcltr 10 d o ~o it i-, uscfn lto sholl' holl' it cleveloped in rdation to :lllothcr innut'nti:1l fu n n of cultural ~eograph)' ll'hich {l\I'('S m u eh l O lllL' 1\'ork u/' Carl Sauc r ( J Sf\9- 197.1) ll'ho ll':tS pro f(ssur or gtograph~ al the UniiTr,it~ o f Ca li rorn~kde1 from 1 9~!:1 to 1~15-1. Saucr'.s cultural ~cog-raphy had pani n dar r h :naneristir~. l t11a~ coucern cd wilh 1hc 1<:l.uionsh ip$ bctw<tn human, ( he ''otdd haH 'a id man ') and natu re 11i1hin'licul<ll tegiom Ol'er long ptrind-. of lime. One of h i, snul<'lllS ha~ '<tic! ol h im that mon 1han an1 lhing else. his 'lf'J'l'l'tiatio n of simph pcople li1i ng in tlose rontac t 1 1'i ilt i n or~a 1 1ic llallll'l' ancl in ~~ 111b i o,is 11i1h pbnts and animal' di~t i n gui l'h cs Satt tTs IITitin~ aho u1 man [sic] on thc eanh' ( l.t'ig h l ~. Hl6~ : :~- 1 ) .. \ s :1 rcsu lt . lht rq.~i o n ,o; lw r hose lo stuch wcn: ~l n c ra lh rural O JH'.S ll'hiclt 11ere o nl y ch:111g ing ,f o11Jy. !1 aJ,o . , haped holl' he 1hough t il 'hould bt practiscd. s~llll' l \\'as a ' li'Ollg' admrale or <KII'l' fie ldll'ork. El'l'll for past la n d~capt'' it ,,.;, 'l'('ing their lran, f01 n,tl that mallt'rtcl. H e also strc"tcl thc l'l''t'011'Cher'-; long-lc'llll inuner,ion in .1 p.nli< ular region in orcll.'l lo undcr,tand it, ' '" ing 1ha1:

lield sys1 e ms. h ousing 1ypcs or IH'III'OI J..o; o f 1racks. pat iJ, and rua(k Thu~. disti nct cul tures created dis1inr 1 lan<f,cape.s as 1iwv ,IJ:1pcd the na lltral l'lllirunnl t'lll slowl) m c r liJllC. ll 11as tl w role of' lhl' cu ltural geogr:1phn LO ~ tud ~ t h o~t l:t 11 clscapes. Figure -U reproduce:- a cliagram f'rum ~a ll t' r' s cssa1 'Tiw ltwrp hology of landsc<tpl (192!l) in 11hich he ~e h ou1 his unclcr<.tancling ol thc rel:llion,iJ ip betl,een tht IJallll.d Janchcape and thc cttltmal landscape. lle -.)un'' a cultu~t npnating o1er lillll' on a n:llural Janclscape' 10 p10dun an amalgam of ' form< (population. housing. producliOll , comlllllnication ) wh it h can be ~ umnwd up a~ a cultural l.1nd~capc'. ll is IIHHiel hl'rc is he ll'al's in ll'hicll ph~si ca l proccsses - pf' nusion o r \'t').(t'l:llion - act OH'I' time 10 produce a na tural l and~capc. This H'r,ion o f' n dtural ,geogn1pll l' can hl' sun unecl up i1 1 his worcl~: T hl' cultura l landscape is fa,h iontd from a natural landsca w b1 a cultm< group. Cu lture i!- th l a.{l'lll. 1h c natural arla i~ ilw nH'clium . thc cultmal land~capl' ilw re u h.' This mean! thal i1 ,,a~ cuhu ral g'l'l>gr;lplll s role 10 'lllch 'the impres' of tlw work~ o f man [sir] upon thc area 01 man, [<.ic] record 11pon 1he land'-<'.IJ'l'. (quOta 1io ns from l.tigh 1~. 19(1:': :q :~ . :~~W and :\ 1 ~). :"llortonl', 1he 11ay in 11 li k 11 th:11 'i111 prcss' Or ' l't'CorcJ' 1\':t'\ 10 be Slllclied or rt:Jd 11':1~ in l t: J'Ill.-, of d l'f imiting 'culture <ll'l'<lS' . Thcse wne undcr,toocl a<. n :g-iun o, o f tlt t' ll'orld 1hat liad di,tinnil'l' lanclst':t)ll'' 01 11 11 iqtiC tnse mbll'-. of building,. brmin.{ ltThnique ancl population pauem-.. For cxalllpk. SaUCI. in h i<. l'\\a\ Oll 'The lll'I ~OIIalitl' :"lle)..ico' ( 191 1). de~crihecl i he ~lcxican cu l turallancl~<-.lJ>t' as di1ided in tu 11111 'l'l' of cultll ll' ' : 'ilu high cu lture~ of tlw




Clima tic

Climate L and suriace ,oil

- -7imr - - -

draina).\E.> mine1al re;oliiCl'

Natur,1/ Lanrl)c:aw

SC'a and co.1~1 \'egC't,ilion





mob1 ilt\
Cu1ture - - T 1mt -

:1lll'ms lhlrt n1u't lw IIH ha,c, the a rca lnr ll'ilich lile nb~t' l 'll'l is 11 1aking himsdJ' tlt t t'X jWII. T ht II Ulll<lll ).(l'Ograplter Glll lllll ht a lml'ld tuuri'l. 111tning l'rum peuplt 10 )1l'opll' .tnd lall(l tn laiHI. and knowing 111 111 c a~ua l h' < llld clouh1 ru lh relatld tiling' .dJtllll :1111' of lht'lll. ( l.eigh h. 1%:~: :1!;:!) Onrall. his argumtnt """' 1ha1 thc ma1nial 1ehuiomhip~ hl'illl't'll tand' ami ' lifl-' ll't rc 1m1J..ecl out cli!Te rtntl~ in diiTcre nl plact'' In his I'CII' dilli.n n1 culiures crcatL'd. lor cxa mplc. diO'e renl ag1iu llitlral ~~sl c lll S, difl'l'rt' lll cttle ml' nl s~stc ms ami difl'crcnl. 1ra 1 1 ,. , pm1 tll ion sy~ l t' l l l ' a 11 of' 11'11 ich lel'l 11l d r I'ible. nHllerial Ira ces in thc landscapt as

Hou~ ing

,'\ iol/llfd f

1 olllC1 'C1fJC'


C llfillra l


Produclon Commumc a11on


Figure 4.1 Carl Sauer's understanding ol the making of the natural and cultural landscapes. (Source: Sauer, 1925: 337, 343.)


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Topographies of culture: geography, power and representalion

1 37


--._.. cF H~ll Cvltur


~asis 1o under~wnclmat erial a n<l c u lt ura l mock~ nf' li fc' .

owe r , both b ega n ll'itlt 1h e relati o n ships bvi \\Te n natun: all(l c ultu t ,. a n d usccl tha1 a~ a


r--....... .-,~;&~K ~ ~~:x:T:':st S

\'el he di n :ction in which c uh ural geogra plll' wa s modng '' ,1, a,,.a, 1ro m San cr s vision . ln 1987 Co ~gro\'e :lllciJ ac kson scl o u1 ll'hCttthcy tonk lo bt ilw n e11 clirection' in cullllra l geogra pln. lt ,,asto IJl:
1 contcmpor;11")' a~ ll'e ll ao; historical (but ah1a1s rm Hex1ual a nd th ton tical ):
1 con ccr n ed ll'ith spat'(' as ll'ell "' landsrape:


ll: 1 urban as ~~el l ao; rur<

1 co n ccrn ecl ll'ith rel a titlll' ofclum il lll\iu n ancl r csis ta nce


~ :1H);

, asscnhc of tlt( centt ali t\ o f culture to human lift:

1 co n rc rn ed ,,ith reprtse nta ti on ' as mnch as na Ji ~.

lt 11; 1s n oL goi n K 10 bt ' 1ur:~l a n d a n tiquaria n and it ll'ould 1101 he conrcrn e d ,,ith 'phr~i ca l a n t: lac ts' or cultural a reas. 1 he JW II' c ttlltl r:ll geogr. tp lw \I'O ttl rl b e \'l'l'\

diiTerent rrom wltm "'"' seL'II HS Sa uer':- conset-ra 1in an 1i-tnoclct n ism . 1n o tltn \1'1'iti n g~
the '11C11'. cultu ra l g tograph, 11a~ u ndtr,tood a~ a rejection of th e 'olcl' . Fo 1 ('Xam p lc. in th e fi rst few c h a pter!( o l Pe te r .lackso n 's ( 1989 ) .\l(ljJs of ,\lf'rwing he clcpins Saur rs unde rs 1 a n d ing~ or c u lu trc a nd cultu ra l g cog rap ll 1 a~ ' ba clly outd:ntd ' and "unn ecl'S sarily li1nitcd' (p. 9) a n d rejen~ th em in f,I\'OU I of a n anaho;is that 0\\TS muc h to thc cultural pnl i ti c~ uf' Raym o nd Williams (p . ."1) ancl !ltt lmrk of 1hc Birmingham Centre for Conte mporary Cu lt ura l S tudi cs ( p. ~~ 2 7). Alt hough ' tH'''' cultma l geogra plw h a~ mam clif'fncnl '''' 'nd' - all(l it i' 110 longer quite so n e,, - it can lw arg ue d tlla l ,,h a l r h a rac t ('l'i~t~ it i~ 1h e ll';ly that i1 i' con ctm e d wi th issu es centra l Lo r n ltura l s 1 nd i c.~ mon gtnt' l':ll h' (Sin liTll l' r-Sm ith :u tcl Hannam. 199-1: ~lcDowdl. 19H 1: Cartel t'l al.. 1 9!1:~: 1\ircl t/ al.. l!l!l~). In Lurn . th ese in ln discipli nan contH'ctiolt '- h:IIT 11lt':u11 th:ll Sllclt i"nes :uv g il'en a lll~\1' 1\\' i ~l by b e ing con~ickred in a g'(o g rapllical Ct Hilt'XI. ;111d tha t t li t~l g-tngr:tphi cal idl'as- a~ liT arguecl aL th t ouht'l - .ti'(' hali11g a wickr influttltT o\t' l the l;u1 g ua~c ancl thcotY of cult ura l s tudic~ "'a 11h ok. Tht ,,,... kt\' i"lil'' ,IJ'(:

Figure 4.2 Carl Sauer's map of Mexico showing the boundary between L he cultures of the South and lhe North. (Source: Sauer, 194 1: 106.)

Sott 111 and 11ic rud ~.t n ilw rn ol tll t :'\ Pt tll ' ( Le ig ll h . 1!lti:\: 1o:q wh it li n n ilcl IJl' tuappnl 1 110 r uh 111e an.t, hl'l' ri~nrl' -1.~ 1. l'lllh ~.tttt' t ' l u h gtogt ;1ph1 t 1c'.llt'd a lll.q> uf th t 11\>rld tl 1d lidt u dttt rt~ oCt tt picd a n <l ~li< qll'd hotl ll tkcl ;tn d llHIII' or l l'~~ ltomo g'l' il () ll~ are'a .... C: ttl ltllal g'l'cigt.lphl'r ... llligh l ''"el' llit l.llicl' tapt'' or th nw :11'(':1, llil'llllgh lli.Hl' .utl'l.ltt' o tiH dillu ... ion ol ohjc n, .111d 11 :t th - l'.g. clonH,Iit:lltd ani tnal.' - ilt' lll'l'l'll illl' tll . l m lel'C l. llllll h ni' 11li<tl i' I:Hig h t and ..;uclivcl "' ' llillttral gtog rap h ~ - p:lltittdarh in tlic L' n ittcl Statt'' ldlt't't' 'iauer, inlluenn '''" 'li'llll).{t',L,,iJI retain' thi~ h.t ... ic tiiHk t,tanding of t nhnre'o; gtogr<tphit .... Ye t tlw contH'Ct ions hell\'l'(' ll g vograph~ .tnd o 1lin br< lll t'hc..; o l nll ttl ta l 'ludi e-; lial'v. i11 l'ariol" 11'<1~ ~. lCJ~It'l't'd 11 h .1 1 ha' btt n ca llcd a m 11 cultural l11 11 hkh C!'''''litllh tnanl o f S.tut.r, 11 0tion'. I'IH.' fi1~1 sig 11s 11f t ll ;lltgt ( ':111 \t' 11'<>111 lkit.t ill II'IH' I'l' t' llllll l'a l ,l.(l'O,l~T<ljlll\' 11a, Jt'" 11'\'JI t!>ta blishnl. Thi' dicl nut. hcl\\l'\'t'1. inllllediatth tntail a fllll,l'alt' rtjtnion o f ~:tllcrs idta~ . Pct~r ,l ack,on ( l!l:-tOl arguecl 1h,11 g togtaplll ro11ld lea111 , lo l lnnn a n1hropo lugy and thatlllltl h conlll'I011 g i'OII Il C l co ulrl be fn111 Hl in S:u 1 c r \ h11t 11:1 11i ~ m anfl hi.< a ll('lllio n to tite rdatio n~ b tt\\t't'llllatul'l' an<l t'll ltu re. lkni ' ('o,.{rme ( l \11':~ a1guccl lora radica l cu ltural geo).{ntplll ,,hirh 11ot1ld align .\L11 :-:i,t hi,lt>rical m. tll'1i.di'l11 :1 1 1\l r ultural gcog-r:1ph ~. Thi, 11 a~ lo be based u po11 :111 a f'li11 i11' lw tll'l't' tl Karl l\l arx (p. \17 ) .111<l (.a rl S;llll'l' ,,ho. de~pitt 'iaun':, o f' atll'lllion lo< la'' rtl.ttion, a ncltlw :.IItH 1111 e' o l ,oci.ll

l. Cultm''' ol cli lf'l'rtIH't: llt t'<Hling. pollt'l'

aml rc~ i,lanct.

2. l lll' poetic' .md p o litics of rtpresell1ation.

Cultures of difference: meaning, power ond resistance

Thc main iclt-a lle n: i' tllat C1tl111 rc il> ; r oll\l',lc d clomain . lt i" n arena o f co bel\l'l' < :n difft'l'l' lll ~ntial group'> (ckli ned h1 racc. cla'" gtndcr. agt:. 'txualit~ :tiiCI which are tryi ng- 10 d e fin e and impose tlllir 11a~s o l undt'l',tancli ng-- tlwir s1ste m s of me ani11 g -0111 o th e ll'tlrld: ' h i' a dom ai n . no ll'" than tl w political or llt t economic in which \ocial rd atiom of clominancc ancl 'ubordiu ;Hinn .m: nq~otiattd a m i rt ~i'>H.'cl , wher c meanings a re 11 01 j ust impos<:"d b ut conll''ll'(r (la ckso n . J!l R0: ix). 1 -krl' th e cultu ra l is political ancl cnlturt'' n ecd 10 be undtr, lood a' cork , or maps nf nwanin.( with ll'hirh dilknut ~o ci al ~WIIJh a llt'111Jll to clefi tll' t h tnt,dH~. o t her~ all(lt h e i p laces

l 38 lntrodu cing c ultural Sludies in th c wo rld. Social. cco no1nir. political an d pt.I'M)na l l't'btionship' are dclined through cultura l mcaning. 1 hert art. mam e:o;ample' o l thi~ in what follol\s: baules h<..'twecn classe., m-cr the meaning- a nd naming nf urban pinces: )4<:nclcrtd conflicts o\e r the 11 an1rc of natio nali,m: and the co1npeting dt'flni tiom of racial id tntilie,. In pat t this is .1bou t a cclebr:ttionof' diffcrence (p. 1:i~) .lt , aboutrca l i~in g- tha11h ere i~ a plltl'alitl'of cttltttl'l'S and a multiplicit\' of gcogra phies. ll owcHt. tu tlikc for Sauer. thi' i' al~o a n:a(i,ation that 1he'e gtottp'> are oftt n mak ing nw;~ nings in 1hc ' 'une place' and are bound to cac:h o tlwr through n:latio n., of powe r and resistance (p. ~:"', :n ra thtr lhan peacefulh occttp,ing separa te e ult un.: area,.

Topographies of culture: geography, power and representalion 139 the emergence of new social movements (femi nism (p. 120), gay rights, black struggles, the greens) and create the social basis fo r identity (p. 224) politics. The celebralion of difference brings diflicullies of ils own. The relations between groups are power relations which mark off who is to be included and excluded and therefore entail valuations of relative worth made in the contexl of material interesls. The policy of 'separate development' in apartheid Soulh Africa was nol simply about maintaining cultural diflerences. Also, the plurality of identilies avililable can make fo r some strange alliances: for example, bell hooks (p. 223) (1991 : 59) observes that 'sexism has always been a political stance mediating racial domination, e_ nabling white men and b_lac ~ m;n ~o share mportance of male dommat1on . R 1ghts to a common sensibility about sex roles and the 1 difference, it seems, can only be sustained within an agreed framework of rights and provision universal to all members of a society.

Dejmi11g concejJI


Essentialism and difference

Essentialism is the doctrine that ascribes a fixed property or 'essence' as universal to a particular category of people. To propose tllat women are good childcarers because they are women, that b/ack people are good al sports because they are black, that jews are good at arguing because they are lews - all because 'they are like that' - is to engage in essenlialist thinking. The basic principies of stereotyping any cultural grouping operates on essentialistlines. In cultural studies there is a wariness of essentiallst reasoning for at least four reasons: (1 ) positing supposedly 'essential' characteristics often simply involves the reproduction of the prejudices of one group about another - essentialist reasoning imposes a parlial set of judgements grounded in the situalion and interests of one social group upon another; (2) essentialist accounts of persons and activities as ' lypical' usually involve enormous overgeneralisation which ignores the differences between the members of a category (are all women really like thal? al/ black people); (3) it follows that essentialist reasoning cannot explain why these differences within a category exist in the first place; (4) essentialist doctrines are especially pernicious when they postulate the presence of essential characteristics as a malter of biology and genelic inheritance. The alternative to essentialism is sorne form of social constructionisl account. The prototypical view he re is summed up in Simone de B eauvoir's statement: 'one is not born a woman; one becomes one'. Social constructionism emphasises the part played by social learning in the acquisition of supposedly 'essential' characteristics and can be regarded as a more realistic poinl of view which is better equipped to do justice to the diversity of experiences encountered by persons within a category. Constructionism does not have it all its own way, however. Some would maintain that we can speak of 'black music' or claim that only 'black' people can fully appreciate it on lhe basis of their shared origins and common experiences. Cultural studies tends towards a valorisation of differences and a corresponding cognition of the plurality of idenlities to which persons can lay claim. Some of these entili e~ arise from the increasing scale and complexity of modern societies (class, ccupatlon, educat1on, race, gender, regional and national identities). Others derive from
~ ~

Fu1I lt111' INrd i 11g Grossberg, L. ( 1996) 'ldentity and cultural studies: is that all there is?', in S. Hall and P. du Gay (ecls) QueSiions of Cvl/urollden !ity, London: Sage. Sarup, M. ( 1996) ldentity, Culture and the Postmodem World, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

The poelics ond politics of representation

The kc' poittt h e re , .!_hatutt clcrstattditt~ ('ttl tul't.'' i~ nut a C(Ltl''tiott ot t tt tcltr,tan din~ an objccti,< realit~ tlt:tl can be 1<~ 1 c ; tl 11 ~iilill ,,urlcl. Tlw in1plic:t1ion ol \\'hat lt;;~j 11 ~ 1 bccn ,a~~ i' tlta tthlrc arl' mam clil k retll rcalitics: ead1 colkn i, it' h a~ a \'<'I~' or thC \\'o )tlcl \\'hich C:t tl claitl_Llll b e ' ll'<tJ'. rltt'Sl' \ C\\'S 11( the II' Orl d :t l'l' otth lll,tC k <l\'aibbk throug h tonns ot' re ) rcs ctllatio ~. () 1l. l'hl'l 11111~t be ' pokc lt a' ' to ril'' writtcn, paittll'tl. lll nH'cl or '11 11~ ;nHI phl\ccl. \\'l nnd to p.l\ .llll't11 ion to the ,, ..,.,in which 1IH 1mrld i~ ponral'l'd ( ()1' rtprc,tuted ) in a ll Slll lS o l' tucrli a (Dun attd L<'' 1993: Barttl'' atHI Duncan. 1\)\)~ ). -, h i ~o b qn. cl il f..n n t fu un Sattcr, ht'lict 1h;~h tt rl' is sin~y gi\'cll 1 0 u~ in 1he l:lllcbrapt th:tl '''l' c tn ~c \\ 1h <Hir n~rn l '\ 'CS. \\ l: n_ccd w_b: < llttnti\'t' LO a \\'ltok -'l'l'il'' o( nc\\'~te,t iotl' abottt any l'l' l ~\l' ltl:t t iolt: wha t t' 1 n cl uclcd ~ \\'h ~\'1ta1 ,, the aim: \\'hat :m 1lw ittflue ncc<' \\'hat media lta11 IK'l'tl_ill.l'd ancl 1\'ll\':- \\-hat ~ 1 l~t' role nt' the alliliencc:- .\ g-.tiu tlwrc willlw mall\' e:\antpk., hl low. These qttcs t i nn ~ all 1 aisl i"ues of "ha t \\'e can rall pcwtic, - tiH' \la\ in \\'hich so m c th i lt ~ is t'l'j)l'l''l'tt1 cd - :tncl r ottt1l'Cl then1 lo i~~llt's o f' 'politic, - th e >< lll'l't'laden rdation, ltip' bc1 \\'l' l'tl ,ocial gro u p~ a nd in<li' id ttak \\\,hall 'lT ltcm tht.'' alo;o imoiH' spaces, phltTs :mcl cbcapc,. .\11 the.,e ttt'\\' conn m ~ ,,ith glograpll\'. pcmn ami t l'pt t''l'tllation ttt ;tt 1.. ~u h,t ;ttttial dilfe ren r<:~ lw t,,ectl 1h c 'olcl' ntltttral gl'ogr;tplt, and tlw ' ne1/ nthur:tl geogr:tph~ (t\nclet ancl Ca k. 1 9\1~). T hl'\ haH also bl'l'tl in, uu men tal in thc inct'l'<l'ing imponance ,. n tltttral g'l"ograph' <tn d in tlw ";n s in "ltich it ha~ ,ubslilt11ialh' in! lucnt:l'd thl' di~rip l inc o( gcog r<tph, a' a ,,holl- as \\'1' 11 as rotllrihuti lg' a nc,, anglc to


lntroducing Cu ltural Studies

Topographies of culture: geography, power and representalion 139 the emergence of new social movernents (feminism (p. 120), gay rights, black struggles, the greens) and create the social basis for identity (p. 224) politics. The celebration of difference brings difficulties of its own. The relations between groups are power relations which mark off who is to be included and excluded and therefore entail valuations of relative worth made in the context of material interests. The policy of 'separate developmenl' in apartheid South Africa was not simply about maintaining cultural differences. Also, the plurality of identities available can make for sorne strange alliances: for example, bell hooks (p. 223) (1991: 59) observes that 'sexism has always been a political stance mediating racial domination, enabling white men and black men lo share a common sensibilily aboul sex roles and the importance of male domination'. Rights lo difference, it seems, can only be suslained within an agreed frilmework of righls and provision universal lo all members of a society.

in thc ,,orlcl. Social, economic. political ancl pn~on;tl l'l' la tion,hip' are ddinccl through cultural ntcaning-. Thnt' are mam examp l e~ ni thi' in " hat fo llm,,: hau t e~ bctween cla~'l'' 0\Tr t he mean ing ancl na m ing of urba 11 plan,: ~~ ncl ~ Hcl con fl ich mcr 1 he 11 a 111 re of nationaliml: aiiC!the com petin~ ddinitinn' ol r.ll ial icklll ll'' In pan thi, is ahou t a cc:lebration of'di fference (p. 138). h , abmnnaJi,in~ th.u thcrc ,a plurali t\' Of culture~ and a multiplicit\' or gcographl'' lfm, l'\l'l. unlikt lor S.\ller. thi' i~ al,o a rlalisation tltat thcse groups are oftcn making- meanin~' in tht 'ame place, ancl are bouncl to each othcr through n:lat ion~ ni' po\\'t:r and rcsistancc (p. ~.->::1) rat hcr than p c.1 cd'ull~ oc e u pyi ng ~tparatl' ruh lll'l' an a-;'.

Defming conrejJI


Essentialism and difference

Fu rt her /'1'(/r/iJW M

Essentialism is the doctrine that ascribes a fi xed property or 'essence' as universal lo a particular category of people. To propase that women are good childcarers because they are women, that black people are good at sports because they are black, that jews are good at arguing beca use they are jews - all beca use ' they are like that' - is lo engage in essenlialist thinking. The basic principies of stereotyping any cultural grouping operates on essentialist lines. In cultural sludies there is a wariness of essentialisl reasoning for at least four reasons: (1) positing supposedly 'essential' characteristics often simply involves the reproduction of the prejudices of one group about another- essentialist reasoning imposes a partial set of judgements grounded in the situation and interests of one social group upon another; (2) essentialist accounts of persons and activities as 'typical' usually involve enormous overgeneralisalion which ignores the differences between lhe members of a category (are al/ women really like that? o/1 black people); (3) il follows lhat essentialist reasoning cannot explain why these differences within a category exist in the first place; (4) essentialist doctrines are especially pernicious when they postulate the presence of essential characteristics as a matter of biology and genetic inheritance. The alternative to essentialism is so me form of social constructionist account. The prolotypical view here is summed up in Simone de B eauvoir's statement: 'one is not born a woman; ene becomes one'. Social construclionism emphasises lhe part played by social learning in the acquisition of supposedly 'essential' characteristics and can be regarded as a more realislic point of view which is better equipped to do justice to the diversity of experiences encoun tered by persons within a category. Constructionisrn does not have il all its own way, however. Sorne would maintain lhat we can speak of 'black music' or claim that only 'black' people can fu lly appreciate it on the basis of their shared origins and common experiences. Cultural studies tends towards a valorisallon of differences ancl a corresponding cognition of the plurality of identities to which persons can lay claim . Sorne of these enlilies arise from the increasing scale and complexity of modern socielies (class, c:pation, education, race, gender, regional and national identities). Others derive fr~

Grossberg, L. (1996) 'ldenlity and cultural sludies: ls that all there is?', in S. Hall and P. du Gay (eds) Queslions of Culwro/ ldentty, L ondon: Sage. Sarup, M. ( 1996) ldentity, Cu/tvre ond liJe Postmodern Wor/d, E dinburgh: E dinburgh University Press.

The poetics and politics of representotion

The.18_1.lliint ht'l'l' , thatuncltl,.,tandin,g uiluut'' , not.l qut,tion of'uncll'r,tancling an objectiH rl'alil\ that r:111 ht l o~o ut thl're in tlw ,,orle!. 1 h ~JI ~11 1 oil dtat hasju'l bttn ,,1icl abllll' i' that then illl' n~iflerent rl'alitis; earh rolll'li\~a ,ie-:..2[ tlH' 1\'orld '' hid1 <.111 d aim 10 bt rl'al'. T hs ,.e,,., ol tlll' 1\orld ar(' o11h tn.tdt a1ailahlt through loan1' ~~1 ~prcsc nt ati~. t) J . Th<, 11111'1 bl' , ;, ,torit' wriuen . patlll'd. lilmtd 01 sung ancl plancl. \\'t lll'Cd to pa1 a u tntion tn tht 1\';t\, in which the ,,orld i~ ponraHd (or l'l'-pl'l''l'llttcl ) in all -.orh uf ml'dia (Du nn m .111cl l.!\. 1 99~; B;-arnes :t nd Du1H < 111. 1q!l ~ J. litis b H'tl di lkrrH 1rwn Si!!I!T. ~ lll' 1 id. that a t 111t ll ll' is sin2.Hb ginn lo u' in thl' landsC".t>l' that 1\L' ca~t "i ~h our .,,,n t'\'l'' \\:;-; tw d w be auenti\' 1d1olt 'l't it' ol llt'\\ IJI Il'Stinn' abont any repre,en tatinn: 1\'h~cl ll ckcl? What is lcG ou.t.:...!\'hal 1 !\ lt' :aim? \\'lt:n are th e in llt ll'll Cl'';. \\'hat llll'dia haH IH't'll tl ~td and Whl';. \\'h~lLi' tl~t' mil' of' tlw audil'nre ? .-\~ain thtre 1\ill lx~~np lt' lwlow. Thesc <llcstio n,, all rui't' i" llt'' of' 1\'lt:ll \\'l' can call 'poc tic, - tlw 1\'a\ in ll'l1irh something i' rl'pl't'St'lllt'd - atHI r onnecl t lwm Lo jo;;<;ue~ of' 'pnlitirs' - tht pol\'t'l'-ladl'n relation, lti ps IK' l\\'t'l'll ,nci:1 l !-\'I'OI IJlS :111cl indidch1 alo;;. \\'l' ~ hall s<t IHJ\\' tllt'\' also inmll'l' spans, pl:tC'l'S a ncll:u1cl scap l'~. All Lhl'l-t' ll L'\\' r eHlt'l' l'll < wi 1h gtograph,. pol\'('1' and rcpre.<enta 1ion ma 1 '1.. ,, ilJsta 11 t ial difl'erenCl'S hl't\\'!'t' ll lhl' 'old ' ulltlral ;-.., "l'!IO'I~1J)h\ and thl' ' lll'\\'. r ultura l "l'cwral)lt\' ;-, . (A ndcr~oll a nd (::ak. 1\J\1~). l'htl lt:t,.l. at-.o lwl'n imt n in tht itH'I't':t,ing ~mpon~u1n ol cu lt mal gograplll ancl in tlll' 1\';t~,. in 1\hich it ha~ ~uh,.tant i:tlh lltflucnnd tltt d i,riplin t ol gcog rapl11 .1' a 1d10k as ,,e lla~ nmtrib11ti ng a ne\\' a nglt to
~~ ~

1 38

lntrod ucing Cultural Studies

Topographies of culture: geography, power and represenlalion


in thc " o rld . Social. econo111ic. poli t i c~d al1(1 personal rc lati o n ~ hips a rt clc lin ed throu)!,' h cultural mcnning. The rc are man1 ex~ un pJc, oJ' th i~ i1 1 ll'ltat /'o ll ow.~: batllc!' hetii'CC n classcl' Ol'l' l thc meaning and namin~ of urban p1.1tt'' : gcnderccl conrtich me1 thc na1nre of nationali,m: and tltt competing ddinitiom of rotcial identitko;. In pan this is abou1 a ccilbration of dirrcrcnce (p. I :~t{). lt i' abou t rcali.;ing that 1hcrt j. a p l u ra li t~or cultlliTS a ncl a lllnlripl icity o! geogr;1pllit' Ho"e,er. tlnlike fo r S:nwr. this is ab o a realisatin n tha t th ese grou p<. a re o rtl'll ma king me;1nings in thc 'all1 (' placcs and .trc bound w cach other thrnugh rdation' of pown and rc.sistance (p. ~:1~) rathn than peaccfulh occup1ing ' 'cullllrt .Jrta,.

Defining concept 4.1

the emergence of new social movements (feminism (p. 120), gay rights, black struggles, the greens) and create Lhe social basis for identity (p. 224) polilics. The celebration of difference brings difficullies of ils own. The relations belween groups are power relations which mark off who is lo be included and excluded and therefore entail valuations of relative worth made in lhe context of material interesls. The policy of 'separate developmenl' in apartheid South Africa was not sirn ply about maintaining cultural differences. Also, the plurality of identities available can make for some strange alliances: for example, bell hooks (p. 223) (199 1: 59) observes lhal 'sexism has always been a political stance medialing racial domination, enabling white men and black men lo share a common sensibility about sex roles and lhe importance of male dominalion'. Rights lo difference, il seems, can only be sustained within an agreed fra mework of righls and provision universal to all members of a sociely. Furlhl'r rmding
Grossberg, L. (1996) 'ldentity and cultural sllJdies: is that all there is?', in S. Hall and P . du Gay

Essentialism and difference

Essentialism is the doctrine that ascribes a fixed property or 'essence' as universal toa particular category of people. To propase that women are good childcarers because they are women, that black people are good at sports because they are black, that jews are good at arguing because they are jews - all because 'they are like that' - is to engage in essentialist thinking. The basic principies of stereotyping any cultural grouping operates on essentialist lines. In cultural studies L here is a wariness of essentialist reasoning for al least four reasons: (1) positing supposedly 'essential' characteristics often simply involves lhe reproduclion of the prejudices of one group aboul another- essenlialist reasoning imposes a partial sel of judgements grounded in the situation and interesls of one social group upon another; (2) essentialist accounls of persons and activities as 'typical' usually irwolve enormous overgeneralisation which ignores the differences between lhe members of a category (are al/ women really like that? al/ black people); (3) il fo llows lhat essentialist reasoning cannol explain why these differences within a category exisl in the firsl place; (4) essentialist doctrines are especially pernicious when they poslulale lhe presence of essenlial characteristics as a malter of biology and genelic inheritance. The allernalive lo essentialism is some form of social constructionist account. The protolypical view here is surnmed up in Simone de Beauvoir's statement: 'one is not born a woman; one becomes one'. Social conslructionism emphasises the part played by social learning in lhe acquisilion of supposedly 'essential' characlerislics and can be regarded as a more realislic point of view which is beller equipped to do juslice to the diversity of experiences encountered by persons within a calegory. Constructionism does nol have it all its own way, however. Sorne would maintain that we can speak of 'black music' or claim lhat only 'black' people can fully appreciate it on lhe basis of lheir shared origins and common experiences. Cultural studies tends towards a valorisation of differences and a corresponding cognition of the plurality of idenlities to which persons can lay claim. Some of these entilies arise from the increasing scale and complexity of rnodern societies (class, c~r pa tion, educatlon, rae e, gender, regional and national identities). Olhers derive fr':

(eds) Queslions of Culturalldenlity, London: Sage. Sarup, M. ( 1996) ldentity, Cvltvre and the Postmodern World, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University

Thepoetics ond politcs of representotion

Thc kl'\. pni nt htn , that lltHkr,tanding rulrttll'' , 1101 a qttntion of unckt 'tancling ;11r objccti1e n:.liitl rlt:n can bt li >und oul tiHn iu the ,,orld. l'hc implication of 1d1at 1tasjm1 bec11 ''1id abo1e , tha l llll're are m :1111 dif fcn:n1 realitit.,; each colil'l'II I' ha ~ a vic1~; of t11 e \\'Orle1 \\'11 ich Clll e laim L O be rca 1'. T lwse ,.t 11s o f' 1he ,,o riel art n n h m a d e ;\\'aiGblc thruugh lonm ol cprcsentat~n_(p. ()1 ). Th~111~1 hl' spnken a' o;torie~. wriucn. paintccl. lilmcd nr 'llliK ami pl;l\t'd. \\'e nccd w pa' :tll<'tllion ro tl1t' wayo; in whirh rlH' ,,orle! i~ ponra~t<l (ot lt'-pn,entl'cl ) in all '011' ol ntedia ( DIIIH :111 .m<l 1!)!)~ ; Bal'll l'S ll(l nun can. 1~1!1~). Tlr is is \'<'1 ~ di l'rt'l'!'ll l !'n un.Si.L.ill'l'.' bc lief 1l] :t~ l 11 11'l' is ~in~ !{\'l'll lO li S in Lht' hutcl,cape thal liT f :111 .1C,:l' 1\'i th Oll l' f.ll\'1 1 C~T~. \\'e lltNWJ>t' :ll ll'lltil'e u a "ltok 'l'I' C' nf' 11t'\\' qm, t iun~ .thout :111\' rtpn,tnta tion: 1d1a1 i~ inc l ucled~ \\'hujs lel'l or 11 :. \\'hat ~~ 1 w aim ~ \ \'hat an tlll' inllnenn~~ \ \'ltat mldia ha~lt't~ccl .... .--. and 1\'111':- \\'haU, tlw rok o( thc oll1dienec: .\ gain there 11ill lll' mam c:xamp!t, bclu11. Thcsc qucstion ' al1 r:I'l' is'lll'' ul' ,,hat '''l' can cal! 'mc lic, - 1lw "'"'' in \\'hich something is re prcscntcd - and r on ncct lill'lll 10 ,~ liC" ol' poli lics - tht poll'er-ladcn rl'lationshi p' hl'l\\'Ce n social ~nntp~ ancl incli,ic lt tak \\'e ~ h a ll 't'l' ho\\ tht'\' :tl'o l1\oh-e ~pace~. plan, and lan<lo;cape'. Allthl'j:l' IH'\\ tomcrn' 11ith geograplll. pm't'l .md rqJn''l'lli:Hion nw1!.. ,u1h1011llial diffc l'lnct' l>c ll''l't'll tlll' 'old' nd tttral geogr:1 1l h ~ and ll H 'tll'\\'. cu lr m;tl gtngra ph ~ (r\1 rde r,nn :md ( ::1lc:. 1~~ H~). Tl ll'~ haw a lso ht't'll il1'11'llrlll'l11 ;d in tht inrrt'asing imponann ni n rlt ural gtogr;1ph1 and in tite \\'al~ in 11'lt it' h it has sn b' t ~IIHia lh influcnnd tlw cli,riplim of wogr;p[, a\ a" ho1t a-; ,,cll a' CCHitrihuting a lll'\\' anglc LU


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Topographies of culture: geog raphy, power and representation 141

th e co nc e pt ua li ~<Hinn of ctd lt tra l studic<> (:'\ lru ll'ss. l ~l\Ji)a). \\"hc:tl wr 1h i' cnntinues in1 o the ruture rc:main' tu be ~ee n . \\'hat lhe re;r o l 1h i' ch< tpter ll'i ll do is to consider snmc o thc ,,.a,s in ,,hiclt tiH.'Sl' concenh ,,ith po,,er ancl re pre~e ntatinn hc lp us to unci<'rs1and culllt t'f' ' gcngraphies. So l~r 11e ha\'e tt,ed 1he e rucia 1 ~e n ns space, place and landscape (p. 1-1 1) ll'i tiHHIL any refkc:u.on . 1Jo,,e,e r, the' are I'C l'\ nnponam to what lo iJm,.s an d ncecl <;omc preliminar)' d efi n tl.lon , althou_{h ll must be renwn1bcrccl that 1lwse dcllnilions are. Jike al! represenwtio ns. <illl'als rontcslecl in \\':1\'s 1hat \\' 11 be explon:d 1h roug houl 1he ehapter 0 cxplorc cultur;d ~eographies (see .JohllStnn t'l al.. 19~1-l ). l 1sing th cs~ tenns \\'(' gu on 1 at ,arious scale.s rro m the loca l to llll' global, staning \\'ilh 1he 11a~s in ,,hich ,,e can uncl er~ Land ideas or p lace:- - ata Inca) lel'f.l - in L e rms o r Clil lund politics and c:-ncling With ,,a~s o 1hin king th i'Oltg-h our posilio ning ,,it hin prncesse~ o f glo balisation (p. 1:19). This chapter liso mo,e ~ 1h ro ttglt clitTeren 1 1\'a~s in wh ic h cu lture 's geograph ics can be co n ce pu t :tli~c d ; staning from thc id ea~ of conncctio ns to p lace:- ;md representatiuns of those places which make 1he m m c:-~ningfttl and , by the cnd or 1hc chaptcr, conside ring issues of hybridity (p. 159) and syncrctism ll'hich m e:-~ n 1ha1 \\'C all ha\'t l o rc lh ink notions of Oll r p lace n the \\'Orld. Jn be l\\'('("11 ll't' consider the d iffercntm eanings of the urban and 1he rura l in te nm ol' the poll'e r relations of class. ge mkr and race that they t'C\eal; thc "'"Y that terrilories illld landscapc' are implicated in tlw making of nationa1 id en litics; aml thc poll'er rc la1ions lhat :-~re a crucia l pan of'und e rsl :mclin ~ hol\' lhe \\'cst hns representl'cl thc Eas1. In cac h case - ancl 1\'C shall be in 1roducing a larie ty of II H.:orctical pe rspccti1es - 1he re are di tferent 11a~s of thinking th roug h the con nections be l\\Ten geog r;lph~. power and rcprcsentalioJL Ho"c,c r. each in.'>lancc also rcinl'orces o ur claim that cu ltura l stuclies necds tn think abotll cul ltlre's geogr::~phi es beca11se of the ways in 11h ich 1hat can in\'Oive a rc1hinking o f how we conceptua lisc:- culture .

' col/cejJI efiuing



Space, place and landscape

Considering space means considering the ways in which, in 'reality' or 'representation', the distribution of things and activities, the formation of boundaries and patterns of movements are both culturally produced and part of the construction of culture. The spaces that we inhabit, whether they are lhe sacred and profane spaces of an African village or of Wall Street, are intimately bound up with the ways in which we live out our lives.


Considering place (see the more extensive disc ussion below) means considering the in which particular locations are important in the making of a cultural world. Our understandings of the world are tied closely to the ways in which we construcl and con test the meanings of particular, often named, places. For example, the ways in which certain meanings of 'home' are used to support specific understandings of how families ) should work, or how understandings of 'London' capture the different political and economic relations of North and South.


Lo mismjJP
Considering landscape means considering how both an area and the look of that area are laden with meaning. 'Reality' and 'representation' are not easily separated here and the objecl of sludy can be a city skyline or a country scene in oils. What is at issue is the ways in which areas and representations of them are part of our cultural worlds. This rneans os Angeles skyline can be read as an assertion of the power of big money and , that the L that depiclions of cerlain sorts of rural landscapes have been made to representj particular notion of Englishness.

4.21 The power of place: locality, language and culture

\\'hile the brie f ck+initio n or 'place' (p. 14 1) i.s a stan, it d oes not really capture the d iffcre nt ,,ay,<, in ll'hich this con ccpt can be used Lo connect geograph ~ and cultural me;:aning . \\11<11 this scction aims lo do is to consider some of thc ,,ays in ll'hich p laces (ht:re unclcrstood '" thc localle,el al liwugh that is by 11 0 means the n nly sc;tle a l \\'hich place is important) arc g inn mean ing. \\'hat iL sho11s is that undcr~landing places in terms o power (p. 9-1). esistance (p. 2!)~) ancl representation (p. 61) d ocs much 10 ( ill u mi na te hn,, cul lural II'Orlds are cons1i'HCtcd and con tested . In o rder 1n 11 nderstand lhis, holl'eH' r, it. is necessaJ\ ' LO begin ,,ith an approach LO p l ;-~cc thal consiclers its mcanings in a rathcr d ilfere nt \\'a~

peoplc's relatiomhips to tlic \\'orld h~ nsing plii losopli ics that conccntratt:rl o n how pcople know, understancl and rcspo ncl 10 tlw ir tmironments (pliilosophics 0 1he mat hsueh as cxiste ntialism a nd phc: nomcno log\'). Tht' ' e ,,er(' an an 1idol<:' 1 cmatica l stuclics o f human re l ation~hips 1 0 space the n d omi nant 11ilhin geography which largc ly ignorecl people 's meaningl'ul re la1io nships in l~t,our o r a l'ision or them as 11'110 11 ~ ratinnal be ings. Fo r Tuan. p lace ,,as to be uncle rsloocl in tt:rms of meani ng: Pince . .. ha<; more sttfJ,tancc titan tl u.' "ord lot alion suggests: it i;; a uniquc cnlity. a 'special ensemble': iL has a histoJY and u1 ctning. Place incarna1cs thc cxpelience and aspirations of <t peopJe .... 1111 , ... reait\' tn be cJarifiecJ <111(1 llllderSlUO d from tht perspec1i1es ol' liH' p<:opk 11'1 10 ha\'t' K \'C 11 il ml'aning-. ('-Fn Tuan . 197-1: 213)


1Philosophies of place

Ideas o r ' place', senst' of place' and 'plact:lcssncss' \\'(Te central lO lhl' \\'Ork or early human istic geograp hers like Yi-Fu Tuan a nd Ecl\\'ard Rclph . T hey trice! 1o think throngh

142 lnlroducing Cultural Studies

Tht,t geographcr' 'ou~ ht a nnin rsal unck t ~tanding o!' thl' r h:u artcri~t i c~ of ,pan and place. IH'Iie1ing th :n tht~ co uld make ~ talt'tllt' tH.s about tn ea nings. feelings and tnw tional re lation~hi iJ.~ to pla('t' th:11 all ind i\'iclna ls sharcd. At tilllt'' this bl'CIIIl t' tootcd i 11 biolugY: \\'t tlt'l'cl ... to bl' rnnindt'cl ol ~patial lwrnptioll' ami ,al lit' ' th:u are grouml\:<1 on comll\011 tr.til' i11 hiolog1 .uHI lwnn tr:m<cen<l tlll' .trhiuariness u f rlllttltt. . \1 tho11gh ~p: 11 ial t olltt'J>h .md hehadoural IMllt'lll ' 1.11'1 t'llot mot"h. 1he1 .lit' all IIJO tl'd i11 tiH' o rig in:tl p:ttl bt' lll't'l'll both .tnd 'pace. (\-Fn ru:nl. 1 ~)/.J: ~ 1\1 ) ltl,tv:Hl ol'thc dil'l'ertntts tl' cu lture, thtn 1,as aucntion l<t ~u r h ' ba~i c' 'patial rthuions as ' np!C imnt . ' b ack J'mtll ' and centrt 1wriph c ry'. Su m l' o f thi .; can b e ~ee n in Tablc 1.1 1d1L' re T uan di1 idt'' plan, into l\\'0 sOtt': p11hlic '~ mblll' a nd flc l<l ~ o f cart. 1'11blic '"nboh ' lldt a' motlllllll'lll''. an1,ork,. b~tildi n~:. ami citie' an p lace<. becaUM' th t'\' can nr~a ni'e 'P:tCt' into t'l' tlltt'' ol meaning ... ctntrcs of 1alm :llld ~ igniflca nce ' (Tnan, 1!17 1: ~:1~1 ). Tht'l art p lact' that .are comri o11"1~ m acle. a n d thcir me:ming~ ll rc co n ~c iously n aan ipul:tt ed . Fit lcb of c :t rc :lit' l)lan. s 1hat becumt tllt':llt in g ful as l' lltot iona lll c hargtd n: lations hips lll'l\1ccn pcopk fi tul an an chorag t ill a panic ular site tlt rottgh repet i t iu tt a IHI f'am i liari t1 . fh c1 art \\l'll-1mrn :111(1 ,,.t ll-lond corners' wltich bccom e llll'aningful t ltrnttg h th t wm., in \\'hidt reJlated use bi11d'i th l'm into thc rda tionsh i p~ bet\\'t't'll 1wople and IHtild' up a :.tonh ou~t ol mtmorie, a n d "'"Otiatiom. T here j; a dl'linitt moralme,~agt htn.. lking roo ttd in 'atlllll'ntic' pl.tces is nlt'aningful and Kood . 'Fie lds ol r:trt are twttcr' - nwrt tlll':lllingfnl - th an pnblic !-ymbols'. Tltcrc j, ;d\Cl ,( ~e me Of 1h l' lO\\ Of' phtct'S 1h rottgh tite hOlllOg't'll j, , j ng f'orCL'S of' th l' lllod n n \\'o rld amlthrottg h ll'a\'t'i. 1,hic h '"''more titan a fe,, e c lto ts of Carl Sauer (Tu:tll , lU74; Rl'lplt . 19/(i). Fur th t'M' tltinkt-r- . thett. :tltac ltmen t to p lan (n11de rqood as a 'lll'ld of C:tt'e' ) \ though t o f ;l\ IIII HT!'al. indi\idua i<.lC a ncl a goocl thing. "!It ere are. ltO\\'CI'(T, othtt w;m; of th inki ng a bm11 p lace.

Topographies of culture: geography, p ower and representalion


4.. 2 2 1Critica! understandings of place

rowards the geographies of intersubjective lifeworlds
l)arid Lt'\' ( 1 98~) ha' arg lll'd that \ -Fu Tuan , prl'~l' nla ti on ol' p lace , essentialis t (p. -p l.tCt' rd.lliothh ip'> tha t hotel lor a ll pl'opk. all p lan., 13s). 1t attetnpts to ddim IWopk and ;llt illle' \\'hat Lt' \ '-llg){e:.t' is that \\t' nted to nnder,t:tlld hm, dillerent plopk, relations h ip~ to plact a re difTe rc lll. Ew n il thc re are ~omc 't,, in th i' rl'lation sltip. tlwn " h a t tll(.' clifl'e re n cl'' ttll u~ !. mure lllt ' t 'l'~t in g than ;;am c ness. lltt'' l' rel<llion~hips can o nl~ be go t a t thmtt ~h g muncll'cl. con ttxtual and 'pec ific s utdit ~ nf holl' plans are 1>art of 1d1at Le~ c tll < ( lm n o \\ing a lt' rlll front hllmatli,Lic p hilosop l11 ) tltl' ' Ji Ct\,orlcls' o f' dilkrcnt gro n ps rath tr tha11 ~~~ ab~t l ~ICL th <.nri,ing. Thi ~ a h o lltl'<lll\ 11 01 j 11,t :;a~ in g t h al pl.t<'l'' are mean in gful btll 11 ling to g tt ~olll t' han elle on ,,h at 1ho:.t' 111 eanings are a ll(lt n i11g 10 ,h0\1' )H)II' th t, .tl't' difl'ere11 t for cliff<.rtnt ' group'. Slll h studics ,hm, a gttlttim CO il Cl' t'll !'ot tite III O I'C' ' t'H' t'Hi a~ g'l'Og'l':tphic s' oJ' liJe pl:t l.'l'~ ll 1\'ltich 1\'t I H' and labou r: for th e holl~ts. 'l l'l'l' ts. bnorics. ollict's. schools.litl<k parks. ci nl'ma~ a11d so on \\'hnc ,,.t. >[)t' tH I nH" t u l o ur da'' a ncl :tbottl wltidt 1\'t 1111,1\oidabl~ d l'ldo> a .!111\1' of j1lfllt' - .1 rudilllt'tllat ~ un<kt 'tandi11g ni ho1' Lhb plan '1\111 J.., :111<1 a n aggil).: fcding wwanh thi' plan of liking . !01 ing. hatiug..ttttpting. rej<.cting. '" 1dta tCH'L (CioJ..l' 11 o/.. 199 1: 1{ 1) \\'ha t les b e ltind t ll is , an idea thal nt canings a re c re ated ' intnsubjccti n h' bc twccn peopll' (snl!itns ) in ' local' places. lt is social g roups tllat ntakc meaning' :tncl makt places m ea ni ng fni 1h mug h socia 1 itll('l':tt'l ion. The~e root c d ro n stcllatio n s of' sh;trcd mea ning ' a r e ' lil tl,or ld <.' (l,e coulcl also call thcm culture:.) and we can St't' tlla t thcsc a re tied into p:utindar p iares. In sh otl. \ll' ran bcgin tn ta l k a h o ut 'local c ultu n.:< bo nn d up wit h p aaticul;u p l an~. l h e p robkm th tn btcntnl'' one of u ncle t'$ta ndi n g thcse meanings. t h e ' e ' local rulturts'. il \\'l' a ae nm pan nf tha t c ulture. One :.olut io n. bo rrm,td from tht Am t t ican ant h ropo logist (.]if'f'ord Cet av (wh o 11 \L'S th c te rtlt ' ]ora l ktlllll'kd g-<s ) is tn 1h i 11 k abo u t t lt e rn '" tt' :>: 1~ or l anguagl'~> tltal r< t" b e i nterprL'tccl a~ long as \\'(.' t Ta li ~c that 1\'l' are :di pan of ' lor;tl knm,leclges a nd Lltat workin g h c t\\'t'l' tl thc m is a m a ll n o f illlttjm tation n o t /J flllllolio11 ( Cce rtL. l~ l~:h). Thinking throug h ' lif<world ~ nH":IIl'\. th trefore. th inki n g ahtllll p iare. langu agc .mcl cult u n. in tenm ol ho\\' pl ace~ are colltn i,th' made meaninghtl. lt d oe' not. h <me\ct . mea11 thi nking about powc r.

Table 4.1 Place and meaning Places as public symbols (High imageability) Sacred place Formal garden Monument Monumental architecture Public square Ideal city
Source: Tuan (1974: 237)

Places as fields of care (Low imageability) Park Home, drugstore, tavern Street corner,neighbourhood Marketplace Town

Power and place: the constitution of society

A seri es of m o r e ...ociological u nde rstandin g:. place bega n lO introduce n oLOil\ o r powcr rcla tions into our wms of u ncll'r~ta n ding localities. In patt th is continu c d the earticr humanists' intt't'l'"l in h011' placl'<. a rt ro n st ructed through t h t in t tT~l.ction ol peo plc's rou tine mmt 'IIH'Ill ' ami act i\'i t ie~ {tlw \\'a,~ in whic h rt' p l tition makt, ' lit'Jcl, o r care') all(l a l!>o th e ir implil'cl intne~l in hm, tlt t' po\\'erf~t ltn:tke placts through lll:tkillK public ~ymbo ls. l loll'('\'tr. a lll' \\' ancl cx plic it in t Nt'~ l in tllt cltr., t:uading the ll'orld itl



lnlroducing Cu ltural Studies

Topographies of cu ltltre: geography, power and represenlalion


1('1'111, ol IIH l'owtT rclations lwtwcen 'oc ia! gro up., lounclthc l':trh humani,,, :1 11 aly~is 11.111ting (c.g. Ro-.t. l!l!l:\). In turntl!i-. wao; ccn 1pkd 11ith a rt'l!l).(llitioll that !lit' ,,o Id was 1101 bt'UliiiIIg lllolt' IH>IlHlgtIHlll' but that tht dili't'l'l'll{t'' hetll't't'll plaCt'' and thc lllcrcolntUethlt'" ol pl.tce' 11a;; nucial w tht way' i11 ll'hich ,oti.ll. poltica! and tconomic \ltucturts .tncl ,ocia! rclatiolh optrattd (t ht da,,i c c'\amplc , :\las~er, 19Hl). 1hi, ,,;1\ of under~tan d ing p lace' in ll'l'lll\ of both lllt'ir incli\idualitl ;md their llttrckpt'llclencc can be seen in .John :\){ne11s ( 19~7) Plrut 111111 fJultin. HtTC he unclc r~IUIJCI place a, ha,ing thrce dimemion,: loe ale (plan ,1, tht wuing lor action. e.g. Parliamtnt or a ci11); Iocation (thc locale a' '"' '''ithin 11 ickt ~orial rclation'. e.g. the po~ition of th c cit~ ll'ith rcspect Lo national politic' 01 glnhaltcononlic rle1T iop111ent); ancl 't'll'l' ofplacc ( the subjecti\'e dimensiono; of'pl:lrt') . . \lltlwo;e 1\'t'l't' to he unclerstood as hound tngc th cr. anc\ all 'ocial. economic, politiral :1ncl 1 tlltural rd11iom ,,ere ultdl'l',tCHld a~ madc 11ithin panic ular places. anc l madt uf' pmnT rl' la tions. T h e dctails of thi' :ll't' not importanl. l t io;, hm,en'l'. l'italto note th at tlw l:ul guagt' li t "'es a11d his 11';1\' or 1111! krs ta ncling p lace i11\'0hT 'pra c\ ices'. 'pn~jech . '1'(} 11 11\ t' soci:1 J i11 tc rac t io n ', 'rollslrai nt s'. 'sl ru ctures'. 'lime-s pacc paths' . ' n oclc:-' and so on. lt is :1 socological lnllg ll:tg<' (st'<' .\ g- tH'\\' ami Dunran. l9H~l ) ami i' not pri111aril~ conctTII<'cl ll'i tlt th e lllC'I prctation ol c ultures. For cxamplc. for ont o f tiH~t a ttl!wr., n illlll't' i' 1Cl be undtrstood as 'a compltx ~cdimcnta ti on ul tite ~llii C llll .llion proct,~ (Pnd. l ~JS -1: :?H ll . \\'h a t 11'1.' 1\':tllt to argue i ~ th<ttthc cldicicncit'' ancl 'li'l'ttgtlt' ot' tlt1. ' lil(,\orld' ,,.a, of uncltr,tancling place and th<.: social constitution or stnlrtlll-:llion 1\:t\ ol under,tanding place are complt meman. In the fonner then ,a ckar a ncl ' thid..' no tion o f cult ure but a ''t'tY 1\"cal..h clc,clopcd scnse or po11cr relati<Hl'. In tlw l.llltT tiH:rc i~ a strong sense th:n pi.Ke~ are madc within ''Tbs ofpo,,er rel::uiun~. hut thi~ i~ roupkd ll'ith a ,en 'thin' notio11 of cuhn1T. \\'hat can be Ten in discu,~ion' ol pl.ttl' nm' i' that tltt ba,ic building block' of the'c two ;.on '> ofthinking abmn place are bl'ing put togttlttt in dillcrcnt ,,a) b1 difl( rcm people in order to undtr,tand culture in wrm' o l pmn:1 .1nd power in lt'l'lll\ n i cu lture. \\'e ll'ill gi\'t'' ont example h ert.

f igure 4.3

Pred on place. (Source: adapted lrom Pred, 1989 and 1990b.)

(ind difl'ercnt "orcl,, phrasts. 'a~ ing', nallle-; a ncl meaning~ 1\'ltirh ' l'l that place apa 11. The reason for 1h i~ conntc t' plac<' and latt){u:tgc to practice. 1n t'W' t"l plan t h trt are diiTerent tHeanings (a dilknn t l:tnguagt) because each plac(' ill\'Oh't'' (linertnt matnia l practi et~ " ltic h gt nNatt th me nw< llting;.. The hiswn of a plat'e i' tht hi ~t t1ry of itS pr:tctil' t'~- O ( 1\'0I'k. of hnllll', 11( p J a~ - ll'ltOSC COI111Jinati oi1S < 11" ( lllliCJtlt' lU th a t place ~ i\'t' it llH'<tning. 1t slwu ld be nowd that. t'o r l'rccl . lang llotg't' prl' tl\' 111UC: h stancls in f'o~ , ' lid \I'O I'cl S pre ,' JllLJCh Sl:t ll d ll for (anguage. ,\\ lH' p11tS it , ex p eri nwnting ll'itlt langnag 1 ~ 1 1': \\'nrtb ~po ktn in p lau. /lkaning~ lll:tck in pl.n. . \\'or(l\ alHinwanillg'' htrt. hut (h~~:.l9K~I: ~ l l l ""\
11 01



1Culture, power and place: Stockholrn 1880-1900

In S<'\tral diiTcrcnt con ttxts .-\llan Pred has 11Tiltt' tl abnut holl' placcs are implicatccl in t h e transformations of poll'cr relations a n d lif'ell'orlds. a ncl abotll h nw pcoplc's lang-uag<s and d:tl' lo-day pnKtices of lile. lcwe anc\ lahour art II'O\'l'll in a nd thrnugh th OSl' p la ccs. T h e cxampk that \\'{' \\':1111 tu takt i' rrol\1 his II'OI'k C)Jl late lliiH'lC'L'Ilth('L'J\liii'YS tocklwlm \1hic h sceks to rccmtr nl t'a llingfu l \\'c)rcls and n dtur:ll ll'orld' lst in tita l ci ty' s jin-t/-,,;rf m odern i~at ion ( Prtcl. 1990a and 1 99~b}. 1n o clcr to tllldtr~ t and wlt y Prccl work ~ to re co,er the lost ll<llllt'S for tlt in gs. J)l'<lplt. p lace!\ and pract ice' 11e lli.'Cd to look a t th e tltcorc ti ca l framellork ,,ithin wltid1 hl' und er~ta ncl' place. Figu1e -1.:) ~hm,s t ite arch itccture or Pred\ ,,ay ot tlt inking. 1 k i' concc rnecl with ' thc localh 'Jloktn 1\'0rcl' ( 1989: 2:)0) - an intimatc Cl>llltt'CIon bt'II\'Ct'll place and langnagc ,,h ic h mean!> that t'ITIT place has a clitlercntlanguagt. In adt pl;.ce mu can

St't~~'"''"Ht'4.-;lrc. . :Jtt.l.i' 1101 thtre. cach or the poilll~ of tht triangk n<.:ecls (() be undtr~tood in ttnn' ol po\\'tr. Tite pranices th at make plac<'s are forgcd 1\'thin social rdation~ ol el,,,,, race and gend<'r ,,hich cxtend ,,.a, bcqmd tht bounclaril'' ol any particulat pl:tn. .\leanwhilc. th e 'pecific relationship~ bel\\CCII rapital all{l l.ll)() u r. men and women. bl.1ck atlCI whitc, ~hape thc pbrcs within ,,h ich the'e n I.uiomhip' art lired out. Finall~. tht'\l' rdatiom h ip~ of po,,er also \lruclllre the l a nguage~ that art spokcn. dillen:ntiating tlwm bt' I\\Ten more or Iess po11erfu l o;ocial group' .111cl t~ ta bJi,h ing their 1\'nrd' ancl mrani11go; a' I'ta l pan~ of the ne~o t iations ami conflicts bt'll\'t't'n th em. This i~ . ltoll'l'\'l'r, rather ab..,11 art and it is t':tsicr to sce how it ,,ork~ throug-h looking at what he makes or tite lOS! 1\'0rcls or nine tcenth-ccmury Stockholm. Broadh', l 111 Ca ll ~ that in h is \\'ork rt'Colcring' t h e se lost words - and th c rcforc lnst practicl's :tnd lost con n cctiuns lw twt't' ll pcoplc's li1-cs ancl th c piares in whic h th c~ lilnl - i~ also th e reco1e r~ of lost lil'l's. T lwrt art. a~ h e sa,s. lmt \1orlds as wd l as lo. ' L 1\Ttrd' ancl \\'llill S\l tYii'C." ur b t'orgollt' tt is :1 maLtcr nf p owcr. Thi~ is p e rltaps nHlSl ,.i,icll~ St't'll in ltis diSC IIS~OJl o f' plan: JlalllC'. Box -1. 1 l't prucltlt:es ~olllt' of tht 'IITl'l ancl p lace namcs that Prtd cli ~ut sst~. l'I11.:V al! come from a Stnckh ollll ( 1HHO- 1\100) t lta t was u ndergo i ng ca pi t alist mockrn isat ion an cnornHHIS tra n,fonnation ol' it~ l'Co tt nn ti c. poltica! ancl !loc ial rdation' :ntd its gcographie\ .. \ , tht c i11\ 'paces .md p l an~ ai1Cl thc ways ot lil'e 11'ithi11 tlll'lll ,,.lre lhrown itHo tunnoil. ~o 1\':t~ tlw lang uage of g-<'lling a round that cill. Pl.'oplt tH'l'cled ways of' oricnting thl'liiSl'h'tl' in spacc. the1 nceded to be abk to dirl'Cl thl'lll.'-<.'h-t' and
Ycl, lO


lntroducn g Cultural Studies

Topographies of culture: geography, power and representation

14 7


Changing Stockholm place names

T1, 0

\\T I t'

adckcl latn:


\ urdith mtlltm 1

p ,-o 111i llt' llf 1111 11 utt/1111

""'".![_\' a llfltngi 111'1 ri11g


Folk geography
Pub' .111<1 t.tft' natntd after thcir uwrawr':
.11/JoK-1 111 A.'n llfllr:llilln- 1\.arlherg:. 11ift

Think .lhOIII tlw clillt)l'IH l'' bt'l\\l'l'll lht''l' 1( O \\ are tl tC' ll:JIIll'' <ildckd in each


or ~l lel' l .tncl place llilllll''


01 !lttit .{t'ographic origith:

N_ r,/:ml- tite Ru., ,ia tt 11oman
.~/:o !lll:o 11- lht 11oman fruan Skaaw

\\'hal role dot'' humo 111 pb11 in cach case:

1Iow h.Jil' d a" ancl gt'tHkr pla1cd

parl in 'ltaping thl'~C' namc,;.

\ (llu:

Pt<d ( l!l\11/a .Htd 1\l!l:!aJ

or tlttir real nr imagi tt ed dtarancri,tin -: 1orlmt fmn - the heallliful ,,.,-<' 1/o/ta /.o//(1 \ - Ltntt' Lot tas
(;ftlllllllln -

urinal ing)

C:l a~~ 1\;~rl,,ol t' (a rdi:rcnn to his dt'ptttd tnn o 1t a gla~s lltl>e for

1 tlw t h a r:1neri.~t i c' oftht' ph1ce:

Fllllt'll - !ltt' s lt abb~ pla('c f..'fl/1.1 /~)flingm- tlt t .-\rtiflcial Fenili;cr IJiitlm i /:'Yitl/1- lkath in thL pm Umlnlrilt 11- l'lt t ' 1.o u el Fan

~lll''t' mt~ of lt 111110ll r or irom a J,o ex te nded to tlw name' fi>r otlt 1..- part- o f tlw
Cll 1 :

:-Jilitan ltou,ing- A.' onlmltlll- ' all'.tg-t ban~tck, Polit l' ,,Ilion- Tmjnl - tite croft \\'ot J..hmt'l'- F~tlfirn- lltt meeting place \at ohl'fi,k In King Chrar 11 - A.' nngtn\ ftllidf111fllr- lltt Ki11g\ lootltpitk /'y/1/mtl:rn - Boo;e H i 11 .\'/ilt/wlmul- Stanal ion l ' ll't - for a HT\ p<>or par1 of' tit e , i11 Sllolilnrillllt'/1- 1lre Snobg u tl tr - f'or prontc llatk in lhl' Rm.1l (:ardt 11 , .\fttltogn,\l'il{oma - :'llalwgall\ \ 'illa, - Jr a po01 arc.1 o l'II<.IO<k n hou~ ., 1

Official geography
Fror11 lH:-\!"1 tite l': ll cgo ric~ li11 \lr<.:et nanws 1\'c rc:
/ )rrlrintit

hi llorimlllrl/111'.1

.\ 'ol'llir 111,1 lh olog1 Ftl/111111 1 filfff'l'.l 11m r tlu f'ilr '1'/11' .10// // ('/'11 jJIII! ' /1('('1 .

l'l11 norll11'111 Jmn i111 f ' \

and lo arr allg'L' lllt'l' 1i ng p lace.' . Tlt us 1'red 1rae e~ a burgcon ing 'l'olk or popu br a I;Jngll:lgt oJ' 1d1a1 lit' rall.; ' fovtin g it aro tt nd rlw city' ( t~in g 1ogvth er words, plans all(l pr:1 cl i ce.~ l. Tlt , l:mg uagt h;1s ccnain charactt' rsl ics. l1 i' ' loca 1 ' a1 1<1 prac ticc b:1sed. \::11tl t'S rder tn meanings sptd li c to p l acc~ :11HI 111ta1 gm, n n '''i11ti11 1hem. Thi ~ llll'alls that thc langnage i' di ~ lin nh gcmkrccl . Thl' fi1lk gtograplll rhat Prcd studil'S is a pnclorninarrtl~ r11 a~c ulitH' Oll l'. giHn tite plan, .r11d practin, ht ha, choscn 10 collCL'Ill tall on . lt i' aho rudc and anli-authnri tl' in it'> ironir arad hui,ttro u' humour. The nanw, o llt't l conLt'tllratt on l>odil~ runniun~ cJi,ta>td'nl lo tL''J>tnal>k middfto-cla" S\\'cclt' T h i~ , inq)Ort:tnl. giH'Il 1he compaison that Pred mal..t, \\'ith tltt 1 IH' It' itlCrt';t,ingh being enf(wced acru~' tite ci11 fao1n II{S;'l a~ official \ll'l'L'I n:l111l'' 11t.1 par! Of :t \t'l of 'lra((.giL'' of polici ng. cJcallilg'. ligfllillg, rcg-ulat ill.{ a nd '111'\('illalln imendcd to ordcr thc 'J>:Kt'S of tht mw cit1. ln con trast 10 th(' folk gcograplll''. l hc~t namt~ arl' ladcn ll'itlt m iddkd :t" idta' ami \'al ue~ of progrc,-;. tradilion. n.uio n.d integr:uion. rililisalion ancl higlt culture. \\'hat i\ imponant i' that tltest 1110 culuu .al geograpltiL,. lltl'H' ,,o ,,a~' ol gi1ing ntt;ming w .. pare and of making place,, a re in competilion fw tlll ' 'lllll' dt1. fu 'ho11. inqJllsing tlll' ufli cial plact n;Hne' thro uglt lhL statc apparatlh rutatll l'l'a,ing tltL f'olk gl'ographY . Allan Precl , inlnpttta li on o l tltc'e pl.tce na lllt'S i~ that t h c~ ,,ere IH':IJ>tlll' in a cultural class ,,ar bcing l'oiig'ht out in a rapiclh r haug ing citl'. Th csc rcprcSt'lll:ll ions o f place~ art p;m ol' ba 1 !les lor pnll'cr bti 11).{ 1\'agccl b~ coniiH't i ng socia 1group.s. L', ng rwk ancl ironic ll<llll l'' l t p l a Cl'~ ,,as a f'or111 ol ~~mbo lic rcsis1ann guaran tecd to shock tite micldlc class('s. ( :a lling a plwllic lll<lllllllll'lll - the obelisk lo King Osear 11 - A.'ungt'/11 landjJr/rm' (tht' Kin(s IOothpirk ) ,,as a ,-nb;~ l ac t cumbin ing poli1i ca lll' ladtn irn1 ercnce ,,ith al ka'L ''lhl'<ilhl'iou' ul>scnrill'. ( l'nd , Hl~l ~b: 1:1:1). Rt,isting 11t c la llg uagl of thc po11c a!'ni 11a' also t< re~ i'l tlwir Jlr:l('lins. thcir pl ace~ ancl lhtir IHII,vr. l'lt t attem ptcd im pmi 1ion of .1 ll t'\\' geugra pln ol ns1 wcta bil itl', o n 1he o tlwr hand . \\'a' a comcious cf'fnrt lo di,tnanlk ,1 1ibran t oppo~i1ioual culture and tite oppo~itio rwl poli1ics tlla1 ll'l'lll 11ilh i1 . This hr il'l' e:o.amplt- h:" sho1111 u ne 11a1 in ,,hicll a co11nm lor culture .111cl a r onrvrn for pm1e can be ro m binecl in :11 1 HndLT'>l:lllding- of' place. (St'L' al~o . \;ana hu. 1!l!Hi. and

o 1h e r~


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Topographies of culture: geography, power and represe nta ti on


Ycoh. 1!19~. Fo1 a clilkHIH ~on ol c:-..unplt- 'tT Ro,c. I!JI-(1-(, a11cl .\lorg.lll. I!JH:\b. ) llcre thi' i~allht kHI olllw loc.Jlitl a11<l IH' Illi.tlllllttlt' l'lccl',olln explan:uion ol 11hat hcis inlcrt,tnl in : pl:!tT'fJl't ific r u1Jura1 (re)/nnnra tionl<. in lora 1 i,ed 111t'.ll1 ing-cen trcd c1 en d:" < 11'11).().(1< , 1ha1 art <1 1 nl1<'t' p< lilir;, 1:111<1 cuhur:ll. (l'red. 1~~9~: 107) lndcccl, b\'l'n rt 11101ing on to thi1tk :tholll cor1lc,tcd me<~ning~ al otlu: r scalc:~ it is

4.. 31

Representing the country and the city

li n<lnHl<l

e .,,s ill bl' ,en dim: nnt for dil'i'trtnt Jll'ople. Tite cuuntll,idt and lit e cit1. lht~ :utsll t , 11


\'h;Jl i1n;tgl'' dn 1\'l' h al'l' ol tht ronnll \Si<k and 1he C11~ \\'ltal 1q>n-.L'nlaton" uf thcm

poi\Trfu l~

\\'hal l'l')>ll'<l'll l:l lion"

nr thl'lll du 1\'l' mal...t f(Jr othcrs~ T hc

won h comparing ,c..-sion ~ or plaCl lo 't:t' mo1t' clearh' ho11 tite 'nc:11 e uhural
g~:ograpl11' di~tinction'

11'011...-.. lf ~011 compan T ahk 1. 1 11'ith BD:-. -1.1 HHI can that the being macl<' .11-c: 1cn 'imilar- hoth mal...e the ~ame binan di'-linction-.:

olllcial unoflit ial;

i m po~ed 1n rga 11 ic;

bad/ goorl. Their interptt~ l a lioll s. l1m,e1er. are l'l' l~ dil'f'<.: rvnt. T 11an ll1inks in tcrm-. ollh c lnun~n uniwrl!al-. tha t arc bound np int lw 1 1o1ion ofplact. Prl'd 1hinks in lnms o l 'f>l'Cilic class stmgglcs and tlll r('latinns uf (Xlll'tT and nwaning lhat art titcl tngc thcr i11 place-.. \\'e can sec th b a~ a mark o( thc c hangc~ in tlw undcrstanding of place ll'h ich ncw pl'rspcclI'<''> 011 <lllltll'( hring. The~t art t'X tcndccl in tht next stction b1 looking a1 rcp1T~cntation' of tht <otllll" and tht ril' in ttnn' of po11er.

'trban and tl tL' rnr:tl , h;l\'t 1 W fi xtcl inlagts. 111l'aning-s or re prcstnt :Hion-.. T hc1 mean ~liiTerent 1]Jing.-; i11 <l iiTcnnt con t<':-\ 1,, T lw ccnltllr~ ~ide can be th c bLau liftrl rural icll'll o r an dglll t'L'Il tlt -cl' nltll~ Eng Ji,lt oi l pai rning or tite cxc ilill ~ ll'ilrlt-rnc.~-. nf a tuuri't brochurL'. B01h Cllt bt' po.'> itil't' image,. On lh<' other hand. th l co unu~ can be portraycd .1-. dull ami hacl...,,ard ... ~dtat KmI. Marx (p. 9 7) onct calkd 't h ~ iditK~ orrural life'. 11 lt1111. tlH ri11 can he thc ~lll' ol t':>.Cill'llll'IH and plca,un:. oro( ,111 ami dangcrboth po'-itill' and ncgati,c .u thc 'ame tinl('. Thcsc are all rcpre'L'1ll:tli01t'> of tlw conn tn be ,;jc( w be ont ora mixture olthl' lollo11 ing-: pro-rural. amnl(ll hL' ci11 . thal mi<,.ht n rural. pro-urban. ant-urban . Thc1 m ig ht al'u be ~aicl to be idLological or pan of hcgcnwn ic pn~cc t ~ as di lferl'n l gTou P' are a<h:mtagtd or el i':tdl':llttagLcl bl' di ITeren! meanilg'' \ \'Jta l \\'(' 1\'alll lO d o ht'l't' is 10 look ll sntn <:' C:'X <I111j)k' of hol\' images o [' thl' counl r)' ;tnd th t: city are nm mn~d Lu i s-.ut~ of p < n,~ r (\\'illi:11n-., l\l7:b).

4.3.2 1 Cultural images of the rural

john Constoble: class and the represento/ion of rurollife
\\'ithi n ,1 p.micnlar E11glidt r nlllll al 1rarli1ion John Con,tahll-', lanHHI' painting Tlu !lll)-1\'oill (J.;~() - 1 } prt~tms an IIIHklli.tbh po,til'l' I'l'\\' of' tiH' t'O\I llliY'idt ( Figun ...J.). ( k rt 1]1!' 1'111 ;t ( j, rep re,t'll lt'd ill IL'IIll'- of hartll<lll\', bt',IUI\', ~l:lh iJit >' traditioll . pcan:. innon1H l~ .1 11d l'irtue. \\'1 11' ;11l til c'c nwanings bcing- atl<1dHcltotill' rou ntryside i11 thb ;1 1 Hln 1 : tn ~ utllt'l' ,imi lar paill lin g~~ .Jo ll n l~arrl' ll ( 1 9~0) 1! :1' St'l hirn,l' lfth t las~ uf expo~i n g tit e icleolog ies ;ll 11urk II'1hin cigh ll'l' tllh ami 11 i ll l'lt't'lll h ' llllll ~ J::ngl i'" lanclscapl' paiming (1mrk~ Jrocluccrl l'nr JIH' 1ich \ by intl'l p~tting tlwm within lhc contcxt o l tite coming o( c;tpilali'l agrinlltur e anclthc el:"' -.uugl(lt'.-. th:u tilat irll'oh-l'cl. As ht sa, ....:
q~alit.ll i.111

4.3 1 The country and the city

As 11-ell as u ~in g l'r('cl's work to tal k abo111 pl:tct it , irnpo nan1 10 realist it~ lin1itations and lO loo!... al other ll'a''' of' ro nnt'C ling idea~ oJ' l'lllturl'. po11'l'l' a nd geogr~qJ i ll'. Tll'o limita tions that ll't' ,,alll lll ..,trc'' nm , are thc 11':11 in ,,hich languagc gets reduccd to ,ingle II'Or<b ( the ho' on discourse. p. 30) aml thtlack ol a ncnton tha t i-. paid 10 i~~ucs of repre~l'ntation. \\'h:u wc 11an1 todo in thi~ -.en ion is to think les~ ahotll pa11icula1 places and mo1 e aho111 li'])CS of places - tht rural and thc urh:m - amlw ~n ho\\' n.prc'lcnta tions of t he~e ~t' IH'ric places are bound 11p in m;m~ rclat i on~ of dominann all() rcsisl ance (p. ~5~) inmll'ing '-OCal group!' ddintcl b> e]a,,, 1an~ ancl gcnd er. Thi n ki ng a boul tlll' pocl ics and poli 1i r~ o f rtprcsc n lation m cans ackn owledg ing that in orckr f r u ~ lo in tl'rprc t thc ir meanings ll'l' 1 11u ~ t unders tand thal all rcpre~c ntations are mack fru111 pan in llar position 11 ithin 1lu: ~ t runurc or social rtlations: thc~ :1 11 come o ut uf panicular conll'XlS thal shape both thcir lnn ancl tiH'ir conlc nt. In underq;mcling how cul tura l procltct.s are part ol (>011'('1' r('lations it mal' be usdul w u~e lii'O rclatecl COIIl'l'Jn': iclcology (p. R-1) ;tll{) hcgcm ony (p. l()(i 1. 1n U'-ing 1ht~t ll't' do not ll'ant to apph tht'llt ri~idh' but 10 th inl... almnt hull' tht' mighl be ,...,l'llll in undcr standin~ gL ograplll'. powcr ami rcprt~l'lll.lliu'2.: ldl'ology attcmpb to 1l'l.llt' idL'I~ 1 0 notio ns o l powtr. whik hcgemom allt'lll JH' w u ndcr.;tand pmn:r in cu lturalll'l ms.

Fo1 thl 111o'1 pa11 till .111 ol lilt olllr, '" tlw imagt o!',, ,tahlt-. llltilil'd. almnq "H l'll. '<' thal 1111 l OIH t'lll ... , to 'uggt''l th.u it , po"ihk 1<l loo k bcne.uh tlw ,,ul.\cc o( 1he p.tinting. . utd tu di,cnnr thCI'l' l'l irltnu ol tia 1<'1Y conllict it ~l'l.' lll ~ 1 0 rl<n1. ( 1\IHIJ: .) \

\\11al ill' i ~ panir nl.trh int t rt,ttd in i.; ho11 pcople. pani n darl ~ laho111't'l'' anrlt ile rural poor, arl' ckpirl l'd in th l'~t l a nd ~c; qx,, lit- argul's tlwt rq >rt''l' lllillg th <'St' peoplt1inn-. ol 1ill' time (are tlt t'l' prcstllh gre:ll dil'fl c ultil'~ 1\'itllill tht ilig il ll' r hargcd dass rd:1 lo be giHII prominence. sltu uld th t'l bl' -.h01m ltapp1 or .. 11 1,urk or at pht~~) and that thl' figure:-. in the'e painting' ai'L' .1 nul'ial p:ll'l of d t> H' rnlining tlll' nwaning' thal thesl' ll'(Jil''>l'll t ation~ anribulL' to ll11':tl lift. \\'hat Barrcll 1en dltni~th ,ho11:-. i tha t difircnt paintcrs at dillcrcnt 1i11H'' dl'.ll 11i1h thcsc i::.~ue" 1en dilkrcnth. In th\. r:t'l' ol Constabl<'. B. u rdl .11 glll'' that he paim~ pr()(ltt<'lill landscapes. He aims 10 pt udllet' ' tlw i rnagt ol .1 pn Hl ltt t i1 t' a nd wcll-nr~an i<tcl land,C.lJW. as it relates to


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Topographies o r c ulture: geography, power and re presentatio n

15 1

Com1ah lc ' roJII'\' allt'lliJH In Jll't''l'll l 11 i ~ p<'npkcl land~C:IJ)(' a' .111 imagl nl 1li t harrnonl' bt JI\'t'l'll lll.lll .ualnallllt'. al a timl' '' hen ... thc ril h f..ne11 o11h 1on lll'il he m r:~agecl ancl ho11 Oll' I'IIOJkl'll \\'l' l'l' thc poor. l'ICil tho'l' in reg-ular l'lllplolllH'Ill. c'I9Ro: 1:r\ 1

lt is ideolog'ica l nol bt'l.llht' it i' in '<llllt' wa1 ftf,e hut htc:Hto;< Cotbl,lhk i' .1hk .11 once 10 depict .nld u nual tltt .t< tu.lli 11 of' life (19~0: J.)(i ). Th i~ po ,itill'Il'll of tht toll llll'-'ick i, -till nn nwch 11 ith th. L'l<:n thmtg-h lhl' '
relations of nn.ll lilt- h aH cltangl'cl 'onlt'ldtal 'incc thL' carh ninL'tten th n'll ltll'\'. Otht'l ex :u npl e~. 1 h i~ tinll' lllOi l' conttnpora tT o n e'. ~ho1, ho1, snch rcprc~etllil!ion' an ahonr gc nde r a nd poli1ics a'
ll't'li a~


Gender, nature and the rural

A se ries adi'CI' I ~l' lll l' lll ~ 1\'l' l'l' lllll ill .\ llll'l'can Coad /-l(il t ic'lil'i'fiill,l!,' mag-a.dn c.: ill 111 (' carl)' 1!I!'Hh i 11 m clt-r to a lll'a c t acll'l' ,., ..,i ng . One dcpi c ts a 11'h ite. 111 iclcl lt-c la" ll'ol1la 11
COillCllliO be ' al hcnne' in th l' W lllll n ' ll'i lfl hn ralllil\' (scc Fi!-{li i'C 1.8) . Th h itnage 1\'<IS actomp:111icd hy IL'Xlll'h ic h ninf't'CL'd its 111L'.'>sages: 'Sh e swned a l'l'l'o lntion 1\'lh ~t lllH' 110 1 1cry rcm ln t ionan i<k-a ls. Sh t 11a.., ..,earching lor something tu bC'Iit,e in and look 1rhat she found. ller J1ll,b:111cl. ill'r c hi ldre n. lw rst ll' (quotecl in Lcslie. 1 9~1:\). D.. \ . Lcslic ( 1 ~1!):1 ) arg u<s that. in p:111. th c~e image~ n eed 10 bt intnprt ted in IL'l'lll ~ ol' da" a nd sh c ~i l lli1H' '- th t'lll II'lh in the :1rgum e nts abo nt h o 11 ' tht 11L'II' seiYC<.' clas~ ha' tried 10 appropriat l' lht ro nn t'Cll'd cu lt ure~ of 1hc co un1 r~s icl e and of hcri1age aml1raclition in both Bri1ain and .\ narira in orckr tu create a 1iable h ege m o ny (p. 106) ( lo ddim them~eil'e<; ih l eader~. 10 crtatt' :tlli a nn\. a nd 10 media te economit rhangl'). \'t t lht'"l' images cannot bt und<.t 'tood witho111 inlerpre ling them in tcrm~ of gt'IHkr (atHI i1 nHtSl al~o be saiclth;n BarrcJJ', rt.tcling of Thc 1/ay-ll(tin h ould con .. idcr the tna~ntlinitl of th e \\'Orker~ cllpiued :.. tht '!Okt n.., of induqp/). Lcslic arguco;, that 11hat \\l' ate ~eeing is an allempt 10 rcassocia1c II'Omcn ancl domesti c i11 duough lht <kplm m<.'tll o l 1hc po~i1in m ea ning.s as,orialcd 11'ith n a tll l'l' ancl rmali1~. Thi~ is 'tL' II to lw pan ola reconlining ofwomcn lotht honte a-; part olthl crea1io n ol' a fk"ihk ftma ll' la h our f'o rct. l'h is mean~ maki ng lll'll' id e n 1i1it, le)1' II'OIIIt'll ll'hi r h are ba~l'd in hon~t :111CI l:nuih : In all cll' thl''(' :ldl't' l l'l'llh'lll'. llillllll' .., llOl 1'\.'IY la r <1\l'a\. Fall lean' large II'ilciCIII> lookiug CI Htclc 1or,. 11 \011'('1 '.' lcll'l'M I('II'. appk~. ila1. a u el l'ann ilcHI,es >ig n i1 \ tlw 1it> betii'L'l'll ll .lllll'l' an d l~'lllill in ill . T ll t hnuses , (Hll\' 11 arl' o ld Cll' d ecor:llccl i11 a tradil ion:tl ~ ~~k ... . Thl' ll' llll'll lo tr:tdi tion. an .tnti -nrban ~e ntilll L' Ill . clca rly a~'or i a l l' ' \I'CIIIH'II ll'illi 11<111111' :111d l'llt:llitl', (f.e, Ji l'. 1 \1!1:~ : i O~) Y e 1 llO II t' of' tlwse n\t' :lllin ~s an li xtcl .. \, ll't' turn o ur cri ti ca ! a ltc nti un lo tlll'Sl' imag<'s we han 10 t'('Co g nisl' th c ro ll' ol th( 'sptttar or or readc r (lnd nur abi lill' 10 t'I'L'Oi lt' dilferc n 1 in tc rp l't t:ll ion~. a h l'ma t il'l' idtnlog-il'' o r r otllll(' r h l'gl'mon i e~. l)if f'l'l'('lll l'icll'er' e11 readt, 1,1 111 art d i ll l'rl' nlh l)(l'i lionl'ci 11 ill pn11 id e di ITL'l'l'lll i nterprl'tal icllh Of' SUCh illl;tg'l'' COIIIbi nillg cfilfi..nn1 lll,llii'C:i of' ~COI'Il. 'Cl'ptici,lll, IH h l,ilg ia. l'll\Y :1 11d othcr rc<,po n,t~ .


Figure 4.4 The Hoy-Wain (1820-1 ) by john Constable. (Source: reproduced by courtesy 0 the Trustees, The National Gallery, london.)

tiH' icll'a ofa

r ~uo thrs allal~ "'' ., hl' pai 11ti ng i~ orga ni,td ,o th ar 1\'l' ' l'<' lfH fa ncf, apt a ncl IH H th~ ~l).(lll'l'' 01tr t'l't'' are dral,'ll lo 1i1cr. trcl's :mcl ~b. T IH h;llm. 1 ktr~ in tiH d i~ta n n: are 1"'' blob~ ol 1\'h i 1<' pa i111. h a nl to m a k< o u1 tnn 1lw ng lt lh t'l' ;ut li lt' brig h lt''l lh 11 g~ 011 11 ~ l' Clll 1as. l 11 lill' .foreg rottll d thl' 1\'ago n dri\e h;, h is back 10 us :IIHI t lw a ngk r i~ half h1d (.k :" l ll. ~~gt f:lllon : 'Th c hmdscapL' is .~ till . 111 imagt of',t :lhi l i t ~. nf p t 1 111 ;111 L ' Il('t': th e ~ a i>tl 11 ~ ~1 Ell~ltsh agrin " lllrt' ~l'l'lllS lo p :ll'l a ke or 1he Jl{' l'lll :lll l' ll ('t' nJ' nal ll l't' ill th is '. '~la?~ '.''. In;.; una n1 ~~~:ad1111'ia nd ( 1 9~0: 1 ~9). T IH ll'orki n g 1igmv.~ s 11 ppon 1h i' idtil of ~l.tbilill .11 1d. on le r. 1 h ey are lwrk t'I'S anrl n o llllll'l'. ' tok t ns o l ;1 calill , cn<lk~' an d

bl' an ol<f-,tl lt Ton puliric~ 1\'hich ptT,ent~ agrirulrure 01 , thl' root of 1\'taltlt bttt <i<' tl. f f f . . . . , ICS t H' a >our~t ~ pan 111 n: ':\o paillll'r olli: rs 11'> a more eh iJi,ecllancl,<. litan Cothtablt. bttt thl' t~t\lenn of tite llt<'ll 1\'lto han~ ci1 ili~tcl it ha, lilt' the mo~t ,. 111 10 lw inlc:rred 1 lron1 thl' nnagt ol '' hat rlttir tffon ha, ach il'\ld ( 1()~() 1'\ '') 11 1101. 11111 11~ n eat 1 . . . _ ' . 1

1\t'il-oraani~td socict1 ( J!)l{() 1 '\'~) TJ .. 1 k 'clcolom. (J> "1) .11 "' ' ' ' ' ::JI n 1\'01 . 1'- '-l't'll lO

na~e 111 bt llldi1iduals and btcomt 'g<'n cra l fi g url',, ~1111bol' and token~ o.f h1111~;u~ i 1 1 . 'ol~j<'Ch nl'co iollr'. fn cJeecJ !he~ h:ll'l' (O l)(' l'l'Jll'l''l'll ll'( in tfli l,l\,1\ . . \m J'uJicr d<pl<. 11 0 11 : a~~ bl'i ng-ing- lh t' nt furth l' r nnd cr 1hc gatL' ol'th(' 1 i<'l\'t'l'. 1mn ld 1101 be ab lc 10 ~ll'-tall l ''." ' tdto log-ical portr:11-al o l con ten tt'd 1\'orf.. in :1 tilllt' cf d:1~s cc11 dti n. BatTtll
re kr~

:111on ~ mom m clits l.r~ ( HIHO: 1 -~H ) 1\'hi c h i~ 1he ir natm:tl ~ l:ne . Rtp 1 c,, t'lll t<l in thi .-.


lo 11 .~ ..


lntroducing Cultura l Studies

Topograp hies o f cultu re: geog ra ph y, power and rep resen lation


T 1 1 E N .: \\' T
:\ -..; 1 . \\' 1,1'-11 (ll '
ro.; \\' <l.\ 1:\-..;

R A 1) 1 1 1 () :-.: \ l. 1 " l.
\\' 1111

Challenging the rural idy/1

This abil i 11 lo Cl l':l lt' a lltm;Hin rt,>< lo l h a lleng t ickol ogit' 11 l h ot h l'l' ick ;h .m el cons1ruc1 a llt rn.tli~t hq{t'll\llllt' ' - llll-.111' al o;o loo kin~ .ll im .t~l'' ol lh t n lllllll'\ ,ick 10 thal presenl olht 't'l , oth of l. Tht'lt' .1n .1 "hok ...l'rit''> of 'alttTna l lt' 'n ... io n' o f lllt' conntry,idt 11h irh .lit' a ...... o<i.llt' d \\ilh tht 'ahernatiiT. lik-,tdt' of ll';lldltl'. lt' J>Ct dwellc r' ;md tmi ro ntllt' lll :t l p ro lt''lt' l'. amnn g o 1h er~. That th n t CO illl' 111o tonfli u 11; 111 nlo rt' comt'lll o n ;tl ckpic lOII\ o f ' lhl' nu~tl id\'11' is illrlI'aterl in l'l'SJlOII'<..,Iikt llt;ll giren by ~ IP judil11 Ch.1plin in 1'.1rlia nwn1 in 1\l~t~ durin g a dehatl' on thl' Ca r,l\ :tll Si1n (Amendmcnl ) Bill: Peoplt> are \1'01 1it'cl . btt:tll\l' l;ll'~l' l number' .u e ;u-ri,ing. \t'llling lw lo ll ~t' l pe iwJ, and doin).\ immt' ll~l' d.t111a)4l'. Thr lw :mlil'ul llunge rlc11d cnmmon ... h.h ht,n th sccnt' of ).(l'l';ll clil'licnll it-,.... ThiT<' l'c;u~ ago. a largc comn) or lr:ll<ll tr, \lO I)JWd on thr commo n aiHI r au,td grca t di,u.-~~ 111 th c inhabilant~ o J' llw lu\1'11 . ' 1 hty thtn ll't'l1 1 inw dlt' toiiTI, llllll\' ol' th t n 'l l'allgd) dres~c d. and in tu , J w p~ . ll'lwrc th l'l ollcndcd 1he lue<1l peo pk. (quutcd i11 1 lalfau'l'c. 1 ~1\)(j: ti:~-.J) Such ddt'll(t'S ora parli<'ll lar wrsion or th t' lO ttllli'\'S clc kaw lh t S(Jr<dkd ~l'\1 Ag'l' 1raw: llt::r ' solllewh al ' out ol plan. T htn are, holl'<'\'t' r , clif'fe re nt \'t r~ion s o f' tllt n1ral which s<Tk 10 bt: III OI'l' indt1sin. Fo r cxamplc. 1he 'Th t I.and $ Our~ Cllnpaig n i11 Brilain - condtt n td 1hro11gh tlst of' th e m edia a11d the l nl e n H'l- COtnlJints t'II\' I'o n111enlal po liti c~ wi tl1 no1ions o l 'oc ia l inclusion and comm u n it~ own er,hip 10 'ug-gtst a diiTerenl fttllll'l' lo r llll' COlllll i')Sidc basccl around social h ou,ing . organ ic slllallholdings ami 1ig ht\ ni aCCt ''' to u n c uhivatcd lancl. l nclt:c cl. this ch alle n g ing o[ 11le English '1ural id\'1 1' on 1he ba'i' o f thc inclu~ions a m i e xclmiom that l ~l'l:. Olll "hik represe111ing thc cotnlln,idc '" :\11 are na of h a rmon\' and tranquillill ha~ a l<.o b <.' <.'tl a fenure of th<. \\'OI'k of .ul ~ I\ llll'n:slrd in th e c ultural poli tic o f ract i11 Britain. Fm cxample. th c pho togntph tr lng ricl Po llard aims to c hallcng t directh' idt:ologi<. , o f ruralit~ n a turc: a ncl Eng lishncss wh ich unpro blcmaticalh define thL'IIl as 11hi1e . ~h e secks 10 m a kt rtprt' ' t' lll<ttio n<> thal 11ill disn1p1 any cas\ a~~lltnp1io11s 1h a1 lht COlllllr\' side ancl il' ' lraditi o n<>' .ta onlv p ;u1 o f" hiH' Engli,hne,s. This is aho u t ckwlopi 11g .111 awarenc:ss o f h1n1 ideas or n 1ral i1,. and ll<lltll'e, u f Englancl ' ' gret'll a11cl plea~a n1 land. cannot be sepa n11ecl rrom lll t' exc lttsinn<ll' a ncl ,iulcnt practiccs ni prtsenl raLi ~m a n cl past sla1 cry. He lt'Pi l''l'l1l < HicH1' o ll t' r a clircct political c h a lk n ge 10 th e icl<ological aSS11111plOI1S lha l le bt'llt':tlh llll' ~tll'f:lCl' of' hegem o ni c rc prc se ntatio n s nf 1lw l:ngJi<;h cottnlryside (~ce Kin sman. 1~1\1:1, ancl Ci lrm-, 199 ~a).

ll l l l' lUII) 11 ll \ \1 1 1 -.
1 1\1 .

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c. 1r \::-..<.1:-iC:

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11 ,,, .. ,, hi J ih 11 1 \m, Jh 1 1tt~ h ... ' tt ,., \\ 11 1 r, ,1tHrtn t1J \ .dllt ' .1 l't I IHJ\ h tpl, tl! h .111,1 ~ u .t lll\ ,,, 1" 1


fto 11., !l ' ,t \\ttlll.l l \\JTp h ,l,f~t, llh f lh: td , n lll\ tuhl 'll l lwrh11llh h t r t.un ah ..., , ,. '' l lh Pnlt m 41
t U\ \\tlfU,\11 \\f tH'"I \ ,tlth ''~>, tft l't t lnll ll lt,t dl tlt !l', fJ,, tlJ,!Iitl. PI hh 1h h,h t hu"\'1 l" lh l'l. lllh~tlimllllt~ J \' \ l J\thi i H.;I h. ll (,llol\l l hlll .. !.' ~l \ 'J' III).!h.t.. .,l l H I\.I tH l lh \ ._llth .. "'lhl,. ~~ 1\I!U II h'i l

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lit ol ll l h \,!ltll"' \\l ltl\t 1 \ \ l o ' r.,.,~ .. J\ I td lh \S1 ,, 111 1 ,,.,. l u .. I IIUll

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\\ {l.t t f~t I U ... ,,1~ lt f1t ' ' Jf ,l, f iiiIILih"t \\tlh t i ti l. 111 ' ,tulhtlll\ 11 d !r U .. I 1
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1The country and the city

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( ; O< l 11 1 1 () l -.. 1 1, 1 1 1' 1 ' <

Figure 4.5 Gender and rurality: the new traditionalisl. (Source: Good Hoosekeeping, The Hearst Corporation.)

Yct images o fliHt'<HIIHr~sick ca11ttol bC' cn nsidcrc cl a lo nc. h , impunanttn uncle rstancl lha l th ey :ll'l' g in11 nwa 1111g IHl l on l ~ b~ o lher imagcs o f' th c co u1Hnside (ancl tll t'rL' arl negatin~ one.' 1\hidt 1 \'l' lt<ll'l' no l rea ll ~ clcah 11ith here : set \\'illiams . 1\l:{a) . b111 b~ images o f lh t city. \\'t ne c cl to 1hin k about them togctlwr. Co11,1abk\ rura llands capl'' wcr<. bl'ing- producecl at lltt' 'ame time a~ ,,orrics wcrc IJtin!-{ txprtssed Ol'l'l' t h t 11<.'11' ind u~lrial aiHI commerc ial c ilil',, .mcll.eslil' notes thatlht nmtlit1 ofn<.'O lntclilioll.tli,lll i'


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Topographies of culture: geography, power and representation


a l'o a 11 ;n11i-1 u b:nli,1n . Equalh. thc posll1\'l' undtr,ta1Hiiug ni' llw t itl' (:1' txri tement c hangt. a non ~n 1 ill' :tnd progrt,~) dt>pend 11ponnq;ati1'l' imagt, o ltl tt co11nt rl (a, Ma icl: bw ing. hiclebntu1cl. deferential ancl bark11ard). In 11 1 1'11. th e iruagt, ol .1111' onc ci t1 are tcpr.tlh com plcx a ud co nu:tdiuorY and ca n lw ~l'l'll to undtr piu rm.tning' that can be itllt't pttted in tt't tm of pcm er. T h t ex a m plt> 1h.ll 11e '' .tlll 10 t:-.plort hett' i, l .os .-\ngdes.

co'(Jora ti o n s) ;1rc il'adi ng to l'l'l'l' dif'll:rcnl n u lco mts. On tlll' ont h:1nd . t iH:I't' .., tlt t roduction o( maJI.., and pla!ih dclotl'd w con,picuo us con sumption ami onn di:-pl:t1'

~f lhe po11er o f l'api t al. On 1he ot ht'l' haud. tlr is pril-;u io;ation ' of puhlir 'IJ.I<'t' Ita' 111<':111 t thal certain a<'lilitiL'' in .111cl inltahitant' ol thtse 'Pact s- likt L\', 1':1'1 ltorn t'lt''
tlw cit~ anrlllw li~t, that :ut li~td 11ithin them. Jt babo imp011a n 1 to 'lit'" 1hatthi' mean' that it

population. fot t:-..uuplc- are rt''t.ic t ~d arn_s~. t~ > and t'l't'~1 'clt,igt.ll'cl out' o l ~lll''l' space-.. The conu.tdir tiou' o l ~tnhiHm' ancl :--:mr are th ert m ma tet ta l gtow.tphtL'' ol
i~ nmtlw ca,tl hal llt'CIIl 'otndw11 Jick whic h i'> the 'tol'l'l'rt' It'll ol Lm .\ngelcs (a nd. some miRht 'al. lhe hlltlll' ni ot h e 1 lnsteacl 11 e llHI'I re.1l i'c a 1e both 1isionsofthe :-ame cit1 whith ran td l abo1111hc l'ulll l l' l'rom dill'cn. nt ang-Jcs. People will be li1ing on the '>lree l~ and h ing on 115 th e btarh. Jndeecl, 'omc co mmcntatnr' ha1L u scd th e m u !tiple ;md cnnlraclictcll\ ' II'Orlds pn:scnt in Lcs . \n gelc:s and ih rcprc,ental ions (and thc 11m arl' bl' no m ea n ~ l':t '~ 111 di scon n ecl) ltl ~ u gge~l 1hat 1.:\ is llw tt ltimatc pmunodc rn ci ty . David ll ar1er ( 1\1!10 J. i11 biS in ll11l" IHia J ;lll ;1Jy,is o(' th t Cll it ura l <lllcl CCOI10111C rc (al io n ;;ltips o(' J>OSilllOd e l'lliSnt


Cultural images of the urban: imagining Los Angeles

l'he r i11. a' ha~ bctn ,aid abon. ca n be 'l'<'tl ;, po,itiw ot ntgatilt'. ~d onme . hoth h.tppen al lht \(/11/t' timr a' dill'erent peopk inttt pre t in clilh-nrll 11a1s th c social ' II'IICllliL'S and c ultural rhange' indicaled bl' llt t 'h il't ing 111 ban ~Cl' l1 t'. lndeed. :11 cenain lim es ce r rain ci ti e~ btcomc the piares pcoplt go to loo k :n 11h a t tlw future mi ~ht be li kt. L' n snrpri ~in gl~ a ltl wugh th ey are Joo kin g in lht san w pbn. tht'l' 1111(1 qui te dil1 vn nt things. \\'hat II'<IS trllt' of .\lan dre~ l t'l' in thc IHl!b. C: hi cago in 1hc 1 ! 1~0 ' and :--;l'll' \'nrk in 1\1-10;, h as lwen lrue or Lo' .-\ngcks in llw Hl!lOs. ,\ s it~ (qrenw;;t nil 1ura l l'lillllll l'll l.II OI' ~~;;, 'the nl limale \\'OI'Id-hi ~ tol' i l':t l signi licil11((' - a r1d oddill' - orLos

~i tie~).


(p. -100). prmidt,, nn illl t'l'p rc la tinn o ( lil e film I-Jiruh f1111111r'l'll'hi d1 rcprt''l' l ll~ ilt t Los loclay's urban form ... txtrapohlttcl in lo !he fll ltlfe . .-\1 ~ ll'l't' l kl'l J !h e C i t ~ i .~ ';1 cJec re pil Jambcape of dcincluqria (i,:llOII :t lld J>OSlindUSll'ia) dcca1 ( 1~19 0 : :l l 0 ). lt is a tni ~ h -mash nf languagt:s. c u l ture~. and h ig iHl'C' h ;111d low-tcc h 0 11 a . drippin~. din1 ,' lrtt tsca pc ll'htr(' 't ite d1aos ol' ~>ig-ns. of ('OII liH' ting sig nili c: ui o m ancl nle~~agt ' <.ugg-c~t' a co ndi1ion o f f'ragm en taliun a nd unccr rain t1 ( 1990: :1 11 ). 1 lo\l't'l't'l, lht'IT i~ a notlw r world ll'ithin th e ci t1 too lwrauw abow lhl ~n 11 t'~ of ~llt'l'l-kl'd an d imttior ch.lll' .llld dee<ll, 1hnt -.o;u ~ a lt ig h-ll't h "otld ol' tonming'l''. o l ach-<ni;;ing .... of J:tmiliar im.tgt~ o l t c11 pm;llt' pmn..- ( P.m .\m. '-lllpri~oing!l ~til l in h1"ill''' in ~0 1 9). Cora-Col.t. Buclllti,tr.l'IC .. and th c ma,~iH P' r;uniclal building ol the '1nell Coq>or;uion thal domin.lll'' nnt p.ut ul th e C!I '. ( 1990: :H fl) Haney read\ lht lll'o cit~scapt'' togc ther as a represe ntation ol' lhe co ntradi c tion' o l pos1modem i'm .md h i<. 1cading h<h many !>im ilarities ll'ilh l~dll'ard Soj.t'' illlerpre talions llll' L M \ ci t"ca p e ll' h ich o;uggcs t that complcld)' nl'\\' gTograp hie~ - Snja ca lis 1he m po~lmodern too - ;trl' bcing fo rml'd in Lo' .-\ngeln. So ja , a n ah ~i' is a co mplicalcd onc. bu1 it rclits u p o n shm,ing bo1h tht 11ays in 11h ir h 'i mage' a ncl 'n:1lit1'' collapse in Los .\n gdt., :mcltlw mnlti> licil~ of contradinon ' worJd, 1i 1at txis t in 1ha 1 ciL~ (S<~ja . 1~196 ). CotH't'lltra ting o n 1hc c it l''s cco n om~ h e no1cs th a t:
An~el es o r 20 19. l it- reacl' it as a l'i'ion

.\ng-elt:.'> , 1h a l l h < 1 S co nH: lo p la~ 1lte cl ouble ro k ol' UIC) JJ: l

r:1pi1 ;1iism' ( Dal'i.~. 1U90: 1H) .


dNopia l'o r adl'an ced


Dal'is ( 1q~10 ) th in ks a hout th is i 11 lcnn~ uf' co111 p t ti n ~ lltHil-rstancl i n ~s of Los . \n gelcs: 'S un shine ancl':-\oir'. Tlw liro;t isa C0111binatio11 ol bon~tcr i'1 drt<ll1b ni 11rhantcon u nti c g' I'OI\'lh a nd tit e L \ m yth o f 'un . St'X a ll{l ,, ucn" Thi' i~ Lh l .\u wrican Dn:am ol (' tcrnal J>I'CI'-IH'I'i ll .111d all its trappiugs. \\'e ca n " t'l' 1hi~ in kt) boo'll'rist dncunH'tlls su c h as th e L 1 20fJ{) re pon ll'hic h proclai 1 11 ~ that Lo~ .-\ngl'ie~ 11'i11 bt Tl l E ri 11 ol tlll' 2 1st C:e 1lllll'l-'. \\'e ta n 'ce it in tht op1imism of thc micldk-clas:-.. ,,h itt. \ ngl'icno' tha t Da1 id Ridr rnc~1s 011 h i, tr;ll'tl, round L \ ( Riefr. 199~). \ \ 't' ca n sn it in L \ , ntlnn a l proclucts on lil m ami 1 \ ': in /Ja_\li'Oith and Bn rrlt') //i//1 902/0. \\'e can 't't' it in thc tll'll huilt e lllirorunent of l)m, 111011'11 \~la'~ ~1" 'crape1s and unb<:lic1~1b l~ rk h l~ c tHiml'cd lll11WIIllls a n cl galkrie~. lt 'hou ld aho hl' dcar thatthis ,-~ion oft hc futun ,da". ran ancl gt' IHkr 'pecifir inmam 11'a1s. re!l i n g a.; il do es on weah h~. whi1e. m ale ddln it ion' ,ucn~s. :--;oir' (namcd alter a stylt of bleak L-\-prodlllnl film~ and nml'ls) paints a rather d ilftn11t p ictlll't' of th c ~a nw ~cene . Tlw h unt for ll'ta lt h bcrulllt'' :1 ,)alioli'. parasitic en 1cT>rist 1( ,r 1ht poi i1icalll' and nw ra lh- cotTI1J>l :1ncl 1.. \ i>t'('Oint' ' < 111 au to nH ll iiT wa,l('l:nHI .... a 'mog-,ml'ared. lo h o lom iscd uni1c 1~t ol lasl fnocl . ~ tHil ess car tri p ..., a mi nirllla<J.., of hoth g tndc rs .. : (Riclf. 1 ~19~: l!l). TIH .\m erica n Drt'<Hll bccom es a nig h1111:tl 't' ami J.o, .\n gt'lcs is tiH' p lace l\'h l'l'l' Am c r ir:11l -'ll!'l'll' i... ' JX'C ll C II) arl~ r;dling apa n a long ib c la.~.s a nd race diddt' Thi' , tlw l a n chcap~ o!' c ul111 ra l prod 11t'h \llC h as lh t: nmel / .1.n Thrn Zrm. rht: li lm Cmnd (.'rlll_riiJI ;u1tl :--! \\'.\ ', a ll ll ll11 Str11ight Out/a C:rwtjlfrHI . lt , a lso th e l andsct~pt rq)l't~c Hecl in th t l'iclco o f lh t 1.-\J>D lw: uin g Rodney Ki 1 1g' allCI tltt llltdia ('l)l'l' l'<lg'l' or tlH' l'llSUing 1ioh. ,\g;lin it i~> a l'i~ i on , hapl'd hl' l'<ll'l'. r Ja,~ :u1d gt rHkr in eomplt:x 11<1~s.



l1l' can find in Lo~ ,\11!-(t'il"' 11111 on ly rh c hi g-lltcc hnol ng" indmtrial romp lext'' ol ti1l' Sil ic:on \';1ill'l an<l lill' t'1 '1':11C' Sllllhell l'('OilOll\1' nr Ho11SIOII. IH1l a lso lhl' t:u-reac ltil1g industria l d ;rli lit' :111d han 1-.rupt urban neig.ltbourltoo ds o( rus L -bcltccl Dt uoi 1 o 1 Cll'\e hutd. n 1l'l't' i ~ ; Be IS [ ()Il in Los :\ng-l'les, a LOII'l.'l' .\lat1 h <1ll~lll :111d :1 Sell1ll1 Bt e)l) S. ; S;'io Paul< ;1nd a Sing-apnrl'. (Se!ja. 1mm: l ~t:l) Thi' ci1y- ll'htn. a~ S<!ia arg 11t'S. ' it a ll comes togc thcr' - is i mpo,~ ibk to rtprt''l' tH as c ilher 'S un,hir w' 0 1 :--;oir'. Ir ah,a~~ bri n g-s with itl h (' co n1radict io n s o l lht ci 11 nnd o l pos tm ode mi<.m. 1itJIIL'I't' l'. it i:-. ah,m, po"ib le 10 ask qut'Slion.., about tar lt rq>n'M'Illalion allCI 10 uncltr,la n cl th e ll'a\'' in ,,hi c h 1hc1 pn:, e nt th t ci t, in a par ti rllhu li~ht.

11 , i111J>OI'ta tH Lo ... tre '" th a t tht T C<l 11trad iction~ :1rt tllH , ju ~t a m a 11 c r o f rcpresentali<Hl,, D.11'i,, hrilli:unh ;.IHn,, holl' th e sa m c e-i n u ll'c t s n..-, dill'tnrH expl'l itn n , a ncllife 1.11 l ht Jli'O('t'SSl'' or tite r lta tl( l'' 1()1' tltli~L' 1iling wit lt in it. For ex; unp le. he ~111m' 11 procluct ion ol p11blic ~pan ll'ithi n L -\ b~ prilatc t'lllerpriw' ( of lt'll llllge t ran ... n at ional


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Topographies of culture: geography, power and represcntalion


Key injluence 4.1

David Harvey (1935- )

lntert,ting-h. \lil..c D,\\i~ argul'' 1ha1 'ioj.1, rtpre'c'lllaliot" ol ll~c ' .i11 IIHm,dH' .,,,, 1\'ilhin tht l'Oil\TIIliOil' or rt'f)ll'\l'lll ill" ~m " L \ ;h l' lldh"h l.b e 111.11111 ~ .11111 appal ling. and npc-ri.dh ,1, tlw ci11 1\'herc lit e 1111111 e t.lll be '>l'e ' ll .

David Harvey is a Marxist (p. 97) geographer who has, in various ways, written studies of lhe historical geography of capitalism. He has worked in universities in Britain and the United States of America. From 1987 to 1993 he was Halford Mackinder Professor of Geography at Oxford University; he is now Professor of Geography at Johns Hopklns Unlversity in Baltimore. Harvey's early training was in historical geography. He then wrote a major work on spatial science, Explana/ion in Ge09raphy (1969). However, his ideas underwent a dramatic shift with Social justice and lhe City (1973) which claimed that problems of urban inequality could only be understood and solved with tre tools of Marxist historical materialism. This commilment to understanding the social and spatial inequalities produced by capitalism - what is called 'uneven developmenl' - at all scales from the ghetto to the global inequalities of 'First' and 'Third' worlds led Harvey into an attempt to rethlnk the theoretical framework that Karl Marx (p. 97) had set out so that jt could deal with these questions of geography. This was published as The Limils lo Capital (1982). Many of the ideas that were set out in this book In rather abstract terms were further explored in relalion to nineteenth-century Pars in The Urbanisation of Capital (1985) and Consciousness and the Urban Experience (1985). This combined studies of the political economy of urbanisation with discussions of cuJture, consciousness and politics. He argued that they could be connected together through the experience of the new forms of space and time which capitalist urbanisation brought, particularly the continua! transformation - or 1creative destruction' - of the city as capital sought to realise profit (hrough cydes of investment in t~e built environment. The same 'loglc' underpins liafvey's best-known work, The Condilfon of Postmodernity (1990). Here he argues that the cultural e~periene of postmodernity {p. 400) is a resuJt of new forms of economic organisation,' for he uses the term 'postfordism'. The' increasing speed of change, llow and circulatior - particularly of lmages and cultural goods - which has been labelled postmodernism is, he argues, the result of new ways of realisjng increased profits within capitalism. His latest work has returned explici!IY to questions of social justice, lhis time in relation to nature and the environment. David Harvey had been criticised for presenting a version of cultural change whicp argues that it is determined by economic change. However, in dolng so he has provided an influential Marxist interpretation of postmodernism which counters 'postmodern' clairns for the primacy of the culturat He has also brought attention to questions of space and the city wjthin cultural studles.

4.3.5 1 Conclusions
\\'IJjk 1 hi ~ \l'l lioll has 1101 ht'l'll :111 l':-: h:llhlill Sll iYe'\ p ' lhL l"l'i lllll c'>;'> ., II Oii !lll\ tJ I icleolog}' (p. M IJ and hegemon)' (p. 1011 ) 1o un rkr;;tanding li ll' lll\11111\ .u.~rllllt' ci tl in lt'l'lll' ol gtoglapll\. 1eprL'M'Il la lion and poll'n. 1\l' can 'olllL' t IIH lll,lllll'. lt 'l'l'lll' ckar 1h:t1 alll' "'l'' ol idl.'olog' and ltegc'lltom till all!:tnpl ID li111i1 1hvn 10 tite pcmr rd:nion'- ol cl.t" 1\'illn ot unclc-r,tand lhe t ,tllg'L' ol cmttc'tl'cllll\',lllillg' 1h.11 .1n i111ol~td 11 n:pl'l''l'llling- 1he ,,orld. T lw c:o...llnplc, hcIT han ,flm, 11 1h.11 el.l"c'cl . 11\l',lllill~' ol collnll'\ .111cl ti 11 C:tll iHil be 'l.'pal alt'cl l'r0111 dto~c lil'clto t.tu :11ul gcndc1. 1flj, h,,, ll11 t'\' implicalic lll,. The lir~l i~ IWllle ah';"' nc't'd leo 1hinl.. ahutll 11Hd11pk iclc IJiilic, .11ulliw 11m~ in 11hi ch 1hc1 .ll'l' rcl.lll'cl. The iL' :uc an iuliuilt' ll1111ilw1 ni' Jl"'ilio>ll ~ fi'OJII 11hic h re~rt~t'lll :ll io n., can bl' madl'. \h llt't'd lo ll1i11k abou t ideolngie ' in 1hv plt11 .d iu,tea~ l.''' 11, 11 g lo ,judgc tht tn as ' lrliL: ur ' l:il.w'. \\'e a lso ncccl lo tlnnk .dhlll l llt t ecllnple:o..l llc'S tl;m 1hi' i111rodun~ intu alll'lllf>l' a l c:~labli,hing hq.(l'lllo nic llll':JIIi llg, . \ uc:l.'d Lo nIIH'IlliWr li1a1 1hl'r<' ,_. :tlw;11, ht ai iL'I'Il:llI'l'' 1hat arl' lwi11g ,llltu l.lled. l'hl' .;econcl impliration , 1h.ll llti' ntan' 1h:ll lill'l'l' an lllllltipk 1lll':JIIing' lw clllilit, like tltt COIIIIII'I aud 1he d11 (aiiCI li11 p:utitlll:u plan,. \\'t 11111..,1 lllHitl 'land hco1' icl.oolo~iL' ' shift :mcl t h.mge a11d tH>l :t"lllltt thal lhl'l' .tl'l' lixed. \\'e al"' mtd In tutdct ,,,mcl ho11 thl'l' art bl'i ng dcplmed wi1hin .uul hvl\\cTII hq{cmon il hlot'. linalh . tftt,l' ll1l'<llling' an r onl t''lt'd. \\'l' ~~~~~~~ thiul.. .tl>olll ick.,Jogil's ami htge'III<JIIic, " l'll~.lgcd i11 a co n ~1a111 '11:11 ol manoem re 1\'Wt e llw OIHronH i ~ lll'l'tT ctrtain . Thu ~. takin!-\' up thesc idc' ;t~ oi' gt'llg r:qJII\. rl'prnc:nt:llioll .uHI Jl"" tr thrnu ~h thc 110tions 11l irkolu<>'\ ' a nd heg'l.'illl >lll l1 a~ ll'd L o a co111plt-x 1111Cic1~ l a ndi11g ol Iil' conttstatioll ni' the"';ncanings ~, thc r ollllll'l :md thl' ci t~ . h ha.; aJ,o rai~td the que~t ion of Ill' rt'i:Hioll.'- hip bClll't'Cll till' 1\ll':lllillg'' :\llat hcd 10 pla ce~. 'f).lt'l'' .lllclialld'caJl'S and is~u c, o( idcntity ( p.~~ 1) (' l't' ""' L' I'I Y. l!1 9:i. and .\l atk". l!l\l."1h ). 1 hL''L' lht'llll' ~ .u e COIHilllle'< i11 lhl' IH'Xl 'l'Ction whitli ('011\iCit'r' lht-,t C'OIIIIl'l Ioll' IIHIIL' CJo,L\.


Culture and national identity

Nations, national identity and territoriality


Harvey, D. (1982) The Umits lo Copitol, Oxford: B asil Blackwell. Harvey, D. (1988) The Urban bperience, Oxford: B asil Blackwell. Harvey, D. (1990) The Condition of Postmodernity, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Onc ol' lht kt'\' concerns oJ' cullul':tl 'tudies i~ th l' nu1io11 ol idcntity (p. '2'2 1). ll o1' do peoplt llllclt'l',.;t:llld \,fl o thc1 al't' :111d holl' do tltcl' diJ'krc ntialc' lh l' lll ~l'ill'' II'CII\1 < )tlwr< Thi~ i~ abo a m :llln ol thl' wa' ' in 1dtit'h 1 )l'opk idcmih "ith pl.ltl'' nr :11 e idcnti fil'd with thtlll 1>1 olhcr..-. This mig-h 1 i111oln .1 11'11 'll'l'<'l'. a rq~io11 . h1gl.tncl. ' thc \\ c<l. or Alrica. One ol thc crucial diiiH'll'iolh ol idelllil' i~ 11alioual icle111il1 . llo\\ a11d "In do peopfe iden1ifl iltl'lll~dll'' <1'- IIH'illhel, u f di,lillct ll.ll ion,d colletii\lle'' ancl 1\h:tl olll' 1he implicailllh ol 1 h i~~ In n:11 iunali''" 1cl1a1 l' can 'l't' '' illl' f llltural rdalion-,hip


lnlroducing Cultural Studies

Topographies of culture: geography, power and representation


bL'ti,Len tllc: i1Hii\'idual a 11 d til e rol ll'Ciil i11 ao; it i., tlll<kr,Lood lh roug ilterritori;tlit~. \\'~ p01 tion ol tlll' ,,u l~Kt' ora 'pcrilic l;,mcl,capC' 1ha1 i' cli,ickd off and ~il'<n panicul.u llll':tniug, 11 ith 11 hic h pcople ick-n tih. J\ationaJi,m , :t rl'lal inh 11Wdcrn 1hing .. \ltl11111g h natiom cl:~im n :n long- h istu ric:s , nt tching bad. into Jn~ tlt o l tlgicaiiJ<l'h . n:uio11 al idt' IIIL~ i11 j , 111ockrn f nn i' :t produc ol tht tightt't'lllh .tnd nint'ltTIHh ccn lttrie~. TheH i, a li1ch ckb.llt' m e thc ori~in;. 0 tht nottion .uul 1he n:Hiotbi:Hl' (i t' poli1ical f01 111) and ill(kL'cl there :11e prohabh clifftlt'nres lw i\I'LTll thtir f(ll'lll:tlinn in rlilfL'I'ent plat'l''- (~L't' Cookt. I ~IH9l. III ~ Lcad 1 rdtl':ll, ing tht't' clch:llt'S. liT \l':tll 1 L o g iH a I 'L'I'I gvneral t':-;pi.IIJ ;nio n of' thc ri'L' of n;llionali,n '' ilic h ttn<kT,t.uHI, it in lt'lll" of' ~t'ograp l11 and rullm:tl idemitl . Tili' i, 10 .u~ue 1ha1 pnntodern idtnlifk:tlion' 11i1h loc:tli11. tribC'. lamil~ or religion al'( ~hal lclt'd in a llltllkrn ll'tH id 11 hme llt'll 'ocial ancl n dtura l rel:11 ion' (cap i1:il i~111 , state lo t'lt1:11ion . g lol>:tl CCJilllllUnir :llion ) cli ~n 1 p1 botill lit ' lahk, loca l rd:lliotn :ltlcltilt global ickn tifica1ion' o( n:liginn. :\a1ional i ~m i' almut fincling .111 ahertt.uiw that i' i11 t1111c 1rith tht tnodertt wollcl in l,tritllh 1rms. lt i' .tbout 1umiding a tolkctil'ill that ha' ~o 1111 dllclillne ..., inlht new .'> itu:uion and 11hi1 lt ofTers sonwthing around 11hi ch )('oplc r; 111 huifcl tlie ir iclt'I11tk, ;l ttcl t i Hl~l' OJ' Olliti'' .\ Kt:y 1 1 '< 1\' nf' Ullclti''lattding this jo; throug-h l k ll t'dict .-\ndu ~ott'' ( l!l!ll) nmion oJ'nat ion.; ,,, 'inmgined cotnmunitics'.
~ce tllat il , a



Nations as 'imagined communities'

of lhcir nat ion. Seconcl. th io; llH'il ll' 11ta1 11:11 ion,tli"n' :ttlCI 11aticmal ~el\' 111 it t'' arl' a ~~~ :11 ~ . , 111 uch on lht l''\l hl'-ion of IH'IlJ)IL' ll'ho clonot !it and tlw dra11 mg ol bound.u LL' ' , bu 1 1 a. . . tnn1nnmit, .tnclthL' ternlon\\'hL're thl'l canl11e tu~e tlwr . ) on lile 111,vnincrofa ~ l"'' L't Tlll' imag ining oi' tlti.s ron llll ltllit ~ is a colltr tu (or lnlt'l ' tl bectl\ cl Lllltural prOl'l'" is abuttl CIT<Hing tltt nation thrmtg h i1' t'L'pre~C'Ill~Hion 10 hotlt membt~r' .uJcl 11 c,. \\'1il in n u fiel io11' ancl his101 l'' p.tinti ng land,cape' ancl pon r.lll' .. m el QLIISl ' 1, 1h rotwh n . . . choreo~raphi 11g par:tcl<'' ancl et't tmonil',. lt i~ .tbmtt 1rying lo t<.~al~lt'h IIH' CXI,lL'll.r ol lhc colkrti\'IYb> dl'llning 11h ~IL nt:tkt'' it a com 1111111l1': i~o l a1ing nattcn~al c harartl'l'l'~'r'. dcfi ni ng Cl'lll'i:t[ hi ... tmical tlltlllll'lll ' or ~ig nifi tollll placl'~ (Jclt' r. ngit'l.li1C:'~ l~'l' 111.1 g i~1 think ul 'tht Bullclog hrc..ccl' or England c)l.ptt 1' ell'l'\ lll:tlt w ~lo ht' dut1 _ m th~' grcen all(\ pk:~:-ant lancl' ). :'\om o( 1hi ~ implit., that lht''l' mea11mg' l'i\~1 be: ft~t:cl (ti tllicrht be II.Sl'f'u[ w thin k o{ natiu n' '"' pn~ j ec t, ll'hich are 11 C\'l'l' lull ~ ;Killt.'ITd ). 1hc..rt ar: a[ll';,ns a ltC'rtliUI'l' accoun LS \1'h ich are bci 1 1 ~ gh'Cn. ~111cl ~~ 1ten a 1in i t tli'I'J >l'l'l:tl ir 111' beincr ma<k frnm diflttt'lll po,itio11'-. \\'e ~hall ,.._.e omc uf thl''l' bdtlll. l1 clOt'' mean. holl'~\lr. thal 1he comnHmitl i' a cull\11~11 tliW. Cuhll l'l' , 1101 som1hing aclckcl on 1 a1er: il cll'li n c~ n;11io1 1'. na1cmal idt'l11ilic' a11d tl'ITiiClrit' T lll' gtographic' ni lhi~ prm't'SS or l'tlll'li'IICIilg iht ' ilnaginL'cl ('lllll tllllllil~. uf a nation throug h a national cuhu'l'' can at in 1110 ,,.,11~: fir,t. lhl' praclicalitit' of crcating a national culture' arro~s lht span of a Jlalitlll-,l:lle: wt oncl. 1he ro k ol lanclsril pe i11 f'nrgi ng and contt'Sli 11.{ na tio nal icknt il\'.


.\ttcJvr,on ( fm tl ) ~tt~ out to unclt't'staud tiH' iniC'mt a nd clt'l'P pt'I''OI1al auach1nento; th:u n:uioth ~enna1t. \\'11\ , it tltat 'o mau1 pcople<' heen willin~ 1101 onh 10 kili btll lo dil' for Llll'ir ro nn1 ries~ 1 lti ,. lw aq~llt'' i<. l'~pl'ci. tll~ harrl to htlie1e, g-intt that 1he philo,oph ira l b:t~t'' oJ' tlll' na ti onalist argtl llll'll l.'> lor ,,hich plople go w 11:tr are so , J fl u,,. l11 p~11 t.lti.~o answtr is ahnuttht 11';11, in ll'lti ch nation;. oiTer a 'l'll e o( identill' and 'l't 111 it1 in 1he moclcrn II'C>tlcl lll repi.King- ll'i<ler .111cl 'wnicalh ot clerC'd rdigio u~ and dlna,lit f'orn t' of' 'ocial c>rgani,:nion ll'ith .1 11<:'11' 't'll'\l' uf tinw ( lilwar ' histon rallwr litan . 1 t'~T i ical Sl'th(' of' lilllt'} :t11<J a 111 '11' Sl'l1:"(' o f spn (tht II'Orld di\'icJeci i;HO ll'c [J. dtnJ:trc:Hcd ' ll' t't'itmies') 11'hich sltort: up ~O illl' ol'tltt in~tcuritit,., of' m ocleruit)' (p. -100). Tltt''l' rolll'Cl , it ieo;. and 1ht ,,.a,s o l ickn1 if1 i ng 11 ith 1he m. ~oltoulcl.. \nclt'Nlll ar~ut'!'>. bt uncltr,toocl a o i ma~i necl cont 111 1111 iti e!>. -1 h l'l' a re i lllflgi 111 , ht'Gllts< 1lw mtm h1'1'-<lf' CH' Il lltt '111 :t lll'sl 11.11 ion 11 i11 nc1 l'l' k 11 o11 1 110,1 o f 1llL'ir l(:llo\1'-lllt' miJ<'rs. lllt'l' 1tlwm . on,cn h t'il r oi' tll t'lll . l't'l i11 th c m indo; n[ t'iiCit [i,t, Lite imagt of'lh<'ircomnnlnion' ( 19~1 1 : ()), ft i~ n nh' in tl11 im,tginalion 1hat colkt ti1 itil':- at thi' 'cale rant:-; i,t. :\lonmet . in onkr to imaoin 1 " 11 11, nnmber of' l>t'opiC' ''a colk'Ctil it\' 'hat ing tl Hl~t <haracteriMic)> that an mo't f'undallll'll tal tu tl ll'ir idtnlitit' ntt:n, thal a lo 1 ha;. to bt forgou t n a lwu t i11 lt'l'llal social d il'i,io ns. In .o;IHHI. lhe~ ill'l' i111:tg ined "' flllillllllllili''l. 'bcntu~< rq.{ardlc'' oi' the aclllal intqualit\' and t''\ploitalion tlt:H m ;11 pt n ail in caclt . 1ltC' nation i' al11'<11s conniled a' a dt<p. horillmlal tomradl',hi) ( 199 1: 7}. 1his in llllll mean!' lhat 1lwsC' ~omnlltnitit ' are nC'd "' flftilf i l 'bt'<:llt'l' t'\'t'll the laq..('I'S l o( thcn1 ... h;" linit t', if e l:lstic. bou ndari t~. bc~o 1td ll'lti clt li t olhcr nation ~. i'\o nation imagilll'' ihC'lf' cotcrnli t1 0ll' wi1lt mankncl' ( 1~1!1 1 : 7). Thtt t' aH 111o poin ts hert. Fit 'l. 1hi' lllt'< llh 1hat natitHI' are idtnt ified \1'ith p:11tiutlar ten ito1 il' parhof tltt ll"llt'ld lhat.u-c nwa ningfnlto thtm as thc historical homt

Pefining COIW'fJI


Globalisation- hybridity

Globalsation describes the process of gradually inlermeshing world economies, politics and cultures into a global system. While some commentators argue that a world trade system has been in operation sin ce ancient times, the contemporary world is marked by a greater and fas ter flow of goods, images and communications than ever befare. The trade routes that have linked Africa, Asia and Europe for hundreds, if not thousands ol years, cannot compare with the present vol ume and speed ol interactions and flows. The growth of a wo rld system is usually associated with the rise of capitalism in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The capitalist mocle of produc tion spreacl with the expansion of European powers into the Arnericas and later Asia and Africa. Capitalism undercut earlier forms of economic relations, lor example, the non-money economies of North and South America. However, while the European empires linked far.flung parts of the globe, their economies were characterised by the import of raw materials from the colonies by the European power and the export of manufactured goods in the opposite direction. Thus, the European empires marked the beginnings rather than the establish0 ment of a world system. Two periods of what David Harvey (p. 156) has called 'timespace compression' (see Chapter 5) saw an acceleration of this process. The first occ.urred al the turn of the twenlieth century. New technologies like telegrapl~, t~l ephon e, ratl an ) steam ships permitted speedier flows of goods and !aster communtcattons. The volume


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Topographies 0 culture: geography, power and representalion


of world trade grew rapidly until it was staffed by the First World War. The inter-war period was one of protectionism, bul since 1945, world lrade has increased lo lhe poinl where lhe concept of a global system seems plausible.

Thc debate abou t globalisation in the late twentielh century has fallen into two camps: proponents of hyperglobalisation and lhe globalisation sceptics (Pcrraton et al., 1997). The proponents of hyperglobalisation maintain that a world system now operates and that national and regional economies are both subject to the global economy. S uch is the hegernony (p. 106) ot the world systern that there is little that national governments or regional bodies (like the European Union) can do lo protect thernselves from the ups and downs of international financia! markets and trade cycles. Globalisation sceptics argue that lhe volume of world lrade is, in facl, not much grealer al the end of the lwenlieth century than il was in 1913 (Giyn and Sutcliffe, 1992). Perraton criticises bolh these posilions as too simplislic, because they posit an idealised version of a perfect global market. lnstead, Perra ton argues lhat globallsalion is a process. lt is not that nation-states or regional trade blocs have no power, but that their power is now dependent on their / place in a cleveloping, but unequal global system. Globalisalion affects culture as well as trade. In fact, rather than one global system Lime are difieren! processes of globalisation occurring at the sarne L ime. The world system has facili!atecf the global distribulion ot Hollyvvood's films and North American television. Chinese, lndian, American and European cooking is available in most of the world's large cilies. lnternational communications are now more widely available. A three-minute telephone caff between London and New York cost $244 .65 in 1930 ( 1990 cost equivalen!); in 1996 it was possible lo ring London from the United States for 30 cents a minute. While it is possible to point to large-scale population movernents in the past - for example, the voluntary (migration) and enforced (the slave trade) movement of people Lo lhe 1\mericas, low-cost air travel has meant that contacts between distant cultures have increased in frequency. Cities like Los Angeles are made up of a patchwork of ifferent cultures from around the world. The speed and frequency of international contact have led to a phenomenon which has been called, variously, mestizo culture or hybridity. Mestizo culture referred originally lo the mixture ol cultures, African, Native American and European, found in South Arnerica. lt has been used by Gloria Anzalda and Cherie Moraga to describe the permeable and shifting identities that come into being in the human and cultural border trafric between lhe United States (particularly the state of California) and Mexico. Anzaldua writes of 'the new mestizo' (literally 'mixed woman') as on the border between two cultures. The new mestizo is not defined by an essentialist identity (p. 224), but by vnolucha de fronteros (a struggle of borders). This mapping of boundaries has much in common with comparable postcolonial (p. 189) projects, fictional and theoretical, which have attempted to engage with the intensifying pace of global interactions. Salman Rushdie's The Satonic Verses (see Chapter 6), for example, charts lhe metamorphoses that occur in the process of migration from the lndian subcontinent to the former imperial een re, a process that crea tes, in the words of the postcolonial critic, Homi Bhabha, a kind o ird space of cultural hybridity.

forme the irnportance of h)!bcidity is not to be abi.P to tr~ce tw~~inal m~me~ts from which the third emerges, rather hi:bridity to me _rs ~ th1r9 s~ace_ wh1Ch enables other positions lo emerge. This third sace drsgla~~s ~~~ ~ ~~tones, lhal constitute it, and sets ue new structures olauthority, new pohllcalrrlltlatrves, whrch are inadequately understood thr<lli9_)1 received wisdom. (Bhabha, 1990: 2 11 Paul Gilroy's concept 0 the 'Biack Atlantic' (see 4.6.2) constitutes a similar allempt lo think outside the fixed and misleadlng boundary fines of nalion-s.tates and t~ create a s ace in which a double consciousness that is both inside and outsrde mode~nrty c~n . be The point here is not, of course, to say that the new Bhabha s G'lroy's development of du Bois's double consciousness dehneale the same space. lt rs to suggest thal current conditions create the same kinds of problems meaningful narratives in different parts of the globe. Gl.o~ia Anzald~a, between Mexrco and California, tackles similar kincls of dislocation as (albertrn a very drfferent wa~) Sal~an RLIShdie between Bombay and London . They all give example~ of n ~w rdentrtres whrch, altl10ugh created by the new global capitalism, are reslstantto rts logre.


t~oughl. ~:th~r


hybndrt~, ~or

Fu J'f her readi ng H o (1990) Tile Condition of Postmadernity, Oxford: Blackwell.


F:a~::;st~ne, M. ( 1996) Undoing Culture: Globalizotion, Postmodemism ond ldentily, London:

\ )


1Making the nation

) 1 .1. ( ' D" S'l\'er ( I()H!1) h a\'e arguecl that 11 :Hior1-states n eed 1 11 1p .orn g.u 1 .111cl .._ rck . 1 . 1 to be t undn,tnod a~ both p o litical and cu ltu ral c ntities. For th c m . rlw ~ta ~t l\ a ~ u tur a. c1: ~ 1 ~ whirh is ac ti 1 e l\' in\'Ohcd in regula ting c ultu ra l lo n ns (see C ltap tcr l.>_b.t' l o~: >: l n/~~;~t- 1 ' \ undc 1, 1and tltb '"'' nced w tltin k abmtt how tlw ~ta te prom<~t~l> cc1t.un '~1" e~ . 1_t :;nc . d iscou1ngl'~ othcrs across its wholc rcrri wrv. In la1xe pan rhto; t\ ,\ m_a~tl'l uf< 1c.'lllll':' ;> 1 m~kin thc mttio11 as a cultural cmit~ ( Gn1f'fud d. 199j). In the Bn mh ca'-e "~m~~ ll th;nk tht. wa,s in which diffcrc llt hai'C bccn or ' t ed e du catiOil<l 1 Sl,ll' lll . TI 1c1 , e is much trurh 111 .rh c u e t 1at bv tit e ~ 1 tt.-rq~11 1 a . a lcct Wll 1 CI\CS 1\'C ll la' ng uag< ,is ,imph a d1a 1 ;1 po rre.e j'or "te. In th e F'ren . r lt or brach . . mlg . 1 "


bce n

suppor~td n~alkg,ln;llltscd

thinJ... < lhOill h ow ;nass miliwry servirc

h a~

u~ccl_IO l o~gc

llaii~Jnal ~or:~C IOUSI~ess


a mon g. in th e first case, llll'lll\'ilh disparate regional ~dc ntlll(:s and.' .'n th~ <;~~~ n;: ~;,'~~ m en a nd 1\'0 m e n from a 1d 10k rangc ol' o t hcr pans o l 1h e ,,n1lcl ( \\ e bc1, . .. 1 1 . , . in a ll cas<:s 1\T might think abollt h ow statts ra re f,dl..- CotHtrtiCI bot~l e<. rtn10~lles, ~ nd ad m in i ~t f;ttin ~~stcms 1 h a t wo rJ... at 1 h e national lt:l'el ancl :-:cek to ~>1 ocht~ t .',co_h e 1elnt n at ional .lren.l a ll(l e x pcricncl' l'\'('11 a~ thc'\ represent and or<kr 11. In l.n~t _ p,lttl t ~~ . <1. or tn nation , llla(k lw 1he s iate. . tt . 1~ .1 prc~ll . ing LO crcatt a h01110~t'll0lb Cll llll C ac1o~s a gino n terri tory.


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Topog raphies o f cultu re: g eography, power and representalion



lmaging the nation

\\ e lllltM al~o unclcr~ t a n cl t he I\'01\ 'S in ll'h ic h n<llion' clairn a dttp .tf'lin itl' ,,ith a nationaJ tcrriwn mack meaningful to them through a ~t'll't' or comm11nit' and lti,tory connected tu p:trti cular s~m bo l ic p bns a11(1 1 attcl ~ca pt., ll'ithin th < tl te rritory. \l onme 1:, it , leso; tlt <:'t' LC'tTi toric:,, p latt'' allCIIancbcapc:' t hcm-,lIH':. tltat are imponan t th.m the rt' pascntation' that .u e made of them. J ust ,,, the mtmber~ of the na tiun C:lllllOI all kn o\1" caclt o tl ll' r, n c ill w r can tiHr kn o 11 intim < tll'l ~- a ll tht $paces. place!' :1 11(( lanclscapes o J t ha t nation. Tlte1 can. l umt~t r. expt-ricn ce 1IH1n t h101tgh rt'J'IT~entation' 11ltic h are ma-., repwdute d in all 'IOJ'h of fo rms ami tirntlatccl ,,;de)~ within tlll' iln.tgined COI11111llllill'. Tltis COtlllt'Cl iou ha~ htt n cxplored in ckwil b1 S1cphcn Daniel' ( 199:'. in his di,tu~~iolh ol 11 ha1 ht can, thc -~~ mbolic (>l'' ol national idcnti11. in En gland a n cl 1h e L' 11 i 1c d S tal es. D:m ids tuH kt, tand.' tl<ll iotwl iclcn1i ti es as b l'i ng g inn sh a pe ancl l'Otltcn t by lcgtnd<, and landsctpt'' a' bciug f(>llllcd b1 :.torico; of' golckn age . traditions, htroic dccds ancl dr:unatit dc.' ltinics locat!'cl in :mcitnt or prom ised lwmc la nd ' 11i l h hall oi,'C'd ~ t ~ ~ ancl SCt' IH' tY, C ontHcti ng- 11 ll'~l' icl (':t~ II' 111 .\nd trso tt' , he ~"~' th.u the tnaking o t tht:sl hbtorit~ ancl gcograp lt ic~ 'giH'' ,h.tpl' to the imagined communi11 of tlll' na tion a n cl tha t 'Land,capts ... pictlll'l' tltt nation ' ( Da nil'b. I ~HI :1: i'l: and Schatllil. l m lfl) . O nc exa rnplt a ttto ng 111.1111' th a t h l' g i1c, i ~ tite 11'01 k of J o llll Con~tab l co and \I'C c;111 rttttrtl w Th1 1/a_l \\ ' a i n lo rt.tcl i1 in tl1co e ll' rt1h. \\'ltm Danil'ls clue~ is lO .~ h o11 h o 11 Co n s t<~ bil''s ll'urk can b e ~l'l' ll as ' h a rn cssing th e lll'i ll l'inue~ or ll:tllll'l' ;\llcl nation' ( 1!19:1: ~00 ). l" hi,. he argtus. is ll10l'l' a 111all("r of tlw changi n g 11'<\\'' in ll' hich t l1l' pai n ting.' ancl th e paill l<'l' h ml bccn u mlt-rstood titan a n ~ lixcd inttr pre tation o f C:on,tabk\ an. ; tni c ls slw ll's h oll' C:onsta b lt-'s L::ng Ji,IHH:ss wa~ ron~uurtcd th roug h nittt'lecnthet'llliiiY biog1~1phi<.~ ami ltow. ll'ith its prnc nta tion to the ;\;nional Callen (:md extcnsi,l t ht:tp rcprocluctio n ) in 1RR6. T/11 1/ny1\ 'oin lwga tl 10 b econl t' a n a ti o n a l ii'Oil unclt-r~tood LO rep l't'St'lll a tlp ica lh Englisi1 natural ami cu ltural landscap<. Thi~ ~~ mbolil' p<m'el mean th at it ha~ b ttn mcd and l'l:' ll\l'c\ 0\'l'l' tlt t' Jaq Cl'lltU I~ lO bring \':ll'iOII' fOI' lll.$ o f p a tr ioti' nt lO bLa r in COIH l'SlS m tr c hange 11'ltich lta l'l' a lso h <TII co tll t''~IS ul't' t' Eng li ~ hn css. 1t ll':t'> ttsl'd in battl l'~ ti1r 1110dc mi<.t planning bl'tll't'l'll tlw 11ar,. lt ''"" tnli~ted agai nst :\ati Gennam ;mcl po,t ,,;, p lann ing. lt ''"' rec ru itl'cl in argt ll1ll'lt h o\'cr r la' s po l i ti c~ in th c 19711s a nd nur ltar cli ~<t rm a ni L' Ill in th l' 1 91')0~ . lt t tll l' HI~H is it i ~ p laring j ., pa n itt deba tt;. m cr L::urope. \\'lla t it i~ n ccessa r\' tu S ll'l'~S is tllat th csl' I'L'j}I'L' ~tnta ti on s u l tllc n a ti o n a re ah,ars p rod tt rtd lro n1 panin lla r posi ti o ns- th cy hal'l' :1 politic~ as wc ll "'a poc ti rs. l n tl! i, ~~-e Sl't' 111'<> tlling': firs l. llw p robltntalic rl'la1io n~hip betl\'l't' ll the im.tgined con1muni11' and 1h e ~oc i a ) d iris io n s tha t i1 is u ~ ing to con tai n : ~t rond , 1h e wm~ in ,,lt iclt na 1io n a l i.~ 1n j; ba' t' d u pon a scri t' o f l'Xclu ~io n s ll'h iclt art tnade rea l in t. hc wa1;. in 11hich tht connn u nit~ i' imagimd. Thi' i~ clear, lo1 exampk. in l.11e ninett< ' lllhcenllll'\ C;maclian n a1iu n a lism (Osbo n tl', 19HH. nn d Sltidds, 1~~~~ 1). Tlw t ru cial ') m bolir lan~lsr:I)Jl' \\'as th c lar :'-!on lt . Th is 11as uncltr, tnod ;" a n in ancl 11n pcoplt"d ll'ildt-rne-,, wh ich ck tined

Box 4.2
0 . 11c are tlt l' 111l'll

Men of the Northern Zone

o!' th c \'or1hcrn '.o 11 e; h all a bit bt p land in our nlmllll~ lfa ;"\orthman twr loq hi' 1hrone Oid 1h e conq ue ror cotnc fron1 1h e Sottl h ~ \'ar. na' - and th t .111'1\'l'l' hk111 11 a chon" i' smttlll\ard !>ttll: 'Sitt Cl' ,,h c n ha~ a So uth t rn tr p lact"d hi' h t"t l On 1hc nwn of th e \'onhern tone~

R.K. '"''"i).(h.11 1. 1~!lli. qw ''"d in Sh idfl, ( 1!l!ll l

;l'o l'u n danwntaiiY di iTtr<"lll fronl FranCL'. Britain .me! th t l ' nittd St.lll'' (.111 ol' ll'h ich chalkngcd its national 'O\'tTt' ignt\' in 1<11 ious 1\'a\, ) a n d arted " a p lan of sahation . r tcknt ption a nd mora 1 rcgL' It l' ra l ion . T I! is nat ionalisnt ll':ts ddi ncd as 11'11 i L L ' (exclucling i n digcnou~ peupk' and olh l'l' IIOIHdtilc Canadians). 11 ll'aS abo dt"f1ncd a' m a~ru l i n e. For txampk. R.K. K<n1 ig h ;111 's p oe111 ' \ lt' n ol'tlH' nortlH'rtl t.O IH'. ( Box l.~) shows lto ll' this t't'giona lism and n a titllt a l i ~ m :tt'l' ~c n ck rl' cl ..\n o th e r l' XH il'lple ll'ltic h delliOilStratl'' tia rdationship' lwtl\'l' t' ll bndscqw. na1ionalism ancl genckr and :.lum, the implication' for 1\0illl'll ancl nwn is t'<ll h lll't' ll titthCl' ll ltiJ'\ lri,h t tational i~m (\'. t,h,


J !:JH:~

a ncl :'\a,h . l m H I ).

4.4.5 1 Nalionalism, landsca pe and women

Tht CJIICstiml o t IIOIII\'11 .mcl nationaJi,m raisc:. 1110 conntcted i'-'lll'~. Tht li1st i~~m is th e rolt o l' \l'otnc n , n a tional ~1 ntbo l ~: tltink ni Fra n n t mbo di t"d as ';\ la ria nnc ' ancl Britai n a:. 'Bri t;utnia'. "' 11el1 a~ the ll'l"' of a lkgorical tigtnT' of II'Ollll'll n n n a tio n a l momuncn h ( \\'anll'r. 19K). he ~l'con cl issut i' tht lllt<kr!>tallcling of 1\'0IIH:'II '" 1he m o th l t, ul tlt t nati u n ami th t main ~ l<l''' n f its l'a milic,, , Na tiouhuilders ofkn ,a hu: wo m L ' Il for thdr mlc' a~ 11'\'C' aJHlmo lh t rs a n d o t'tt' lt ~<'<' 1hc n atio n a s hot h httilt u pon strong ta 111 ily 1alu<< lor ,,hkh '''Ollll'll .trc IH"lclrc<>pon,ihlco ami as a I:mtilr itsclf. Thi~ bcgitts lo ddin t p a ni n tbr rol t'' f( ,.- ll'olllt' ll ll'ithin th e ' imagined to mmutlit y . . C:athnint :'\adt ( 1\19:\) disrll''~'~ t h t~c i"ue:. in relation w thc comtrucuon and repll''~tnt <Hion nf tht 11 i'h na1ion in the l'arly lll'l' ll tieth ccnuu'l'. One of the ani~h thal slw co tt sid e r~ i' th t p:ti lllt' r P:ntl 1le n rr. ll e ll'il~ a modc rni'L ancl nati n nali ~ t 1dw 11as setking :-pit itualitl. 'tahiliii ancl autltcnticill' on thc Cclt ic fringt . 1k ll'<tS looking for a cet tain ~t1 ~io11 ut l ri,hness and looking for it in 1he \ \'t't of lrl'lancl. In tu rn lw wa~ < 1111 0 11 g th osc \I'IJ U Cl'l':ltt'd illl:tg'L'\ o f th a l <ll'l.':t 'as <1 11 lrisJt n tlll.ll'< tl l'l'gion . ll'hme pJtysicaJ lan clscapcs prnl'idcd h e grcattst con tra'l lo thl' la n dsctpe of English nes~ ( 1~Htt 1 1-!>)


ln tro d ucing Cultural Studies

Topographies of cullllre: geography, power and representation


( for ex a m pk. 11 i~ p.ti 111 in~' ht i>r!/a/n /Ji,L..'l!.''' 1 ( 191 ~ ) and (.tllll/1 '1/lftl/1 Cntlagnl . . \ n II C;I 1~' " 1 ol the r rcatton o l lh" Sllllholic l:lll ri~t".tpc o ( n.nional idl'll itl 11;-a~ tite rcp rl'.>t' tlta. 110 11 of ll'tllltt' ll hct. Fig u.rt l.l iJ. ,\, :'\a.;lt ar~u es. 'tiH' '''O III l'll in l l c n ry, ;111 1 11

fl'lll tlllll l~' ha~c.d o n a 'll)~pno;e~ll ~ natural ide n lification 11itlt n:uurc aiiCit lt t lancbrapc' (.1993: . '.~>). Thts. n:.llural tdenufication ' .l c:picwd mothcrhoocl. hlahlt a nd nu~tl t:unil) '.'llucs .h 1he blll_ldtng block' of the nauon ancl challcnged mor( ac tiiT politic:tl mies
for 11'111lll'n. Thttr pl.tCt' in the n a tion ll'as ca p1ured in lll(' im:wc of 1he co u a<.rt (s - _ ,.., ,.., . ce 1 tg lll'l' l. t):
T lt11s th c i ~o hntd rura l 1 o tt agl' rqJ rl'~C' I Ill'd the rva lisation. hotlt in tit e phvsict l fahri c ol tllt land,cape ancl itt the mora l a nd ~pil'i tual domain. ol th t ideal fCIIIII o l lri'h ~uc ictl'.. .. Reprt''>t nt:llion of land,cape in tat h 11\'Cntil'tlt-ctrHtll'\ lrdand ll'a' codnl 11ith nwaning in ll'l ll\\ ol both nati .111<1 gemlcr identitl', ( 19!: 1!1)

l~tn"'~ l' .pa n

u l tli c

1'1~11<11 tconograph~

o( t ite \\'c.\ t

:111 cl


:1s e

mbit-m.~ ol

a 11 idl'a


l11 1h c~r 1isio n \ oi' t he g'l'lldl'ri ng nf tlw n at ion, 1\'omen 1\'l'l't' 1 ied t( 1 cc nai n ich: nt 1i c~ tia')' '.'cr~lim i l cd i11 t la ir l'lllcs. T h e ir pl; rn : i11 1he ll t'\1' natiun 11a, IC be m the n : nlrc of th~ hH~lll}' ra1h c 1 ti1 ;111 < ti th c ce11 trc ol' politics. In turn . ma,c tdinitic:s ,,.t~ rc a lso ~-~ 11 \l<lg'llll'd through panic ular undcr~t :lndi n ~s or nat OII ancl na\ u re ( ~ash. 1H!lli). 1 h t'l'l' ll'erc. of cour~l. c hallcngcs to the" icll.,, nt in all of tlwm \\'e !-CC holl' 11 ;11 i011 , a~ 'imagine<! communit its are imagirwd a~ ge ndcred in l'<triou s ll'a,s (.\l o rris. 19!lli) , and hc111 tlwse are ah,a~, p:trl of' 1hc indti'O rh a11cl L'xclu~io n' uf' thc making oJ' naliOII:ll idc ntilies.

Figure 4.7 lreland.)

Connemoro Cottoges by Paul Henry. (Source: courtesy of the National Gallery of


1Nationalism: inclusions/exclusions

Their gcogra phieo; ~ h ow us that nations :tl'l' \'C' I Y often b u ill upon a projcct' uf thc crc atiun cultu ra l homogcneit~ aJHlth t p ioriti,:uion ot cctt.lin ,,ays ot imagining th c comnHmitl', This ,a mall<:r of bot h imh"io11 ancl cxcJ uo;ion. ldclllilics of all kind' are f"ormecl <1>. llll1Ch through S1a\l'll1l'll t'> .tbo lll ll'hat Olle S 1\0l ,\o., lhi'Ollgh o;tall'lllt'llh of ll'h ;u Olll' is. Tlll' pro('(''' ur lllaking grou> a nd inclil'idual idt' llliti e~ i ~ aboul ickntit'~ in~ dirf(' t'('nces aiH I nwki 11g tll tm m c ani llg f'ttl . So it i' thl' p cn:L' il'trl diiTc rc: n ccs bt' ll\'l 'l' ll n ntiom tllat art \' italton;llio nalbm. fo t c=-ampk , Lincl:t C:olk1 ha' argm:d tha t Bt itain " '"' fi>rgtd into a natio11 cluring thc l'i;htl'l'tllh centu n h~ it' f'ran rop h obia "' 11\ltl' h "' an~ thing el se ( Colle1. 199~) ..-\nothcr ' l'l uf exclusions art th ow based on d e fining g<:ndcr iclcmitics with in thc nation. so that rc nain forms of 1\l:t\Crrlinitl' and fe minini11 clo no t li t (sce abo\'e). '1hi~ ., a l'o possiblt in t crm~ el a~~. Thoq wh o too k p a n in 1h c lllimr~ ~ trikc ur Hl~l ll'l'l'l' dl'fimd :t' ' tlt l' ('\lt'lll}' II'ihin .' t' ll t' III(.'S of th e naliun railll'l' than 1h e gmcrn llll' ll t o t 11 w cco nom ir a lh po11'l' t'II. T h ci 1' l"\C iu,inn f'rom th c n :ll ion

Figure 4.6 The Pototo Diggers (1912) by Paul Henry. (Source: courtesy of the Nalional Gallery of lreland.)



166 lntroducing Cultural Studies niJm,td llw tt.'>t' of forn agains1 thc111 b1 thc pCJiict. The llna l txcfu~ion' lhat 11<' .; 11 111 1hosc ba\ed u pon racc. lo Topographies of culture: geography, power and representation 167
di ~(.' ll'' :11 t'

. 'Jiwrc :u e dc:;u h conncnions bciiHTil na1 ion a li~1ll a nd rari'm 1d1 icft aJ'l cl'idence 111 1he 1 _ nmt obnuu.; cxclw;ions: ~ hro_uKh inunigr;uion policie.~. 1 11 ough raci't l'iolenc~ .md 1h1ough lhe programme~ uf rac1S1 poli1ical panic,, Y<'l 1lw~e ronncction can 1 la~e.. nH~rl' ~~~~~fe ~on_n.~. In. thinkin~ through the implica1iom of tht d iscourses (p.~~~ of 1.1cc all(l. nauon 111 hts bool.. lhl'rt' :Hn'r .\'u ntatl: 11 tlw l '11,111 jfllk. Paul Gilrov ''<ls con rcrneclll~lh th.t wa1, in 11hich under~tanding~ ot' race that ck.'al 11ith it in tt-rt;lS of culttuc ancl tden tll~ haw led to a nell'' raci<,m ,,hic h i!> in dangcr of pr>clt ' l ' IC IIlg a ~lllla llon 111 ll' llrh ',s ancl 'F.nglishnt~~ arl' lllldt'I'Mood a' 11111111 .1 1 l'"Citt . TI 1 ' ' ' sn e . 11' 1 \ e n:enl~ ltc:d lo na.tiona list or ethnic abmlu1i~1 llllcltrslancling!' of cultme l\'hich. lmtcad of >-t'l'lltg 11 a,o, flUid and c1 er dtanging. clil'irk i1 llfl itllo sol id national blocks . d' r .1 . . . .tn 11; 10 ~ ~ IC t'tl llllts o nce ancl li. 1r all. \\'ithi n 'li ch a ,,a\' ol thinking. contplt'x Cllltural 1111 <JI' tlt e 11 pronssts are rcclnccd of tite clilntion nr d c< a<111011a or . .. . . to llll'laJitors . ,, tr 11 c1 lto~l cultlll'e. \\ha~ ~~ happenmg hcn. i., tltat ddini1ion~ ni' Engl bhnts~ are beiu <Tl'<He<l b~ < 'onsln tCll ng Lhe hlack prc....cnn ll'i1lt i11 ()ri 1ai n a~ :1>mble m or iltrett _ . 1g 'O .J S llC 1 tlr. a~:11m1 1l'lnclt tdnt!l)' is construrtccl. Cilro1 ~('l'' llti.~ lt:tpplning in politin l c:unp: ugn~. in hi~ tory ll'riting or \'<ll'ious !'OJ'h, ancl ilt I'('Sponscs IU Frank 13runo an'd

new connections and the re-thinking of the work of major black writers led Gilroy lo whal he called a posilion of 'anli-anli-essenlialism'. For example, in discussions of 'black music' il has been mainlained lhat such categories should be rejected as there is no 'essence' lo black music in either racial or musical terms. Gilroy accepts this critique of essentialism but argues that il is possible to trace the interconnections in 'black identity' in social and cultural terms. As with his earlier works, many of the examples discussed come from the area of music. Gilroy's influence has been in re-thinking aspects of cultural studies from within. His arguments tend lowards suggestions for the transformation of the approach to take accounl of ever more complex connections of identity (p. 224) formation in modernity (p. 400). This is in many respects a workng out of the implications of poststructuralist (p. 24) critiques of tixed identilles and characterisations.

Further reflding
Gilroy, P. (1987) 'There Aln't No Block in the Union jack: Tlle Cultural Politics of Roce and Nation', London: Hutchinson. Gilroy, P. (1993b) The Block Atlantic: Modemily and Double Consciousness, London: Verso. Gilroy, P. (1993a) Sma/1 Acts: Thougllts on tlle Polilcs of Block Cultures, london: Serpent's Tail.

Key inj!uence

P aul Gilroy (1956- )

Pa~l ~ilroy is a black British cultural analyst. The main focus of his work has been 011 the cultural pohl1cs of 'race'.
Gilroy sludied as a postgraduate al the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) _<P; 327) at lhe .University of Birmingham. He is currently Professor of Sociology at Goldsm1lh s College, Un1versity of london. Gilroy's early work on race and culture appeared in contribulions lo lhe edited colleclion fro":' CCCS, The E~pire Strikes Back (1982). In There Ain't No Block in the Union jack (1987) he car~1ed out a multtlayered analysis which emphasised the complexily and centrality of interactlons and s_truggles around race, class and nation in contemporary Britain. He was critica! 0 cultural stud1es' ~enerallack of consideration of 'race' but more importantly suggested that conce~n wllh t111 s arena wou~d have to tran~form cultural studies itself. He paid particular att~nt1on t.o the nat~re and 1mportance of black expressive culture', especially in music, wh1c~, w~lle appeal1n~ to. m~ny. whites, articulated core concerns of the black dlaspora, espec1ally m sorne ~ntt-cap1tahst themes. lf this work is contextualised by capitalsm In his 1 more recent work G1lroy has taken on conceptions of modernity (p. 400). In The fJiack Atlantic (1993b) he argu~d for the integration of the experience of black people lnto conceptualisatlons of moder~tty, but perhaps more significantly emphasised the hybridity (p. 1~) of cultures as they mteract and develop to form new connections and patterns. This emphasis 011

Salman R1"hdie. 1k a l ~o 'l't'" i1 IJcing chalk ngl'd in hlack Hriti-.h cu llllrl' and polilic, , in, for e~ampll'. illt' mu ... ir ol Sou/ 11 Soul and llw photol{raplll' or lll{l'id l'ollard and Dal'id ,\. 13aift, ('>t.'t.' Cilrm . 1\IH/. 1992 and Hl93a ).



Thi scct ion ha'> bccn conccrntd ll'ith undcr~tanding holl' cuhmc is crllcial 10 1hc making of na1 ional idcntit,. \\'hik dtmonstnning tite 11'<1\s in 1dtich n:uiom "' 'imag incd conntlllll itit:.' and pl'oplc':- idl'nlifirations willt lhtnl are nthurally con Sli'IIC it:d, i1;),o ckaJ., ll'ilh oi iHr a:-:ptTh ol Lhe co n1tec1 i on~ ht.'lll'l't'n ruhtJrt. gTograp h ~ and idclllity. Fir~l. ll't' can :-:ev again lh.ll ickntitits arl' multiple. :'-la1io nal idtn till b 1101 somcthing separall' f'rom o iltt'l fonn s ot' cultural iclt-nlity. The1 art e tllll'inl'd in 1':11 ious wars. Seconcl. 1he ,,ays in whir lt tl11:y are cutliH:'Cted ., rundamentall~ g'l'Ograpltical. Th t making or nalional id e ntit ~ i!> a pmccs~ or inclu~ion . of d c finin ~ ll'ha l '\l'c ' are !)~ id en 1ifying l1'i1h \':1riot" gcogr;tph ies. h is may be thc space of Lht 11<11 iona) ltrri l!ll'~' madc nH. '< lllingh il cm ntap., and b:lll llt'l'S. This may be tit e natinn as 'place'. Think. f'o r examplc, ol' lit e ('(Hnpkx rclaliolls lwiiiTt'n n:nion and gcndcr \\Tillen i1 11 o lh t lt'l'lliS ' m01hc rland' and ' fatltl'rl and'. Finafl ~. 1h is ma~ bl' 1he nalion as land.;ra pt, , isicllt~ tlt:ll symbol i ~e illl' cltaraCil'l'SIi r~ or place ancl ptople u po n ll'hiclt id<'IH il ('S an IJa,vd. Ytl this making' is af,o Ofil'll p1oi>ftmatir pruCl'~~ of l'~cfmion. (1 i ~ abottl <fl'fining u ~ by deli ning '1hem' and . in 1111'11. c\i,alloll'ing ' thcm' real or ~ym b o lic ;u ce~.., 10 1l w n:llion, gco){raphics. Tlwi-t' prott'"t'' a' 11 e -.hall stT in thc ncxt scCiion. are pre,clll in ot hn ways of con,ll'liCiing- ick1 11itits.


lntroducing Cultu ral Studies

Topographies of culture: geography, power and represenlalion



Orientalism: discourses of the East

hl idt.t that ~dentily (p. ~~..) i' huilt u pon tht'I,ation ol othtT' a~ diflt'l'ent

O (

ltom OIH''l'll h .1 u,eful one. lt tie' into hmr 1\'t might thi nl.. ahou1 lht cultural geogr;tphil'' ol 1lw dilfertnce htlween people and, in ll'ttll' ol powe 1 1 l'lalions :ul<l .llow:-. ."' w thinl.. abou 11he citl anclthc COIIII II'\ '' 1\tll '" nationa!i,111 .tnd na tiona tclt'llllll . \\ t' can al-o \et' i1 at wo.-1,; el~c\\'hert. One of tite "'t'' ol 1hi' idea ~ in :dward S a id !> ( 1971l). nution of Otitn tali~m wh iclt .tddrt,~t' ' hm, rq>rt''t' tllation~ of lhe t:'~.' tnacle b1 lhost lro m tlt(' \\'eq han ])('('11 ini'Oil'ecl i11 thl' ick ntilication of ntltural cltlltrtnce' ancl llw making- ofa .St' l ofuncqual pm,e a rt l a linn~. In duing tlt i<. he makes ~tst: of tltenries of discourse (p. ~()) w 1hink ahou 1 holl' )01\'l'r and kno\\kd J't_: are conmctld in l tl' n prcsenlation nfplace' . \\'lut wt ,,ant to clo lttrt ~ w 1hink tltmugl what Saicltl'l ls u~ about gcograph~. represl'tll< Hio n ;tnrl poll't'l', ;,, ll'd l a.~ Jook al MJme ~ thc cri1icisms of hi' 1mrk.

Said's other work has attempted to publicise and analyse the plight of the Palestinians. This has been done through historical and political writings (some of which use ideas of 'Orienlalism' lo undersland the hislory of Palestine); through allempls lo show how they have been misrepresented in a range of texts and images; and lhrough lhe production of alternalive images which offer another view. For example, Said's After the Last Sky (1986), which combines his text wilh photographs by jean Mohr, is an allempl lo evoke and represent the experience of a people who have been displaced and dispossessed. As such it offers an allempt lo avold the discourses that Said set out in Orientalism and a correclive to their more recent counterparls.

' Furlher readiug

Said, E.W. (1978) Orientalism, Harr1;1ondsworth: Penguin. Said, E.W. (1995) 'The Pol/tlcs of Dlspossession, london: Vintage. Sprlnker, M. (ed.) (1992) Edward Said: A Critica/ R eader, Cambridge, MA: B lackwell.

Ifey injluence 4.3

Edward W. Said
(1935- )
4.5.1 1 Orientalism
Said'<; Oril' lllflflll/1 i ~ a SliiCh' or ' lht \\'(~t' s' reprcsentations ni '!he Ea~ t ' ancl. in particular. hm, they unckt pintH:d intpnia lisl poli1ical ambition~ ami admin i\tl'< llion ,. Th('re are, howel'et . \ O illt' limi1 a1iom on 1his. lt i ~ primarih a stuch ol tlle .-\rabie or Islam ir ,,o riel r;u her 1h.ul ol htt 'Orienl~ '; it dtab al mosl ('Xel u inh 11i1h 1ex lltal ~o u rce~ (for painti ng. ~ct >-:ochlin . 1!l!)( " ami HdTe man. 1991: and for phowgrapll\', ~t'l' Schwarl/, 1996): ancl it i~ concetneclmainl\' ,,ith Engli~h. Frcnch all(l >-:ort h .-\merican reprcsetHalion:. in 1hc.: ninetccnth ami earh t\\'enLielh cetHuties. \\'ltat Said is rhall<'ll){ ing is IIH 11a~ in ll'hich thC\l' rcpt'C~(' ntati ono; d i,ide up 1he globc. a ~'u ming 1hat thtn is somc realmcaning i11 IIH no1ion' ol '\\'c.,l anrl ' East (or Occidcnl ' and 'Orienl '). ,\, he says: 'dtt' no1ion that thc.: rt al't' gtographical ;;paces with indigenom . racl ic:tl l ~ ''differenl inhabitanls 11 ho cu t bl ddi tHd on tht' ba,is of 'omc rdigion. culllll'l' 111 racial csscncc propl t 10 th:ll ~tographical span i.s ... a hi~ltl~ clcb;nabk icka' (Saic D , 1978: :~22 ). \\'h ~ll he i~ cnes1ioning , ll'h:tl 11e can cal! 'gc.:ographiral essentialism' (p. 138): 1he :d>~n lul l' fi xing ol' a ~i tt g- ul :tr ~e t ol' nwaning:- w a portion or 1hc g lobe and ,, pcopll'. T his ob jcction is notjust a lheorelical one but an ethical and politica l otw loo. He asks us 10 comidcr ll'hat. thc.: cunsc.:qucn ccs for ' humanty' :~re o l' llwse fo rnas < di\ision and rt'prtsc nl ill ion. ') S;ticl'' argtuHCil l is 1ha 1 1ht 'Orien1 ' is a \\\stern innn ton: a place o l' m m a nce. exo tic b e in g~ . ltallnl ing n~tan orits and l;mclsr apcs. rt'markable e'\periences ( 197H: l ). This imaginar~ CJ IIali ty di~Iilg'll i ~ Jws l rrom lhe lllOI'l' pro.~a i r 'F.ast'. 11 i~. lw arg ll l'S, proclu('('c) \\' thin thC' cli\C O\II'St' ht caJJ, '0ric ntali ~n1 , a ll'ay of 1alki11K <tbout 1hc II'Ol'ld lhat ha~ oper;H('cl in a grc;n \'at ie11 o l'll'i11'.'> Ol't't a sub~LatHial peritlCI. Orit:nlali''" i' .1 "'"' of abnu1. ta lkin).{ abou1 ;md represcn1i11g the 1\'orlcl 1ha1 make' se n~l' of t. a11d makeo; s1 a1enwn1 ~ aho111 it. bawd o n a di1 ,ion of it into 1\\'0 pan~: \\'e\1 and Ea'l. So wt Edward Said was born in jerusalem in 1935 and educaled in Cairo. like millions of other Palestinians his family became part of lhe Palestinian diaspora afler lhe foundation of the State of Israel in 1948. He completed his education in the Uniled States of America at Princeton and Harvard universities. As Professor of Comparative Lilerature al Colu~bia University he has published on nineteenth- and twenlielh-cenlury literature and music, and on lhe politics and culture of the Palestinians. He has also been an outspoken critic of both lsraeli and Palestinian politicalleaders. Said's book Orientalism (1978) has had an enormous impact on cultural studies (and on many of lhe disciplines that contr.ibute lo it). lt offered a way of understanding the 'politics of ~epresentation ' (p. 61) in texts and images which connected their words and pictures to 1ssues of P?~er ~P :4) and domination. Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault (p. 28), and cornb1ntng 11 wtth close attention to a range of texls, Said offered a reading of 'The Wesl's' representations of 'The East' - in novels, poems, scientific lexts and academic monographs - which fmplicated the written word in the practices of fmperialism. He argued that the versjon of the East which was created within this discourse (p. 30) was one that was crea te~ for the West. lt was both a romanticised view of what the West lacked - spirituality, exotiqsrn ~ and an image that justified the West's imperial domination of the E~)l by portraying 1t as weak and degenerate. This pioneering work has been followed by a range of similar studies - on other sorts of texts and other places - and has been an important part of the devefoprpent of a body of postcolonial (p. 189) theory and of other studies which co1~nect languag~ and power. Mueh of this has also involved criticisms of Said for the ways in wh1ch he dealt w1th power, agency and gender (see section 4.5.3).


lntroducing Cultural Sludies

di!llfllflllll\1' 1.

Topographies of culture: geography, power and representation


c;~ n s;l\' th;~t Oricntali~nt

about . th e~e parh in gctwt.d term,, .\, Said 11111{'' one could 'JWak in l.ttrope ol an

Seconcl. tiHre is .111 .l,~lllllption that


can 'Peak

Oricnctl pcr:<o na l it~. an Ot itnta l a tlllo,pht'l\', :111 t't'll ta l ta l<. Orictll:t l dt''P<II'I11. or ;1 n Oril'ntal 111udc ol'prodttllion . aucl be lltlcltr,lood' ( 1 !17~: :t! ). Thi' allol\,:.lattmcnts such a~ that mack by Lord Cromet (' E~1p1 ' , ma,ter' ( l~l7X: :~.q uncler Rriti'h impt tial rule) in 1!)OX lO bt acr eptabk: ' \\'<1111 uf' :tCCttran. 11 hich t'a'-i l\ degcllt'l'alcs lllO utttru thfu lncss. i~ in bct tl w 111<1in ch:trancri,tit oftlw O ri tn tal nti nd ' (quottd in Said. 1978: :lH) . H umanit~ ., :.ttipped dolltt 10 rutltlc" cuhur.1l and r.1t ial es,enn, ( 197R: :1!l) . So \\'l' can ,,11 1h.u Ot icmal i'm 1'\.\l'llfirrflll'' Final h. rlwre is in all uf' 1h i~ a SIrnng :.{nsc that E<tst a nd \\'es1 :1rc lo be CIHllpart'd. ll'i th thc E:tst c1cn tu alh co111ing olfl,orsc, t'ITil IIHHl{h thi-. lll;t\' ht lingt-cl II'ih llO:.talgia. ,-\-. l .ord C:rotlll'l COIIIillll'd: ''fhc Europtan , a dt"e rca,otH'l': hi, '>IOllt'lllt'nh of facl art den>id e~f an~ .tmhiguin .. .' (CJI IOil'd in Said. r 07K: :~;-{).So 11'(' can 'a~ lhat Oril' tllalislll rlt'f/(('\ liI'/'fi/'('//I',\ , l'l tl',' l'. llt< u, are thl 'ru les' accnrd ing lo ll'hich tfli , cJi,cmu s< \\'ork~. Ro:-.. 1. :~ ~ho11~ ~Ollll' of tlw charactLTi'>tin of Oritnt .111cl Occicl<nr prorhJc<'d 1rithiu this cli,cour~t. 11 i' intpollatll to JIOit' th:u a~ it dic hnto tlli.,ts. L'~'L'lll i a ] i.,t.-. and cre:Hes hier:Jrc hi<~. Orit'tJI:llisnl i~ ta lki ng ilbout til t' \\'{'q a' llHt r il a' abo11t tl w E:m. 1t i~ crear i ng 1he f;, a~ 1hl \ \'c~ t ~ 'Otlwr : 1hL place 1hat it usn lo di:.tinglti'h ih 011 11 idtIHtl . Tll<' pair' of \lord<. sho11 lw11 rhe F:ht is prodllred "' both '>OIIIethin){ dangtrott.\ and 'Ollll' lhi ng clt ... irahlt. In lll l'll 1l w \\'c., t is hoth poll'crftd and llll l'Xci ting ( this par:1 llels tht ;unbiguoll' mtani tlg'' of' the cc lllllll'l' ancltlw cil~ abmc ). '1u should also note the 11a, in ll'hith tlll' cli\Ullll 'L' lllll'J.., rhroug h ){l'IHkrecl carcgoril' making tlw binary di,idt llH'aninglttl b\ <l'-'ot i.uing rht Ea~tlli th II'OIIH:' ll allCI tlw \\'L',lll ith mctJ ( Kabb:~ni. 19XIi). Ddacroix~ pa inti 11g '{'J , f)l 'tllli 'lSrndoNriJ(Iflfl ( I H~7) dr:uu :H i'L'~ and del-clops many ol tltese i'-'tlt'' ('l'l' Figurl -I.H). Ba.,ecl upon a theme fiom l~1ron , it repH''L'nh Sardanapalw, h ing un a magnifin111 hLcl cm 1op of' a f't111eral p~r('. lle i~ COllllll:t iHiing iJj ~ L'llllllch,>, iiiH I o ffir l'l'~ lO Clll lilt throal.' o f flj~ 1\"I'l'' Jt i, <tlll' IHiaii iS. IJis hor't'' and his clog~ so 1ha1 the1 11'ill tHH ~lltYiH him . l t reprcsenh thc Ea\1 a' a place of 'l'X. clc .:arh and p01n'l' and 1oumigl11 rhinJ.. about how thi~ painting (no1, in thl' Lo\1\re in Par\) reprl'.'-t'llls is,ues of poli1ictl JlOII'l'l' th ro ttg h ic ka~ o f ori<tn;tl cll''J>OIi:;m', issuc!'> of' gTn cln th roug h idl'as o f' 'Orien ta 1 L'l'Ot ici>;m . and i~~ u e' oJ' h istot'\' rh ruug-lt a mnhical 'Oriental pa<.,r . ' (nr might aJ,o think ahou1 lum ~uch an image \I'Oitld haw been wcn b1 a nint'l<-'l'lllh-n ntut 1 French auclitnn a-. ho11l p lta,urablv ancl :b a j usrification for Europeatl IIIJll'rial txpa n ~ ion . \:t thi ~ i~ lllll !'> impl~ a nta ttcr of worck it \ al'o abo111 power. t icntali,nt , IHH ju~l a 11a~ o( cle~cribing tiH: E:N: ir is an in,litution ' 11 hich ha\ 1hree part<.. First. l i-. llw style of thouglu a:. ' l'l out abun. ~wcon d , l i\ an aracll'llic di,ciplinc. Acadl' mics as.\ot'a ttd 11i1h insti 111 1ions ' " eh as tlw Roya l .\ ,i:uic Sor ilty iclentifitd r h enl~t I Hs a~ 'Ot it'tHaliMs' ancl <.t'l out lO produce J..rw11 leclge about th t' Orient. lndtlcl. tlw ~011s of J..nowledge:. that th t' prodttncl \I'C'rt' p iori tiscd. -lile \\'est,, in tclknuals spokt fot the Ea't. Fi n;tlly. it is 11ha 1 Siiicl cal ls 'a cmpor;He insti tll ti on J'or cl<;tling wit h tllt' t'i<n t' ( l 97X: :,)_ This ctrta inh in,olncl11onh .tnd J..nmdldgc 'i ncc a htrgt pan of clcaling with the Orient wa\ about 'making '-l<llt'IIH'nt ~ abotll it. a111 hori'i ng 1it'I\'S of it. ckscri bing i t' . ~ < 'l th is 11 "' al ...o cunncnec l 10 a 'L'l of' other institur imts anc l materi; tl pracll'l'' of' cduca tion :11HI

Box 4.3

Some characteristics of 'East' and 'West' within Orientalism

11 .,,
L'tilitl lkmot rae~ Fa ir 1rta 1me n i Sd r:con lm l Stl f-gol'ernmenl Prac1ira l Stn,iblt Rarional Straig l11 J'c IIWa rcltt t'~' Tru:-1 . \cti1 i11 \ "it'lllllll'
~l attlll'


Spkndour Dl,potism Crut' lty SL'II'll:tlity ~o '>l'll:gontiiiiH.' nt .\rtisric

~~~ ~t i ca l

1rr.ll ional lllogical 1llli'g'lll' C:unn i ng Lerhargy Dt pra\'t'cl C:hi ldlike E-.; o tic F:H.tli,t , pa'>'il' i\ lI'SIcrious Siknt \\';tJ.. DatJ..

L' neXtll ic .-\ctiw Qb,iot ts .\ ninti.HL' St rongLiglll

Do 10 u thinJ.. th.11 tlww clil'krelltiarion' t''t.lhli'h the \\e,l ,1, 'ttclr.mal' a.nd thl'

Ea,, '' 'di lltJ't'll( . ll tht di,l'Olll''t' nr Orit'llt:lii,lll; Do thl'Sl' (':t ll'glltl t'S ckl tlll' rile Or\'ll l " J'e lllIIIIt' .111clt lll' Ocl idt'lll "' nt:t>rttlinl':

1 72

lntroducing Cultural Studies

Topographes of culture: geography, power and representaton


senl i ng a nd gonrn ing- 1ht F.ast. For examplt, Said ( 1 9H~l) 11'1'i tt' ' of 1he DrsrrijJiion rlt 1'/~J!.J/Jit'. This was a 2-1-I'Oinlllt' product J'\apokon's 1798 expedi tion to ronqucr Egyp t 111 a cconnt ol' Egyp tian hiSLOIY, dnoga tc d 111lich lcg il imisccl Fre n c h conqucst ll'ith < cont t mporarl' Egvptian c ulutre bY ob~essi vc atlt:ntion toa 'glurio tts past' and prol'iclcd th c grounding for admini~tration. cttlcmcnt and exploiwtio n in i t~ e xhauslil'l' MII'\'C I' of land and resourn~. T hc Frcnch hacl 10 kn011' E~'J>l in o rdcr 10 po~~C!" it aiiCI to J 1 i~ cnd lhe, marchccl on F.gypt with an aml\' t>f Orie nta li't~ as \\'ell as a rq.{trlar ; 1m y (Godlewska. J99:1). In t h is a iHI ma ny 01 hcr i n s1 :111n:s tht connec1 iom b e ll,'t'cn Oricn ta lism ancl imperial po11T r are c learl y 111acle (Dri1er. 19H2).


4.5.3 1 Cri tiques of Said's Orientalism


IIO\I't'\'t'l', Said\ 11ork ha, 1101 escapcd critici"n. Tht following ~cction ou tline~ ~om e of dillicuhies \\'ith it ai1CIIooks at 1he w;ns fon,ard 1hat othtrs h:l\'c fo und.

The problem of agency

This i.~. in pan. a matttr of h ow Said dl'al' \\'th 1h c Oricntalish ..\llllOng h h t c lairm tu be tning 10 hcar liH' cliffercnt I'OiCl'~ ol' diffCI'Cill pt:opk 1\'thin 1he diSCOUr~t Ol Oricnta lism. hi~ critil' hmt !'aid tlmt lu: f'aih. Thel' argu1. that 1herc is not cnough ancntion to how therc ll't'l'e mam ~trand-. lO Orien1alism ( includin.{ a ~elf-consciou,III.'~S on lhl' pan of Orit:tllalist!. abont how th cl' "ere crea1i11 g lltt' Oricnt), h o\1' th el'l' ,,.trc con 11 ic b ll'i t hin i t. :111cl holl' na1 ional trae! i1inn ~ and c hangt. m er ti m e lllt.'<llll t hat Oricn tn lism spokc 11ith 111a ny \ 'O ices ra llH: r than the sing-k ,oict. t hat ,,e h ear in Sa icl '~ book. lt is also a lll:llll'l' hol\' h e dcals ll'il h thme being descril>ccl a~ 'Orientals'. 1 kn h e gi1 cs th em no ron111 10 repl~ or to \ II<I J)(' the l'orm~ that thc discur-in, :lllcl real rclatiom bet,,een Ea'l .111d \\'csL too!... Tlu:ir ,oiccs need to ))(' h card too in making dl,criptiom ol' thermd\'l'' and desniption' or thc \\'est ( ~ l it c hdl . 19R9). lndced. thc im pnmtn l place or Saicl'' "nrk in the clel'elopm t.nt of postcolo11ial (p. 189) critit.ism :llld s~rba ltcrn sllldin (mJonjal histories 1\ riltl'll from .Q_do\1''). as wc ll as hi< Ol\'11 poli1icctl ac thism. sugg-tst that t hcsc \'OiCl'~ are l'o rceful ones.


Figure 4.8 The Oeot/1 of Sordonopolus (1827) by Eugene Delacroix. (Source: by permission or The Louvre, Pars.)


Power and geographical representation

Rq Jrl''l' ll lalion is ; Cl'llcial pan or tllt 1\,I ~S ll llhich th e lllaking ol'idtntitie: i~ a lll:lltt'l' ol tiH pnl'l' or~tlllll' gi'C >liJ>' 0\l'l' ollltr.., In thi' l<Hltl'Xl Said ( 19/H) la lks aboul ,,hat i~ illlohtd in tlw nt.llion o l 11hat lw c.dl' 'in1ag-inatiw ~log1.1phit!> . This pruCt''' ol ~ )!L'O)!raph ical cli'' irH 1iolh bcl\H' l'll pl.11 ,.,. ol dra'' i ng bnund:u its ami ol naming pl.llt'' , pan ol tht 111.1ki ng ni ickm i 1L'' tln ongh opposi 1iom ht' l\' een u~ and h tm. A~ he.;;"' 1 hcrl' is nu dntdll llrat i111aginatin gcngrap h~ :uul hi,tol: hl'lp tlw n1inclto i r Hc n si l'~ i1 s mm sen 't' ol' it,t' ll by d r:u11atising th e distann a ncl dil'ltl'tnt:t hetll'l'l'llll'hill , do~e to it am l what is l'ar a11a~ ( 1\1714: .-1:"1), ,\ , such. Oricnlali.<m i< nnt 'impl~ a proct~~ ul dt''t ription. lmt a ,t'lation of pm,tr ancl domination 11 h t'll'hl one group g'l' l' LO ldint idtntilie"i lor .111 h1 ddinin~ 1lw orknt ancl' in nnain "':1\ ' Ytt lht '-Oil' ol l..rHlldtdgt produttcl 11i1hin 1hnc repre,tnl.nion' are conntc1ed 10 IIH pcllll'l ol 1lw \\'e,l 11\l'l 1he Ea'l in a murh lll<lll' ditt't t '''11'-l'. \\'e nLTd 10 und ciH:ll ld 1lw '''' ' in 11 h id1 knclldl'<lg cd tlw Oricn t ,,.a, lht h:1si< o l imptr i:tl clor11i11a li on. l t pru,id<:d .1 '~' ' ol' icll'a~ tha l ll'l'l't' ,. 1~1 1 L o t lw pmn" n{ conqttt'l ing.

The problem of humanism

Saicl'<, hook r a isc' a '-t' rit'' of dillicuh qucstion' <tl>t>lll how ll'l' ca11 'lwak ahout :tllCI kno11 abont othcr cu lture~. lli ~ g'tncral clai111 is t h a l 11e sh ould t-.;po~c 1hc cnn~ecu t:nets of disco u rscs 1ikc Oril'n 1;1lisn1 in 1he lWill l' ol' a 1ih eral h u111:111 ism t ha 1 'ee k~ le~s oppHssI't.' l'isio n ~ of 11 1hn~. 1ltlll'l'\'t.'l'. h e do e ' t h is bl' tlllcle mi 11 i n~ Llr t. h1 1ibcral huma n i~ l idea: our powtr 10 knm, th c tr uth . His criLi cs h;ne -.aicl that he c<uttto l ha\'C it both 1,ay:- and han crilici~cd thc humani~m that undt:rlil'' ,,hat he does (Ciiflord. 19SS).

The problem of gender

Cen ckr largcly by Said . ..\lthollgil we haw cnnsickrtd i1 abow, h e d nts pay atLCil l ion lo how 1h t l't' httionsh ip be tll't'tn powcr (p. 9-1), icle nc ity (p. ~~4) < lll<' )




lntroducing Cultural Studies

Topographies of cul ture: geography, power and representation


geograp hica l re prcsentation ,,ithin Oric ntalism o p c r a tc cl th roug h ge nde re d cuego r ics which cldin cd th c \\'cst's rc hnio11~hips to th c East in ttrm ~ uf a po\\'cr-lade n di c h o to tm b e twccn male ;-~nd f'e malt. He a l~o p ay:; 110 a tt c ntio11 Lo 11he ther t lw rc ;~re 0'{'11de re d clifl"t-re n ces btl\\'t't'll tlH ~ort ~ of kn cmJcd ges ;!11([ rcprcscntations o r lht East ~roduccd by m;-~lc a ttd fc male Oriental ist; ( for c~;n11plc. l.e11is. 1 9~1(), ancl Grcgo ry, 1995). Thesc c riti c ism s do not n ecessari ll' imply tltat Sa id 's g e lll'ntl fnnm1mrk . or his ttsc of disco u rsc. are lU b e abandun c d (Sa id . l m13) . T l w~ do. ltml.('l ( ' r. ca 11 f'or : 1 m u c h more 11 uan ced accoum o f h cm di lle rc nt fo rms o f p 0 11'e r an d difl"t-re n t forms of kn oll'led ge 1wrk 1\'lthin th e l'ariecl a nd c han g ing cli~comst~ o f ' Oric n talism ' ( Drin:r. 1 99~). T ltis more 1aric d p erspcctil'e ll'ill e n ab lc u~ 10 bctt c r und e rstand t lw l'<l i'('I\' o f conn ccti o ns th at th ere a re bct11een ~pa ce . pu,,er ancl kn01d ed ge.

4.6 r Travelling cultures, diasporic cultures and global cultures

cli~c u ssion of' u lture 's gcug rap lt ic-. Itas b et'll a mallL'I' o r 1hinki ng ahot t( lt OII' spaces, piares ami lan d scapes a re g i1en mean ing b~ being ~e l apa rt f'rpm o th e r ;.pa('(.'S. places or l a nd ~ca pe.s " ' sp ccia l ur cli iTt rt nt. ~ l ea nin gs a r e g i1c n tu tltcm b~ clral,ing boundarit ~ around tlt c m. In pan this has nwa nt a ~ k i n g cenain so n s n f quc~ tio n s : 11'1 1:tl is tiH' c u ltutc oran~ p:micula r p l ace~ Ho11 i ~ tit e c it ~ u11clcrs tood ~ \\'hl' are natio n a l cultures ge ndn ed in cert;t in ,,ay< 1 lu1, is tit e Orient r!'prt ~c ntecl: \ 'ct at rim es II'C haH co n11 ccti o ns hf'lwr't'll places: in t lti11ki 11g about lt n1, ideas o f also had to be ane nti1c tn t hL th e co untrys iclc ca11no t b e s!' para tc cl frn rn ideas oJ' tlll' c it ~. :111cl abo ut ho11 clif'lerc nt na tio na l clc nt iti('s a nd ideas o r East an cl \\'est :t re clc pc nd t. nt upun ~l' LS of oppnsitio ns th at pco ple u ~e to ddin c tl w ir id t' lllit ics. In tlti ~ ... ectitHl \\'(' 11a tlllo take this l'u rih tT tu argut th at th c re an' ll'<ly.~ in ,,lt ic h liT can uncltr,ta ncl tlt!' gcog rap h ic:. ol' c ulture ll'h id1 pay nutc h mure at t t~ n ti o n to th e r dati tllt,Jti p!> hel'll'l'Cn plat !'s and s pact' ~ . Todo tltis ,,.l' \1'<111 1 to tal k a bou t th e II"Ork ul' thrct' p eoplc : .Ja nt es Cl illu rd . Paul Gilroy (p. 1(}()) ancl Don~ e n ~ lasse~. T ilese a utlwrs ~ llg'g'ts l tita! 11 e Iwcd tu u nclc rsta n d c ultmes in t ~nn ~ o! hybridity ( p. 1:">9). T h e1 ;trg u e that no cultures ;nc l(mnc d in isn htio n: the1 an' a ll thc proclu c t or <1 C0111 p lex h i stor~ o r in H'l rt' btinn and COiliiC'C Iun . T ltey :tlso sugges t (h at \\T Jl(~ed LO tlt in k c ul (11 ral procl uc ts in tc..T111S o f sy nnt (~m. T 1 1is S t tg,_ l!,'l'~ts 1hill...0111J.J.ra 1 oqjccts ; IJ( ' l(mnccl <ll tit e i nt c r~c ti u n bt.'(\\'('l'll Clll !lJH'S r:uher t);;~ :ti tite ' hc artlillJ..l of anr~' Fo r examplc , .la nw s\ \ 'ahilt ( 1m t7: i:x) .~ tans lt is lt i'!c)('\' of' c ig lt lt'C nthCt' l'l1l11"1' l3rit ish taqe by a~kin g ' \\ lta t coulcl b e tllort Hri ti~h tita 11 a c u p uf' sm t~ 1 tl'a ~ befor~ goi ttg O ll In slt m, that this icon o r Briti s httc~..- ... i... tit e h ~hricl ;t11() sy n creti c procluct u f long histories u f i lll l>e ri a l re lat ions \\' t.h 1nd ia and th c C:t ri bbean . T h c ai m of 1h is sec ti o n is to sho,, th at historie" a ncl geog ra phics o f c ul tural conn euion su ch as this ont inl'u h'c co11sidc rations of tra l'l'l. cliaspora ~ ami g lobalisatiou ( p. 15!1) .

So [;n this

4.5.4 1 Conclusions
This seclion It as tri cd to shm1 h o ,, th e urics o l' clscoursc (p. :'.0\ mig ht b e ttserul in conncning ideas ol' po\\'c r and iden tit ~ lo gcograp hical represcn ta ti o n . Sai<l slw11s us tltat th e lllaking oJ' 'i m agi n ar~ geograp lties' is part or a polle r-lad e n pmce ~s of ddln i n ~ us aiiCl ' tlt c m which has , .CTI' real co mcqut n ce~. 1'C'rall. Saicl's II'Ork, o beg in to see tite e1e r-c hang ing C(H tp lecl ll'itlt tlta t ni' ltis critics. :-tllo,,s us L compl e :xi t i c~ of t lt ls~ rt'lationshi ps bct11-een lan g uagc. po ll'cr. ickntil)' ancl geography. 1nclee d. 1\'e nee d 1.0 lw all'an: of hm, 1he.. lang u agc..s a n el prac l i ce~ o f O ril'n ta li~m are sti 11 \'e 1'\ ' muc h a pan o f 1h e discot trsts of po li ti o ancl economics in tite contcmporaq 1mrlcl. T his b ecom es a ppan.: nl ir ~o u th in k abo ut h ostik Am e ri can respo n ses to .J apa n cse ccon o mic pii'Cr (11' hic h mig ht be read thmtt g lt lilm~ lik(' 8/ar/1 Rai11 or Rising Su11) n r t h e di sc u.s~i o n s of pol i ti c~ in th e ~licldl c Ea~ t "hic h arC' condtt cH d thrnug h IHllions or tc rmrism . dcsp ot ism allCI ru nclamcn ta l j;;m ( fo r e:xarn p ie. in 1h t T\' ( 0\'tT<tge o f' tlt t G u ll' \\'ar ami in lilnt likl' J p!l'{ (f ,,,, .\'i/r-) ll'hic h rc..p lal o lckr no t i o n ~ or thc O ri e nt (Sai cl. HI KI ). 1 -lmn:Hr. th c situat ion i.o; 110L -.impl ~ th e sam e no\1' a ' 1he o n e tlt <11 Sa id d escrilw d for tlw ninelt't'11llt ren tut v. In some 11a~s th e tab les are turn cd , partic u Ja rh' i11 rt Ja 1ion 1O tl 11 inc rcased J>OI\'lT of japa lll'St' corporal io ns ( .\ Jo rl t'\' an d Rubins. 19!)~ ) . In aclditi o n . ll'e IH<tl' also b e ll'itnessing k :;s d ic h o tom ised cu ltural lra n sac tions b Clll't'l' ll 'East. and ' \\'es!. a~ .lapanCSl' 1 id eo ga mes or Jnclian foods, f'a shio n s ancl musics are g lobalisccl :nHI ittcorporat cd inl o ' \\'('sw m ' cu ltu ra l prac tices (TmtH.:r , l 99 J; Shurme r-Smith anciJJa nna m . 1\1~1-J. ). This reali!>atio n , h OII't.'ler. should n u t be con11ncd tn th e prc~c nt. Thinkin g abu ut the ,,ays in ll'h ic h th e re ha w a h1a~s becn c :xc han g<'s all{l transac tions bt'll\'l'l'11 East' ancl '\\'eq ' - in tite IJaq as 1\'c ll as thc prt~e nt- m e ans think in g r rit i cal l ~- abuut the bo rcle r~ a ncl bounclarics that are se t up bcl\\'('l'11 th ese l' tllitics (st'l' Sidal\'ay. 1 ~197 ). On ce \\'(' start lO do this. 11 ('\\' \'e rsiom o r th c re lat io n sh i p he tl,een c ulttt n :m el gcogr:tph1 com e in to I"l'l\' 1dt irh e Ita ll e 11~e lll<LI1)' ck eply h e ld assuntptiom.


4.6.1 l lames Clifford's 'Travelling cultures'

Clilford's ( 1992) ,,ork h as gnnm out nf a sen se th at anth ro p o l o~is t s an cl o th c r~ ll'hc

swdy c ul111 re ha1-e m isscd so m e o l' 1he lltosl i ntnesting 1h in gs tltat are goi ng

0 11


of thc ir hc lieJ' th a t c ulllnTs can be nca rly pigco nh o led and tie cl do,,n to partic ular p laces. 1-J e suggests tha t. instearl s tud~ing peoplc stadng al homl'. 11'(' sltCiuld s tucl~ tnwe l. llc ,,a nts ' ch,cl li ng' 10 lw th o ug iH of nol ;ts n o rmal b ttt as so nwthin g th at need s e:xplanatio n ll'ith in a n ttn d e rstandin g o r cu lture th at secs it a.-. th t tT ia ti onsh ips bt tll'l'Cil dwc lling ancl ll'a\ e l. T his. h e s uggests. II"Ot tld g iH' liS acCe \;. (() ' t it e 1\'dc r \I'Orlcl inte-rcttltmal impon -expon ( Hl92: 100) tu ,,h ic h \\'(' al/ belong. Q tt oting .-\ppadttrai :ts mcl by the p iares to whic h th e1 hel n n g. g ro tt p s saying that ' nati,cs. p cn ple confined to < unsullied b~- contact 11 ith a large r ,,orld hm'C' pro bab l ~ lll'H'r existe d' ( gq:: 100 J. h t prcsttH:, th c ,,or lcl of c ulture as a h ~bri d. cosntnp o litan e xpe ri e n ce. Thc so rts o f' anal~s is 1h <t 1 he suggests are form s of 1ran l ( o l' tral'el pa n e rn' ancl 1ra1 e J prac t.iC('S) and h e has in mind SO ill l' \'t' l'l' cJ if'l'crc nt sort': t lt v kisure d 11'<1\'C J o f th t Westc m bourgcois maJe; tl w f'cHTl'cl displac~nwn t rdg'('('S: th~ tral'c l-as-lmrk of






lntroducing Cultural Studies

Topographies of culture: geography, power and represen lalion


eightetn th-centurY .-\ tlantic- sa ilot~: pilg.-imagn atl(l ,,.a,s ol tr:n ell in~ in tlw mine!. T clifTcrenccs bet '''l'L' I1 t hesc l('acl hi m 10 q ut-.~t ion usi1w 1he ten 11 tra 1c 1 ' 111 cu1.,. 1 .. 1 1 he .. . . ,.., " t t 1 lesc \1 ,\I S ol 111m mg. lnck-cd. otht-rs haw ~ll""l''ttcl that nn1iu ,,.. ,,., clf' 1111 c l 1 -t~ 1 1 cl' . .. . . . . .... . ""' ... , .. lllt:;' tral'el ut ~peetflc.llll 111.1'-C uhttt' :111 <1 ~lt ould not he >romo1 ed tu 1 cent rtl >1 te ' . 1 , . " 111 e u tur;rl 'ltlf~H:s ( \\ol f~. I ~Hl:~). (011 11Tll1lt'11 tra1dll r~ scc Bl1111 t. l~l !l-1: Blunt :111d Ro~c. 19g.. ~lcE,,a_n. 199b. ) llc_ " '-e'er, lw retain' the tl'llll bccau,c. of thc. 11ay' in ,, hich talkin ' 0 . "~tn:lhng culuuts _ca n a1oid tl~ inking of cu lttll'l' in tcrn1' of us' :mcl 'thvm ' 111 ~te; e[ 1111 der.--tal Id ~ lt 1n l(.'l'llts o! :1 ll'l1olc load of COII IIcc t i on~ ..-\ goud cxa111 pie i ~ what he calls ' tit e Squa ll to ciTen ':

;n :

Squanto ,,a~. of cnursc 1he lndian ll'ho grcctccl tite. pi lgri111s in 16~1) in l'ii'IIIOllth .\ l ;"tssa c htt.~c tts. ll'ltn hc:lpeclthem throug h a harcl ll'il11l' l and 11'ho Sl>ol..t good '._11.,- 1 ' T . . 1 .., l>t. ~~ lma((JJIC' t H' lull effttt. ~ou hm c to remcmbct 11hat 1hc :---ew \\'01ld' "'"' like in lb~O: you coulrl ~m clltl w pinc~ lif't ~ milt-.\ out tu sea. Think of rolning- into ;, IH'II' place l~kc- th:tt anrl h:11'11 1 g the tttJcanny l'X ptriei1Cl' nf ntnning into a Patu'(et_ju$t b.trl.. from Luropt. (CiillniCI. 199~: 9 / )

. 1 , )rt';tcl o l bl:t< l.. 1 wopk 11 hit lt lt :t- t t''t tlted !1 e1111 ,, 'l'l ic, ol lnrcccl .1 ncl 1 glob.l . . 1 ,, 1-1tion, ) 1d1 iclt hi nd ' ltJgc ilH-r tlw bbcl.. l'l'"Jil<' ot \ !'rica. tl 11 .\ nwrir.t-.. 11 \'Ohtntat ~ n ' ' . . . . . . bhean ,tnd Lut opc nt .1 Ion~ 111,101' ol 111\l'l'l ultur,tl <nlllll'l 11011. f h1' h,l, th<' ( 1 . ,orkccl thn 111 gh th L' llo11, ., pt'nple. Hk.t'. lll!llll'l. "hlt't t' ancl llllhll J,,H k .tncl 1_'~1111 / ~ .~ tite .\tl:tJllic. 'l'l1i~ not uuh iudtlcll's tlll , ,1\-t' tradc h111 .ti ~., IH'l' )> \ ,tCI , . . 1 1 ) tl"t\l'JiiiW in tl1l' ntlll't ditl'( 111111 . I Jt, .tll{IIIIH'III 1' l l;tl llo lllll' p.lrt 11 l ll' agnatol' "' . . . . . l ' ro ilw 11 1IH'r Black .\l lantir t.l n he tlllfkl,ltH1tl IIJthotll ccJtt,l <kn ng. "' run tll'C tt cll_ '1 ' )111 , ,, i1hin tlll' dia'IJPI:t a ll n tlliJJ'c' .ut lt~ l mcl .111d .tll tlt c1r p 1odurt- are art' . p -c c ( '1 l1111 ,11111" tlti, m.u1\ tinll'' in hi' "ritin~' nn tht lllll,lt of tlll' k S)'llCI 11 ' . . ' .. Jjr~ s pnt'n (C:i 1t m. 1\l!l:1). ll e <kr ai l, ho11 ' lllllsu 1 ,t1h fron1 Hn t;ttn :ti\(1 ptc el ucers !1 .. m e ' .. t ctn cu111c tcll''tthc r in ~c11 Y ot k to 111:tkc a r<'rurd ,,hid t 11'ill ht pl:twd in a . . Jaln.uc. " Caribbc:m club in .\l.tnchcstcr. fhc lin.1l produtt '' a prodtttt of tlw cll:t'por:t. !le gi,es 1he ex:u 11 pie- of r:1 p:


This m~an~ t hat the Nc\1' \\'orld en cottnt ~T <::111 IJc undcrstoocltwt as a ,ing uh1r 'culture contac t . or c.:1eu a 'cullluT rlash . bttt as the miugling of' h ~ blid ancl ~~ ncretic lrms of lral'el and ch~-cll i ug across tite Atlantic. lndttd , it i<. the ,,ay:. in which studic~ or thosc who l~ai'C' c n ss-cm~~e d 1he ocean lwt11een :\rrira. Europc. th c C:aribbcan and 1\onh :\menea change how ,,e tlti11k abou l the Joralion of cu lture 1h:n h;ne bcen dcH'Ioped 111 the II'Oik of Paul Cilroy (p. 166).

Rap i' a l11h1id fi.11tll toottd inthl' ''ttrt'('lir 'od.tlld,ttUJI' ot thl Soutlt B1onx ldll'l<' am<ticatt ,ottttcl-:-."lt'tll cttltllll'. tratt,pl.ttl lt'cl clttring- thl' 1070': ptll _ clo1'11 ttl''' nHII' 'aJJd in conj111H tion 11 ith ~JWl ilil tcCllltcllogic:tl II IHll':tt iOil\. stt 111 tt':ttll a J> l 'tiCc~~ 1il:tl w~ 10 trall.,lorm blat k .\tnl'l ira, St't1't' uf' it~dt a11d a lar~t propo11on ni lht llltt~i c incht,ll'\':1'> wcll. ({.ilrm. 1\l!l:l;: ~~~~ )

\ )

4.6.2 1 Paul Gilroy's Block Atlantic

In a series or bu ok~ and anicles Pau l Gilroy ( 19R7. 1992, HJ!I3a. 199:1b) ha~ triccl 1 0 llll~lerstand issw..s oft he polit ics and culturt of race ancl racbm in Britai 11 (~ee ..J .Ui). ln do111g so he has arg ttccl thal in British politica llife (:tnd also in :\frican -.\me rica 11 black ll:tt innalism) th ere is a dangcr thinking of cultlll'l' o nh' in terllt-. of intc rnalll' hc"noge11ous and nati onall~ bounck-d uni1~: the ~o n o f pre~elll:uion of cuhu re ;s ddincd ll'ithi n thc natio n that dri l'l~ man~ o f' rltc t erri to rial!~ basecl fnrms o f natio na li'm ;~ml national idc ntit~ di.~c usscd in a pre1 inus section . This. he: arguc~ . is hoth raci t ~~H ~ lad.s to un der~tand blad. culture and t'X)><'ricnce lull} lxcanse it is opcrating ll'ith a l l ~ltne~l geographKal fo cus. r\s he ptlls ir : '''an1 w suppot'l lht idea that cultural h1stonans sho ttld takc the .-\1 lantic a' a 1n1i1 or an a lysi~ in thcir disn 1 ~~ion~ of the m~dc.rn ~~orld to prod uce a n explicitk tran .~national pnspt'c1i1c' (Gi lroy, 1992: 192). 1 lt ~ aun 1 ~ lo s tud1 tra nsatl:tntic intc:rconncctions. l'ltis follnws thc wavs tlta t Peler baugh ( 1982) and :\larc:m Rcdikcr ( J!JR7) h:w( u icd to IITite histo.ries 0 cightecnth-cenwn :-\tlantic cr~ssings a nd intern::uional COJ111Cetions: of the Atlantic 11o rking class: of lht ~ h1ps ai1CI sa1h ng rntttts lhat bouncl rhcm togcther; of the c:ommoditit:s that \l'l' I'C traclt:cl: a11d of tht poli1ical srrugglcs that nowcd back and fo nh across tite orean (~ce als~ l.incbaugh ancl Rcdiker. 1090). Btll Gilt 01 al so ha' hi~ 0\\ll paniwlar j)(' r'pec rne.

\\'c might al'n think about11 hat Ita' lwppe 1 H'clto tlti' :-.~ ncn :ti t nlltsic nu11 that tltl'se conneCiiom inmh-e Ca liforniath (CI]>It..'" Hill). Sou lhtnt black' (Snoop n ogh" Do~~: Arnstcd Dew lnpmctll). Haiti.1n' in :'\t'll \'urk (Tlw Fllg't'l'' ), lri ~lt . \merican ~ (l lo ust of Pai n) and British .-\~ia11 s (. \pal11 e lnclian). In tlw lattC't ca"~ wt ll tTd to btgin lo tl1i11k whatt h l' tlll't COtliH'tli01_1of d i.t,por:' lliC.lll<>::tnd the .\''o'~' in."h~(h Britai.~l i~ lot:~ll('C,l in. rclation tu tlte\c lll'hnd nHl tll'Cltom ( BaL k. 1~~~lb). 11 u r1.t 111h llll .111-. .111~ 'etlnt ically a h'olu ti ~~ uot ion' of' Bri 1ish or European e: u lurn Ita,.,. to he r;tdica ll ~ re' istd:
[T] he cw n pkx plt tt.di~m ol' l\1 itain s inncr urhat1 s trel' t ~ dcmnn.-. r<1ll'~ 1h :11. a mur tg thl' pool. l'ia i HH<lll' ~~ ttCI'l'Il (li'Oet'dltt l ' ' .tll' Ultcll' J'\1,1\ , Jj, '> 11\ll \lll)lll' i_lllq.~~-aliOII. bttl a co 1 ttpkx non-lint'ar plwtwnwnun. Eath Ullllihttllltl' dttnc:lll '' thcli 11.111\: furm cd in ll ll'ir co1tti 1 1 g tCJg'L'thc r. Thc bkido~copit forn 1 ,ttio 1 1 ~ ul u am-r:tl' cultural ,llll'l'l'ISlll Hl't !:(10IItl).\ tl.ti fy 111nrl' cletailtd and mort lwa util'ttl. (( :ilnll . 1!l!l:~a: 1O l l


\\'ha t he dncs i~ lo consickr the moti: . \ 1/rwlit ( 1 9~1:~1>) . or tht .-\frican dbspora (tht


T ll(se co1 11 plcx rd < ll innsh iP' - prod uci 11 ){ 1tt'll' hyhrid fo 1 TII' :t~ carh clt-111l'ill ~ tramfirmtd ;..; tht'l nm n crt - are un cler~tood ancl t'XJtTitnced ITI'I clifferenth' b1 1 difTcrcn 1 1 wopk ancl d irfe n: nl ~ocia! grnup,. \\'e nccd ro tltink abnut ho11 people 1 dif'ftr i11 I(:'I'JllS of ilt l'i J' loC :ttOIIS (ol' j>OSilOIIS) \l'ilh J'l'~j>l'rl lO t iJ('~( ' gloiJ;t l-scalc cultural fl o11-. ancl rouncnions hcc:n1 ~e ol e la'' RC nckr. ;;exualitl. agt' and - , cthnicitl'. This " illnw.m 1hinkiug abo tll diaspor;p,, tht intcrsertinm betllt'L'I1 dilf'L'rent j dia~por lc cultttres. ;t11d rlt e ''''" ' in 1dtid1 we :tll - ,,-htl htr ll'c lt<ll't' mig ratecl or 1101 lil-e in a 'dia-.porit: ,pace' w lt o~e 'mi.rl ancl cultural nlation' .liT -.haped h~ thL' ~t' procc~~ts (lktl1. JmHi). One J)t r~on 11ho h a' tnn,icleled tlti' i--.ut ni tnratiolh. ,,i1hi~~ [ glob;tlisa tinll in rc la tion lO IHJII' l dtall_:l'S C) llt' tiiHlcr, t:tJ Hiing' or cu ltu l'l'. :-.pace a n ~ plan , Don,n ~ l o~-.-t'l.

Topog raphi es or cuiLure: geography, power and represenLalion

178 lntroducing cultural Studies


4.6.3 1 Doreen Massey's 'Global

sense of place'

T lwre art a ,.,trictl' o( diffcren t \l'al,. in 11hich \\" L' <.111 1hink .tbotll utltnre and llk global ~ca k. \\'e: ca n look a l lw11 t ll t g lobe it,ell h a' l>tTII n:plt'Wnlrcl in dilft'IL'Ill ro ntcxts ( Co,~rme. 199 1J nr ll't r: 111 .1 rg ttt' :1 bu ttl ldlt'tllLt g loha l t Olll tn Ull ica t ion' are p1 oduring ...omel h i n~ '' L' <ou ld t ,tll ,1 g-lob:1l rul 111 rt. \\ h .ll I\'L' ll':tll l 1.<> el<> il t'll' i~ 1<> lo<> k ;11 1h e 1\"llrk uf llw'c 1d10 h aw arg u ed 111.1111 ha1 11e llt'ed 111 unde1,l.IIHI a 1e a 'u ie~ ni g loba l c ulturts (itl 1he pi mal) and .1 'L'l o r protX~\L'' ol globali'ialion (p. 1:1~1\. he\ .lrgnc lli L \\" !JIId is n nt bvco min g 1110rc liotnogtfH Hh (,1, lhe p rophe t' of IIIOdtlni~;uion and .\mc liCnni,ation arg u ed in tlie l!l:'l lh) but th a t t lll''L' intnto ni H'ctitHh a n making- it mo1c cli!f('r. L 'llli,\led. \\lli)t thi~ j, 1101 a lll'll pJll'IIOilll' llU II ( \ \'aJIVP>ll'ill ( 1 ~1 7 1) cJalL'' lhl' clt'\'l' )OJ>Ill{"nl ola rapit:tli '>t 11o11d " 'lt' llll o 1he liltttntil nnlllll. ;llt d .\bu -L tg-hod r 19:-\\1) traces Olll' 1hat Lxi ... wd ill'lon l ha1 ). i l 111.11 1}1' '"1rkin g l h roug l1 di 1 ll'renl pro rcs.~t~. \\'L. cm cvna inh SL'e thal tl w 'illlalion h a, rhaii).!;L'd 'inu thL hh l rellllll~. \\'_a re 1101 now txpnie n ci 1 1g p ro r l'~'i l'' ofg lo ha Ji,a ti<>n clrilt'll lll tht daillh ol powululllatitllhlates. ln fan t))l' 'ilUalillll i' CJlli ll' till' COII tran. iltl lt,ll 1\'l' are :.ni11g til t' b rtakdo\\11 Of111 .tll\ nl th e t lo~l' ~~ I.Hion,hip~ ht ' lii~L' II c111tu r;d idl' nli l\' .u td tht: I J ;Hiun~t;tlt'. \ ll t' \\' lllnnatOIIal clili,ion ol lahtHil. IH'II' lollll\ ni ndtm;d pwclut 1ion (li.t (.:'\:-\ . .\ ITY allCI sa1ellite ltmaclra,li ng). tW\1 poli tit.ll loma ... lt'.g. tltt E111 opea n L n ion l and 11t'l,. t t ndtT~ tand i ugs t1J" t' CO ) O~t'; J illltrd l'Jll' lldc tH't h.l\l' c haiJLIl~l'cJ lht JlOIIL' f o(' t) lt' ll:lli!lllSI:Ill' a 11d CfC .ued a t' l il lll ra l gct~gra pll\ tltm tlol'' 111 H 111atd1 i1' lmrdtr' ( 1lall. 1!Hll. :u1d h a t ht'l \lonc. 1!1!)0). In l'l'SJillil .' l'. in lll:tll\' pan ... nf tlw mal'id . tlt mc 111111 f'l'd lhrc.lll'llecl h~ tht~e t hangc ... hall' nH: t thtnt "ith .1 rtstrg cnCL' .. r II :Jtiollali'm ( jo llllson . 1!l~l:1). To undt-r, 11h.11 i' goi n g 1111 \\'l' nnd 111 t n Hivr~t: m cl tite f1.,1,., and intnto nlll'llOII' of llllllll'l. woph-. it11agt''- .md Ull lllllnrlitie,. . \, 1 111i1c thi' 1 .1111 11 ca ri ng a II" <Hdt mad c in tht Smi_t L'1tiun 1dll'11 i1 , ,JI ''a' lh l' c;;mitt l'nion. \hm, madc in thc l' n itl tl St< ll l'~. a 'h in lll:tCit- in tiH' L'n ittcl Kin gclo111. l r<llhtr, hom Sing-apon aiiC) tnHkrl,tar fr11111 llong Ko ng .. \nrl tl 1:1 t i~ o11h- 11"11at tl w lahl'l' tdl me . \\'hcn thc 111awriaJ,. thc 11orker' < nHI 1lw capit:t l Clll ll ' lrom. 1 do not ktwl,. \\ 't' llt'L' cl to ,t,k ollr'dll,Janw' Clillonl'' CJIIL''tioll: ll'lto :u1d 11 i.; tr< IIL' iling .t n d lww~ \\'e a l ~o n tecl ltJ 1 )(' altc nti H 10 how 'dilltnnt 'oc ial gnliiJl' a11d clilhn .> nt indi1 id11als :~re plarLd in lt'IY rli., li nn 1,.,t, .., in rl'la1ion to tlll''e (Jtl\\, ancl IIIL'I Conlll'U ion< ( .\la ...... t ~ l!l!l l : 2.1) . rhcl l ' i' a g l l':tl rlj f( l'l"t' llt'l' bt' lll" l'(' ll itlllTIIaliOII <L i hll'illl''-' JWOp lt- ,\lid l l'fll~('t:~ .111d ho\1' thl'l , :-..w1 itnct :tl1ll 'i111.tgiue t ite g lnha l and tllt"'e g lu ha Ji, ing prnct''-'t:'. 1t i' aJ,u hy lll tde r... i n~ t lt t'\l' p o , ilion ings that liT can IJt'g in lo ll ltdvrswnd plan, lt a lllllt h 1iclttr 'l'll,l'. \\'t: (,111 bq~ill lll \l'l' hLJII t)H' 1111iqucnes~ oJ' :1 11\ pl;~n 0111ci it~ lo caiOil II'thin lltll r h widt'l p1 o cl'~~L~ art coll lll'lll'rl in a11 tlllcler,t:~ncling ol 1h:tt placl' ll tl t "'a hotll tcil'd l' ll lll bt tl "' < LII III L'I''ec ti oll or thl''l' lltm.... Dol't't'll ~1<1'\l'\' ( l \1!11 ) ll~t' ' th e tx;llupk o( Kilh ut 11 ll i~h '->liTc t in l .ondon tn clclllCJil,tratt tite 111 bricli11 .111<1 ~~ ll('l'eli-.m of thi ... l'H' I ~(l;l\ loralitl - IOIIlll'cl Olll uf tl tl' coming ltJgtthl'r' of a \'<II'l' l ~ or n lll\l l't''a 11rl1o ,Jum ho11 thi~ ~loha l 'l' ll ~t ul ' L... ;1 pmgn:s~ ilt ~l' ll 'l' uf p lace wltic ll :11o id' cldC. n,il c a nd e xdu!-ion an cldinitioll~ of pl.u t ,t ncl utllun hec;tll~c thtl c:11111ol be ~ ll, l ainvd in :1 ll'tH icl 1dllrc undtr,t:ntclin g .1 pl.ttt IIIL'.tll~ IIIHkr... landing ih et lltn ct tiun 10 l ol ill'l pl:tl'l'' ( (or .uto ll ll'r Il'll. ~l't' .\ , 1 9~Hi ).

1 h llotion' ol l't' ll :Hitilul \lhtl ,\l l' ll\itlg [() l 1 1111" l llllll).\_ brid d i't 11' 'ioll trit'' of lll'll' '' ,1\' ol ThiS . tlo\\ . hd>l idit\ .In el '\llCit'li,lll hq?,lll ' \ti npt'll 11)> 1 ' . . cofllll'CIIOII. 1) . . l ' l l 11 t\ltlll illu- till' ( olliJ>k-:ill ll( lht 1\0IId ').\l'll\!l'aph1L'' TI .,..tle t 111 ' 1' u " ' "' 1 1 thinking. H . .' 1 11 ' tlllllll" h ratllt r th.lll ,illing till'lll ,,1. 1 1 l lt' Jii'XIlll'' o l Cll llll l' lO , ll' ., . J . J . JI and th e ttHIIII . 1 1 11)\tll<iI,.,L., lltc ir ill,h tc nn !lt:l l all ru lltliL'' are lnbttc .tnc ' . . 'lrtl 11.' 1<\ . . 1 iiiiJO~ I\IU II O ' . tll 'll 1\'l' Jnn 111 lll' ll lll l' h lllUI'C' ,\llL' II ll\" 1' l O 1 1l . Chlt 1, "ll'l' ~\ lll' IL' lll lllt ,\11 ' ' ' . l l ( tl)llfl'o l i J)l e) . . . ) \ )1'1\l' bttn IIJ ) lllllil IHI\1. 1 hl' ~l'L igl ;tp 1\ 11 1 ' ~ ,, lllll' l lllllnl'l lll lll ll.lll \ l ' . .. gcograp fl t . . 1 1 uinu e llhnn, lmt .lllnutundei'I.IIH ht l~ thl' tolllltttlon' 11111 ot' i n ot 'nllp 1 1 > ,., . 1 1 t 1lll'n 1 1 . 1 . 11 Ir 111'' tnd tltt hol<ltl ' .tlld hoiiiH .trtl'' l 1:1 'o t Cll1lllft' ' )L'OJ>k IIH p ,\(l' \1 lll ])CI\\TCI1 I ' , Ollf 'III<I JI'-. e~( Cllillii'L'. (1 (' 1 lll l

.4 4.6

l conclusions


4. 71Conclusion\ sep~ration and connecti o~bl: . . .

. .. .

1 r. IH' "''l dilkH'IIlt'' ht'l\ll'L'n ,, h eiT lhi' c h aptt-r ,;ncd ancl ,,htlt ll In sollll' ,,~' ' ll' t . . 1 . 1. l ' tlll htllntn ~eo~rap lll' l ca nltol lw a lllllid 11' IU (" 11 ) <:;ttll'l o; d t( ,ll.lllllll l , ' ' cnch. Rtca 11 ,., . . 1 . . '" \Cih ldl'lt 'ht nr lw It a~ to he ro lll l' 111 . . . .. 1'. ll lll llllltolll\"\\<l\ ' ll.tll' l." ' . ....... IOIIrLSl lllL'< IIIO. ll o l f\ ll l)!. ' ) ) ) O IIH' lllt' l't''llll )!. . 1 . . '. " hit'' ( tllltlll i" lt \\('llllg 11 ,1 ,o ..... ' ' ordcr t o tt iHkl ~ t: II H 1 I' II!II ' DJ...~U,.,li .'. " . , Y l in o tll t' t ""' \ll' h alt' . 1 1 . 1' . ll tl',l''- .tiHI Hleolog tl'' ul liHIII'III . t . . quc~u on~ a >O IIl t H < 1- 1 1 ' Ilio n lllll "' ltl u n <k t,t.ltld <.pau,. \ 11 '.,. ' (\t\LII"IOI\\ tl )!; el ),1 1'' . 11.1tt 1 1. conw lt1 1 . ' ' t . . liH''- linthdtltillthtm. and tl ll' ,,;, 11 d n>e' in"~~~ an ~l'll'lll\l' lll 111 L . 1 place~ ;llll .111 ' . l 1 \\'1 . t thi o; clnlll'l' Ita~ ll'L'CI tu , )llll,. i' ~O IIIL' e1 l IL' h n Snter hu utll t:C te 1< 11 l.t ' ~Oilll'l 1 ung l . . . . .. 1 . . ncl c u lLUI'l' are ini (T\1" 0\T II " ' . 1 . 11 'lllL' Il Lt ll11 l< 1 ll oll' <'l og t .tp 1\ .t - 1 wal'~ i11 II'IIIC l S ll P :._ . c- l ..._ ~ . .- . . )JLJ\\Tl' ancl IIH':111i11g , 1011 0 10 ) . )' . . ' JI ._ 11Pht be 11li'Ollg 1 111\l ' 1 ,.,. 11 . . . ' . sll~pmg_~IIJl l ~ L' ti 11 ,., 1 . . , 1 l'111tlc I)Jt, ron , icln;uion' o l Hknll ll --..:, . (" . . '1 . 11r 1 H' p llllllJi u t J ' 11 throu gll tlw n ;lllllllg ~llt:l ~ ' . "' \ . - .... or tnrin tlw traii'>OlL'.llliC 1 ki w ol utlll lll~ :lll< Llllp1h ' ' ,., . d In gL'IIl' lal. . . .. all<l rcpr~.,tntallllll 111 lll' m.1 1 .-. ' . .- 1 1d 1idt llt'\1 cultural prm111<1' 11 1 1 m u 1t flo"' :lile\ rtlllllt'nton' "11 lnl . . .. 1 . . . 1 iu <> thmtl l)tHlt SL ' )Jaratitlll an d . 1 lk 1 l ll illll'l.' ... gt:og t .tp IIL " '' IL "'' lhl'rc fore . \\'l' tlll)!; ll i<L . a ltlll L . . 1 . .. . . 1 h irh 11\ ea ning ' ;ll't' tnadc. ick llt i . l l. . 1 tii Hkr,nllclll lg t IL 11.11' 111 ' COn ii L'CllO I\. li S 11 1\'(1 \l'~ ' . ) . . J . c\thl<lll") tlll' dual pron~~l'~ of . 1 1 .. 1 den rclauolb liJl' ,II L 111 ~< "' . . tll ll t:~: IIT I"Il 'Hll'( <llll Jllllll i.L ,1 \ ' IK'll:l) . 1 1 e ., ' lnns tnd lan<bca pl'' ''~ ~nllll lO' ' c p.11'~1l ion - l he ,clung a p an 11 p .t .l . 1 .'. . . .. . , IJIIC''' m el ickllt i 1<'~ an ah~< ll s . 1 ' 11 . 111 \1 11< 1 IIH.llllll' ' ~ ' c\iltt' ITill- .tnd COillll'lltUII-1 ll' 1'' ' "



ti t.'d up 11itltotll' a nntht J'. . . . tcl nlilliiT . 111 d nlitura l . . . . . . thinkill" (1( IHII,. \l'l' \I IH1L'l' 1" . lhHn g tiH ' prollli'-L' 1 IL "'. . . L' r1 r 1. 111 tti 11 u n li ttll't thrn ttgh ll~ ' . ( Jl v iiii\' JdO.t l)>llll<tll l'X t'l'L'IW . 11 lo. n ' wll ich I\'OII1e1 m;l"t ' ti ; u . . . lrt>tt r l\'l' might . .. d nt tl ,\1 th t lwglllllllll!: o 1 11 "' 1 .' , 1 . , llf ol ntltlll';ll rreogr:t phtl'' ~uggt 't'. 1' ll ( ponl 11 "' . l'fl .. , tnd Ctllll l''l :llllll l~ lll.ll llll"l 11)> l ll 11 lhm-.. )>o,iloll'> .111<1 lul.ltiolb. bc\l co111 tpluah,t tht l 1 l'ltiH l . J J 1\1 ' l IJlhtll ..tlf IL'I ralll'>. 1 )OI ( 1 ll ' . . 1 , r ultlll t' _ :tll o11 us tu thi11k sutclie~ 111 t t'rtll~ u -.paua L . J J h l\"l' (() J)l' ' l'L' Il <h \1,1\, ll 1 l 1 llllll'll ).\ Thc c lt'I LII' - " II C ' . . . . . , a n d lr.l<>ltll'lt l at iun ~ ol c ultltn mor<: ;Hkquatdl'. thmug h :Hiel I'L"Jli'L'' l' lllthL dlll t llii( L . "'. . J . 11 ln tl'"l''- llll' w;t\ in wltidl l,c 1 rdlltOII ' tln t ll 11 1\ CI \t.:' l ' ,., . ) am\ ;tl ~o tltt dllltrtllll:t poli U . .: ., In )ll'l' 11 ,1, al"' ,IHIIII1 thatlhi' i..: 1101 1 1 11 think .tbont t 111t11rv :md lllhur:~l '-lll tlil'' h l. l '1

~tud ic~~


lntroducing Cultural Sludies


a lllillll'l ol ')>ati.d IIH'l,tphm ' 11i' ,J,o .1 nlillll'l of iliH''I l{<ll ing ~pares. place<, :llld I:Jtldscq)l, - Hal .111<l imagi nl'd - lor ll"llaL thtl Clll tel l "' ;~l>cn 1L 11lc dilltTl'lll ""'in 1d1ich lllc::lnin~s .111d po"er an tied lo){L'Ihl'r in <lill ell'lll ~i111:nion-;. 1 1 is up 1o 10u hOII'L'I'l' l . ll'llt'lfll'l" IU11 ill'l' fll ()f'l' ("C H11' IIl'l'cl 1 >1. J'cf' l'X,IIIl)>ll' . l ' XfJl<tiiOilCIII' li l:t l I;'Otk 1111 ou~h 1hto ie' ni' idcology (p. ~ 11 01 1hoM' 1ha1 dcplm nc t intl' ol discoursc (p. :~O). llldl'l'C I. then i-. mucll ll'ctrk ' lill lo he do1w i11 tracing illl' ,,a~, in ll'llicll gcog~<lphicaJ rq)n''l'lllatinn\ .ntcl i111.1l{in.11i1e ).{t'ct{1.tphie' :1rc 111ack :nHl ,hapcd in dillercnl pm1crladtf1 ron tcxt~. Tfti, chapte1 lt :1' 11 il'clto ~tt 0111 'OIIIt' ot lht too!' 11 illt ,,hich 1h.11 ca11 he done. llwn are .d~o othcr qnc,qinns 11hirh :11c beginning 10 lw addre~>'t'd. TlH lu tHre clitcnicm ol cultural g-ogtaplll' -;t't'lll 10 lie in tllinkin~ through tht rcbtion,hips IWI\\'een the ~~mbolic and tlw matnial. T his 1 11can' 11101 ing : 111al' from s1rugg lcs that are n mccil'l'd a' hcing onl~ o1'Cr 1epre'L'11latinn ancltht politirs of imagc cu la nguag<' 10 1he ,,a~.~ in ll'hid1 material ol ~jc c t -; .111<1 111ate1i:1 l ~oc i a ! rei:llions art al ~o mau<: rs for cultural ~111dic' (lor cxamplc. ~ l :nll'". 19\Hi. and ~litrhell , 199.'1). Thir. has imohTd cartful consideratiu11 or. for l:'X:IInplc. 1he "'" 'S in whi cl1 wlla1 hacl prl' l' i011~ 1 1' hel'll qucstiom of e< ononlics (t'.g. cothlllil)>lion or corporate m1{an i'a1ion) an nm, seen to bt cultural q u<stions. lt :liso i11\'ll ll'c.~ a l'tldiral I'Cl hi11 ki ng 11f' tlie wavs in ll'hich 1he snn bolic and 1he material come tngethc in o11r rdationr,hip~ to natlll'l' and tcchnology (Li1ing!>tone, Hlfl:'i; ll ar<ll\'ily. 1~~~!1: LaLOIII'. l m>~~). Again , thl'Sl' question~ are being comidertd in 1\'tli'S that connect the local and tlw global ancl sngge~t that ho11 1\'C unclcr~tand cnltnr~'s ,l{l'ographics a lter~ tlw "ays in ll'hich ll' l' th ink aboutt he llorl<l ancl o11r po~ition in it.


Culture, time and history

5.0 l lntroduction
In this chapter we discuss time and history as cultural formations. By this ~-ve_ mean. that our temporal and historical perceptions are constructed through culture. Thts 1s an tdea that as a linear p~ogress1on of ev:nts; and (b) challenges two common-sense assumptions: (a) history_ time as objectivel mechanical dock time. Both assumpttons are relat1vely recentl datmg from the period known as modernity (p. 400) which covers ~pp~oxin:ately the_~ast 400 ye~rs. Both simplify temporal experience which, on closer exammat1onl ts not umfted bu.t vanous. For examplel time is perceived differently under different circumstances. lt wlll go qutckly ~hen w_e are enjoying ourselves drag when we are bored. In a diffe~ent. but related sense, htstory 1s experienced differently by different social groups. The v1ct~r s _h1st~ry ls not th_ e same as .the history of the defeated. There is not one history, but many htstones, ~st as there ts not one ltme but many times. Both a temporal sense and a historical sense are achtevecl through culture. Our perception of time comes with the culture in which we live. A history can~ot be ~etached from the culture in which it is produced and received. As we shall see_ belowl 1~ 1 s only tn t_h~ last 250 years that there has been a clear distinction between tales or stones and h1story as a d1st1nct form narrative that attempts to represent the truth of pasl events. As cultural forma_tion~~ time a~d 0 history are subject to the issues of relativism, meaning, value, po~~er ~nd c~nflict d1 scussed m Chapter 1. Time is experienced differently by different cultures. lt ts 91~:n dtfferent values and meanings in different places and at diHerent historical pedods. The ~b1hly to control ou~ own time or that of other people is a matter of power and confhcts over time occur at homel tn the workplace and in the wider political arena. . . . In this chapterl we have split the discussion of time and h1s,tory _mto. ~~~ee secltons. Now 1Then' and ' lf/when' each of which corresponds to one of the tnparttte dlvtstons of time _ 1 nto the 1 present the past and the future. Beginning with some common preconceptions about ttme and history ~e move towards a more complex argument about time and difference and htstory and

R e-cap
Cultural geography is an important part of cultural studies. Questions of culture help us to understand the ways in which spacesl places and landscapes (and their representations) are laden with meaning within varied relationships of power and resistance. Questions of geography help us to understand the ways in which culture is differentiatedl fragmented and contested through processes of both separation and connection.

Furlher reading
Differenl sorls of introduclions lo the new cultural geography are provided by Peter )ackson in Mops of Meoning: An lntroduction to Culturo/ Geogrophy ( 1989) - who draws on cultural malerialism - and Pam Shurmer-Smith and Kevin Hannam in Worlds of Desire, Realms of Power: A Cultural Geography (1994)- who provide a more poststructuralist inlerpretation. Kay Anderson and Fay Gale's edited collection lnvenling Ploces: Stud1es m Cttlwral Geogrophy (1992) and james Duncan and David L ey's Place/Culture/Representotion ( 1993) are selections or essays that use a variety of perspectives to address a wide range ol geographical subject matter. For a general diswssion ol changes in cultural geography, see linda McDowell's essay 'The transformalion of cultural geography' (1994).



182 lntroducing Cultural Studies

Culture, Lime and history


Learning objectives
To learn about the relationships between time and culture and history and culture. To learn about conllicts over time as they are mediated through culture. To learn about history as a cultural rormation . To learn about issues of conflict and difference in cultural history.

5.1.1 1 Modernity
The h i, torira l ptriocl dt,cribed ,1\ Jllocktll is ll'uall1 dl'lillL'cl ,1\ bl'ginn in g' .11 th t t'tHI ol tlw ;\ liddk .-\ g't~ .llld , \.tricllt'-h <lat<'d lront tht Rl'form;Hinn. tht lt ali.m Renai"ance o r d lt' I'\t' of t'< tpita l i ~ lll in tlt t placl' ol it'ucl;t lbnt. .\l lc a~ l !-i),. puillls l :tll ])(' lll:td<' aiJulll
11 wdc1lll\

and ih '>l'll~t ol timl':

1. \\'h ill- prl'mocl L'rn ]>t' ITc ptio ll.'

o[ till l' ar t' u ltl' ll r ha ra t tnis<'d (1101 a l11; ~s co rrc tt ll') a' circ ul a r. tlt L' mod t ttt s< ' ll'l' i' linear. 1\'th a pa~t. a prt''t'lll ancl ;a fnt llrt'.

~. In the mO<kl'll pn iod tht ht~tmo nit culture of tinw has btTil mcchanical clnck


Now: modernity and the present

tillH'. :\. fltt' ntodetn 't'lN.: ol time i' t haracttri,ed h1 a heiglllt' llt' d 't'n~c ni' thc pn''L'lll. whirl t \ \';tl te a lk n j;n nin rallcd nolltimc. ' e' that o ut ,n~e of time btcomc<. IIHII't' o p tJt-L' ncle d . a tinH o l' pos,i bilit l'.

In th i' '>t'Ctinn 11c look <ll nu a sc n't' ol th l' p t t'\l'lll. \ \'c ' lt{J.{l''l tha t th t co n cept o l th e prt~ttll is a l't'htliHII l'l'Ct'lll illl'l'11li o tl. lt i ~ ,, >rodu t 1 o ! m o d e t nitl'. a ro n ct:JI th :u ll't' luuk :11 hdoll'. Thl' nw<k-rn 't'n't' ol' tillll' ha-, nnique t haractt't ,,e,'' hit h dilltntlliatt it l'nun pntttod crn [>t'tTeptiono; ol ti tnt. 1101\l'l't'l'. tl tt' m o d tt 11 sc n st uf tin w i .~ 1101 llll( ( lfl)l ; l l'tllll;til \ 11 dil'l'I'S I \ o (' c(j(fl' t'c n t pt'IH'p ti o tl \. :\o t onh do 'O II II' p t t'l lloclnn 't'll\l'' of tinte (KT-'i't. hut dillncnt ,ocia! ,:{niiiP' ha~t dil'krcnt uncltt 't ;mrling' ol tht tilllt' or m nde ani tl', Fi ru. hc>ll't' l'e r . ll't' tllttS ll'l'Cog ni ~t th at it , d ill ic ullt o thi 11k o ttr., dl't'' cHll o l' o tt r (11,.11 t'll ltun: o l time. Succt'" with this matl!lt'IIIT<' ht ing" a 't' mt of' cld:unili.u i,arion .tkin ro th ;n gai n t'd b1 reaclin g a llc tio nal acto ll lll ol' 1ime tran l. \\'c .: ll'll. like \\'illiam ;\lor ri,s titllt' tr:ll l'llt'l' in hi ' n o l'l' l .\'1'i11l jm111 .\'m, !t('ll' ( lirs t p ub li , hccl in 1 X9 1) ~ t r i p pc rl l>a rl' of t:ll'l'\' habitual tlwu gh 1 ancl \\'al of at tin.( ( :\1m ri,. 1~IHti: 2H6-7). Thr ca,ic~t nwt hod i~ th rottgh a ro mparison witlt a 11 o tl wr n tlutn\ 'L'IlSe o f time: hut su ch i' ota r imtstmcnt tt o u ro11n ll' lllpura l stme th :ll th e ro nll'<tSl ca n be clcrtptilc. h t' I'C is ;ut Ol't'l'whd 1ning de,in to impo~C' 0111 m,n 1ie1' oftinw omo thc othcrnrhurc. 'oth.ll tlw othcr tcnporal st n ,c is di \lo rt t' d . Di f fn t' n l 1('111po ra l s< n 'iC'\ an so un<~ o f Cl tltur;ll conll ic t. T l w poll'e l' to lllaktotht l'' conlmnllO ~o nr titn t' i ~ a \'ital pa n of' any f'o rtno f',oci<t l co n tro l. In tht modetn world tite htgemonic or dominan\ tint<' , llll'C doc k time. E1er~ pan ol' <Htl' lil'es i., dil icl<-cl tll" hour,. ninuLL '' and ~econrls. Tina is l' tll i'aged as a tas!...nta'tc r. \\'e ha l'l.' lo kccp ttp ,,itl t it. \\'t \\'o ul cl li ke lll OI'l' o fi t: but 1\t' ratinn ittu make surt' t hcre i~ l'IIOUgh 111 go nlll ll cl. Tlw hegcmo n\ or llll'Ch.ulical el oc k t illlt' lllt'<lll' tha t it , difliru lt ., im agi ne o th c r kimh o l tim e: h111 nwc hani ca l clo ck titn t is a rt l:uinh rcn' lll cll.'no lo;llll'tll . lt clatt~ l'rnm tl tc carel'u lh ordtnd rou tin l' olnHna!'tic lift in t h~ ;\ lic\clle Ag e,. ll'httt cach p.ut of tlw chll' hatl .1 d ilftnJH ta' k alloue<lto it. .\ k c hanira l t lock-. II'L' I'l ' liro; U't'd ron,i s tt' nll~ Lo orckr lil'c in m o n ;l,ll'l'it'' makin g f'nr a str;lllg'l' nHllhinati Ott o f' ' acrtd a n d ll tt'c h a n ical 1im e ( Zt'ru ba~t l. 1\lH~) .. \ n objtct iw. ,cient i lit :-t'll'l' ol' tillH' becanw the nmm in thl w1iocl knm1 n " moclt t n it~. Sut h i, tlw compltxil\ of m ude rn . ind11qrial soc i e tic~ that mct h<nlic tl t loc k titn t i~ neCt'S'a n li1r thC' cuo rdi n atiotl of' th l.' largc ll ltlllbl'r' o l' di fk rt' lll " ''k' that hall' to bt done. L.argt. pol\'l'l'fnl organisation' likc ho~pita ( ,, hii\ilt' "l'' and goH'I llllll'lll' could not optr:llt' 11 itlwu t it (Ze rub;wt'l . 1!17!1). T ite hi ~ to rica l j)l'riod in 11hi r h t h i ~ p c accpaion uf ti lll t' h;" ro1 1H' ro d o minatt' i,.; knoiiTt a' mocltn titl .

.J. T ht umdt 'l ll ~<'ll'l' ol timt ,global in h impatl.

f1. lt. i' pulltrf'ul. und crn alling Jrtmoclc-1 '1 1 ntl ltln s of' ti lll t'.
ti. Dl''pite ib htgl'tnulll. tlll tnockrn 'L'll't' ot' time , lHH all-mll'l'l'ful. 1'1 cauodtnJ con re ptinn' ol time pe1~,, in ano<k rn itl. Dillcrctll ~ocia ! gro u p' cxpl'rit'IH'l'

dil'l't l't' llll<' lll(JOral 't' nsc;; ll'itltin modnnit~ In the folltll\ing- stniono; wc look at thc de1dopmcnt o! tlw modern ~l'll'l' of tillll'. \\'t l'xaminc tlt t homog c11ising dkct ol indttst ria ltimc and tlll't' lt;ani ra l r l11ck tim t: 11<'''' tlt e 1 a tt l'lnpt tu l'l'a' c c;ul itr ,ariotl' ~l'll't'' o l tilllc. \\'t t lt tn look al th t parado:- o f' mockrn timt: thl' ''"in whith. dt,pitt tite honwgeni~ing l'fkct o f indmtrialtimt. tlt'\1' ancl di lli. tT nl
pl'r~ pc n iws

t' IIH'rge .


Task-based time and industrial time

In hi' e;.'>al 'Tinw. ,,ork-discipline a11d industrial capitali,m' (in homp<.on. 199 1l. the hist ori;an E. P. Thompso n (p. \Hi) ci('~CJ ilws tl w l'ha n gt'' in tl' m pnral IIIHil' r"l:tncli ng that n rn trre d i11 tlw m ode n1 >l'ri o d . !l e IJl'g ills ()1' ll\ing t'<l lltpa ri ~o n ' ll'itll otlwr cullllr<'' 'taniug with the famoll' accotull by tltl' authropologi't E.F.. 1\an,Pritchar<l or tlw t't lltt ll't' o l tl H' :'\u e r . a p:l~ I O t-;d j)t'np lc lilillg in Suda n ('l'l' 'L'CtO II '2. 1. 1). llll' i'\ u t t di,idl'cl tit e cl.11 lll <l u11its llll':t'll rl' cl h1 tlt l' ll'lll'k pa tte l'll iln po, t d h1 lt' l1ding ca u k : ]le cl.til ~ tinw-pk-cc , lln t;llt ll'-c ln r k ... 1.1king o f' tlll call k ll'c>lll 11~ 1 \' lo Kl';c ;d. m lkiug. cli,phll' ul' ,outh' 11i th th tit o't'll. dJiling ol tite .tdctlt ltnd lo pa-.rut.l).\l'. mlking of rhe goa" .uHI <hctp. clr1 ng of tht lluck... and t.lht, ro P''llln'. tlllcl'llil).(. clc.1n ing , r h~n ;en el kraal. cil'l ing ,,r cltmg Jud. hn cli llJ..\ in tlt t p:~ sttt l 'l' '. hrin g-ing lliJillt' cJf tl lt' llcc " ' a 11d cth't'' rc tlll tl ,, th c ad u l1 h .. rd. ( 1-\ ;ub -l't itrh.II'Cl. 1\J:l!l: '2071

Tlw moclern industri:tl c nltu n of I llll' di,cipli llL i' cli!li.rt lll in im p ortan! l't' ']Wt 1 ~ to
that o l 1h e prt-indu,lt'ia l w riod . \\'lt tna ' prtlio usll 1\'0 I' k h acl lwe n la' k orie n ta ttd. that i' judgtcl h1 tht ltngth of time it tonk 10 dn ' partiutlar ta~k. the nlll<lt'rn pt' l iod


lntroducing Cultu ral Sludies

Culture, time and history


s:111 1\'0rk blcom c syste J11:11 i<.e d in lo d i ~ci pli n ccl 1111 i t' m ea~u r~cl by weeks. cla~s . h our~. minute ancl ~econds. Th o mp~on g i,c~ otlwr examplc' ol time nJ c asur tme n!'- likt th c time it takt~ to rook riu: , lhl'd in ~lad aga snu. a n d tim ing a n egg b' eci 1ing a n ,\,e 1\la ria' in se,en lcenth-ceni iJ ry C hile (T homNl n, 100 1: ~ .'i~). T h esc exa mples d e rn onstrmc thc rclathc nu\'e ll ~ of doc k time. ll'hic h o 1ll ~ .{1 -adua lh' a"t-rtccl i1' h ege m o m iu Europe front 1hc fo u1 tlTnth tTntiiiY om,ard ... This dominance 1\'a' l'acililated. h\' tcchnolog ical inno ,miom in clock a nclthe g~ 1dual iu c reas<. in tlw mme rship of perso n a l clnck' a n cl 1\'llc lws: b111 th e r h:u1 ge ll'a' :1s rnurh CJdll! ral as tcclmologit'al. Th c po~scss i on o l a cloc k or 1\':llch "'"'a sy111bol n f' a cli~r iplin ed auit u dt to ,,o1 k. Thu~ thc g if't o fa 1\'aldt lrom a firm1o a 1\'orktr nn reti rerntrH repre~e r11 .; n01justtin1c serYcd (or, m o re macahrth. time kit bcfo re dcath ) but hi-; 01 llt'r sen icc to tlw cu lture ol time impo~ed by 1he flrm.



Charl es Dickens, Oombey and Son

. \~ lt> th c n cighbo urh ood wh ic lt had h esitatlcl to acJ..nowlt:dge thl rai lroad in i1~ straggling d a\'s, tha l h a d g rmm 11ise an<l penitenl. a .. am (.hl'i,tian might in 'lllh .1 case, ancl n ow boa ~tc d or its po11e r fui relation. Then \H'r L' railw;t~ p:ntern~ in i1 s draper's sh o ps ancl rai1way journ a b in th c ,,indo,,~ ol' i1 s n ewsn1e 11 . The rc IH' I'l' rai h,a, h o te ls. offin -h o m t . loclg ing h omt'~. boardin g-IHwses: railwa) p la n s. ntap~. 1i c"~. ,,Tapper . bo ttles . ~an ch1ich-boxe~. and time-tabk': t a ih,a,,-coat h and cab-~tall(h; raih,m omnibu<.e,, t-ail\\';t\' Sll'l't'ts a nd buil<li ngs. raih1a' hange son and parasitcs, allCI lla tte rcrs u tll o l al1 c dc ul:nion . T llt' re 11 :1s c\e n raih,a~ time obscrn :d in do c k~ . as ifthc sun i t~c l fhad !,i\'C JI in .
Did..tJJ, ( 1!1111: :!:-1!1-!1111

5.1.3 ! Industrial time

T h e ind ustrial rc \'Oiution ~ pread 1111: modcrn sen'L ' of time. incorp o r ating th e Puri1a n ti me e 1hic: lillll' llacl lO bt usecl well :11HI n o t \1'<1Sil'd . in nrd('r Lo build np profit' for tite r111urc. a worcl that 01ig inall\' m t:nH all-round bendlt~ a!> ,,eJI a~ i t~ Jllore swcific monetar\' ~tmt o!' toclm. Tlw timt'tab lt, o! school' a n d railll'a~ ~ and tllt' shift pauern~ factoril's conclition t>d a more cJi,ciplinccl a n d ws lematis<d c ulurre of' tim e in 1hc Jllo clc rn period. Railwa \'S ir1 p a nic ul a r Slandardistcl tim e b e tll'tTn diiTen.:nl pans ol' th c l'OIIIllry, ll'h t' I'C d il'fe n n cc' of lll illliiCS Jtad 1101 ll1:llll'I'C'cl for slowcr tlll'thocl ~ o f tt a n spon . A P"''agc (!.l'<' Box 5. 1) in Charles Di< kcns's nm l'l /Jombf') ollfl Son ( 1H IR) <kscribes lto\\' th e rail way' l ran~f'onn ed an:a.-, of London l'rom isolated , nrn-dmi'JI cl is1ri cts into par1 ora u a l iona l sys tv111. i\o1.e tha l h e inclnrks a s i ~ di g at tllt' Pur itan t thi c in tlw lirs t ~en te n ct. and in tlll Ja,t sen tence conuw.t~ 'rai)\,a, time' 1\'th 1hc m ore u-ad ition al. r u ral l N ' o f th t' '>trn to mark th e hcgin n ing and th e. end of 1he dar. In IJombP) (11/(/ Son, tlw ubiquit~ of' railll'a~ time ~ ig niries th e prcssurc to discipline allCI l time th:n is n ne of' tite dl'li nin g c lt:rrac le risti cs of modcrni1y. syste rmllise thc c ululrt c> E.P. Thomp~c111 specu lates that th t trot o ri m t~ \ 'ic torian ohse~s i o n 1\ith death ancl nwurning ll'<l!> pcrhap~ a l'l'!'p on!>t' lO lht hcightcncd ~CIIM' of tirn c p:"'ing in thc ptriod . H m1cn r. Thorn N>n i., card'nl to makL clear th:rt '''hile tiH' ncw time disc ipJ in e of i nd liStria l c:rpi l:t1 ism i ~ 1H ;ge rnon ic. i1 is 11 0 1 J)-j)OII'Crful. 1n (~J et , a C ( O~l'l' c:x:rrnin a tiou o l modc rnil\, c u lture ol time ~> lun,, t\\'o 1hing~: (a) th a 1 e arl icr ti111c ~lmcs a re s till '''ith us: a liCI ( b) that ahhough moclernit1 i~ c haracterisld b1 a singlt:. norma1i1 e c ulture of timt', d il le rent social group~ L 'Xpcrie n ct th:H c ulture in diiTeren1 ,,ays. Thc la un point is a tnaue r o f po'''LT and collS< ' ()ttc nth :1 sorrrcc or so cial con llic t. In a Study :lll l ntt' IISH' Can l ' nit th e .. miolng ist .J od Lton Telles ( 19tl6) dc rnon~Lnlted that t il o~<. of higher ra nJ.. wert> gin-n greate r control OI'Cr hm, the, u~cd t h c ir time. "hik tho~e lcmcr dmm in the hospi ta l h icra tT h~ h ad to < liTange their ti me accnrdin g 10 1h e < o m e ni l nn t1w ir ~n pc ri ors. Sn c h cliffcrc n ccs can lead to conllict. Uill' da\' T h e battlc ror lirs t a (('11-hfllr r :tll<l su h~cn u cn th :tll e itrht-h n \\'aS a Sl rtl"g o (._ le b\' 1\'orkers conduncd within tlw dclinitions of' nwchanical doc k time to \\TC'l more control o1 e r t lwir livt'

5.1.4 1Time and difference

(o\H'\Tr, IIH' dominantL' o l llll't h a nical el m k time
jo; tHil lota l. IJl''Pill' ~4-h o n r \\'cll'k sc hcd uk ~ and ro mnn1ni ra tion acrnss tinH 1ones. all c u lt urt~ rccng nisc th e dil lnet tce bc l\H'l'l 1 da ~ ami n ig h 1. 1ime~ goHrr ted b\' th c re ll.ll ion o l t ltl' planct. \ \'l'l' k.;. on 1l ~e nt llt'r hand. ,an lll't\\'('l'll ntl tu t-cs. In prc-in d u '-lria l c uhul'l~. \\'t'l' k' ta n bl lound that .ltT :1'~hon a~ thr l' l' d < "' {the ~ltty'e<' in Bognta ) a ncl "'long a' ten (t hl' Inca, ). In thnt



socieli t'' t11l ,,ce k, t' ll cl i' a lm o~t :J1,,ays rl'btl'd to a pl'riorl ic marktl :111d thu~ to :r so r i:tl r:nh e1 1h:111 :111 asl rono lnica l f'u iH'ti o n (Sorokin :rnrl \I('J'lOI I. 1 \1:~7: (i~-1 -:-ll. T h t m o d n 11 SC\'{'11-d,l\ \\L't'k (\\hit h .;, a {)llillll'l ollht litii:Jr ( \Ck. al'o corn,p orHI' 10 a'll'tlllUilliC time) datt'' lromtlw lltbr t'\\' 1\t'tJ.... 1\ih the ... ahh.llh punnuating 't'tul:n toil " ith n, a n d wo rsh i p. C h ris1ian i'>nrHI Islam adoptcd 1h l' ~t'l't r 1-da1 1\'tTk, bu t c han ~ecl1lt e ~abb.u h ( lO Sunda\' l'o r C hris tiani l\ a nd to Fricla\' for Islam) in o rder 10 mark tlll'ir di iTercn ct l'rnm jucbis;n. T hi<> c h a ng(' ~lcmon~trate'> ;he impmwnce o r a dilfer e nt ttmporal semt in 1he CSiahJi,Junc nt ora llt' \\ tll ltlll-al or<kr. T he ' l'\l'tl-danl'eeJ... 1\th itsdili,ion of~acrtcltillll' and non -~ac rccltinH'. Ita~ prmTd t'XIraordin.1ri ly durabk in the nwd,rtl 1\'orld. n .. i~ti rr g a11ernp1s 10 changc it :11'1c r th c Fre n c h Rc,o ltrti o n to ten clm, :11l(ltht n :tf'ter tll L' Rus~ian Rc1olution 10 fiw ( '.l'rt r h~I\'CI. I H~~ ). Rel igiou~ fes tiYal' likc C:h risltna~. l'a...,oH'I ancl Ramada n a te impmt.tll l 111011\l'lll~ in the c:lll'ndar l'H'Il "hl'l't' religioll' ob~c n .Ul((' has be e n lat')~L l y I'L'placed b~ '>CCI rl ar se!Ct' l). Th 11 ,, c : a tl icr Sl'J ISl'' ol' 1illll' rdall'<l 1<, 1hl rnll l l r~rl world a nd n l ig io n rol'x ist in t lw 1i 1nc o f modl'rn i 1y. Cor tlli ns on~ r th l' ptT~nY;H ion ol a sacred cl<l\ like th a t ro nclucte d by the Britbh u unpaig n ' Knp Suncl:l\ Swcial' n ,is l th c pcne1rat ion of' a ti me ' lliiCilll'ed 1 )\ tiW dem<Utd' o f a 1110(ktn COII,llllll'r l'COI\0111\



The paradox of rnodern time


lt is Olll' ol thc g r c;ll p.tradoxc' ol' the tinH' o l moclemil\ 1h:11. on tlw o nt hanrl. time.~' organisecl a rrordin ~ leo a n ol~jtni\'(. scitn li1 k m"dl'l. and. nn tht otlwr. Cl't' J'\(1.1\ Irte


lntroducing Cultura l Studies Culture, tim e and history 187

lh tg mcIHS in LO lllllltiplt cuflure~ ur lilll l'. Tlt; , , llt'J'h 11)~ ('' J>I'1. 1 11 cll 1 . ' t 1\ 1 le rt1o 1 11 110 naltlrt u f nwdel'l lllt' ll'luc h 'lll'C'J>S , 1\, ':t\' o )d ordcl\ 11 l llt' 11 11 f l 11an. , " 1< n 1 1t' nnr. hu 11.1 . 11ch is con ~ l anl k crt>:tllllg' ne11' formo; ol cnlinn 11 h ic h 1011 1 . . . . l '1 , 'lllg 1 l ', llOI'IIl <tll\ 1 1 he con lh c1~ 1hat eme1xc are den 1011 , 11 . 111.d 1 > , ,. . . 'l.tndard -.tmp.llglh 1nr Pllllntl 11 . marktd nut in the calend,u. lil..e \1 111 11 1 11111 1.1 1.. l) . . "' 1" lo be ' 111!.: "' 111 1hl' L , 11 , . 1 ~ 1 11 11 . <hSt'll di,li ncrin cuhun, .tgain-. 1 lht J 1. ., 1111011 1 . . t''. which ..... \ (l ol 11111 1111111 11.1110 11 ti udtur. (' ., 1 l'rtain 1 . (;1\\. '"t' \la1 Uat . are lou.rJu mer ll\ 11..1c 1 . 1 . "' ' l IOIIol hl\ 11 1 lO 11.1111 lO 1>1 ., . . 1 1 ' ... ancl \l01 11' dancinu th IJI' 111:1\ polt . I'H UNo1 11~ like ~ ' ' 0111 lllottlllt'lll 11 lllt h r 1 1 dat :tiHI con'C'I\': tiH'' llho "i'h lo.,,, . . . . r l l ll.llt'' JI a' a llorkcrs' ' f ,.., Ol( 11 111 lol\0111 o/ olfltl odtrn I illt' _ , clnWil"l l"lltc ' l 11 1(hl l 1 l'< ll 1 1. 111 . 1 . . p.lll . . I!H . ir n ll\al . .... Thc .parado:..: of n1 1ht h tnc h p ml. C ha l les lh udl' ltl ,.,. rl . '1 1 moc <1111'1 .111 and lll e r:n ure . ' '' l''fll)l '( IIHtcl tJn 'l ' lrot ll ~ll' lll. lh l' ll tTliltr, t!Jt' Cllii (I . II U' ' ( I/ J 1 1 ' ' l 11\t' of 11111(' ;(\ ' the . ,.., ,-,l ll olll'llll'h l 'l~7 ~) 1'1 l. ... . ' . H' <uhu ra l hi,lrnian Sl t'flh t' ll 1\l'l'll h,,, dt~r ri l >l' d llo ll lh 1. l. . 1 . . llllr o IIH>( t' tlllll' l\ ,1\ t c'J . . 1 . o llll\[1(' 111!1\ l'llll' lll,\ of tite )J<'I iod 1KH II- 1(J ' l l) 1 . . ." . ltl \llll l( 111 lllode rnist \ l'l ll'tl'''ll " '' l l1.11 11te ncw . i ol . ' IJl'l'<l. 'll'<lllt thc l .., .. - ( O.L(Il'' . \tl ll .)!lK.I ) 1 , ..., , ltt 1111o 1 . J ' ll l ,..,Ltp 1 1 .t ll d lil l' lt'lv JJbttll t' , J \ 11111 1 l:t lll'0\ 1 , llllll' :t ll d 'j)' l( . rJ . . . . l l l.ll t'( <t \l'IISC of . t. lt geog l ap hvt . Onl'id 1h rv' . ( - . . prr wc" 111 ltTill'i ol Jll'l'iod . 1 . . . . ' C) P ,lb) d e~ n 1h e\ thi~ ~ t ll llH "' Jl.ll l' 1 ltll i p l 't'~'-11 !11 . 1J ' J . .. 1 lll 1 1\('l l' lll ll _lli'l ll'Chno. log t('; d IJtll l'l'OIIOIIIt'. llr l' I 11 . .. ' J . 1 l\ IC ldl\1:1\' l !llllll cJ ~ , .' J I J J) ' 1 l':t l'h' L 'X:IInple; ' Fit'll lholl<rh lor .. 1 . l l ll l U ,, ll'M'Ii' :tbolt' a< one "' . l X,tlllp l', t'\t 'l'"l\l' SJJt'CIIh i()JI 1 ' 11 1' ' 1 . 1 .11 1""< Clllhlruc-

11 jcnrcrcd tl w fl1 ' 1 Et 1rope.111 rr i-.i-; ol' 0\ t' racctllllllla tion . lllt' rt, ohHio n nlth L c1,s u pon l't u1her e!o.plor;ui nn o l 1empnra l ;md ' Jl<H ia l d i,p lactruent' (1 -Lir\'l'\', IIJ!lO: ~()J). I n a la ler pcriud oftime -~pacc complt'"on . llw mndt'lll\1 pro,t of ;\ l:u r e! Pl tl\l'l and Jtllll'' .Jm n : and tht~ Cubi~t paintin~' o l a11 ,h likL l'ica' <.o repre.,1nt a tll'\\ 'l'll'l' uf liw <Oilll'lllP> h.crn ~IH'' 1he t"\unplc ol Dtlalllll'\, p<ti nling of lhl 1-ilfl'l l ollt' r ( 'l'l' Figure .">.1). ihell a powerllll "mbol ol tuoclt'llt cuhu re. 11 lll'rl' ll w Milllillg 1\'Jlf'twnh litt' tmrcr a~ if i1 '""' being \'t'\\Tcl from W\\'l ,tl ;~ngle~ , jnltlll:tmcnt'h. f111 n,ul l , 1 0 fr<tgmcnt tlll' \leach rc.tJi,l' g.lll' ol t.ulitl paitllillg (,\ ('l' e h:t(>ll'l'' ~ .tn cl 9 ) . 111\ll'<td. lht \'l'\l.l'r i~ prnt'll lt'd \\'i h .1 lll'll f't.tlil\ whcrc dl t' culllll t' o f Iillt' , 1lw ,i rnul!;mit' of llll' p rt.,t nt. Th i~ ~ imuil . tll l' I\' 11,1, lt'lllll'd .fl'l: /:l'/ o r ' nmn imc ' b~ litt C tflnall u tll u itic \ \'alter Jk nja111in (p. :17:\l IBtJJj;IIIItl. 1970 ) . . \ p;ls,.age (!'t'C ' Box :1.:?1 florn \ ' i1 ..; in i~1 Woolfs .\/n l>nllmt'fl_l' ( lll~t ) g' \'l' ' an t:..:;nnpk- o[ lw11 i1 ., tt prl'~t' llll'd i11 modt'lll'I prosc. lt <i l'~ t'l ihl~ a tii OIIIt'lll i11 Lontlo11 1dtt'll a car p;lso;c ~. cun taining an unklttll\'11 dig nil <try. 1\0 il' lh<t l lh l' llll>llll'll l j~ {'t)ll ll'a';ltd lll ; lll<Hhl'III:IIC:ti. ((l l:t llli i:III'l' \';li lll' sysiCllt : ' no malh t m;ll ir a l inslnllntnt . . . ccmld f'l'{,It' l' 1he \'ihratio n . In liw p< t.,.<agl', lhl' paradox o l mc>cll'l'llitl' is l'XPI'L'"l'cl 1>1 lhl' Co llll'adic tion bl'lll'l'l'll 1hc r;1r. ,,hi t h nprestnt., ;1 poll't' tflli . honHlg'tni,ing. c ui111ral lrcl' 1ha1 radi:t t t ~ ttlll iiii'OJJg h sorict~ ami hc uollcl En g l ~ mcl tn 1hc B1 iti ~h I::mpire . a nd th c lrag mc ntl'd JWI''Pl'I'I H' whi r h. likc lklalllll'l , painting. ckpie1s ~c,cra l dific n n1 Yit,,-~ o f ' < lllll' t'\'l'nl : l'or txa mplc, 1111' oppo,itio n 10 Empirc txprc ~sed b1 the e .n lo ni:tl '. 1 ho ng l11 ' ol' ' li11 ck ;HI' rcfcr lo ti H nuw l', ~~ 11 i ng i11 Fng l.111d a l'tcr 1hc Firo; \\'orle! \\'.t r. h u 1 llll'lll ut ics ol th o~t
uot 1 "'" ;~ fler J:i:)O rt~ lld h ea1 ih'

B ox ).2

Virginia Woolf, Mrs Oalloway

Figure 5.1 The Eiffel Tower by Delauney. (Source: The Museum of Modern Art, New York.)

The t'ar had goJH. bu t it hacl k l't a , light rippk whic h fl ollt'd th tnugh glm t , hop' allCI ha1 ~h op, an tl 1.1ilor, ' ho p' 1111 ho t h si des ol Ho ncl S ll t'l' l. Fo r lit il ll' 'I'Ct lltd, a ll hc;HI' 11 t' IL' im li lll'<l tl11 '~nn c 11 .11- 10 1hl' windcl\\. Clwo;.i ng a pai r Lf g lu\l'' .;honld li tl'~ he 10 IIH l' lhcm u1 aiJ1J1~' i1 . icllloll 111' pa lc gn1~ - la clL '' ' 1uppc d : ll'hc n tlw o;ellll'IHL' 1\':t' lin i'ltl'd '"lltt'lhing lmd happe nC'd. So tll e thing '" 11 illing in ~ II g'k lhl< IIICl'' lit,tl 11 1> 11 1<llh L'111aiC:d in ~llltllll'lll , t)Hlllg( c;tpabil' o lll':tll\II1 I 1 it~ l uli ll l':>'~ rat hl'l' ting ' lw c k' in ( lt i11~1. t'cHtld rq.~i,ter tlle l'ibratio n ; l't'l i1 fim11idahk .111cl in i t~ r on1 11Hlll appe:d l'lllutional: fnr in ;d i 1hl' ll:ll ~ .11td t.til!n < ' " "P' s t r; tn gl' l'~ lookl't 1 ~ll ea eh othcr aiHI 1.houg h1 o l' IIH' d t'ad : ni lllt' flag: n i' E111pitc'. In :1 ptthlit IHtli ~L in a back ~ liTl'l a Co lo ni ;d instdtcd lltL' ll 11 11 ~~ ol' \\'indscn. whidt 1<-d 1 0 won l<. l>mkt' ll IH'l'f' g lasst's, and a gl'nl'ral sh in cl1. 11 hir h tchotcl \lf'uJ gt h an .. ~, tllt' 11';1 ~ ill tlll' l':tl'\ or g irl' bung 1\'ll i ll' und t rl i 11 l'l1 1hn a dnl ,,ith JHII't 11hilc ril>bon li n lhL ir 1\'vdding~ . Fo r thl' ~urf an ag-it.ttiun ol th t p:t"i ng t :n . t ~ i1 ~ 11 n l.. gr:ttl'd ' <>llll'tlting \'C'I'\' profnuncl . \\'nnll t l!lti 1 ; ~ti-JI

188 lntroducing Cultura l Studies

Culture, time and history


1\'110 llnl't' d icd cmtld be seen L o relate Lo an olcler percc:ption ol time bci'Ond f"f, 1 c~~tn i tl'. Thth. thc global climensions of modernity coexist with a 111 ~d tipl ic e.' of ddlertn t cu ltmcs of tim<'. Thc e manife t themsellcs abmc all in thc moclcrn citvt)(s of Clmpter 10). . ee

situn e' it,elf 011 1\iclt. illt" lintar tirnc of idt'IHitics (Kri.'o te1 a. IDH!i: 1!1-1). llluch feJtlllllSI 11 ' . . . . . .. . "st cri ti ci~m ha~ antH'cl that 11"lttk mockrnllY ~ charactl'rt"t'd b1 ''~te t uatt~auon remtnl. " . d homogcnismion. ''omtn~ t':<-p<.'t icnce of those procc ~es ha' ;tl11a,:- be<.n dtllttent. an . . anc1 cu 1 . . 1 Ri ta Felski poi nt~ w the confu,tng n umbtr of ~ocml tura 1 pracucc~ to 11 1 ltC 1 11 lt' tenll modern nfet ~- and argucs tha1:


Women and time

One <~f tlw per,pectil"e ~1ighlightcd in \\'ootr~ noH:I i~ the diffenn t per~pecti1e 011 1 111 <xpc:nt'IH'td b1 ,,om_c n 111 modemity. :'l luch of tlw text is f"ront thc point of, ie 1 r o(" .\h~ D.dlm\"il\. ~1"11o cxwnencc~ tlle capital or thc British Empirc from an obliq 11 e an~le. This \\"~ 1h rh~ Fr:nch fe m in ist, Julia Kris te va s (p. 2:32) argumtnt 1hat \\"o men 's rda t J on~ hp to r1 111<: 1s "diagonal': \\" hi!t' ir _ i' ~b,ious that \ oung peopk" oa "\\"unwn ' in J::uropC' laaw rhcir 01 , 11 p:~l:w.:.u l_ " ''' '.t' noncthelt'~sjust as nbl"ious that ll"ha t ddincs thtm as roung pcople'

For t'\"t'l"\ account of lh(' moclern tra "hich empha~LC~ tlw clominatiou ol m.t,c ulint 11 Jitie' of t:llinn.llitalinn. proclu cthit~ ancl repre~'ion. one ca11 find ,ll1otht ll':O.t ~-hich poinh ... to tltt ll'minit:ll ion n! \\"cqctn societ~. a~ elido:nced in the p.t"ilt. hcclonisti c. rtnrl decenmd n:11 11rc nf mndcrn '"bjcni,itl". (FcJ,J..i, 1~lH.'i: l)

'[Je.ft:ning concept 5.1

~~ ~ ~ ''OIIIt'll _pl :.ltT.~ tite m 1 11 ;1 ch<Jgomt l re l at i o tl.~hip 10 thl'ir J :urupta n 'origin' and lank, tllt>11 1 l< \1 111th11 "c:ul'gnries in :\onh A11 terica ot in Chi na. :ut10ttg othcrs.

Colonialism and postcolonialism

(1 \ rht l'l" a. IDH6: 190) \\'hik

~trg~t:~ tl.. ;u '''ot~l~n art nwrt u_ sualh de_fined in Lcnn11 o l" sp;tce than nl"tirnc: IIH'I occupr \, T he . ' clllluutt po~11 1on to that ol mert. \\ o men are Olll!-ide lite lim e ol" ltWde m iL

_ , IJ ,. acttp h

that the ac\jecti\" t' "diago11 ;1i " i!- spatial r:1the1 th a11 te mpora l, Kriste a 1

!'-l"l~ll'\",1 dt,l\1'' on Freucl ian psychoa.nalysis (p.~) to u ttdcr~tanclthi~ a' r<'l:llt'd 10 1h e \\":ti" ~n 11hirh ~t.mi~tinitl i~. ~Tprod und in 11ocict~. \\"omcn OCCIIJ>I a '~tllbolic position a.s <.l'tratt.d. 11hrc h lor l\.lt,tel"a mean~ thc1 are dt.nied a full pattit ipation in cullure. JI we
apph l\.1 i'tt1a, i<le,1, tn tlw exccrpt l"rom .\/11 /Jollowoy thtn not onh (.Jari"a D.tllowa - 15 po,itiou huttht pmition ofmost ofthe b~"lander). tlle IIOIIWII !-hopping.llw occupant~ ol lht pub .wd lhl" "Colon ial" in tht.' a hme JM~~ag-c might be dt,cri b<:d ,1, "dia..,.011 ,1r 10 tht ~~mholic pm,tr ~ignificd by thc car. " 1\ri\LCI.t goes 0 11 to argut. that fe minis m (p. 120) has produccd clilfncntimecltimcs ll"ith in modcrnitl', The response or tll e first gcneration ol ftm in ist' (at tht l"IHI of thc llinctt.c ntlr ({'111111~') ,,as lo try to claim a p lact' for themscll"t's in ' linear time as tite time ol prc~J('Ct and h i_~torv' _< Kri stc,a. 1986: 1!l:3). Thc~ did Lhis h1 clemanding the m te, eq uaJ pa~ a11d cqnal llg"hl ~. fht 111ight be dcscribed a~ a nw dern i,t' pro jcct in a clilft.rcnt St'ttsc '.o m_ o dcmism (p. -100) in art and litc rature. Feminists ,ought .ro make 1 m n1c n 's l:tna_ : pal llll <~ 11c nf th ~ ~ra nd political projeus or modern it )' Tlw sccond phasc of ft'lll l ll l.~ l tl ck~cn hecl b~ h.nstel'a occurrcd aftcr 191iR. T IH:n wo nHn 1 d 'uscd thc Jiucar ~t'lllporal itl' of mndcr~1 hist ~rical narratil"t all(l the po11<r po li tirs th:tt il implicd . An lllll't':l'l'cl lllldtrstancl rng- o l women 's position in cultuH n~tant th:n ~tconcl-<rcnen ~i~~~. l"t tnin b ts <lltl'~11ptt:d l o create :1 lang uagt thatll" tntlwyoucltht' ho pl' of pa 1~icip::1 mg tn ~ ultu rt _a~ 11 c:-. rsh, and pro mi~cd Lo change nncl tx pand cultun: to in cluclc ,,o rnc rl ~ cxpe n<aJ n. lrhtead of_j trst dcmand ing a political icltn t itl', ,,orntn dc ma 11 clcd a rttogJti tion nf thcia cliffcr<' nce (p. ~ ~~;-; _ ,,h ich 111a 1 halt' 110 (rna~c ulitll' ) cqual in naltun '' 11 <tra l"t'llth t:-.i,l\: "txplodcd. pl ural. fluid. in a nrtai 11 ,,m awn-i<leruical. thi~

r~:n'H'Il l

ctt'l"n i11' or npc1i ti un ra ther than historical progress ( Kri ~tt.'l " 198: 191 /

There are a bewildering number of terms that refer to the history of colonialism. These include: imperialism, colonialism, neocolonialism and postcolonialism. or these, imperialism is the broadest. lt describes the dominalion of one society by anolher. Thus, we can talk of French or American imperialism in terms of the sphere of control that each country exercises over other parts or the world. Colonialism describes more direct control by settlement and mililary subjugation. Examples are the Spanish colonisation of Soulh Ame rica or lhe British colonisation of India. In practice, however, the terms 'imperialism' and 'colonialism' are often used interchangeably. Neocolonialism and poslcolonialism refer to the period arter decolonisation and the end or formal colonial rule. Mosl North and South American slates gained independence in the nineleenlh century. In the decades afler the Second World War, nations in Africa and Asia assumed control over their affairs. Neocolonialism refers lo lhe continuing control of such countries (sometimes referred toas lhe 'Third World') by imperial powers through military, polilical and economic means, despite lheir formal independence. Neocolonialism is characterised by domination of former colonies' economies by large transnational corporalions and their dependence on the exporl of natural resources and the import or manufactured goods. Postcolonlaltheory, by contras!, is a catch-all term for the theories that have analysed at leasl four distincl areas: (1) imperial cultures; (2) L he cultures or resistance thal opposed imperlalism; (3) the cultures of decolonised states; (4) the relalionship between Firsl World metropolitan and Third World (sometimes called peripheral) cultures. Postcolonial theory now finds its origins in those intellectuals who were L he champions or lhe national liberation movements that fought for independence, for example: Frantz Fanon, C.L. R. James (p. 191) and Amil Cabral. However, the first example of what is now called postcolonial criticism was Edward Said's (p. 168) Orientalism (1978). Said used a combination of Gramscian Marxism (p. 38) and Foucauldian dscourse (p. 28) theory to idenlify a colonial discourse, orientalism that denied and misrepresented Eastern and parlicularly Arabic culture. Subsequenl theorists have also used poslslrucluralism and


lntroducing Cultural Studies psychoanalysis to analyse imperial cullures. However, equal emphasis is now given lo the problems of understanding colonised cultures. Gayatri Spivak has questioned the ability of rinding the voice of the 'subaltern' when, of necessily, that voice is heard through the academic discourses of Western metropolitan culture (Spivak, 1994). Homi Bhabha has attempted to understand lhe stereotyping that occurs in colonial discourse, for example 'racial' stereotyping, in relation to psychoanalylic theory. He argues that the need lo repeat a 'racial' insult indiCa tes an unconscious ambivalence in the mind of the coloniser. Repetition demonstrates the need lo conlinually remake the relationship of dominance between the coloniser and the colonised (Bhabha, 1994). Postcolonialliterature describes wriling thal has emerged in the aftermalh of decolonisalion. ll refl ects on the colonial period, as in the Nigerian novelisl Chinua Achebe's Ti11ngs foil Aporl; it criticises the mpacl of neocolonialism, as in the novels of the Kenyan wri ter Ngugi wa'Thiongo; or, as in novels like Salman Rushdie's The Sotonic Verm (see Chapter 6), it explores the increasingly interrelated cultures of the First and Third Worlds, in this case between India and Bri tain. These kinds of relationships mean that there are strong theoretical cornmonalities between postcolon1altheory and some strands of postmodern theory.
l-11 rt hrr n ud iIW , ....

Culture, time and history


modl'rnil\ . 1dlirh lll'l'ckd cullllrt'' lh:tt l tould tk,iu;n:Ht' '' 'talir i11 orckr

111 dl'linl' t~i.'ll as Jli'O~I"l'"\l'. :"\qll-bllllJH':III "H it'le'' 1111'11 ,llffl'l'l'(l b1 ('0111p:11 io;(Jil ,111<1 rrc1 111 lile' ftll'('tcl III J m~i tiu n o( :1 l: u re~pt.t n III(Hk l 11! dcl'tlopnlt'lll. l'lli' j>l'l''j>l'llin t:Hl lw 't 't' ll

Key iJ~flumtf 5.1

C.L.R. james

(1901 - 89)

C. L. R. james was a historian, political activist, literary critic and avid cricket ran. He excelled in
all these areas bul, as with many figures who have influenced cultural studies, it was the way he combined his diverse interests thal made him an ori ginal thinker. As a historian, james is best known for his pioneering work Ti1e Block jacobins (1938). lt charts the history of the Haitian revolution againsl French colonial rule at the end of the eighteenth century. lts contemporary polltical relevance was that it saw the Haitian slaves as modern political agents ralher than as victims of imperialism. As a history of resistance it looked forward to the nationalliberation movements thal ended Europe's ernpires after lhe Second World War. In the 1930s and 1940s )ames was associated wilh Trotskyist groups in Britain and the United States. lt was during this time that he developed his theories of biClck polilical organisation. He gradually moved away from Trotskyism towards an independent Marxlsm (p. 97) which anticipated many of the ideas of the 1960s. His views on black political autonomy and self-determinalion have remained particularly inlluential. In 1952 he was interned on E llis lsland, prior lo being expelled from the Uniled States for his polilical activities. While hnprisoned he wrote Moriners, Renegodes ond Castowoys (1953), a powerful readng of Herman Melville's novel Moby Dick (1851) asan allegory of modern capitalist society. He was himself a novelist andan advocate of black writing. He was ene of the first people to recognise the importance of writers like Alice Walker and Toni Morrison and was responsible for bringing them to the attention of a Brilish audience.ln the 1950s and 1960s, )ames became the leading intellectual in the struggles for independence in Africa and the West lndies. Perhaps his bestknown work is Beyond o Boundary(1963), a cultural study of cricket. ll brings together ]arnes's historical, political and cultural concerns. He treats cricket as a cultural form lhat is the product of centuries of poli tic al struggle in Britain, its colonies and ex-colonies. Beyond o Boundary al so expresses)ames's lifelong enthusiasm for the game. james's impact in cultural studies reflects his wide range of interest.s. His persisten! exploration of the relationship between culture and politics was exemplary. Hls development of an lndependent strain of Marxist cultural analysis is perhaps more studied now lhan in his lifetime. His contribulion to decolonisation and his criticisms of post-independence polilics have meant that he is an important figure in postcolonial {p. 189) theory.

Chrisman, L. ancl Wi l liam~. P. (eds) (1993) Colonial Discourse ond Post-colonial Theory, Hemel Hempslead: Harvester \Vheatsheaf. Barker, F., Hulme, P and lvcrson, M. (1994) Colonial Discourse; Postcolonial Theory, Manchester: Manchester Universil)' Press.

5. 1.7

Modern time versus traditiona l time

.-\ l'l'l:ttcd :ll 'gllllll'll l h a~ lll'l' ll 111<1d v :t iJo ul lil e ll't'' o l 1hc lt' l'lll ' utodtnl il l to l t'j)l't''t'll l 11011-l lll owan ict t'' \u eh "ll'itt ic, an of lt'll ck,ignated pli 111 it iH or ., r:ulit'


in tu mp:ui,on 11ith mudtJn , ' rltle lnpc d' natP 1 1 '1llll'~. In a IHllnriol l' s ta tt' lllt' ll l, 1he (;t' llll.lll ph ihN>plltr ( . \\.F. 1k ge l dt''t l iiHcl .\lrit ,,

11itiHHtt hio;ton (Snt'.tcl. 1\)!'{ 1:

t):!- 1). 1hi, llti,COilC'l'J>ll<lll i' h,l,t'cl

'odetic~ do not l'"l'ncl


ol U1111p:H j,oll bt'l\lt'l'll lht ltll lll' oJ' I IIll' ll ~('<( in

lllll-li tera tt' : l~ri c ll l t llral 'ocittin ;Hiclt llt' tillll'' o J llloclcl'llitl . rhl' ora( h io; tol it'' o( 'll('h



lhnT 01 four ~l'llt'l ,lli<Hh

.lllcl tht fu tu l t' i' ol lt' ll

dc., ITi b ccl i11 ll' l'lll ' q ( 11'11<11 f" :11 11':1 \'' lltT 11 clet ll l'. ll elll"<'\r l', it ii'Cl lll d bl' III"OIIJ4 lO 111i.-.t;tke
(j, t mnption

of Iilll' a' .1 l.u k of hi,ton o1 clt'\TiopnHnt. In I.Kt. Oll t' .111tl11 npologi't ha' e l.linHd th.ll ' :"\ot h in g , le., , 11'adi tio11 :11 tl1:111 a p1 in1i 1i1t sc)('l'll ... lo i111 p 111 C

ll.idition ICl o;u c h ~ocic lit, i' 1lllrch 10 pn'h tlll'lll IIIO tht bad.giiHIIHI .llld leme thcm a,idt llom o ur 011 11 'Olt'tl.' flll' bd. cd ' ' 11 1illt'll 1 ulitl l'l' n wan.' thatllt'll' d tH Io lll lll'lliS <ll'l'llelltliii1Jl<ll'l'cl \l'ith liH :l llCl'llt p:l,l. 'lhl'\ .11'(' 11<11 'lll)jtt t lO IHII'l'oll l(l"<ll il' nntrafj,(cl ''alt'' 11hil h rapit.lli,t nn dw 111 itt(' ll 11orcl .111<1 l'l'< o1clcd ,1, 'progr('". 1>111
<lit ' 'l'l'\ t' ,,,

Furllwr reading
A useful introduclion is Anna Grimshaw (ed.) (1992) The C.L.R.jomes Reoder, Oxford: Blackwell. J ames's Selected W rtings are collected in three volumes published by Allison & Busby (london: 1977,
1980, 1984).

hoth gn.tra nl or ancl

11 illl l''' 10

~Ol' i .t l r l ~<t n ges' (. \m sv ll l'. l !l\l~: :) 1 )) , T l111'. e ll augt'' in th c

pa11cm n i' lill' .liT no t

'imph littl'd in 11ith e tiiTtnt pratti<l'.

In ' u ch C:1Sl '' lh l' idt':l n f 11 adit ie JII ,, p:tra do:-.: il':t li l', :tll illl't'I11 et1 1 ol' l:urop t'< ll l


lnlroducing Cultural Studies

Tho1np~o11 a~pcct

Cul ture, lime and history


in llm of thc ruluu.ll rri t ic~ a i read~ discusscd. E.P. Thompson descri be~ how he th inks the tran,ition l10m a tradi tional LO a morl<:rn culture ol time will be rep<:a tccl in the 'cle,eloping natiom' ( f hompson, 1991: :~~l~l). Ju lia Kri~t c,a u n i\-crsalises ,,o n H.:n \time 10 includt not ju'-t Eu 1opt and the U nill:d Stalt'' btn a l,n C hina. Ho ,,ewr. th t idea that the Tltirrl \\'ol'ld is ' be ltind Euro pc aJl(l m cd' 10 cat c h 11p has bc:en criticisccl br postcolo nial ([). 1~\ 1 ) cri t ic' . In a ,,ork ,,t discuss bc lo w, The Blurkjarobin 1wlt id1 was flrst puhlislwd in 1 u:~H. a hi, tory of the 1-l aitian rc mltttion in tite 1790s. C.L.R. James (p. 1U1) a rg m' 1ha t th l' ., t an:~ 111to ,,orke d 0 11 th c p ln111:11io ns o f H ait wc re s uhjt' C'l to the forccs of modt'l'l1 it\' a ncllind a mo d ern lile. Con,l'quc ntly. a ltho ug h ll ai ti is tltll\' o n t of the poon:st countrits in th c \\'Orld ancl ,,m lld bt cla~'i fi cd b~ economists a~ 'dc\'cloping'. it~ hi~ton i-" a \ 't ' IY moclcrn onc. Simil;uly 1fatd Carbv. in her essay. mal,.e, tltt' ca~c that coloniali~m brougl11 cohmistd people clirccth' i1110 a g lobal economic ~y~t em. and it is thcrefon: inco1 Tt'CI 10 11ndt'1 "tand colonisl'd rulltt rc~ as p remodt'l'n (Catl)\. 1982). Fran lZ Fa non crit irise-, 1he idea 1hat postcolon ia l African c ultu re re p rese n ts a si agc o n t he road tl n,an l., a Ett ro pean m o d el ( Fa no n . 1968). The re is no o tH.: pa th o f d e iTiu pm e nL i11 11t o d n nit) . Diffe rc nt c ultl11TS wi ll d t:r c lup in diffe r c nt wa\'1-. 1\o th

Box 5.3

Alejo Carpentier, The Kingdom of This World

\\'ha t d id tl w \\' h i t e~ know of ~cgro m a11e rs? In his C)'cle of m c ta m orplwsc~. .\lacanda l hacl olk n l'111c red th c mys tc ri o 11 ~ \\'orlcl o f th c insects, ma kin g up for th c lac l.. of' his h11l1 Jall arm witlt th c posscssion of Sti'Cral lcct, fuur wings, o r lo n g anttnn ac. 1k h:td h tT II lly. centipe dt. mo th. an t, tara n tu la, lad)'bttg, c1e n a g lowwonn \\'itlt phusp horescen t g ret:n lig ltts. \\'hen tite mo me nt ca mc, th c bo ncls of the .\ Ja ndin g Ul' . 110 (ongcr j) OSSCS~ in g a bOd) 10 hi m ), \\'OU[d trace tlt t ~ h apc Of a mnn in tht air f(u a second beforc they '>lippcd d0\\'11 thc po t. An d .\lacan dal. transforn1l'd in to a hu11i n g mosquiw, \Wtlld light on t hc \'ery t ricomt ol 1hc commanckr of the 11 oops 10 la ugh a t the dis nH\\' of thc " hites. . . . That a fh'nwo n 1hc slowes rcturneclto t hcir p lan ta tio ns la ug hing a llthc way. .\laca nd al had kep t hi., ,,o rd . rcma ining in th t Ki ngd o m o f This \\'orlcl . O nce mo re tlw whit ts had bccn o 1111\'ittcd by tht ll lig-lny Po \\ers of tlw Othe r Sh n r t . .-\ncl \\'hi le :\1. L1'1IOI'ma nd d e .\f zy in his nig ht C a l) comme nte cl to h is d e \'Olll wife 0 11 tite \!cg rms' )a('k of' fee)ing at th c lOJ'lttrC of Oll C o f the ir \\'11 - cl ra\\'ilg' the re fro lll a llllll1ht r philosophical conside ra tion, 0 11 the inequa li ty o r the human r:t rl~ \\'hich he pla n necl to dtn:lop in a spccch larcled with La tn quo latiom - Ti :\oi:l got C)ll(' the l..i tch l'll \\'C ilCh t:., \\'i th t\\ill' . ta ki n g- hl'r tl HCC times in a 111illlg'l'l o f thc Stablc-.

an cl Kri;c,a unin.' r.,a t i~l' a temporal ~L'll!'t' that i~ in f.H 1 p.uticul.\r w an of thcir 0\\11 culture. ,\ lt:jo Carpl'ntin~ non:l .tlmu t tlll' ll:ti tian rt,o lut ion. '/'/11' A.'llt!!;dllln of TIJ i, \\nld ( I!J 1\1) , ex plore' the di fTl'ren t l..i nd -, ofcu ltti LIIwr~ptT t iH'' th.ll .1 1i,t lrom thc'l' kincl' ni conlli c t ~. lt clescri l)('' hm, .111 t:rl\ rc bd le:1cle r, .\ l a ra n d ~1l. i' htH IICd a t llll' s t~1ke h) tll t' Frt' n r h c:o ln nists in u rd l'l' to Hlpre . .;s upon tl w .\rri c tn ' l:tl't'' tlw irre~i sli b le naturt o f' their po"tr. T hc d c monstra t io n is unsuccessrn l l>tT ~1liSl' thc slan ;;; l tltTprc t tite l'l'l' 111 i n ll' t'lllS o f' a m agica) 1\'0iicl-\-ie l\, ,,he rc :\!acand:tl C l llt'~ 11 0 1 di t. )mt m cta 111 0 1' p h o~cs n nd escapes. In commo1 1 with m uc h Latin .\11l l't iran magical rta (i, m'. th t pa ~agc gi,cn (see Box !>.:\ ) juxtaposts two \\'Orl d -\'it"' cotn,ptHHiing 10 1\m d ifkrcm ttmporal ~cn~es: onl' a Sl'll'<' ol temporal progrc~siotl. thl' otlwr .1 rnlt of dcath a m i rcbinh. La ti1 1 American magical realism ca n lw clescribecl <L~ a later form of modern i ~m. \\'hirh ex pl o re~ the com ract i u ion~ of mn cl nni t~ fro m o ut:.icle En ropc. lt i,. in the ,,o rcls o f Ccnllcl .\l a nin ( 1989: l ~7), ' a juxtaposit ion all(( fusio n , on cqna llt' tiiiS. of the litc ra te and prc lit e ratc \m rlcls. futurt: ancl past, mnden1 and traditio na l, tltl' cit\' a11d the countn'. In lltcsc passagcs, ~ l. l .c 11onna nd de ~! t.~ fits the C\'t'IIIS in10 ltis prcconcei\'e d cttlltlnll stns< o f progr css, his ' p ltilosophical considna tio n ..,'. wlt il'h ju~til y a rac ist thcory o r dew lo pme nt. Con\'c rsdy, )'j No~ l. o n e of th t Sla\'CS. (j , it int o a temporal sense of dca tl1 all() rebi n h. 1\ lacandal' s rc i ncarnatio n is cclebrattcl \\ it lt a jmful act ol scx, ,,hich i~ lt umorou h con trast<'d ,,ith de .\lzy's CJIIOtation o f L.atin to lt b wifc aL beclti mc. In tite nol'cl Carpe ntier s ltow!> h m, the sla\'es' tem pom l ~<.nsc prmides onc of the cultura l rcsources th a t allm'~ tite succcssful o,enh ro\\ ofthc colon ia l rcgi n w. whosc o,,n r ig icl scnse uf history pe n n it s no room fo r the sla\Ts c ultu re or ' thc O ther [African ] Sho re' o r fo r thc shock o r 1'{'\'0IIItiu n .

5.1 .8 1 Conclusion
\\\ conc ludt th is sec tio n wi t lt .1 -, u mma ry of the th1TC aspt'C h ol' n1 odnn it\' that com plica tt 1he hcgcmony uf 1ntc ha n inll el oc k ti me a nd th t culturt of i., cli,ciplin ed obsetYann: .

l. 17tr jlt'I)IIrnrt' of radirr 11'11.51' 1 of lilllr. Thc hcg<.mony or modt'111 I1l1(' ~ llOl tota l. Earlit'l' .,en ses of time persi\t a11CI rocxi~t \\ ith industrial timt .tnd llll'< lt:mical clocJ.. ti me. T h ts<. d iffc rc nt se n w~ of tilll t' 111cans tha t a modc m st n w of' tinw 111ay de1-clo p dilfc 1t'ltlly in diffc re nt places a ncl a l diffc rc nt histo ri ra l pniods.

2. 'l'ltt' difJ'rrl'lll rX/JI'I'I'IICrs



of ntotlemil) by dilf'rrl'lll wcialp;ro u{Js. Tites<: dif'lcre nt tempo ra l sens<.s lcad to conllicts ,,ithin tll <. 111o d c rn sensc o r tiiiH;'. Suc ll t'O tdli c t ~ o t c:ur o1cr 111ar kin g- pa rtic ula r d ays or h o licla~, , in th c wo rkplace (whc n cont ro l O\t:l' schl'cildes a nd lll1Ciablcs i ~ i1 kc~ ind icator of (>01\'l'l') anc( at th t: bo rckrs IJCt\\'l'Cil d iffcre nt cu lture:." hcrc rc ligio n . politics ancl ccono1n ics structur c time. 'f1u 1'1/II'IKI' I/tl' ll 11/Qc/t'mI_\'

C:upeutie1 ( 19!11): :11- i )



111' 11', lt'IIQ(/1/O//al)'

jOI'/115 oj ( OIIIriOII\1/t\\, ll'hirh }mKIIIf /1(

oj hiiiiiiiKt'llllrd obrahe limt . \\'t: m ig h t poit tl to thc aucmph af tt' t tlH Frcnch and Ru~sian 1emh 11 ions to c hangc tite lcngth o f' thc week, 10 arguml'llh h~ feminio;b that


lntroducing Cultural Sl udies

Cultu re, L im e and hislo ry


\\'Oill t' '' l'"-Pl'' it' ll< <' li11w clilkn.uh. 01 tn the ll'<l" tT lion of :111 tpprt'"t'cl tu hure\ 'l'll'l' of tim e in upri"i11g' ,,g:IJhl b11ope:111 Jttlt d u r i11g tl w '1-\'l' ol im p eri:Jii, m.

h iston :lit' ~tro~igllllor11,11'dh pre-elnintnt. li htt.ICI. tht' l .ut mort ro argue llta t (1ere , :t t o mp lt' 1l'l. ni u 1h hi p bt: lll't'l' ll 1lt L' lii D. ' ;\l<t l<'l i:tliq' h i,loria n ' 11 ill conte ll tl 1ha l Ll ll' t c a litl' o l h i, ton is ' n U llll plintl c d a tt cl con lracliunn 1hat liD ,inglt- ll'r, ion tould po"ihk rt'J>It''t'llt tlw tJuth : lllll't'Cfllt'lllh clifftH'lll intt' I J> I t't,ltion~ :nt int'li t:tblt. O nt o l rlw ht, t-k ll o\111 in 1ro d u c ri on, 111 histo r ic:a l '1uch . ,,ll ic h w l.. t., :1 s ir~ titk th l' q ltt'' tio n ' \\ llar , lli ~ r o n: . is a ,.;n ie~ o l lcCillrt'' b1 E. l l. ( :liT. Can bt'g' II\ hi ' cli,t u<,io n o l tit e lllj>t' ln 01 1 holl' h i,ton i, 11'fill t'll, 1.1ki11g hi' l'Xamplt, lrom tlll' 11a\ th.u hi, to1 i.nh u l tlw n inett'l'llth alHI 111e 1llitth t t'lllll l ie\ t t~c ;ll d t :t11cl \1 1i11 h i,loi'('.tl .trco tt ll h . ll i, arg u m en 1 i ~ tll:ll i1 i\ 111 possil> lt to kn<>ll ,, ha t .llltt:tlh lt .tppt' lll'cl ': lhl1'a cl . l h t h i-,loi'at l 111 11o;1 m al..t d o ll'i th th l' l'\ idt'lll'<' 11'" 1'" ht'l'll Id 1 (1'0111 l't )\ lll t'J' 1imt'' r hi' t'\ iclt '1HT dt ll'' not rt'j)I L''l'lll 1ht tr uth , h111 t'ltnthing 1'1<>111 th c opi n ion' ollh"t' \dto II'L'rt' pt >ll"t' Jlu lt twu ~h ro gel IIH'11t reconit-(l 1<> rht .H' id tnl :tl ldronr., 1h:u ' 't "i'l'tl 11:trs :u td tta ruraltat:ts lrop ll ts (C::11T. 19li 1: 1-:IO . HoiH'\" t r. t hi ' , JHII lo ' ' " tha t C.ttt h ditll'' th a t ohjtc riH h i, IOJY doe ' 111>1 r xist: Ja ll wr o ur idea or 'ph ilo-,opln ol hi,ltll\. 11ill he lorml'cl onh' 1h ro11Kh llll' in co tHp le rt ,., idt n ct: :lla ila b k . lt a [, o r n n 1ai tt ' ,, 11a n ling. in 1h at il lh t t'l ickn ce i.' frag n tc lllt: d a nd t't>Jll ra cl ir llll'l t lwn it 11ill a l11:11 \ ht po~~ i l > l l'. an cl incle ed lt'lllplin g . ro illl j>O'l' :111 itllt'I JHl'\,IJoll Ull il th .Jl C onfol lll' lO .1 pnjlJclgt:d \ it'\\ ul '\\ h a 1 .ICLU,\Ih happt' tll'Cl'. Jl i'ltli'a lts a n tt ,l'd tl l" ' iclt:tli' m h1 ll 1:ttl'rial i.;l lt i, tur i:tll ' llli\1 n< H :tt ltla lh cl v11: a l"l' il l hiswn . IHII " 'ill .ugut t ha t rta l hi,ton i' unh .trn,,ibk rhnnrg h th t donrnH'llh th.ll reprtst'llt it. dot llllll'llh th.n can in rlnck t'lt'll thing 11om tlw D oom~da1 h o ol.. 10 painiitg , , ' cu lp1111 T ;m cl 1h l' litc ra tUI"(' 111 a pa r1ir 11l ar )l't iod . Colt M'CJ IIt'nt l\ . LlllT< ' is 1 11> poi111 in :-.p c aki ng o l a re a li 11 o ttl:>iclt t IHN' d ortllll t'lll' Ut,p itt' t lw fan th al t h e., t tll'o fmm ' ol h io;wrkalllnde1 , 1:tllding tnt'i't. i1 i' 111111 h l..ttpinlo{ t htnt in m incl. btc:n'L' t h r~ ac1 " ' a sr:111ing )oi nt 11'0111 11 h ic l1 wt can h l'gin to undtr,tand rh e compfe xir y o f tha Lrl'la ri onsh ip . lu t lw lll t',\l l ti lltl'. lt< tll"l 'l t'r. it i' 11ol'l h co ll ' id l'ri n g h o 11 n d 1u ra l s luclit, approat h t, a l.llnili:u aiiCI '1i ll t'OIIIIIltltt arrot u llol 1 1ha t h i, ron i': lJi,ton a' t ~.


Then: history and the past

lnt hi~ 'l't lion. 1\l'ton,ide r lh t p :ht a 11d th e d ilk rcnt ~~-~"' ol u ndtr,tandin~ h i,tnn. \\'l' loo!.. at 1he d illen11ce bet\\'l't'11 the iclt.t ol an " l* c t in !Ji ,lt\1~. o l ' ''lt' l ll a l tl't'l lh that ha ppe n lo p l'u plt. :tml o l \ t tl ~jt'C i il l.' hi., l o ri l'~ . hC)\1' history , p e tTt: il'<d h: 1h o'l' ll' hu t:tkt: pan . lJilkre m thtq r ie' ol' hi,lor~ .ll't' d i~c tt"t' d : lu r e":un pil. h i,torr a, ;u , , \Ja rxi, hi,ton. !Ji,on ,,, narratill .111<l FottcHJidi.ln hi,ton. T lw clilkn::nl hi,torical nan.11i1e,

th at l'lllt' l'g't' throu g h t h t' t'"-pl o rat iu n o l da s~ ..1..\t'tHll' r. ract' ' :111cl ' l'' ll:d ill :tn d t'' l l'ib ed , Fina ll: . ,,.,. look .11 lh t: ex:11 nplt: o l tlll l' c u ltt tra l h i ~ t01i :111. _l uclit h \\'all..oii' ll. 1d lli rombint'' 'OI1H: o l lh t''-l' dillt'l t'lll a p p t oache in lwr II'Oil... 11 is on h in t h t 1.1'1 2.10 ~t.t r' th~ll tllt' re h a ' bt't'l1 ,, clea r rJi,ti11 c liu ll ht'tll't't' ll l:tlt' 01 storic:,

and h isto l 1 : 1 ~ a d b till t 1 fo nu o l' lliliTalI'l' l ha l a llt' lllj)l'i to l'l' Jl l'l''il'llll iH' lrt tlh u f'

Jl''L t'll'll l,. ' l ln". tlt t' ick-a o l a n ol~j<Ttin: h i,ton 11 hit h t"\i ' l' ollhick t ulturt , rdatiwh Jlt'll'. In th t Ut~l k t h t' h i,tol ia 11 Ltupold \ '011 R. mkt' ( IIH.)-J K~tll t:tll..ed o l 1 1rir itt g h b ro n as i1 ill llla lh h .I IIJl l'llccl '. T lti' 1111H ln t1 hi.,lt11'ica l .st'11St' ''."' lll ~td l' >os, ihle b1 mod tJ'II i t\'. ' p a ntdu x ic:tl u ti tun.. o f' t l11t'. O 11 1h t O II C ha 11d . a n u b jecl i\1' se m t o t rime allmwd .111 l t lldtr,la n din~ ol h i, ron a' an objt'( tin. progrl'ssiw m n un1tnt. In rhe II'Ord' o t lhl' a n t h ro pDiogi~ t L<:\iSII'il ll '' hi,to l\ is conli n ttOll,, ( , ill1Dg tI H111' and lin ea r . On ril e o lh t 1nock m it1\ lw ig lll t'll <'cl co nscio tJSill'" ol lll t' Jlll'' L 'll l pt' llltilled :m un d tt ,anding ol h i~ton a' 'un1e 1h i 11g 1h a t i' con ,l.ull h in lht p t on" o l httoJuing. :'l lode111 h i,toric.ll n a rra r i ~t tmerge' lro m t h i' con'<io tt,nts~. So11H' o f 1ht' g a nd h i~ rori r: tl t1 :11Ta lil t'\ o f' rh c II H>d nn a.:e . inclucling 1\ationa lism . ill1 jll"l'i a li ~1 1 1 . commu n i'lll and l:t\ c'111. c nw rgt ou l ol th l' lll tH krn tt ntpora l '('" ''' l loll'l'lt'l'. lh t Jll tdt iplic itl

ol \itll p oinr.;; opt'tlt'cl up 1>1 t ht t in1t' o l mocltJnitl "' ' llll':tlll th.n en:n 11here an
o b jl'CI iw h islo ry i' h e li tn d possibk. it is tw t t'<tSih .uTcs., ibll' .. Jllst a' d i 1ftTe n 1. e xpe r it'11Cl'' o f lillll' lft' ;1 .... 0\ ll't'l' o r \Ot ia l r<lll ll ill . 'O h Sltll"l' i' f'nug ltl 0 \'LT bl' dili'crl'lll " ' cial g~t HIJ>' In rh t II'OJ'd' o t \\'altt:r lk n jamin. ' lhcn i' 1111 clonumnt ol d1ilitatinn wh ic h i' 110 1 :H IIH' ' illlll' ti tn t :t clo c tll11t'll1 o fharhari'm . \\'ith lk nj:11n in . r uhura l ' l ud ie~ b i 11 ll' l'l'S tt'cl 1o t' Xi llll il1l' bn1l1 sid ts o f' h iSLO JY: ' lo bn1 sh h i\ 101'\ ilg':IIISI l ht g r.III ' ( lknj a min . 19 10 : 2:)6-1 ). Btcuo;c Ll w rela 1 io n ~ h ip bt' liH't'll o h jtrtiH an d 'ubjecti1e iclt:t'- Of h i,toiY j, C0111 j)lcX. i1 i~ a good id ea lO ' tp;U,IIt' lhl'lll 011 1 bl'lon g'Oi llg <111: l'nrth l'r. . \11 objcc tin hi 'ilo J'\' :t"lllllt'\ 1h a 1 hi~r o ry , abm 1t re a l t'H' tll~ th a t lla ppen in objeni\t lime. Ir ron ' i~n' r u ltn n to lht nwditnn t h llHJ~h 11hilh h i~LOn i, pcTcti~tcl and tllld e r~ I Ood . \\'ord ~ th a l i1 1't' U't'd 10 clt'sc rib t th is Ulld t' r,1:t11cling o f lt i~ l o r: ill'e ttni a li .;t. rea l'. ' : lh~olul t'' u r 'ol ~j t' C II'c. Su l~j t c ti l< ' h isroric' g in 111on IIT ig llr ID 1lte ' tll < c ultura l ro n tc:o.t in ll'h ic h lt i,lorie' illt' macle a n d to lcl. \\'orcl, rha t ;u e: tl'ot'd tu dnn ibt t h i<. II JH it" randi n g ot h i,ton a r e ' icl(';tl isl. ' linit~ n ,, 'rl'l.nh i,l or , d~j ,niH. In filct. 1n~ l'e11 h i-, ruri:llt-" 111 it c h isto ll' in a ll'il: th a Lil"llll tt'' thal t'i tl tt' l' c u ltll l'l' u 1 an ohjl'Cii n'


History as facts

The ht,tkllo\1 11 and lllU\1 t 1i1ici,cd l tT,ion ol ohjtctilt' h i,tnn i, hi,r or~ ,, h : lllr <xam plt. h istu1 ,. "' a o;ucct'\\it111 ,r cl:1tes ''' ki ng ' .t n d qut't'l1,, Tht :wq 11i-, i1io n 1tf fan' ;,, a su b-,1i 1lll t' for a hd k r kllo wkclg t ol' 1he 1\'o tl d 11, l: ll llDllsh p:1rod ied bl' Cl ta r k' Dic kc n ' ( l:-\ 1 ~-10) in hi' noll'l 1/rm/ '1'11111'' ( 1:-t:, 1). 1d1 t'll th l' c harautr :'llr (:ractg r i11d sa:s: 'h1ch .do n l' .tl't'll'all tt' cl inl ifl'' ('t'l' 13o x :), 1). Dick""'. ' paroch h a~ b et' t1 a l:ll'o uri tt '1'o lt' thal rlu: 'bcl ie f i11 a h an l o f h is tm i an ~ likt 1-:. 11. Can an <l E. l' . T lHtmp,. . Dn . C:trr 11 core ol lJ i, torica l txi, lin g objtU ill' h' a n cl in de p e nd t'1llh n i th t interp n 1.11 io n o l t lw h istorian i' ,, p epmLtroiJ' fall.t< 1. bu t u n t 11 h ich i' h.11 ti 10 t'l adica te ( C.1r r . 19ti.J: 1 ~). Tht assu lliJ>Iio n llt'lt in d :'\ Ir(;, < 1C ig ri 11cl's ph ilo sopll\ , th at l'a n' p ro\ itk p nsitii'L ' ot' t ll( world . T lt i' kllollkclgT is cl e~n ill tcl a ' posi1i1ist ' aiHi u nq utstio lla h lt kn01d l'clg< or 'l>1n p i1 icis t'. lllt'illling th at th t t:lt l' gain td .liT p rmabk h1 t'Xj>l'l'il'lltl'. l lml'l'\t'r. it i' ''tilbli' " p ruol [m 11 i ~to 1 it a l lact ' \\'h i lt ~Oilll' l'ac 1' 111:11 Wt' lll incli~p nr abk . d ifli r ult to L tiH;J'(' is :tlll':l\, ruo ll t tor :1110 1lt n ill'l'OI IIl l. Fo r l' -.:a nt pk. l hl' h ,ltH'l':t l rae r 1lta l Q tiL'l' 11


lntroducing Cultural Sludies

Culture, time and history




Charles Dickens, Hard Times

\'n11 ,,hat 1 ,,ant i-.. Fan-.. T tad 1 il1 t''t' IJm, .u1d ~irh nothing hut Fan'. F.1t h alo11t' arl' ,,anH:d in lik. l'lant nothing d,t. . u1d root outt'\\'1\thing dw. \'ou c111 o uh found tlu: mind' ol1t';honin~ .mim.t'- upon Fan': nnthi11)-{ l'hc 1\'ill t'nTiw ol ; u ~ ~cnice to thtm. Thi-. i-. the principie on \dtich 1 bring up 111\' mm childrl'n. this is the principie o1111hidt 1 bring up thcse children . Stirk to Fans. -.i r:
Di ckt: 11~ t

1\lli\1 :


11 nq ttL''' ion a bit- L'l itk ntt' ht'C Bu.\ :1 ..1). 1n,ll',td. thl' h i'tnt , IHtl L't tnHht , tood " hl' ilg' in <lial<,g tiL' 1\itlt tan-.. fittin g Llll'llt iltl ll tlttontital lt.tlllt'\\'Ork' in 1\'hi r h tht'l' 111 ;1ke ,c n ~c and tlt L' tt IHrhap' r lt a tt g in ~ tll t' ' lr:llncllork' het'd ii,L' tit e lltc t' inl;~l i d:llt' sOiltl' ol' it~ as,u lttptinll'-. l ltomp>ntt tt-.l'd tlt t l\cHd (rallll'\\Ot J.. .1-. .1 l\0\\ .,( rt,ohi ttg thl' pruhktn for i-.t h i-.ton 1ltat lan' llt'H' I pro1idt pe hit, L' t'l i<kttct. Thom P'un'' fratlll'\\OrJ.. i' cotllpar;tble 10 1 .JI. (;u r, ' pltilo,oph, ni hi,tot 1 .. \ ch.m~in!{ framc11orl.. 01 plt iJo,oplll' aJim,, tht hi~tnrian to )!.L'I ' " dme a~ po"iblt- to :111 objecti1-c- hi,wn. u>ing tlw elidtnce ;11 h:t lt d. Both Carr ancl T hom Nm I\'Ot ktd ,,ithin tht :'llarxi-.t ltistot ic:tltraditiolt. .\ \ l:tt'Xi't ttndcrstancling of' lri,lllry h:1 ~ lrad att i111p()rtan1 inllttt'IH't.' in contentpora tY cultur:tl ' tuclil.~.
; '\

\ 'ictoria died in 1901 a to be suaightlon,ard. T h c imp01tance o l the quttn in British life at tlw histo1ica l periocl in ,,hich ,he dicd mcan-; that th crc are pk-nt~ of documents that can pro\'icle this c,iclc nct', ancl tlw accounts pnwid<'d b~ tlw d nntmcnts are un li kc ty to con f t in. l3tll 1\Uch accmarr is un 1 ike ly i11 1he casl' of ~nmcone \\'lio i~ ltss rt' tHrat LO th c 1\'a\' that ~or i e ty i ~ organi~l'd or whn liled ;na time for 1d1ich thert is lcss clor utll t lltation. For tx:unple. there is 110 rn memporan IITillt'n t'l'idcncc w tl'll us a bout ' l.indo11 ~lan. a man whose ,,ell-pn.:M:tYcd bodv 11-::1~ louncl in a peat bog ntar \\'ilmsloll' in the :"\onh o l l ng-lancl ancl is 1101\' in the British \ l u ~cum . ll i$torians h a1c 10 re ll' 011 cliffcrcnl kincJ, n f' Cl'idtncc that an ks~ acc urate :~nd th:tt mal' conflict wi tlt 011(' anoth <.1 . T his c1icle nn .' inchtdcs thc agc ol tite pcat in 1d1ir lt ht ll':t ~ l'o uncl, tht clotltcs ht was wcarin{ ancl el't' lt tite undigested l'nnd tlt :tl was lo uncl in his stumac h. From tlt tse fac t~ hi ~ toria 1t s ancl a n: lt aco l og ist~ lt:tiT atte11tptccl to picce togtthc r a pictut-c- ni who tite man ,,.,1S and how lt( clicd. but. unclcr:.tanclabh. much of 11hat the1 l>ugg-c-.t is :.pcculation. As a con!>eq mncc. 1rhaL St'mt i' maclt of these fach i-, a mauer o l dispute. 1t dq>tnds upo n the airead~ existing tlworic' about Linclm, \la n\ soc i ct~ and rdigion, :tlHithc lack o f elidt nc< lllt'<llts thatthesc th t ories are n ot fixl'd nor do th e~ n en-;saril~ agnt ll'itlt one ano tlt tr. J \ l r Gradgrind ntigltt arg uc tltat this dot. ntH invalidatt his clain1 tltat a ll ll't nttd to knoll' is facts. l t is ~ intph tha t lor somc pl'riod' ami pcopl e ll't' J..n ow more facts and for Othct ~ 1\'C know le~. 11istOI'I'. th cn . is still thc p roccss or acquiring I~IC ts abo m tht J>il't. Bm il we rctum LO thc clt:ath of Q uecn \ 'ictot ia in thc light of tlll' 1\'0rJ.. of making ~en~c done by his10rians and archaeologists. it i~ pos~iblc to \t't' th:n the Graclgri ndian approach nssumts th at h is facts make St' l1'-t' in thc msches. T1,o ;tssttmptions that mnkc scn,c nt' thc dcal h ot' Qu(cn \ 'ictoria art'. firs t, that 11c knn11 o ( 1dtich coun111 s hc 11a.~ qucc n. ;mcl second . we know th c rute ol' tit e mo ttilt'Ch in ijritislr ltinctccnthnntut y po litic-. and socie ty. TIH:~e l.\.SIIIII]Jlion:. are cultural in tl\'0 wny,: tht Jact of \ 'ictoria', dcath hada cultural nwaning and thc l'nct~ make scnsc on l~ il th l'l ~ig nif~ somt'thi ng ,,ithin a known cu l nu~tl con text. Culwralnwaning i~ always a tllll l<'l' ofin te rpn' t:ttion; a nd tlw interpteta tion of' lact~. c1en whcn they ai-e kno1,11 and agrced u pon. i ~ a mattcr for d isput e a mon~ hi~torian~. E.P. Tltompson ( p. !)(i) argucd tltat f':t c t ~ cannot simply he l'tnil'ld b~ tite hi-.tcHi;lll

Marxism and history

As a matet ial i ~t pltilmopl" . otw of tht nntral p t incipks of ~larxi,m i, that tlwre is a real hi~IOI'I. and that ndture txi~ts :ts p:ut u( that real lristory. ll o\\TH'r. in u rder to 1111 clcr.~1 an~l thc long-Ja.tin~ inllnt' ll('(' th;tt :'llarxism has hacl 0 11 lt istorical s tucl)' ancl nn cultural ~ Lu dies it is importa m to undt'rstand hnw h i~torica l 1 11at er i:tlism , the narn t that Ft iedr ic h Engels gal'l' tu lt i.-. ancl \ larx ' plt ilmoplty. cliff'er.~ l'rotu an idea of h btur~ a~ i l actually ltappenecl'. \\'hill- crude or ,ulgar ~larxism maintaith tha t culture i ~ patt of th t Mtperstntcture ,,hirh i' determined h1 the economic ba,e. the ra ngc ami rompkxit1 ol ~ I arx~ ,,orJ.. suggl~t' that there i~ .1 ll\'t)-\\'<11' n:lation-.ltip be l\l'el'n culturt and ccono mics (\\'illiarm . 1~)77: 'i!l-8~). E. l'. riwmpson lt ;ts ckscribcd thc n: lationslt ip bc ti\'Cl'll th t material ami thc r uh1tral as ana logous w thl.' rt lationship bctwcen a block ol'lw>od allCI ll'lt ;ll tit e joi nt'l' d ocs ,,itlt tltat 1\'00d (see Box :i.ti). Fir~t. 1dtatc1er ma terial i~ a1ailable. ln11nan agc n cy is tsstn tial. but the h uman ptTstnct i~ not enough 011 i t~ o11n. T h e nmterial' clo 1101 rletermim tite



E.P. Thompson, 'The Poverty of Theory'

T ltat ck ad. imn tl'X t u( ... e1iden n is b1 no mcam 'in aucli blt-': it Itas a deafcn inglitalitl of i t ~ oll'n: 1 oi<< s dantonr lront the past. assc1 tin; thcir m,n mcaning,, appcaring 10 clisclo-.t thcir O\\'n self ~knmd cdgc as knmdcdgc. If \\'e oflt'r a cummonpbce t;tct' - ' Ki11g Zcd dil'cl in 1100 A.D.'- 11'<.' art alrcacly oll'cn:d a conccpt of ki ngsh ip: tite rcla t ion ~-o o l domina 1iott ami su bordi nat ion , thc funnio 11 ~ a11d roles o!' tl tt' ol'fi ct. tlll' charisma ancl mag ica l c nd oll'tll l' l tt~ auar h ing LO tltat role ... t h , c1ide ltC:l' i~ rccti,cd b~ tltt' lt i-.wriall ll'it hin .1 tlt con tical fratlll'\\'Ol'k ( tlw di.ciplinc of h istotY, ,,h ich it~elf ha:. a hi ~tory all(l a di']Hllt:d pn sem) ,,hid t h a~ rdincd tht connpt of ki ng,hip . . . \ l' l'l clill'crent from tite immediac~ ... of thml' 11'110 anuallr l\';ltrhed King Znl cliL.

11 1 198 lntroducing Cultural Studies Culture, time and history 199


1'\l'l' httn l..nm,n lo m.ll..t a rabk out o l a ir. or ,;,,<(u,l. lltt juintl pprop i.H<:~ tha t tim btl . 111<1. in 11orking- it up into a tabk. lw i' go11rncd bot h h1 hi' '>kili ( lhto rtlif,,l pranin:. ihell ari-:ing from a 111111111. or 't'XJWI itnn. ol tables, '' 1nll a., a hi,ton ol llw t'loltuion ni the approp1 i.llt' loo), ancl by tht cual i1i e~ ('ilt'. grain. 'c:a~oning. etc.) of 1he timhc:r ihdf.

l '" , ;," "' '~:,~: ,~,~~.~~~~'~'~ ' :~:.~, ;.,~~~~.t:.. ~~ ~.~~.~r~:

ironic reltr~:11 " of 1ltti1 owr1 1\lt'l1 1ion ' ( l ~li' l : 102 ). T lltl';. it can be Sl't'n lil :1l tll tl..ind of ~ larxi~ 11 1 Jl1~ 1l'I't' d bi'.J:mtt''tlll st't'' n o oh\ io11' 1ela1o 11slti p or cau,ation bt' l\\ tTII lt:d hiswn a11d lh t rq>n~t'lllalion o l hi,lon. lt , impo"ibk w l'l'Jll't'~l' lll lai,lllll a, i1 actuall' happnwcl t'lt'll llwugla it dicl happt'tl. Bera11~e ol thi' d ifficu lt1 0111 ro11<e1n oJ' cultural ~lllcit'' Ita' ht't'll 10 an.lil''l' hi,ton a., narr;uin:.


History as narrative

prod 1H'I :1 1 >snlwl'll', 'th< ll'ood Clllll<ll dl'ttrmir rt ;r !tat i' ruadt' ', hu1 i1 ca n limit the procllll l: ' it c:111 cn tai nl y clltc rn im ,,hat can 11111 he 111.td1. tli v lirn il., (~i1.e . streng-th, t' lt'. ) ol'1dt:H is t11adt', :ttH I Iil c sl..i ll' anrl toob a ppn.pri:llt' lo lllt' 111akin.( (T hompso 11 , l \l 7~: I K). Tlnr, , 11hi l< tlw 11pc of produtt ma1 IH' l'or'llltd ll'il hin a ,,idt :n rrl dil'crsc c ultu1.1l 'Phl'l't'. in tiH lina l in~tan ct thc malvri:ll qua l itit~ ol tlw block o l' ll'ood will ddi ra lh t ('OIHiilion:; 11ithin 1d1ith that c uiL11n can exi,t. l1 1 :\hu x's 1h o ug li1 it , the rdat ic111 ., o l procluu ion that cund lion thc c ulture oJ' a pa l'l icular 1i lllt'. :\ larx II'I'Olt: 1h:u hi, 1 o11 , abuu1 tht: g rmnh o( h uman produt'IH' poll t r: tllll'. 1 1'i1hin tha t co nlt:XI, huma n n lil111't' tno 1dll gro,, a11d cxpancl in a diall'('I ca l rdalion,llip wi1 h 1he rdations ol procluCiion . In hi., mo<.l fa n HHI~ prono11nnnttn1on IIH ld, ll iolhlli p hl'l\\'l'l'l1 human lwi11~' a11<l hi,lon . hl' ''Tolt': ' :\knmal..e tluir 01111 h i,wn. h111 art hmn i1110 rond itio us 1101 ol thtlr 01111 lll:tl..ittg.' T IH' :\l.trxi'l li1 e 1.1n rritic ancl rul111 ralthc:w ,, Fncll ir,lanw,on al{ll<'' 1ha1 hi~LOJ"I' is ~tal, hll l ' ' fu nclallH'III.JI h 11011-11.11'1':11 l'l' a11cl IIOIII't'J>I'f.''l'lll :11 io11,1 J' u.l11H'~OI1. 1!Ji) 1; H:!J: hi,lo1 1 , 11111.1 lt':-.1 . 1101 ,, Jl.1 1 T:J1ie. 111:1~1er or olhl'l 1\,e. h111 ... a' :111 ab'l'lll ra u,e. it i~ in:1n l'''ihll' lo "' c:-.t l'fll in ll''l(l11:1 1 lill'ltl. .tnd ... 11 1' .q>pl oadt 10 l a11Cl 10 tht Rtal ii'dl llt't\'"11 il~ pa'"'' 1h rougl 1 h pt ot te:-.; tu.di,:ll ion. ih 1 1>11'1 :11 , ,;11 ion ... (1> 1 1 Jlt'M>n. 1!}~ 1; JT1)

Qne of t ht: 01 nw:ming' o! lht 1\'0rd 'hi ... wn ""~ a narr.11i1 t' accotn ll ol' t'H'Il l'. ancl a , 111 pli lit' el \'t't',ion or II H' iclta l'l' h bwr~ is 1la al h b lol'\ ~ 11 0 mon 1han a collection of nan.ttil'l'' C:i!':trll' :di hi,wri e~ are ,lruCilll't'cl as 11arr:ui \'l'~ in MI lar '" lh t'\ gii'C :1 11 ,ICCOlllll n( pa'll'lt'llh. h111 l'l't'll jf lh j, I'C: I'~ll o f' ~ubjeCI\ t' h3lUI1 S al'<:t' (>ll'd . il harclh ,jmplilk~ till' prohlt'lll. f'<HTa i\l'~ can be of lll<lll\ 1~ pes. 11'0111 tht simpJt,l sentcnce - 1ht , tonning oJ' lil e H:1 ~ till t wok plact' un 1I J ul~ 1 7 8~1 - to llw rhtto rital complc:xi ll .. r Thoma' ( :ll'hk.' la is l()1\' or ti J(' Fr ('1H'll Remlut ion ( U'tH) ( St'l' Box :"J. ). ;.JarratiiTS ;rrc o ne oJ' lil e f'o rm,.; llt rt>ug h ll'h ich a c u llllrt' unders1 ands l'tll' a rtcl i1' past. Thn lmllidt origino; ur lwginnings ll'hiclt cxplain suh'l'Cflll' lll t'l't'IIIS. For exa ntplc . u1an y n dllll'l'S il :nt ,,h:ll an ktHll\'11 "' lnu ndi ng lll )'ths. ll'hic h prl)lick a o;ory th<tl gins a "t'IISt' of' pridt a nd idc niII'. Tht Rom:111 p<~el \ 'irg il 1\TO\t' 'f'lu' . \uu-itl ( 1\)

or ""*'{'[

1 B ox 5.7

Thomas Ca rlyle, The Storming of the Bastill e from The French Revolution

.l antt,on

ll ~l'' 1l11 1mrd 'text i11 i1s posts tructuralist (p. :!-1) St' ll ,,. In lllt'<lll a m h iswrical rlon111H'nl or anif: tcl ll'ltic h can lw ' rtad' f'or , gns 1ha1 tdltt' :ti)C)tll 1lw p:1s1. lln\\'CI'Cr, th is (( 111111 rl:\1 OI1 o (' l'l'<ll. 111< lll'I'al h SlOIT 111 ig h 1 ,,l') l ht' Cl'i1it' iSI'<i f'or j lS l'ag'lll'IWSS. ( lt)\1', itrniglll lw ash.l'd. clo 1\'1' kno,, tha1 1lwrc is a rt'al hi,lo rv lwhi rHI ;rl l thl' lt'X I s ~ To :IIISII'tr lhi,. J ant ewn 11.~es 1he conccpt uf' nec!'ssi tl to dt''tTi lw thv t'll lldilion' thal lintil nrl1111'e, j11s1 :1' th t hlork nf'wood (ahc11'c) limitt d tht ra rpt ttl t'l'. For :\larx. Jti,tnl"l , :1lm ut 1hc .' ll'll ~!{k bel\1'1'<'1 1 frecdom alHI ncccssi1~. wht'l'l' f l'l'l'clona is " '' Hl 11t ro ng h IIH "'l'S of ht1111an prodllclil't' pcmer. ll istory is li:l1 througll 1111 limi t' im pos<d b1 ntce,,itv. ' ll i:-ton. ''Ti H~ .JauH'"Hl. , 11hat h ull;.. i1 is 1dt.ll re h''''' ck,iJ t ancl 't'h lll':-.o 1.thle limi t~ 1 0 incliliclual a' ll'dl a~ ('ollecti~t p 1 .1:-.i~. 11hid1 j., "n,,~,., .. 1111'11 in1o ~ri,h a nd

On . l htn ..111 h t'IHilllll'l1. 1h.11 h.tH' hl.rh in \'01 11 hod i1'~ Ro:11 IIth .111 10111 1hroah. or C.11'1ilaKt' a nd lllt'lal. ll' So m of l.ihe11~: ~1i1 'J>a'moditalh 11 h.ll,Ol'll'l ol llllllO'l lllll ,in 11111. 'oul. hwh. 01 'JlI'L: ror l , th e hour! Smill'. thou l.cnl i' Touan.ll'. tai'I\ITigh l ol :\l.rai,, olcl-,olcliel of 11te Regimc:n t Dauph inl': 'mitt .11 that Ottll'l' D1 a,,briclgt c hain. 1h1111g h lht' lie1 : hail ll' hi :>tk~ round lht'l': :'\nl'r. o\e r naw o r l'dloe. di el !111 a:'\t' .,1 ri l..t' ~u eh a ~trokt'. D01m ,,ith i t. 111:111 ; dm,n 11 i1h it tn Orcu': lettht 1dtoit' accurstd blilice sin k thithe r. anrl Tyra1111Y IH sll':lllm,ed up fnrt'I'LT! \ lo1111\t'cl . '011\l' ~m . 011 illl' r.Jo( of tllt' gt 1 ard-roon1. 'olllt' 'on ba~ <~lll'l ' s1uc k into joint." ol' ti1t' 11'01 1 1. ' i' Toumay "111Les, bran- .\uhin Bon1tt'llll'l'l' (al'o an o ld ~u l dil-r) snorHiing lrin1: 1h e cil:lin l' i e ld ~. brt'01ks: lht huge nrall'bt idgc slams dn11n , 1ht 11Hh-1 ing (111'1'1' jmr(/.1) . (;foriou.'<: ancl ~l'L. ""'" it is ,i ll bu1 lhl' Oll lll'oll..'. Tia Eig hl g rir11 Ttlll'l' l'~ . 11 ith the ir l nl'alicle llHt,ktlr). tlll'ir pal'i11g sto m~ aJHI c. lllliOil nHnllh ~. ~ lill ''"11 alol'1 intac t:- Dilrlt ~.11min g intp:t~:o.a hk . stont-l'an:d : tl w inntr [)ral,hridge 11ith j, liwl: to11arcb u,: the lb,tilk ~1ill ltl takt: ( .11 h 1 t 1!171 1~:!1


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Culture, lime and history


11<.), a 11 ~pie p oe111 based ~ 11 1he Cree k epi e puc ms o l lltlllll'l', 11hiclt te lis hn ,. 1 cscapcd from Troy ll'ht:n 1 t ll';lS destro1-ed b1 tlw t 1 ck . 1 . . ..\eneas . ' t ~ .tll( , , 1lt'l a Sl'rJ(;'~ of 1 ad,c ntllres. fo 11nded the citl' of Romc T he f)Ot'll1 .. . 1 . . leroic g.t\ e q.('J tJman lO Roma11 1 col1 ncctmg ll LOan tarlier heroic period . tllt' T . . \\'. . ' . ru tllre by cultun:. \\'hile there i~ lillle in The . lrueid that t I'I:~J~n. 1 .'". :~ncl .to an earller. admired ,, igins of Ronw the t 1 H ll\toJ J:\11 .tbout tht ran~ ofth poem L<:JI, us rnuch about tlw Reunan <'llhllrt of\ ...,,r e In tlw mocltJ n llorld. nation-state~ hme COI1\tr . ~ . . 11,..,1 'lime. llloment<.. o f collt.>ctiH: ac hit,ement ld1ich >t'rformll;l< ~1 '.''"'11~\.t'!> that ~-mpha ise (:\ 11der on llllJI ) ( ' CI . 1 . lnlll;u 11111<:11011\ tn lhe ,len .d . M. 't l.tptcJ -1 ) . For example in t h . 1 . . 1 . . ~ i~nl. Europeal1 historical narrati,c~"ere more likell L1 c.'' '\'.11~~~~.' :lll:uro~ta,~ imperial. bcen brotrg-ht lw a Euro){''lll nlliOJl to , , 1 . e ttnp 1.N\t t H:' hellc:lrtslelt lo have . ' ' 1 l> <O 0 111e.\ a ncl 10 l'l'J)I' ' (' f I-0111L'th ll1g grantcd bl th e coiOil l so L o tll 1 . 1T U 111 1 11< epende nce as e e ' <' CO Oll iSec h 1 f ' [ [ lht othc r h ~IIJ cl . ~~"t' l'l' lll ort like l, tcl . 1 .. .. . L 1 <: 11 ~ rnc tpenc {'11 1 ~ a r es. on . ll ll P l .J~I ~l' I'CS ISt au cc ( >)" H) . . puwc r and repre~l'lll independ ence as tht I'CI<ll'\' rJ : 1'1 . ~~ _,), ag.unM ilw Imperial .. . . . ' 1 lt'l a 11 o 11 ~ truggl e . TI . 1t m oclt lll ll<tl ratlles thm constitutt history (incllld in cr . ... . :.ta te) rrea tcd a llt ll', more precise distin cr 1. 1 i' ~~~\IOIItc~ ul tite n;ftiOnll;llr:Hil'ts ;~ fi el io n tnd 1 . . .. 1 . 1 0 11 t 1,11 md no r prt\' Hlllsl~ txislcd between IISIOI IC.I ll(ll'l'all\'t'S ii S ll'fl'l( ' l ' ( JI , l . .. wid ti n tlw lliOde rn understandin g ol' ti n . . . ~ , .'e ll.l ~ .OCCIIITtc. 1h,~ occurs f . . l l h ~Oillt' l llll g' Lflat l\ ll i'O"'I'l' . 1 011\':tl'(. \\ hlft' t he I'CS<." ll'{' fl lll"'tf 0 1 1 . . . SSII l , llllll'lllg ' ' 1 e~ o 111oc e l'll 111\tori 1 1 S('Cntific (a m l this itsc l fi~ ., tt'I'Jll tllrtlllt" 1 . '" ' 1111.{ H e cllln lo be lllOre " " se 1 l'l'l' IH 1 '" ,.,. 1rr l'a llk-r n arrati iT~ th t: Jas t. rhe IITitiiJ<T of .l . . .. . ,...., ".1 e 1 l'n nt co ntext~) than 1.. . . . ,.., ll\(())'1 ~ Sllll (()IJSI(Icrt'd bl e 1 R ,. )( .111 <11t. .\ lod crn 111 ~ ( 0 1'\' lns to tak 11 . -r f . .. .. . . dllles lo . ' ' e- -' 10 nlls rom alrcach' <'x i,li 1 ,- . -. a11ah-sls o l 11ll<.'ttTnlh-ct11 tu iY j)hilo<oJ>Ilc . 1 ' 1. . 1 g 11.1 11 <1111'1:''. In an . 11 \\'1 . ho11 IITillT~ fikt 1 legcl ~h r . n kJ 1\ () ll\101'\ 1"'\'('(' 11te 1 ras de,cribecl 1 . ' ' X a!l( Dlll 1arcl t 11 \e the 11 '1 1 1 1 '. , f 11 . . comeck. t ragtch .m el su ire 5111 . . . l 0 1111\ o f romance, 1 Ol 111 cmnbma11o 11 1 ' g' ,, '" >. .. 1 . . . . hl\101\' ll'otJ..,. Dilfen~m kind~ r . . . r t 1 1t ~' t llll \lew ol how . o 11all.lll\e mrm Clll tx ).. . 1. happellt'd blll t'lt nwnts o f de,ire '111<1 t . . , . 1 lt '' not Jll'>t ll~ton a~ it ' 1 ansgress10n ep. ~:,li).



Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin

.\ ' o ph bticated approach to thc l,m lhat n.urui\'ts r . . . . . pt 0\ ickcl !), thl' Ru,,i,m crit ic Mikha'J 'J'kl :, . . t PI< ~e.l1t J(it-a<.. oltlllll' all(l ~pace is 1 1 . . . . " 1<11 ov1c h Bakht111 ( ). !!O!! (' . Cl . 1\.tl..h rrn , wnrk , llliJJOil'lllt b . . . tl .r.rptel. 1). 1 t camt 11 meO II }() J " ll c~ 1 1 1 induckcl in an ab'ii"ICI lti ~toJ Y of r. 1 . . . llo rc t'; h 1 lat ~ll l' no t usuafly ' ~<LCls: ( ('~ I H' .11 1(1 tflc C'll'llil" 1 n kl ' COilCl'Jl l of t)lt' 'rh ro notoy ' ' . t . ( '. ,J l 'q ll ('. Df\ . 11111 l"l'~ tflc 1 II'Orcl~ lhm ( ) 1 ' 10 m 1\ 0 l l'C't>. dtscribt hnw ta rlie r Io m r . . .. . . .. . 1/IJ,I lll lll lll ( lojms (.~pace) . to ' U lldll <l (ll't' COII\'t'l' dr{J T ' l , . f . thnst of th t 111 odcn r IJerio{( 1~ . .. ~ t. " M lht'' 0 tmw a 11d historr to ,tlllp 1 <:: tire l'JliC for 11 f .. f' k . Ul CX \ 'irg il l'cprvscnt.\ ;111 ah.~o fll t l' l)'lSI ~ > tt f' l . . 1 n lllllt'l'' 1 e 1ftllll t'l' ancl ' ' " '~ O )L'ITIJllllllgs 'llld ) k hr .~ t OJ'\' (Bakh tin , I ~Jtl l 1'1) \\'l . . . k . . ..., . . 1 (.r lllll c~ 111 ih e 11ational . , . . . . . . l,H ~ ~ ll U\111 as t' plC d ~ t a J J ce' sc Ja r; Ht~ ll w 1 . . . . . . o l 1he.: c.: p1c ,.0 111 tl w )restn 1 11) 1 , 1 . . . . tu 0 1 c 11111 Id . :00 liiC 1 . 1 1 le l'}JIC lll Od( l't'll . . , 11 . l . lt H 1 ~ '" IIIH t r,l andmg of lllllt' and histonwfli ch , Sti'IJ . . 1 . ". lht e 111 t 1 H nwdcrn world 1 1. 1 1 . i1 hacl in 1he cttltllrt of the l. . . >tl1 "' llr 1 la' ln\1 tlw authori tr 1 i em~. th:.n ni nncil'l1 t C:rtt'Ct'. T he norl'l. uJ~ the otiH'I hal1d l'l'lll'l'\t' nt tclll<~gt~na cf)IC po . ,, 1111(' o 111oe C'rtllll" '11 . ' . . . ,. '1 .. in language. tire pa;r and the futllre ( 198 1: 67). . "tXII.lOI( 11 1<1 11 1 't'l1' 1 ll\'<. to time

y 1,o othcr kc:1 cxan rpl e~ in Bakhtin 's c:s~m Forms of time and chrono t.ope in the ,.cl' (in Baf.. h tin. I!JH I ) are ackenw rc time ancl what he calls 't:\erydav 1ime'. 110 Adrenw re time is tht tilll<' ofdesirt ancl is found in the romance ofancient Gneet. In adrenwre time no th ing mallt' r~ except tht passion of the two lmers and the d csire to satisf)' it. In thc t~ piral Crnk romance the 1 <>,-ers mcet bm are th e11 sepanued ancl tht' en tire nonl is con cerned" ith the time tha t elapscs bcfore th e1 are final!~ re 11nitccl. In thiS time the IO\'l'l':> CI1C01111lt'l' lllllllel'OIIS adn: nlliiTS. m ay visit fou r 01' five COll ll l l'i('~ .111d rna)' d i~CO \I I'Se 011 llllllll'I'OII~ topCS. bu1 i11 ach-enttiiT ti me 1101hing act ua l!~ ch ange~ both th e lmTrs rcmain total h in low. both remain chastc an d faith fu l to onc anoth er and there is no devdopn1e11 1 of their indi,iclual characters. In c\crydar tim t: th is \\O IIlcl not be possibk btcamc: l'\'l' lll'> woulcl occur d uring thc ack cnturcs and jo u rncy that ottld changt th e lcwcrs' rcla tiollship. Thc chronotope for c1e ryday lifc is tit e road, 1 1 dJiclt fornrs tite l'Sscntialnlctap hor fo r lifc in many kinds of narra tive from thc fo lk ta le 1 10 the nonl. T ht road or p:Hh o l'li fc' rq>rescnts the episodes in a charactcr's li l'c ancl gires cach 11rrning or in tt rscctit>ll a nreaning. B<tkhlin IITites: 'Space becomts mort concrete: and sa 111 ra 1 t ri wi tlt a ti me t h:u is more su b~tan 1ial: space is flll ed ,,it Ir real, liling menninK,a nd l'on ma crucial rcla tio nshipwith the hcruand his He ( I!IR l: 120}. He gires a 1nodtr11 ro manCl'. \ 'o ltairc's Ca ndidr . asa n exarn plc of a m odern tCXI whcrc ereryd ay time intrudes upon <tciiTnllln: time. T he t11o low~ rs . C:tmlide ancl Cunclt gonde, are finallv r< ' II IIi l'd , b11 Ltlrcl' art so o ld that all their yo uth ful b ca 111y i ~ lo ng gnnc and the romance is lost. ClearJ~ mude1 n h ist orit~ han llluch mor<. in rom mon11irh the llH'laphor oft hc road than thC') do ll'ilh IIW f.lllt<JS t(af <llld pas~i()ll:tt(' C'fCillCil tS Of adlen ture time. IIOII'C\'<.' 1, 10 represe m h i,toJ~ ~imph '" 1he ewrycla~ or a ~ a steady progres.~ from one plact. to ano ther ,,otile! be to mi~' 011t ptoplc , hopts .111d de!>ires: it ,,mtld be to ignore pcopk~ f.1ntas, li'T' ami their c:o..pc:rilnce or time wh ich cannot b( mea~ured in ttt m' of ct. thl''>l' ('X(>l'l i c nce~ or time ami hisLOIY <liT "" lllliCh pan or culllll a l biograplw. Y expnienrl' a~ what , traclitionalh u n clcr~toocl as hbtorical nan~uin. Perhaps 1\akhtill, mos1 importan t ltTm is lit<.' camh;tfe,que 1dlich describes how laughtt.'r ha~ the :thilill' 10 dis~ohe all powcrf ul aiHl aut ltmit;llile ,ersions or temporal 11nde rstancling- in tht' p bysical i 1 ~ or ob~n llil ~ a ncl tramgrl,~io n that marks festil'ity. Carni\'al I'C\'l' ' ' ill thl' topsy-tuJY}'. i11 l't'\'l'r,.al. tia lmrl..-to-lront, ami in w rsion . the up>idc clown . In thl C;:trn i1a l e~quc , lt Kh bt't'OIIll'S lo11. t ht 'iJiri tu al beco mes the hod i1 )'. thc re ll nccl. n rlg;11 . Com-e ntion:t l icktui ri es are 1J ';Jif\gt'l' '~l'd. th t masculim is l'tmini,ccl , the ll.1uinir1 e masc u lini ~cd and dcsire brt.aJ.., l'ret !'mm it ~ rorren o l~j cc t . Bakhtin cla i111 ed 1 hat 1hl trul y mnclern I(Jrnl ol' narra tiH ,. the IIO\'el becatrse th e nmel cmuains all ptT\'ious llndcrstandings ul' tim t but dOl'S IHJI. prioritise an y of the m. incorporrning ;r l(mn of' thc Carni raf t'SC] IIl' within itst [f'. rh c 110\'l'f represelltS thC CUlture of lllOd CrnI )' fr0 111 Witfrin wltich 1he modcrn h ist nrits or 1h t' ni nctecn tIr ami LII'CJHie t h ce nutri c:~ han htt' 11 IITUCil. lt Oj)(' lll'clllfl <1 ' ll l'\\' /011 1' ... f(r Sll'll( (tJI'ing ! iterar~ images. ll<llllCfl', thl' l.i..llll' of maximal co nta( 1 wi th tl w pn~t' lll (wi tlt rollt<mpor;u-y aa li t~} in all it ~ opc n en d edms~ (198 1: 11 }. Jmt ;, 1hv non!, oJ tltt nillelt:t'll lh c-entu ry broaclerlt'd n 111 l'rom the 111C1aph or or tlll' road (() l ' ll COIIl P''' tlll' E11rnpean c i t~. S() 1radil ional f'orm~ or te m poral a11d hi,wricalll ndtr,tall<ling llt' ll' 11':111\formed IJ, pl11rali1\ a11d tr.llhgrc,.,ion'> of 11 1ban


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Culture, lime and history


Key inflttence 5.2

Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin

(1895- 1975)

. erictlCL'. :\at rai\c .1nah 'i~ cknwn,ll.lle~ 1h.11 liuea1 hi,lorie:. ;ue 1101 1he onh model C)(P l. 1 . 1 . . l for recPrctin~ th c pa,l. Bakh1i n, accmnll ol thc 111 11 l ljJ ~ rqnescnta ll.oll ~ o '." ne 111 1 w n l , 11 1111 th;tt hi ~ 1 o 1 Y IH"(d nn1 on h look al causattlll 1 a 11d CIJ11 IIIlllltl': ll t an al"' . 1 1l IL'OI'I~h . . . hlighl cli~coniIHtilies aiHIII~III'-grt "ion . O m ol the lllll'l .111 fl lll.111la 111 1l"' Jug .. , l>en \ lirlwl Foucn1h. Fnucauh argutd 1h:11 111l' 1 ' . l l . . . > ro1wr 1,,,,.. ol lll' ll'tnn.m 1' ] 1rea 1 1 ; 510 n jn 1lw l"o n n n i a ro11 cn1ed c:m lilal" (Foti C:tult. 1\IH l:l: \H ). 1

Allhough B akhlin's rnain ideas were forrnulated in the 1920s and 1930s, lhey did nol reach the West until the 1960s. Since then, his theories of the novel and lhe carnivalesque have infl uenced studies of the cultural pollics of transgression (p. 258). Bakhtin was born in Orel, Russia. There is now some dispute about his universily career, but lhere is no doubt that he was influenced by the debates about literary forrn and avantgarde art that took place in Sl Petersburg, immedialely before and after lhe 1917 revolution. The 'Bakh tin Circle' fi rst formed in the years 1918- 20 in Nevel, West Russia. lt included Lev Pumpianskij, V. N. V olosinov, M.V. judina, 1.1. Sollerlinskij, B.M. Zubakin, and Matvej lsaic K agan. In 1929 Bakhtin published an early version of his theory of the novel as a modern, transgressive form in Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics. Several works of disputed authorship, but in which Bakhtin probably had a part, emerged from the circle in Lhe late 1920s, including Freudianism (1 927), Marxism ond the Philosophy of Longuage (1929) published ormal Method in Literary Scholorship (1 928) under the name of V. N. Volosinov, and The F published under lhe name of P.N. Medvedev. Bakhtin's work lhen became submerged in the Stalinist purges of lhe 1930s. He was sent to Kustanaj in Kazakhstan. One manuscripl of his book on the eighteenth-century German novel was lost and B akh tin used the other to roll cigarettes duri ng the Second World War. He was refused a doctorate for his dissertation on Rabelais. lt was not until1965, after he had retired beca use of ill health, that Robe/os ond Fo/k Culture in liJe Middle Ages ond R enoissonce was publshed. ll was this book more than any other that estilblished his international reputation. In it he described the important infl uence of a transgressive popular culture, particularly carnival, on Rabelais's (1494-c.1553) early novel, Gargontuo ond Pontogrue/(1532- 64). Bakhtin points to Rabelais's use of the 'grotesque body' as a collective popular form that persists In opposition lo the 'classical body' of hlgh culture. As a study R obe/os has inspired critics to research the cultural politics of transgression in high and low culture. The publication of The Diologic lmoginolion in 1981, a translation of four of Bakhlin's essays on the novel from befo re the war has changed the way that lhe history of lhe novel is understood. While before it was commonly understood as a middle-class fonn, B akhtin's history of its relalionship wilh a multiplicity of different popular discourses has caused cultural crilics to reassess the relationship between lilerature and popular culture. Bakhtln's influence on cultural studies has reached into literary, social and historlcal research. Perhaps lhe most lnfluential piece of work using his methods is Peter Stallybrass and Allon White's T/Je Politics ond Poetics of Tronsgression (1986), a study of the emergence of middle-class, individualist subjectivity in opposition to popular culture and collective conceptions of the grotesque body.


Michel Foucault

Tite 11ork ol .\1id ttl Foul':ll tl t ha' bnn c n ornl<~ ll' h im portanl in ltrtIH ,c;u, in ncw und('r'mndiugs ol lltt rt'latioll,hip hltiiTl'll culture aiHI hhtOIT. \\hile Fouc.llllt wnuld )robahlv 11111 haH' g-o1w a.; lar " lo .;ay tlwt ol~jL'CI\T hiWII"~ doc~ 1101 exi't. lw ~onsidNtd 1lw q uv.;tio11 t"v 11 1ia 1k i1nJv,;111 t. Foucault .; ,,,.rk i' ro nre rn crl 11 itlt 11H under,1<111ding ol hi'lorv "' rul11 1 rc. allcllakl'S '' il' o l~jcn ni 'llich- tlt t w;11 "h.ll ht ralh

he 1 1111 nan , Cil'lltt< Lreall' '''ll'lll~ uf kltollh-d~l. (;ra~pin!{ hm, Foucault u,i..\ 111u of his kt\ lt T lll '-- . t rr lt aeo l o~\ a11d ~t ll t< tl ogl - ,.. l'" l' i11 gc ltillg 10 grip,.. with hb un ckr:~ l a ll d i ng ufhb1on. 111 the fir,l ol tl w clclini lioll" int lw cx trac: t (wt' Box :i.K). trutlt is 1111 ckr,tood a' a11 ;u chaeolo~' . in tlw 'econd " a gtm.tlo){' ( David,on. 19Ht): ~~ 1). \\'ith d 11 li r"t dclinition. Foncault P' oposes a n arch:t eolo~~ o f kum,lt-clge, a lt isto n of how disco urse p. :w l ha' l)len , 11 (ILrcd at p:t nicular ti m r' or h i.;to1 ; i11tn 1\'a~s ,. kuo 1,ing or tfJ\/1'1111'1. ''hidtunexpeLti.dh link app.trcnlh ' cparale .u ea-; of kllol,kdgL in wriod. ll i,ton lw Fnucault. 1lwn. , '"'' a limar na1 raliH. 1dtt'rl' u1w tHnl 1he sm1~ 1 foll m,~ ano1 h er. hn t m;11 be d i.;co i11llt lous. 0 11t orck r o l d i. , courst, ca n hrc:tk d cm n and giw ,,ay toa IJt\1 nrdt o l lhi ll,li;' :\L11 id ta, do IHil tnwrg-e i11 j,uJatiun. bu t in thc contt':-.1 of d1.111gt, in wltok w~am~ 11f k1undedge p1 oduc1ion. Foucauh '"~'' lltt conccpl or gent.tlogy. fro lll tl w Cc nn;m ph ilosophcr :\iL1t,clw. lO IICkn tlw ll'rms o l nn arc: ilacologiral anah'si-. (Dal i(bon . l ~lH: ~~7). In h i' c '~a, ' :\ ivtt,chc . g~ n ca lug \". hisw 1 ...- ( Foucault. 1\J~-Ibl hl' ar){ut' tila t. in o1 dt-r 111 p1l.'il"lll ilHnl,eh'e~ ;1' 1 alid ami tn nhful. m n~t hi,llll ie~ roo1 tiH: m~eh l'' in nn i(ka ol origib. lclta' ol Cll i'L' and dfccl in histol\ ;md o l il i~ l on as a 11 aiJ.;c nt r: tu , t (!'-ce a bmc) reh 111 d c1eru1 i11 is1 or rcdllrt io n is1 :\br:-.i,lll. or c:-.;unplt. bdiLH, in a l' hi,tor\ tilal dcttnnim' and Fnudian



Michel Foucault on 'truth'

Further reading
The Oialogic /moginalion, Auslin: U niversily ol Texas Press (1981 ). P roblems of Dostoevsky's Poetics, Manchester: Manchester University Press (1984). Bokhtin Scllool Popers, ed. Ann Shukrnan, Oxlord: Russian Poelics in Translation ( 1988).

1ruth. S 10 be llll<lel',lllOd as ,,,~111 nf o rdtred proccclurc:; fnr the prodllliOil. regul.uion. di'll ibu1ion. drcubtiun ancl optralion uf 'laltmenh. ,ll th. is lin kcd in a cir( u lar ion ll'ilh '~'1l'111' n f power " il icil prod un alHI '"'tain it. .uHI to dln .; o f powcr ,,h it' il il ind tttt' ;tncl ,,ll it il e xtt ' I H I ~ it. .\ rq~illlt ultnlllt.


lntroduclng Cultural Studies

Culture, time and history


J''' ~ ho<t ll<t h-~i~ d e pend~ on t he idea o ( rtprl'"ion. 'n 1h:1 1:1111 eulllu.ll phlnomenon can
be lllll'l pntn l a~ rcalh ahou t, ~a~. ' exuali11 . Tht''l' idea, o l eu igin' t'll :lble 1110..,1 hi,tories to ap1 war tnuhlul. ff lll,l'lt'r. Foucault .1rgw.., th:u: \\ h.ll 1' fnuud al tfll' hi ... tlll ir.1l heginning ol 1hiug, .., 11111 lht im iol.thk idt'IIIII of their 01 igiu: it 1' tfw cfi...,en,ion ol othtr thin\.(' 11 , tlll'il cfi,p.u i11 . .. . tlll' odgin tll.tkl'' pos,ihle a fil'ld of ktltll' kdt:l' 1d10'l' hiiH tion i' to l'l'C'fllt'l it hut """'in .1 f.d,e tnognition due 10 the l'X CP'"'' ol it' cm 11 'Pl'l'l h. 1ht 01 ic;in le, a pf.tu of intlil,thk lo". tlw pnint 1dwrc lfll' 11111h o( thiug, l<ll'l't''()t11Hied lo a 11111hl111 <Ji,l'lllll''l', llll' 'ilt' ofa fk<ting .lllilltl.llitlll di,Ullll'l' ha' ob,uued .111d fina lh lmt. ( Fcllll.llllt. 1\1~-la: 79)


For tht lti ... tori;lll tu '"b~criht to am p:nti CLilar :tl lllllll l of 111 ig in ~ ..,tu ... ub~cri be 10 lit e po\\t'r th.ll ha' 111adl that account appear 1111 1h f'ul. u r 1\'11:11 Foucault r al ls a rcgime of tnuh '. T ite ,,ork of tite Fuuc tulclian hi,wri:lll i... 11 01 to SC'l'k nrigin~ . l>tll to trace the ll'a~s in 1d tich ' d isscnsion dc\!'lops intn a regillll' o( tr11 1h . \ ~ 1\ith otltn poststructurnlists (p. ~1 ). Foucau lt' S gl'lll':l logie~ are dt'lll'lldl'll l 011 "" :111 )~ ... i... or el isco u r~es. 11 istorils a re di ~nlr..,iH h co l1 ~ t r ll c t ed , ancl FollC:II il 1 is pri mari ly i11 tt' l 'l'~ l ~;d in ltm, thev ill'l' disc u rs ilc l~ Ct lll SII'li Cll'cl ra tlter tll:tll aclt it'l'illg" illl ('III II I'iC a l lCU HIIl l o fll'lt:tl :tCll lal[;. on 11 rrcd . ll'hiclt . fo r Fouca ult , would be a dis('ur., in collstruction i11 itsdf'. Th 11s a l{l' ll l'<il o~y ll'ill ll t JI look for an o rdered narrati n . bn t :11 tit e camiiJiesque o f 'accidcnts, t' ltann :. pas.-.ion, pcll ,. malices. MlllJrises. f'e,t ri~lt agi 1 :11 ion. unstcacly I'rt ories and poll'('r (Dal'iclson , 1986: 224). Thc last of tltis list, powc1 (p. il 1). i... a ke} l:tctor in d('ning tlll' 'tnttlt rtgimc. \\lwu Fouca11lt t a l k~ abo ut p<>ll'l'r hl i~ not just talking ahottt ' n mc thing- o utside discourse. "'hich i mpo~c~ 01dc t u pon it (a n~way. in Foucaull's thcOtY it \\'Ould be impossihle to talk about po11er ll'ithou t tal king about tht di,course through whi<'h it maniksts i t ~elf): he i ~ 1 alki11g abou t ltoll' d i... cou.-~~;~ arl' mgani,ed in rd:uio11 10 ('ach othn. how tht~ a re ordereclto acltie1< ' tlteir in tcrnal r~;gime of po,,er' ( Foucault. 19R.Ja: :}:) ) . T hrouglt 1ltis ki nd of ana h si ~ it becomc' pw.,ible LO anah" t the wnrki ng' uf po11~cr 1101 a~ o nc tlting on another. for example th t ruling cla-,!> 011 the II'Orking cla~~. but . II'Orki11g tltroug houl tht real m uf' di~COU J'St'. Fmtcault's idea' gt't round manl' o!' tite tradit io11al prnblcms a......ociattd with the practk't of h Morians. H is methucl aw>ids si m pli~ti c accou n t ~ ol ll'hilt i.:- re a 1 h i~LOI'Y or the tl'llth: ' th l po litical que:-.tion ,tosum up. is not <.:rror. ill11sion , alilnattcl co ll'C ious;,es~. or icl co l og~: il is truth it~e l f. II OI\'CI'er. tite F'oucaulclian hbwric;ll meth od hri 11g'- ncw pmble m ... orils oll'n. lt can be a rguecl thaL Fo11cault d ocs not l'l'fl ll}' con fro n t tlw problem of' historical ch;111g<.:. "'hich takt.s p lace uw r tin1e, but .stc ps back a11d looks al holl' ltistOI)' is disctlrsi,e ly COI1SII'I1Ctccl at :111)' ont time. lit.: ca tJnot rca lh accoun l f'or tit e 'cve 11ts' that Cl'(':lll' chan~('S in llll' cpi~teme. As lll l' or his critic..... J'Irf.:t' n 1lahcnna.s. pttlS it. thc rl'l a tion ~ hi p betll't'l'll discourses and pn1cti cc~ i ~ 111H:xplai11ed ( ll abcn 11a ~. 19:-\7: ~-17). J lis i<ka of' poll't'l' is neb11lous and ah islOrical. so clif'l iet dt to in corpnn11e in 1 o an accounl of holl' 1 111111;111 lt istor~' is maclc:. 1lcre :\larxist accounts nfhwnan ag-cncy :tl'l' mor<. u ~crul.


History and difference

.\ gai i1Stth b. o11e oft he n:aso ns that Foucauh's historir:1l methocl ha' httn m inlluen tial

. ecent )'t'i'll'' i ~ tltat he pro1 icks a ,,.," . of undt'rStanding ho,, m,, subjccti,itil'i' an )11 1 roduced in hiswry. Foucau lt d o e~ no t "'""nt' a human ubject ' man ', ll'ho make.., ~istory; n11 her he stes s1tl~jech being cunstructed discursil'(:l~, procl ucccl ll'ithin the rpis/tllll' of a pnrtirul:l tin1e. Thus. in T/11' Onlrr of Thing~ ( 1970) . Foucault argucs thnt 111 an' is :t relati1 cll' rcccn t im e ntion, and ,,ill soon di. :tppear again. B1 thi~ h e meam tllal the idea of thc sd l -co n sciou~ human sul~jec t tltat emerges in moclcrnitl' i ~ historicnl. lt did IIOl cxist. for example. in the mediel'al world. wh cre h11man bcing~ ,,-ere pan of a large dil'i n e p lan. This accou m of the subject has been used by feminist' and historian' of sexualit1 to ~ho,, that n ew gendered and sex11al idcn tities emerge. for example the mnle honH>~txua l at th e e nd of the n ineteenth century, ami that the systems of knoll'lcd~c tha t an a~~ociated ,,ith these iclentities permit nell' :1nd potentially sub,cr~ i,e hiswries. Current hi ~torica l work being clone in cultura l s tuclic~ muall1 borrows from bo th ~larxist aiiCI Foucauldian influe nces. T he fol lowing scc ti ons look a l the kinds of hiS lO I'~ that are produced by ltistorians interested in brushing hi st 0 1 ~ ag:tinst 1hc grain LO examine thc cultural h istot~ of class, gend ercd histories, histories of 'race' and nation and histories of Sl'Xuttlity. Tht books of lii'O pio nctring ll'ritt r~ in cultural studies exemplif}' tltis ki11d o l historical work. E.P. Thompson 's (p. 96) historical stud y The Mnlli11g oj tht' l~llgli~/, \Vodllg Clas~ ( 1963) cht111Kt'd thc u nde rstanding or thc ro le or cla'\S in h istOI)' by arguing tltat cult tll'(' was a kt'l' ekmen t in it.<, fo rm:ttion . Peop le makc cla~s romciotlsn<ss th rough culture. T h omp~on paid particul:tr anention to the culture of Protc~tant dissen t ancl it:. relationship to radical poltica) actil'it~. He reassessccl tite Luddi tcs. arguing that thev werc not j11 ~1 m ac h i n e breakers. btu ,,ere conducting their ca mpai~n s as pan of a c;n npaign of pol iticalt esistance. Jn Culturt and Socil'l_\' 1780- / 950 ( 1 96:~) and Thr Long RProlution ( 196.)). R aymoud Williams (p. 5) rei merpreted \'ietorian and twcnt ic t h-ccnuu~ culture so that culture was u nderstood not as something tha t ,,as owned bl' the middk a llCiupper cla~~es ancl aspired to by the working class, bu t as 'a way of lifc' in which :tll d as es patticipated . Both Thompson ancl \\'illiams m ed methocb takcn from literarv criticism to look at IITiuen culture. inclucling pocu~, n ovd s, d ra ma and tite writings or cu ltural critics all(l joum a lism. T hey reinterpreted tlt{ 1';\l u e~ contain cd '''ith in thtsc t cx t~ in rt'lati on to the ,alues and connicts that n111 through th c wltolc of socic ty in the p criod-" t h e~ studied . T h ey differed in that \\'illiams paicl more auentio n to ,al11cs and what he called 'structures offeeling' . wltile T hompson cri ticiscd The l-ong I?I'T'Oiution for bcing insul'liciently concerneclwi th culture in h istory as not so mucil a 'way o r Jire a<. a 'way o r conflict' (Tho mpson , 196 1: 39). Both, hoii'CI'Cr. 1\'(.'I'C essent.ially agrccd o n the need fo r th c historian to ex tend thc range of el'idenn beyond what ltad hithcno bcen co 11 ~id e rccl prop(r ' historic"r clocumcnts. Nc ithtr was a~ concerned as more rcccnt p ractitio ne rs of cultural swclies wit lt thc qutstioll of the inclividu:tl histo rian 's reltll io nslti p L O ltis or her maH:rial, what is s(HIIetii11CS callcd tht' 'subjectil'ity' o f the h istorian or cu lt ural critic. Tltis iss11e relates to tlw cptcstion or id en tity raisecl i11 Cltapter l. T he lar k o r in terest in q uestions of ident i ty o t he 1 1han cJ:t;s identi ty has lcd 1 0 \\'illiams and Thompson being criticised for thcir :tpparcn t disi nterest in quest ion~ o r !{tndcr. 'race' ancl sexualiL y. Con temporary reminiq hist01~ has bcen consisten ti~ critica! o f tite ide:t of' histo r, as


lntroducing Cultural Studies

Culture, time and history


homogtnou~.linear ancl cau,al. Fcmini~t hbtor ia11' haH' pointcd ou t th:u 1\'0illt'll\ lircs han bet'll llq~lc.:tHd in almosr all historical rtcord' a11<l are 'h idden fronr hi,01, 1l01,e1er. l<mini'L hi,nrian' han ar~ued that 'impl~ 111 i11<lude women in lraclitior~ai h istorical narra lin, i~ n ot t'llo ug lr. ;" 1hn,t n.rrr. rl iw' han betn 111 illt' ll rr0111 a m asc ul in e wr,ptc1iw: 'adding 11o rn e n 1o h i'ton i' 1101 1h e samc as a el di ug 1\'omcn 's Ir isto rY' ( Fox-Cc. IIO\'l''l', 1~~8~: 1 1) .-\ s .\ l:ti.t( .-\ l bi~ t 11 r h :1~ argue cl. wo m c 11 \ Ir i' L ( " ' is as compkx as nwll 's hi s l or~. b111 f llo 11i11g a si1ni l<t 1 ' ai'.{IIIIICII I L o KrisLl''<l in ' \\'om cn 's 1im e (1-;,.,c.l .t. 1\l::\1\ J.-\ lhi:>tur 11ri Le~ 11e 111 ;n : h~l ll l1L' t ha L ti m e "' liHcl b1 1he lc.malc pan o r h u nwn itl' cines not pass accord ing to th c 'ame r h1tl11 ns aml th at it i' 11 01 pnccind in tlll' ,:11111.' \\')\as that or II H'II. ( Ho ck. 1989: 7). Femini't h istOIY rall~ (or ; ~cnckrccl anah,is'. 1h.n is an u nder,tandin g o( 11 hat a masculilll' or .1 kminiuc per~pcnin might nlt'all in an\' one h istorita l 1xriod . .Joan Scott dl' \tTibl'' the ta,J.. a\

to llllciC' r' I.IIHitht 'iguificaurl' of tlw " '1 ., 1 of gcudtr group~ in thc hi,1n1 ic. al P''t. Oru goal i> l o di~c. nltr 1hc ra uge in '"x m lt>s a nd i11 'l'XIIal ,~ mbolbm in difftr't'll l 'Ol it1i1, ancJ JWI'icHk l o find 0111 what 11H' ;li1llg tlt t~ Jtad ;nu l hm1 ll w~ run cti Oilt'<Jto lll:til i:I il 'ocial onlt-r n 1 In promol t' c hange. (Seo ti. 1!IH(): 1llT H)

Historians nr g'l' lldl' r rd ations h an~ arglll'd wi tlt Scou that th e rclati o n, h ip bt'III'CC I\ lllt: n amlwomen i' no1 fixcd- it is 'probll'u talic nu hl' r th a n known - :tll{l thl' t a~ l.. of tlw historia n lO imtM i!{ate i1 ha.~ becn 'cotllt''\tuall~ delined. repeatecl h ron~llll('[l'd' (Scou. lm-H>: 10711. .\ s importan! l01 1hc <knlopment of cultmal 'tudie:- ha~ been thc IIOtl.. of thc historiau C .I..R. J .um:,. 1 lis htst-knml'lt hi~to" Tlll' /llrul:.fnmbill ' ( 19HO). lllt'lllioned in 3. 1. 7. ll'a' IITillt'll 1\\'t'IHY IL'ars befnn: T/11' ,\/ol!ing uf/111' f:'gfilll \\{ /!ing Cli111 or Cu/1111 '1' a11d Soril'tt. btrt il \1'a' a 1mrk lhat lonkc:d fo tward to llw deco lo ni ~:ni on of.\t'rira and has bttn m m t inf lliL' Illi:tl on po~ tco l on i a l and aJIIi-r;t c i..,l etlli11ral cri1ics like Edward Said (p. l fiR) ancl Pmrl G ilroy (p . 16!l). Jamc:s.., book w;~ s ori ~ inall~ publis lwd inthe.-arm yt;u as The /'rufJII\ 1/i.,IOI)' td .~nglr111d b~ A. L. .\lu rton ( Hl!):"), a no1her ,,ork tlra t piollt't'l'l'cl th c mmenH' III lor histnry ' t'ro m b e lo \\'. ll oll'el<'l . ll' hik :- t onon~ ttxt \\';ts radica l f'or its time and dttph- infltiCtHial on latt'l' Engli'h .\larxist hi~torian' li kt E.l'. ThomJNlll, Chr iqophtr 1l ill an<l Eric llob~bawm. it ""' rda ti\(h 11;11TOII' in it~ gl'ographiral and political focu:.. 'f'ht II/ml: Jamhin~. b1 conu."t. cxplored thc rel:niomhip b<.'llleen European hi,totl .md colonial hi!>tO n .. J amt~ 'IHmcd ho\\' thl H aitia n tt'\Ohtlion drew on both . \1'1ira u cu lture ancl 1he Eulig h t<.'llllll'll l ideas 1hat in spi red IIH French Re\'OI111io n. :-Jusi impona ntly. h e ponraltd Af'rican slaws as agents, aeti\'l in 111aking 1h c ir cll\11 h i,lCII ~ and in c h a ng ing- Eu rowan pcrccption s. Fro m th t political a nd ' pari$<111 . p t' rSJJL'C iilc of IIIC' n ational libcr;uion s1n1ggll's agains1 colonialis m ( p. 1149), James cxplorl'cl i"LI<.'S o f ' ra<T' and c l a!'~ i11 hi ~ 1 orr and shuwed IHIII' th tw ca1q:\'o ri cs delined c111t' a n o th <.r bot h in [urope a nd in 1he C:~ribbca n . 1le d e nto n ~t ra t<.d 1h;u the ideals uf l'rndont a n d citit.cnship dl',l'loped in E11ropc werc tormed in r'thlliclll 10 an oppre~~il'l' inqwrial polin. 1 '\1- wriling frnm a po,ition 1hat ,,a critica! ot th t political ntlture t'rom ,,i1hi n 11h ich mo~t Euro1wan hi,toll h ad bt<.n IITillen. h e ,,.,b abk both 10 shtcl IH'II lighl 011 Eurnpean hbton all(l lO P' mi<k a historical r.:1111('1\'0II.. for uud<.'I'Sland in g tlw hi~ t orira l and cultural proct~~<.~ u t dccolo nisation altc1 the S('cond

\\'orld \\'a1 . Tht Blark jwobI11 legititmll<.'cl ,uuggle!> for T hird \\'odd indqwnd<'ncc. becaliSC i1 -;h<med that th o::e strug~I e-. h. tcl 1he ir rom~ within .1 hi,tol ical rcb tion,hip between European modernit\' and tlll' hi,wn o!' European imptr iali~m. In etd 11rra l swcli<.s. "ork bv .J ame ancl othL'I h istnrians ha ~ influence cl p o~ t cu l on ia l ~ ludi es - ,,ork thal has acld rcssccl. for cxamplc. h ow colo n iscd cu ltures ll'c: rc reprcsen1cd in th e \\'est 1 111 cJ funn~ of cu ltu ral resis ta nce lll coklllia l c u l ture~ (C hrisman aml \\'illia m s. 19~l:~). Qnc o f tite mosl recent a rea~ o( histori ca l rc~l'arc h h as bccn tire hiswry of ~cx ua l i t1 . T he lesbiall ancl ga1 IHOI'Ctnl' IH i11 tite post\,ar periocl lhpitTcl alll'111ph 10 1racc tite histor\' of ~;lln <.-sex rclatiomhip'. In it!> carl\' lnrm this m l'anl th c cl(lcumenting uf famoU'- figures who liTre 'homo,exual' - for cxampk. Shakc-;pcarl', .\ lichcl.tngclo a nd Julius Cac~ar - a' a wa1 of legitimating ,\ ~a1 idcntit'' in tlw prcscnt. l..:uer rcsearch stanccl 10 cxamim ho,, sexual relation'> influence form::cultural organi~;uion and powcr. ,\nthn~p< rcscarch h a' ~ho11 n 1he 11'id e 1-arictie~. of sexu a l rl: l:~tion~ f~und in human sone1us (L h:nm cn rl al., 1991: 10-1 1). Rcsearch rnto 111l''l' dlflctT IH lorm s has lcd hi ~ tori a n ~ of~cx ualit, IU ar~ut 1h:11 'l'Xtlalit~ is rHH about riwd o r csscntialis t (p . 1 38) ickn l i1its; rat h e r i l i ~ conSII'llrlt'cl' . Sodal con stnr c tion ist \'l' rsiclll ~ ot' 'l'X u al i1~ rg m il l<l l Jl<l rl tr lllar fol'lll S l'llll'rgt ll'ilhlll p:lrli n da r kind' l)(' ~Ot' i t'l\'. :\gain iiHc' inspi1atio n l'o r muclr n f this rcsearrh ha ~ lwc n lesbian a nd ga~ his torv. ll is1oriam lw n argucd 1hat con ttmporary Je,hian .tnd ga1 ide ntities lta\c. o n h t' lllt'l'!{t'cl rdatilel \' recenth'. Somc hi!>torians date.: tht>ir .q>pearance tu the u rban 'ttbcu ltu rc;. ot ei!{htc.:ent hcen tun Elll ope an cilics. Olhl'l~ l the late nilll'IC'Cillh centUI'\' 01. in the C:I,L' or lesbia u identi ti<~. earh t\\'entie th centun. Bel011 11e loo k at how thc hi~toria n .Judith \\'alko,,itL rcp1T~l'11l ~ the c ultural conllict~ thatll'd to kgi~latiol1 011 scxualitl in E11glancl in th e late nilll' lt'l'll lh cen lury. \\'ork 011 thc ~ociaJ COil\lrtiCiion of h0111Cl~l'Xll<t 1 i y h as openccJ up reSl'<li'Ch in1o 1h e social constructinn ofh< l <.' rnsexua l it~. Histo rian ~ h an ~hmn 1 thatthc modcrn, ab~o lu tc di\'iclc betii'Ct'll h t'll' I'O' l'XIIal a11d sam e-sex rt: lat io n s !' 1101 ll'llt' ot' a ll socie tits or a iiiK'I'iocls. Id ea ~ o fa cc<.pt:tblt IWtsnrlim o r ft minillt' lw ha\'io ur \ 'i ii Y wickl y and ~l'X tral prac l ice i~ often m u e h 1IIOI'l' 1'<1 ri<"d 1lw n 1h e dmni 11a 111 codn o!' acn p 1abk bchal'iou r would ~ugge:,t. \ \'o rk b1 c ultura l cri 1ics 1i ke he Kosol\k1 Seclgwick ( 1~-1::1:1 l. who is pan o t' th t niticalmme mttlt\\'n a~ quce r theon. h as :.hown th at 1h e end es of hehavio111 1h a 1 signilied upper-cla~\ ma,lu linit' in nine teetll h-n: nllrn England ,,ere gmTrncd b1 "hat <the ca lis malc honw~ocia l desire. U ppcr-cla'~ mcn 'ocialised in a lima le in<.titut i on~ likc public schook Parliamcnl. thc arnll' and lh<. Church. Strong bond~ 1\'l're L'\tabli~hecl betii'Cl'l1 m<. n to lhl excJu,io n of womt'll an<lnw11 ckemed les~ thau ma,c uli lll'. \'c t tite nalliiT nf 1h t~t bond~ \1a~ co111 radi nory. Dt,pi 1t' 11 aei r mTrt he tl'I'<ISl'Xll< tlity, a cm-en honHJl' rcll iris nt c ltaraneristd 1l11 mtn s n laliclll, h ips wi1l1 o 1te an o ilttr. Social p011T r a lo n g class and g't'lldl' re d lines was re inlrcl'd ])~ 111ak h o mosocial clesirl'. Scd )o.."''ick's th esis cltmollslr:llt:' how a panicular socia l l(trm u f urgan isati nl1 can dt'l'i\'l' som t' of ih p ower throug ll 'cxual re la tiom. ew n \\'II C' n 'cxualil\' is 11ot seen by 11lc. ac10rs 1he mseh'n as an impurtant clctcnni11a11l o t' th eir bchadou r (Sed~,icl... 1\l~!'l) . 1n an essa1 on ~chnolgirl crushc,. :-Janha \ 'icinu' <:x:un i11c-; samc-scx auranion bet11ccn ,oun g womt'11 ami tincl~ that mam ol thtm a language o f sexualit~ inw 1dt ich to p u t tht'i r kding-. 111' thtl t-.:pns~td t hti l 'L'IItimtnt" through a S('l1\l' o t' dll t\' or 1hrougll religious kiYOllr (\ 'ici ntL', 1!l!l l ). :\onellwless.



lntroducing Cultural Studies

Culture, tim e and history


sexuality was as imponant. in the socialisation of young wo men as it was amo ng )'oung men in sing le-sex schools in Britain a nd the U nitecl States. In the tlle m icth cenlllr) political a nd cultural mmem ents hayc identified more stro ngly '''ith panicttla-sexual ide mit na than Dollimorc has d escri be<! how lesbians and gay men h< we deplo)ed both essentialist and non-essentialist strategies to legitima e 1 what he calls 'dissidem sexualities. r\ write r like th e Frc nch noyefist Andr C icle argucct lh< tt his honosexuality was as naLUral and normal as he te rosexuality. The Eng lish piar wright Osear Wilde. o n the o the r hand. d eliberatd)' subvertcd the idea of naturalness it~e lf in his writing. He practiscd 1\'hal he callcd paradox in an and pen crsiry in lifc. for Wilde, 'life imitates art'; in o ther words, therc is no essential or natural way of being, all identities are perJo rmanccs. in which we ac t out roles that our cul1ure has airead)' written for us. This idea has been purs ued b)' queer lheorists like .Judith Bllller. 11'110 arg ues that ide ntity is afl,ays a product of the powerful discourscs thattry to constrain it (see Ch<~pter 6). The most comn1on examplc gi\'Cn in the histo ry of sexuali1y is 1he response of many m en to the tria 1 of Osear Wi !de in 1~95, whe n he was sen tcnced to two years' hard labour for acts of 'gross indecency' with another man. Thc Wilde tria! and Lhc publicity tha1 surrouncled iL conf'irm ed for lll<lny men that their d esires for o the r me n constitmed a 'Wildcan iden1i1ya nd resistancc LO the repressive legishuion agairlSL male homosexuality prol'iclcd thc impetus for lhe early rampaigns for ho mosexual riglns. 01er the 1wentie1h century. mo1e ments e merged thar rcprescnted sexua l identities in d iffe rent '''")'S. Jn the 1960s. ga)' libe ratio n arg1ed (o r a gn) ide rllity 10 be rccognisecl for an c nd to clisc rimination . Lcsbian mol'encnts eme rged allCI d iffe rentialed themsehcs from gay libcration, ,,hich was primari ly a rnoYcm ent o f rncn. Jn the 1990s. groups likc Qucer 1\'atio n in the Un ited States ha\'c tried to rno1'e away from l'ixed icle ntities altogethe r and arg ue for a specrrum o f' sexual behavio urs and performances. To recogn ise this, in 1996 the annual de monstrmions fo r Ca}' Pride in San Francisco, the ga~ capit al o f the world. ll'elcomed lesbian , gay, bisexual, transgende red aiiCI 'cuestioning'. In cultural slllclies this new pluralism has effccti1el)' changed r ritics assurnp1io ns abou t the na tu1e o f sexuality. H oll'el cr, d espite che 1 ibe rating naturc of ideas 1ike pcrlrrnatility', historians of sexualit}' neecl to keep in m in el the panicular cultural circumstances that pe rmit cliiTe rc nt kinds of sexua 1 identi ti es. One solu1ion is oJTercd by Dollimore 's St'.\'11(1/lJissidmu ( 199 1). Do llimore has becn o ne o r L he forcmost practitione rs 'cultura l mate rialism '. T llis historical me lhod of cri1icism , orig inated by Raymoncl Williams. a tte rnpts LO bring an acti1ist politics lo the polilics o f rex ts. lt alloll's Dollimore lo approach essentialist (p. 138) theories of sexuality as pan of larger po litical d ebates. lead ing him to arg ue for liJe necd 10 'clisentangle a radical essen tial ism from i ts conser\'< Hi,e cou nterparts'. Dolli more suggests what he ca lis thc 'parado xical perve rse and 11Je 'pe rYerse d ynamic' as me thodologics that allo1'' for an account o l' sexual clissidcnce. H e argues (see Bo x 5.9) for a four-part me lf10clo logy for historical e nquiry in relation 10 the sexual.

Box 5.9

jonathan Dollimore, Sexual Dissidence

/wl ~ reprl':;sl'd ancl disa\'0\1'\'d - 1he ur~<~ccc ptablt. , )Lino lO n :cme 1 Jn att{ll11 ;:, .. . : l lorllla " 1 ele r l1 lO ' l 1 lnn lw en lec! bc1ont 1111 t 1u ' iswnes o pc1 1 l'l ~ 1 0 11 , , . . ~ 1 1 )ttl'11 clen ' IO()llll' nt 1 ,hich 11 turn has facilitated h i.'LOI'JC .II reCOI'l'l): conet:f )1 S 1 '1 This f'o' url'o lci Jroccdurc- (J ) att en tio n to rnrnJ<If eJe:: f11 11' t'1 1 1 . , )1'0\'0klllO' , ~ '?.('J) -. :, . . c~ e1elu pm l nl (,tuht.t tm,.., hJSlOI 1 " I CJlqllJY . which in lurn fc ad s w ( ~~)a con ceptual , . .d . (4) .1 further historical rccmcry - 1 scc as a m<ncn ;lhst fll !!Jt'Cl.
' Dul lilli OI't' ( 1!1 \) 1:

~2:-< )

1 \\' !k : 1 ( ft)() 'J) bno k Cily of Drtrulfull>r!ie;ht: ;\ 'armlivts of Sexual /Jrrng;er in 's judlll .1 Ol\ l/, \ .. _ . . ' ' e 1 ' Jc h ~ 1 .. . ,. r 0 111011 \ \'tlkowi 17 uses re mini "L ;\ larx is1 a u el poststructura J~L app1o, e1 Late- ' 11/0 t WII ' 1 1 t ~he In~ _ 11 )lic ue tlw idea o l' wlwt llisto rl' i . In th t intrnd ucuon \ 1e 1\Tlll'S 1 1a ' lO cOl ll ' . 11 0 1' cfnngt mer til;1e' lhal is lh c kind ol narratile ,,.\. 1\'<ntld c.x pect resistet a na-ral e ' 1 1 l tC' tl 1 1I.SlOI'.I C'S from m oclet1 f mtC'lfl ' she e mrJIJasiSeS the diffcrl'lll '('U tura ;\11( ~l ' , .... 11.0 ,ecl in ., hislo rical fKTind and how thC)' ,,ork Jll re 1 a 11011 to O lll pcrspecll\ e~ 11 ' 1 r 1 . S he chooses lhc cill'. nin etecmh-ccntun Lonclo n. a~ < 111 e.xamp e o m oc Cl llll) '. 1 anol teore t, ler LO exp , 10 1.e, ti1 e ~lilfcrent Je rsJccti,cs ,,ihin m ode rnlly rather than hstor~ but 1n


5.2.7 1 Example: 'A maiden tribute to modern Babylon'

A11 example or recen histo rical writi ng that excmplifies so me oJ' thcse new approaches

ancltime a ~ a un-linear progrcss. . . h .. im )'lt' l of He r work, publishecl as li\'O co n sl.-c ulin~ chap ters m the book. o n L ~ . ..l. , . . . 1 . 1 th e }Ja/1 M a /f Ca:r>/11' 11 1f\8:1 ha:; prmokecl a ckba1.e aro uncl no lJI ISt fenHn~sl aJ Uc rv c~ but u . ssues 1.. . , 1 the chalner. inclllclinrr hi'LOtYa nd moderllll)' . hislo m a m of 1he 1 ,Jstc 11 ' "' ;_ .fO(J). h isto ; : as fact ancl h ~lor)' "' narralin~. T he r :,ns. wh ~eh ha~c hetn. t 1~~~~tsscc,1 . . r e s)ecti,cs b, .1 number of fw,ton:-. 11.-, are as lo lloi\ S. ln.Juh th t lr01n a l'111Cl\ O p l. ' f ' f ( th ' Illt' ' \ editor of the 't'rr/1 ,\/al/ Ca:('(fr. \\'.T . Stead. published a sen es o a rll c t'S une e 1 e _ . . B,Jbrlo n '. clai i g t o h<wc txpo~e d 1he sale o ( ~o un g )llo([c). 111 11 1 1 lo maiden trih11te A . k' _ .1 s crirls ror the )urpses of prostilllliu n. f hc anides causecl a lu ro rl' . . 11 01 111g e 's. '"' 1 \ - ..,. nssecl 111 ' ~ 1 1m. ~) . thc Criminal La11 . -\nH'JJC ,. month hu er. o n 1() .-.ug11. . me . . nt .- e1. "' ~ . ... Parl iamelH, raising thc agc COl1SCIII J()r g irls rrom [ :) 10 . ' b. gl\~ng poltcc ne_ " J~Ol\ (: ~ , ..,1nc1 1 Jt'Oihel-kee w rs aml nwking111cl.ccc nl , a c 1 ~ , bct11 lO prosecute p1.os_-. ututt~ . 1llegal ,_ l , ec n_ 1 .. . 1 . [ ll < ) ') -\ug 11 st a CI'OII'cf I.'Sillll<lLCcl a t ;b().IJ(l() ptopk t C l1 lU I1 1 co n ~el11111 0 " J11 ,\ (.' e l( 11 ~-- . ,' ., ' .. . f ' 11 . ( . lYII'h f'or l.f1 l' C::llfOJ'CC lllC'Ill of I!Jt fegisfa tOil lO prott'l'l )'O llllg g n S. su .ucc 111 \Ce ' . l ll 1 1 ' 'Hre::.. ' -\ s '' t el'~ ''ll " ~: , ~t " L u) me! \'igllancc co mnntl ' ''lttacked m u te J<t s ant t Jt:, 1, ' 1 cc cn ckcd clown 0 11 prostIIliOI1 ancl holllO$CXtl<ll lllCil . In 1 1C 0 r1 conscq u ene(' t 1 e P ' 1 1 \\' T Stcttf ,,.. ~ ~ ' thc circu [alOII of the /'al/ :\[(1{{ C:rru/1(' increascc )LII 1 S 1011 lCI 111. . ' l)lll'C f s' ncr' a \'OUI10' gr jr[ as l)aJ'l o (. hiS ' llO tht 'llld lllH:StJgaiiOllS 11 . trade 1' 1 1 ,., . prosecu 1e(l 1111 :" spentllm;> e mo nlh s in Ho llnwa\' pnson. The uuthl'ulnes~ n r Sleacl's ~CCOU111 \\'<lS qucqioncd aL thc LlllC t~s 1 ~~CII~ C fli.("Stio ned .subsc uenll\' b\' l1istoria ns (Corham. 1~17t\ : \\'tck: . 1_9~ 1) .Juc lt ~ . '~ ~~~~:~~ ': q OciC ' 1lt.~ tt: ' 'lrticlc 110 1 in L erms or IHl\\' Ll'llthlul 11 bu t a.s ,[ 11.111 .l tii C. 1 101\'C\'t' J', app1


l ~:->.1.




21 O lntroducing Cultural Studies

1 hi' kind ofn pprnar h '"" lwe11 piom't'll'd h1 1h c 'chool !1( lt i,lw ilal c ri1ici,m kiH!I\'n as ' lll'll' h bt,H'CSIII .. Tll t' i11\'('11 IOI' o r tlli., ll'llll . S ltphc: ll ( :l'l'l'll blat l. ( ldi 11 L'\ tlll' l Clllt'l' j)lllal OI'g'ill' of nL'II' hi,lu lici,lll <1'> ,1 l't':ICIOII lO lh t n aciCCJll:lll' ll'l'<II IIH' IIl o(' hi ~l<t l 1 1 )1' both i\lnn.:is m ( p . 97) .111d posls lrucluralis m (p . ~ -1 ). :\'c itlwr. ht ;Hg tt t'' can co pt 11i1h thc Lomplexitl o f m ockr11 n tl tu r c . Cn'1'11hlau Cl i ti (' iw ~ Fr1clri r ,I.Hlll''-011 :. ~l;u :~.i'lll for argtiI1){ t hat a liL 'Itatiun cr<'atc<; anifidal di1 ,io11'. 11'hik 1 IOtai(J', po,htruttlnali, 01 a1g11l'' that capitali"l1 makl'~ I'ITr~thing 'l'l'lll 1h1 ' ame (Crnnhf.111. 1989). In orclc1 10 'ho11' lw11 :1 propc:rh lti,twi cal ;I Jpro:tt lt tan n snln .' th i, dil tm m a. Greenblau tl'l l ~ 11 ,<ri el' o f' '1nries or antccln tc:~. :\'arratin~ ~loi' L'' i., :1 c haran cristi c of thc nc:11 hi , l<>t ic i~t sd I!ICI I and i1 is \U il H' 1h ing 1ha1 l;ree n hl:11 1 do e., 11i1h g-rc:al II' 1 and s kill. ;'\ t'll' h istorkist 11'1 lt'l',, , inl'fkc l.l'l' ltll'lllcttltt' ttldl'l' f 1111 <tlll i'LIHYas naiTniI'l' a' a ll'al ofrc,i.'l ingg rand ll .ll'l~ llii'C~ ol nmclelli ( ,I ) hi,IOI'I'. 1hl'il llll'll'\l s dii'C Cil'd liJ\\;ll'd' lil t' \\';\\'' ll 11flich h ,IOn , lt'prt''t'llll'd '' nan~11 ,.l' aiHI ho1, dil l'enut 11a1 ral i11, rd:H l' lo OIH' ;llllll h 11. L' 'ing 1ht langu.tgl' of Foucauh. 11 how 1hl'on ha, hl'l' ll \'l'IY i11lh1l' on ncw hi,lot ici.,m. \\'alkOII'itt 's inttrcst i~ cli t l't lcd 1 0\l'ard~ llo11' Stc .~rl\ anick imp.,,cd 01 ' tl'l'lain narratin log it 1111 IIJ< stor~ ol' p 1 o,tiltttion ' ;111d lto\1 1hi' n arratill' onlttw l 1' J'nr lllt'n a n d ll'ollttn ptnplc ~ cxpcritnct' :u te 1 11 t' lwd colhlt ll t' l .1 '-l' Xttal su b jl't 1i1i 1 1\\'afk<lll'i lt.. ( mJ ~: ~:\), ltll l'l'l'~ lill g l l . \\',tiJ..<lll'ill afso tttiJll.'\ ( l'l'cli'Cj:IIIICSOII 's ll'tll).. 011 n ;u rat in an d lti~tol"'. ldtt'll.' lw sa" tltat l ht na1rati1t can ' ll'ad u~ bad. 10 thl' concrete hi, '>ituation ol thl' IL.'Xl ihdr. In othl'r 11U1ds. slll' clt.111' on both ~lai:I:'>I and Fout .utldian tlwon. hui. .ha le 1nini,1 hi,lot i.m. <.he i' critica! ol bo th for gil'ing link o r 1w sp:tn lo tlw qm,tion ul II'OIIWII~ plan in hi<.lor\', .-\m ong- tite n:trra till' lim th shc lind,., in Stcad ~ < II'Lit ll' :t t't' thnsc o( tnl'loclt :tltta, late \ 'ir torian pol'llograph1 and f'nt:tS}' .111d tlt l' Cuth ic l'ai 1 '1' 1ak: httl m e luclr: tnla p 1 m id t' th c prin tn ."ll'tH'III t'e t. h rouglt ll'hi ch tlt l' tale o l th c 'l'duuio n ol puor girl~ 1>1 1 it' ious ari,tocrat., i' w ld. \\'alkm,itl. ;u gucs lhal. a' thl' mo~l im ponan1 llll.'a t rira l aliC I litt'lill\' f'onn ol' thl' ninl'tl'l'tlllt et'IIIIIIY ntdodran1a appe.1kd lo ,, popular auclin iCl'. lt iiiC;>rpc u attd both a class an d a ' l''";,j ll:tiT<III'l.'. thl. 1110'1 r ummon .,nnario in rlnd ing an uppl'r-r l a~~ mak 'illain, a 1101 kingr la'' lll'rn 01 grie1 in g- lal h e r ancl tlw ht' l'oilll'. Chtss ex ploi1.11 ion :t ncl 1\'lll ' kin g-d as~ l'it 1i1n i'a t ion 1rc n : n pnst n tl'CI tltro u gh a tta rra1 l't' or sexual cxploi 1al ion. Th is tt :t t'l'al il'l of ll tl' rapac iom ari stoc r;n \l'as ttsl'cl b~ bollt r<tdi cal. 11orkin g-r l;"~ O l 'g'an i<;Hi o t t.~ and by l't-lltilli,ts in tite nill t' lL't' tlth cc mnt'l' as parl o l arg ttiiH.'IIh lo1 ~ od a li,lll ancl IIOillt'll's l'lllanripation. TIHI'. ~tcad\ narralin had bo1h popul.1r ami rlson a n n, lor its aucli tun. 1 IOII'CII'I'. \\'alkm1iv., point i' 10 ,JlClw th.ll 11<11 onh ll'a' the narratiH of 'A 111aiclen t.-ibute' ho th popular ancl political. bu1 tha l it~ l'l'Cl'ption and th c lU iiural ('CJil\l'<(lll ' li('L'~ n( thotl n ceptioll 1\TJ'e COiltradi c tor~. 1\'th intplicatiO IIS lor tiH' histOII t ia", getHkr. racl' :ut<l 'l'X lt:t li ll. In rl'lal io 11 10 rlass. :11 lir't th e anid e :tppc:ll'l'd to han a ttnil'~ ing- dll'lt. 1Jrin g i11~ IO).{t'I IHr a ll'i<k c o11 ~ 1 ituc nn of m idd 1\'-rla'' and ll'urki ttg-cla!>' womcn. malt- lr:tclc u n io11 i'-h atl(l Chri,tian~ in a cuupaig-n ag.timt upplr-d.t" ,i('c. T h t C1 i111in al J..m \ nwn d llll'll l .\ u 11a' 1111' most t<ulgibk tl,uh of tlw popul;u mobil i,a tion. C:lthing Parlianwtll LO pass ll-g-i,f:n ion 1hal ha el htt n ,,IJecl for nar,.. \ , cn:n 1s ll lll'all'lled. holl'l'IL'l', th c cc>tl\t'tlll' ll ll'' ll'l'l'l' un tnn .tnd tl con~ i\l t'lll. \\ ':tlktmil; poi11h uutlhatthl' polti ca ! posi1ions tlt:ll nw loclr:nna Ct\':t lt'' :11'1 th l'lll~l'ht' contradictor\'. \\'ontl' tl ;u 1d

Culture, time and history


1\'0 I'){Cla:-' llll'll 11'('1'1' l'l'j>l'l''t'll l('c\ ; , 1 it lil11 \ o(' Cb sS :tlld \L''Il,tl l')>plnitatiOII :1 11(1 1hi' r;ti'C tl H' I11 a r:tlhing poi111 lor pro lt''l. On tlll' o1 lwr h :ul(l. llll 'ubjc:c tiliti.e~ c rea 1rd h1 ~11' ('O IISIIll t' IOII o l lhi'I lit li lnhnctd 1\'tt't p:ts\il'l' a nd tltt tS lhl' polt(a( di SCOlii'SL' linllCd tlt l' pos,iltiliil'' lcll' IIHir , c lf-c otl\ll'll t' Ictn :t'- polilical agt'llls. Thi' con,uuc tion uf ,u f>jlrt il'ill hada 'Jll'tilicdh gcndl'l'l'cl dilllL'll,ion. The hcroine i~ co n ~tnlctecl.l' llll.' IH'.tkt,tthai~IClt' l' in lht narratill' and i' cknil'cl :1111 l'Xprl' ,ion ol hl'l' 011'11 ck~I'l''>. De,i tl', in l.trl. i, t'lllil'l'h lht propCrtl u f llll' \ illaitHlliS ar io;tocrat. \0 th:tl 1)tcrc !> n u ruum lot ,t ~ual txpn,sion tlt a l is ttot a n cxprl~~ inn ol l'icc. This 111l':t111 tlt:tt 1hl' d e bate 11a, co nrlt tCtL'd in term' th:tl rd "'l' d a l'l'tog n i1io11 o r ll'omtn ' dt'i l'' Tltt' poli tic:t l :tiiCI r ultu ra l l'< HI\L'qm n n~ 11'\'rt' ,jmilarh CO II tradinon. \\ 'h ile tit e prol t''" -c tT .tg.1in~t tlt t t''P I.,it:uicHl o l' 1\'orking-c l.t" ll'llllll'll. illt'l'l'a~tcl policl' ac ti\'ll tllt':lltl 11 that unaccompanicd II'OIIlt'll. cspccialh 11'orki11~-cb~~ IWIIlt'll . lll'l'l' 'ubjcct to ll',ltit lion' nn thcir llHIH'IIIt'lll in public p la n ,. \\'.lll..m~ill IITitl''- tltal tht tiiOWlllt'lltlot 'odal p 111 it y impo~l'CI .1 (\i,t iplin:u' regime o n llorking-rla-., ,,omt'll . btll it caused midclkcla~~ II'Ollll'll to ' t''J>lon 1h c:i t 1111 n se)> ttal ,ttlljtni1 i11. lc;tdi ng 10 l' X p crinH' IIt~ in nnn 1 11adta 1 r c l;ttion ~h i P' and a l't'Co n siclt t <ti iu tl o( tlt1 ro l<' ol' ltirllt r ont rol. l s~ u l'.~ ol n dlu ra l rli l'fto t'l'll ('(' might 'l'l' lll l't' lll<ltt' rrnnl tlw polit ic d l '\'l'lll.'. 111 l'au . Lo udctll 's pu,i tion '' t.lpital ol ;111 inttTII.Hiollal e mpire mt:ull 1ha1 upltta\'altlttt'l' rtlctlwrations aro u nd 1hc 11nrld. Fnr t:~o.unpfto. thl' co nscqut'tlt'l'' ola t han~t in t ht 1.111 J>l'l':td th roughout thl 1\1 iti'h Fmpirl'. Euro p ean Coll,ll un ion' ol f<>mininit' ll'l'l'l' expontdttnptohllmalir.tlh 111 th1 rol clllit, 1dH'I'l' 1he1 tomhimd 11ith rac i't p1auin' Allt'lllJ>I'> to ,uppn:-' p1chlilttlion in l~n g l a nd ll'l'l'l' ll'<'lll'>I nn cd into lt'galllll'i'UI't'S 10 ~wp rt'l:ttiull'>hip. , i>v lll'l'l' lt ll' h itts and r o loni,L'd p eo pJe,. \\'alki>II' lt. reconl' ll t<tl. in sonH r:t'L'' thl' al lt'lll l)l 111 " 1ppr ess pro'l i 111 1inn nwant tlt t' i m posi 1io n ol' ol'l'trial prolt ibi 1i u n ~ agai 1 1~ 1 1iai ,ott.s wit h "n:ll i1 t' II'OIIH: n . hU ' . a 1.111' tnactl' d i 11 th l' impl' l ia l llll'lropoli<. had hing l'lftct' in 1h1 ddinition of rarial' ami 'cxua l idclllitit, in B1 iti'h colon ic' Om in1ponan1 olhhc~tll ol th c: . \ ct 11.1' lht rna ti on of .1 lll'll' n ime rc la 1ing 10 holllll~txt~ . tl mtn. and i1 11';., tiiHler tlli -; la11 1hat Osear \\'ilck ll':t~ ~~ ttl l'IICt'cl t o 1 11'0 nar;' h:t n llaho tt r ll' ll ~t ar' l. llt'l' (sl'l' abme). T lttl, , t.lllll'r titan pro1icl in g- cqua lit ~ lJL'lll'l't'n llll'll a tt d 1\'l)rtll'll , t it e 1.111 and 1lw ,-ig ilan tl' comm iLLt'l''- atll'd wgtt ll<'r to l'l'SII' t' l :tll t'Xpl't'~~ill th llf dt'\I't' . lfi,llll'l Jt;, tu l'klll th t' llll>rl'clCiahk ll'\ttlh o r IIIOdl'l'll,ll).\' plan~ 1dtich. lar ft 0111 p 1m iding an llli(>I'Oblt-matic 11\u\ l'lllt'lll ft~rwarcl. han co nseclll' IICn that 1equin a< on1pltx narr:IIit' :-lr.uq.," on thc patt of thc hi,wrian.



Past and present

\\'alkow itt ., :tccoui H uf th l' .tlt<'rlllatlt o l tltt pt th licai<llt ofo111'. :tlhc itltig h ll sig ttillr:tll l. anir k ... h ows ltow rctn tpl it':lll'cl tlt e re la tion,Jtip hetii'L'l'll ntllltl'l' .111cl hi~1o n anualh i'. \ \'ha1 in .1 linl'ar. (';llt.,ai Jti,wn cnuld bt ~t't'll "' onl legal :lll ol p 1og 1e~' i' 'l'l.'ll lo t t'l'.tll' ~ubjl'CI i1 it ie' .tlollg clh j,iolh ol gtndt'l .111<1 da" (idea' ol P'"i~t. 1 ict imi,ecl. 11 nrk ingcl:t" kminini11 a ncl ar1iw. pndatnr\'. u ppl'r-cla" ma~cu l inill ' ). ol 'l'X Ualitl' (n t'l,. legal d e lin i tiun ~ ul male lt ut lloscxt t:t lill) aucl ol ' ran (th c rl'rldi ttiti nn of tiH' re latiun,hi) bc tll'l't' tl Europcan tlll'll a n d th t ~~onw11 ul ro lo11ised cou nt t'il''l \\'alkoll'i tz's p o in t is

212 lntroducing Cultural Studies

tltaL th cse c ulwral conscq utnccs ca nnol he undcrswod a~ pan o f o ne hi.swrical narra. 1hc. Thl, are. in faCI , produccd h1 lltl' ll < llT< ll hes th rough ,,hich peopk- undcrstooct thlir 0 11 n ti111 c. :~n d lhl' busin<'ss o l histot 1 is w a ua lysl' llw sc 11arra i\'CS. This aCCOlllll or \\'alkO\\'ill's h i'>loricalllll'lhod lea\l'' out ()11{' important a,pect. that XISI. Tlw ro nclusion to Cityo is ho \\' 11 1<' pn,cn l <kal ~ with lht n:ll rati,c~ lcftto it by llw J /Jrradjul IMi!(hf mal-e!> it d car t ha l th l conccrn~ that guidt:d tiH: boul-'s fot m and con ten t 11ere pro\'01-td b~ the poli1ics of tht wnmcn's moHnwnt ;utd in panic ular the ck batl'~ abmu ~cx ua l ,iole nn 1hat occurrcd with in Bri 1i'h ft' tlli ui m cluring tlw 1980s. \\'alko,,ilt. n :ad\ thc late uinetnnlh Cl'llturY 1hro ugh 1hc political conclTns of the prl'Scnt, 1\'hich 'inc itcl thc c ultltra l nnd historical in q uir~ l'l'Sulting i11 City oj /Jreodjul Uelight'. Sh e dtsnibc' th e hooks projec1 a' an aucmpt to rewrn 10 'a forma1i1c momen t IIT< ltiles ofscxu<t l d a ngcr' ( 1992: in 1hc prod uc1ion of fc m ini., l po li1ics a nd ni popular n< 2-1:~ . Jn 1h is 'e ttsc tht cu ltmal politics of the presetll can in lurm out undcrstanding of thc pasl. ln dti' case, a femi nist pnspecthc ill uminatl' ~ cen a in aspccts ol ninelccnthCl'tHury hi~ to t'\ , l-lo\1'(.' \ 'lT . \\'a lkowil7 is i'are ll w poin t outtltat conletuporarv fcminist debate\ abo ut :.txual dang-cr. for exam ple tha1 over dte ca~e of Pe 1 e r tncliiTc who mnrrkrcd thnn:n \\'o m en i>c tii'C<'ll 1~1 7!i and 19S l , arl' a lso fralnccl ,,ith in narratil'es and dm1 1\ ritin~ history is ahout nlating 1he narrali\l'~ of 1hc presen1 10 t hose of the past in snc h a way t hal 1hcy do 1101 show i1 to l)l abo111 single Gtttscs a ncl dfeu~ ( 19\!2: ~ 1 1-5). \ \'IH: rc nc,, h i~toricism h a~ use el Foucault and nana! i1e analy is w re-txamine histury, thc imponancc ofco ntemporar~ po li1ics in \\'alkowi1z's 1mrk 1a kes hc r c loscr to Do llimore\ u tltura l tnatcria li ~m. For c ultura l ~lltdies 1hc contcmporary poltica! mesof c ultural histOr\' remain an imponanl fac 1 or in all hi torical work.

Culture, lime and hislory 213

The kind of historic;d "ork clone "'ithin cultu ra l stud~ts is c_m~ce~necl to .l'ore~r~un.d es "O tll'll culturt is nol ~een n~ a sub-bran rh o l t he dtsttph nc uf h1stOI) '' het e }lCSt' ISSI1 ' ' . .. . . . .. . .. . 1 J1 btorY i ~ bncke te d a long 1\'tlh miluarv htston, SCICtHt hc htstot~ ancl so on, bu t culntta ' . . . . 1 . tJ1-11 all forms of his10n 1\'111 1- "'tlhlll a cntHeXI \\h e1 e culll.u al 1:1lucs .me . ra11e1 1 ,:,eanings act so as 10 eren te lll tclersl:lncling~ and di,p111es.

5.J I If/when: the future

In his section, ,,e look :nth e concep1 of llw future. 01 nece \ty ~hi' means that ilti~ seclio n is shorter 1ha n Jw previous two. The l'uturc does no t yct_cx tsl. l t ac1s . ."'~ther, a~ a border or hori1on be~ond which 11e canno1 go, but onto wh1ch \\'(' ca_n p!OJCCI o ut es a ncl lcars. lk low we lool- a t 11te l'uturc orie nlation of mod c nlll \'. ttS preoccupa10P . \ . .1 1 1'i th th e ne11' ancl it\ belil'f in the pro~pect ol change ra ther than MaSIS. \e cons1c er uon ' . . . lhe conccpt of uto pia :md the impo nance of utopianism a ncl d~: l.o pt~nt s m 111 o ur 'CC]l tions of futurc time. Thc scicnce lktion gcnre o l' cvberpun k "dtscu~sed asan pet . . . . r .. example of na rra1 i1cs of lht future. \\'e suggcst lhat llts thc un cenatll l) of tl.t c tttllt ~ m odcrnitv that spms 0 11 r intl'I'CSI in hi~tory. \\'e wish to karn to pred1ct poss1 ble lll . 1 \ ,. 1 13 . . outcomcs from !he _xperienn o f lht pasl. Fin all~ ,,e <ou~gesl t tat . a ter c n~am1n_ <; concept of the constc llalio tt is 1ht> hl'St ,,.,1\' 10 uncle rswncl the no n-ltn ear rc la tuntshtp bct11ccn past, prtsent and fuwre. . . ]L wo u\cl he \\'1'011?,' 10 S<1)' t.h ill the f'u ture i!' a m odern ll\'Cilll O il . rh e C<~ll~'e ]>IS Ol J)<1SI, prc ent and fu tut e exi~t in clillerent f'o rms in mo~t cultures. llm,enr. ~~ ~~ t n~e w _ s~, that modcrnit, hns been unusually orientatecltowards thc futurc. Antom ( otcldens 1,1\ks of modemil\';S 'coloni ation of thc fmure. its projcction forwanl into 1ime in an aucmpt to con trol ancl organi~e t ht o utcomc of current c1cn~s (Cidclc ns. 1991: 11 1) . The modcrn idea of an o bjcctivc linear hi~tm~ a~'ume' a cen:un past ancl a 1utllt'l' 1ha t can be planncd for. lmtitutions. businesscs, g01c rnmen ts and i~tdi' iduals prq~aH' lot what is lO co 1m bl' considc ri ng what has happe nl'd be forc. Fred n c j a mcson a rg ues thal 11 1he micl-ninelc~nth nntun a ne11 hiswrical sense in the nmel gin~~ way w a sensc of the ftnurc. The e me rgc nce of scic nce fi c lio n in the scconcl half of tlw n ine lecnth centur\' lcd to a sh ift in our re la tionship to hi<;torical time' ([amc~on. 1982: 149). (\ovels of 1he fu litre succeecll he hi~torical no1Tis o f thc carl~ nine teenth cenllll)': 'S F as a fo nn ... now registcrs somc nasccnt sc nsc of th l' fu ture. a ncl cines ~o in the spa~c on whirh a sen se o f the past hacl once been in~cribed ' ( 19R2: 150) . For .Jamcson .sCtcncc fic tin n j:o; a ho ut 1he difri culty of coming 10 te nns " 'ith tite prcsent. lt clrama lii'CS o ur ' incapaci1y to imaginl' th c fut11re'. ami as "'eh b 'a con1Cmph11 ion of our o,,n al~sohllc limi ts' ( 1982: 1:3). 1nl tresl ingl~ mocle rn scie ncc fic tion e me rges a 1 1~t e sall~ t utn t as moderni~m in an ancl literature. ll \ appe ara nce in the seconcl half o l the n metecnth centu ry ro rresponds 1 o the c mergence uf moclcrnis1 fi ction ami po<'l t')' _i~1 Frat~ce: ~~te no1 cls of G ustave Flauhen ( 182 1-HO) an<l 1he pocttY of Cha rle' Bauclela u e ( 18_1-t>') j ulcs \'ente ( 1828- 1~05) publishecl 1'oyagr to the C1'111re o( the l:arth in 1H64. In Englat~cl, mo cle rnist rra its do no t become full~ prcscn t until lllt' 1 890~. a mong acsthe tes hkc



\\'e can conchtde thi' o;ection b1 m nlining fin

cul tu ra l ~ ludi es:

a reas of inltTcst 1 0 h is1orical ,,ork in

1. T ht l'orm a nd conte nt of a particular hislorical li'Xt. Fnr example . its na rra1i1e struc u1re. !iterar) tec hniq ues and re la1ionsh ip to o ther tcxts in thc period. 2. Tlw 1ahus a nrl conflich COIWtincd ,,jJtin 1he li'Xt. Fnr exam ple, i1s ideology, disco u r'e~. ho\1' lltl te x l tal-es sieles. me diato nlltll ic t' or atlcmpl~ re olutiom.

T he ,,ay 1h:u tht historie;, [ rc~<:arch has btTil conduned: ho" tlle <.' l'idencc ,,as ~c lcnccl ancl IIS<.cl. For :xa tn p lc. ha:. i1 uscd historical clorumetlts o r archeological e1iclence or bu1hi- \\'hal phito~oph, oflti,lot~ or historical fntme\\ork is 1he hi~10ri<1n IISilg'?
llistorie~ ntcd lo be placee! in dtci1 broadcr c ultural conll:x l, Sl't'll as of their 1ime a m i place. \\'e ll<.'l'cl lo kn o11' ahout 1he c ullttt'l' ll'ith in 1dticlt the history was resean hcd a nd 1\rittcn. il:. \'ahtt ~ and conflic h.


5. \\'e also nc td to kttow 1hc place n i thc indiricl11a l hi ~torian within 1hat culture and her or h i' 1dationship 10 it:. ,al u es and conllict: fot e xample. hi:. or hcr political belic l\, 111<.' ac:td c m ic chool to ll'hich ~ h e u r he be longs.



lntroducing Cultural Studies

Culture, time and history


Osear \\'ildt and IHI\Ciia' like Jmcph Conracl. Tht 1S9th \\";h 1he decade \\'h<n I I.C \\'e lls pu bli<.h<d hi~ fiN nmeb: Th, Timt .\larhint ( 11'\!J."J) and Thr 1\ iu oft/t,. \l11 td~ (189f{) .



Donna Haraway, 'A cyborg manifesto'


Utopia and dystopia

The futurc o ri e nta li on or m o clc mil,. aJTnls ll lt' ,,a, 1\'t 1h ink a hout hoth I I1lt aud hi:;toiY. The ht ltl rt ac 1~ a' a kincl oJ' h u ri.wn. 11'ltir h . in llw ,,orcb o f :'\ikJa, l.tthma nn can ll l'l tT bcgin ('t't' Bo:-. :l. IO). \\'t pn~jccl h t':-1 ;11\clll'or>l outcome' 0 11 10 1hc l tttur~ hori;.o n : uwpia' ami ch,ll>pia~. T he word ' utopa' , .1 neolo~i~m lll t' llltd 1)\ 1 huma~ .\ lo rc. combining 1he Gl t't'k t'lllofJia (a happ1 placl') and outoJia (11n planJ. This comhinationiH:';IIh ddinc~ 1hc dio;;tinnion bctiH' l'll a 111upia a n d utopian'-111 .. \utopa is a hlucprint ola ht'llt'r \OCl'l\' - a h a pp1 p lac<- b n1 h.t'> tiH di~;uh-;uHagt ol cl o~in~ dmrn o ther possibk ,,...,' of im a~inin~ imprmTm cnt. l ' 1opiani,m, b~ con 1ra'1. i, k,, 'Pccific; i1. o ffers no p lacl' in panic1dar. lm1ead . i1 clt'fi lll'' a scn <:t of lack 11h ir h ' IIIHtla les il ' cle.sire for a bcllt' r ll'a~ uf hcing' ( l.t\ i1a,. 1!)!HI: K). Th e rlirt<:rt n rt h l'lll't'l'll 1hc represen l;ttion o t' a 11 tu pia a iHI u wpia 11 ,11 1 mi ~ IH bt d escri be el as 1h e d i 1f( 1 1nrc bctween d etl'l'ln ina lt' and co nditio11al futll l't'.' . Dt' ll'l'lninat c futUI T:. ex lr;l pobl< from pre en l te n dl n cics ;m el m a1 ponen el ch,lu pia~ '' ll'd l a~ Ul<>pia'. Condi1 iona l ftttures explore th t con t radinion~ of the pre~e nt. pt r~uin){ 1heir conpltxitl'. ancl ollt t 111 urcs that are po~'iblc n11hcr 1han predett n nined ou1 come~. 1\'aiT<li\es of conclilicmal fulllre:. re'i~l tcc h nological cletcrminalion and <oncentrate more on lh l co111plcx in tc r actio n o f social rt'1:11io n s a n thangc.

Frn1 11 Oll t' pt' l ~ J)lT iiiT . ,, (~ b<>rg \\'ol'id , ;l>O UI lh l' tina! in1po~ilion of' :1 ~riel o f ron1rol o n illt' p l;n1t'l. about th c fin ;d .Jbclication c mbu di ecl in illt' S wr \\'ars apnra l\ p.\ l' \\ a~td in lh t 11 :1111l' uf cll'fi. n Sl' . a (HJtll lil e !1na[ appi'Oj)Iaion O J' 1\'0IIl l'll .' l>odic, i 11 < 1 1nasc 11 li 11 i't nrg1 of 1\'ar. Fro111 anuthtr p e L '' I)L'ClI'c, ; ry borg 1\'tHid m ig h1 be abo ttl lil'td 'mial and bucli l ~ l t'<lli tit' in "h it:h ptople an mll af'1.1id o l t ht'irjoi11 1 kin,hip \\ ith a nimal' .mclnlachim' not ah .lid of pcmamHly panial iclt'lllitit"' and conlradiltol\ ,,lllclpoinh.

5.3.2 1 Narratives of the future

r h e Iilll' o!' nwclel'l l i 1~ ll('OI'J>Oralt'S a k i 11cl u f ~ t'al'll n g f'1 11' a b c ltCI' plan tha 1 \\'(' 111 ig ht be ab le lo :tl' hien in 1h e f'uiiiiT. ConS<'fJUl'll th. wc :uT;t ngc o u r cuncc 1llin n o/' 1hc p::m aiiCI th e )>l'l.:''l'nl in rdation lo our d e.-.irt' ' J'nr th c fntli i'L'. Sonw n arrat\'t l'o nn~ are ablc lo 1 Tp re ' CIII litis betHT 1han 0 1hc rs. Roman ce \ 1 wr hap' th c moo;;t dfecti\'l. lwrau~c it



Niklas Luhmann, on the future

Futurc il st lf, and 1hi' mcans pao;;t f"tttttn s ;b ll't ll ,1, 1hc prescnt f'u llll'!' mu' t be rn n cc ilc cl ;ts pos, ib ly quitt' clif'ftTc nL fro111 il a . pa'l. !1 can n o lo n gcr lw r h;tr:tcL c ri nd a~ a pproar hin g :t tttrning p o in1 ,,h c rc i1 re ltii'IIS i11to th c pastor 111wrc th c o rd cr o f thi~ IHJrld 0 1 tnn lime ibtlf i:> c h angcd. 1t 11\a\ con1ain . as a f"lll llliona l eqni1alcnt fi11 lht c ncl of time. Clllt'l"gcnl proptrtiL, and not-yet-l'l':tlited p<>-,ihilitie~. 11 b<come~ :m ope11 llllurc.
Lulun.11111 l l!lit;: 1.11 1

incorpora ll'\ clcsirt into i1s Sll'll t' lli H'. f h t \llupiall~Ill of 1'0111:\II CL' les llOI in its co n~ l ntt' l h >11 o J' a pan in da r 111 opi;111 b lu epri 111., btll in i1 ~ tx p n s., ioll of a scn SL' ol'lack. so th at 1\'t' kt l th.u ll'h at 1\'e h:tH' b in ;1 ckq u ;u e. b1111hat ~a 1bfitn i on 111:1\' b l ;\llained .som (' lillt' in lht lu111re. \\'h a lewr o ur l'l'll:till\' abou1 1he o r th t prt''C'II I. th e futurc alwa\:> i111oh e.s a en~e u l unnai n l\' ll'hich un~c ulcs o u r 1cmporal stn,e. 1 h e e nd of 1lw l\\'l'lllieth celllttiY has bcen a p.u1indarh' unccnain periocl ol 1nockrn i 1~. to lh e ex1cn1 111.11 i1 , ~omctime<. e ha rae 1<'1 i'ccl a <o pmtmodern. P ostmod c mity (p . ..JOO) descriht''- a 1111111her nf dillerl'lll 'mi.ll l hange': the g J uba J i~. l lion' ol llll' I\'OI'Id'~ eCO IHl lll ~, lllt' gro,,h in popuhtli<>n llHln' llll'lll' an cl t h e 'IX'l'cl and quanl II' uf inrorm a lio u l'XC h a nge... - ;JI nr \\'lli r h h.t\'l' t h:lnged our ,-j,ium oJ' lht rulllrl'. In hcr cssay. ,\ Cl b(Jig III;Lnir<.sto ' ( ll a ra\\'a~ . l ~ l~ll ). Donna H a rawa~ oulli n 1.~ llwst d eiT lo p lllt' 11l~ ;t\ pal'ill..;" ii H' 11'<11' f'o r l\\'0 pn~s iblt f'tlllll'l'~: a l t' l'rirYill ~ I'SOil u f social !'OIIIrof 0 1' ll C\\', t' lllan r ip;UoiY pos.sibilitits (~tt l~nx :"1 . 11 a nd rcfer lo ~t'C ii on 7.5). - his o pposili nn op lr;lll'' a dia lcc lic between d<lennina lt' aml co ndilional lutures. \\'llcrt a determ n a te f'u1un promisc.s Ji xcd and conlrollt'cl icltn tilie'. an alte1 n a iI't. a nd pcrhap ~ eq u all~ fri~l utnin~. prmpect i~ the lac J.. ol :111\' unillccl iden ti t~ at a ll. Po,lmt>cltrn n borg liction, txplorc Lhe kind' ol ickntitk' lllT<kd l<> lin in th e mw 1\'Udcl ( :\kCrackc n . 1997). f h ty allt'lll j>l 10 thinJ.. tluough llw prohknt of lht ~el f in a cnl1 1l'XI \\ h tre the cuhtn a l honndarit'' are co n ~ 1a nth ~ hif1 ing. T lw n e\\ p h wali-.m ~uggc\tl' d b1 pnstmod tn i, lll , orlt'll d iffic ultto I'(.'COI1C1l' \\'ilh lh t' l\\'t' l11ielh Ct'nltll'\' ..\ ll'lldt'II C\' IOI\"<l rcls glubal i,;Hio n ;nd ,, mdard i~; uion . Sollll' of 1hc con1radic 1ions ot' lh e ll l'l\' CUI1\ ICll;1 1io n an: t'X p lm td in a scicn tT liCi inn 1110\'l' lll t' lll ,,hic h t' m e rged in il11 1\IIHk c~be rpunk. Cyberpu nh. h a., becn de~cr iiH'd ]y Frt'C iri c .Jam eson as a nc1,. l~'Pt' ol sct' ll Cl' fl c ti n n . .. ,,hic h is fulll a~ muc h an cx prc"iun n( lr:IILsn ;Hiona l cor p oralt' rla lit it.~ as i1 is o f g lobal paranoia il \('lr (Jamcson. 1~l!ll: :\J. "lla tllo\'t' lll t' n l is tru e 10 it.- n al1\t' in ih ~kilru l o;clf: p romotion. lt t'Xtrapolate~ from lhc r ul-lhroal nnsumcr socit'l\ o t' the 1\lHOs aiHI th at d ecacJc', in( na,ing di,ide btl,,nn 1ith and poor. Tlt fiuional "orld ol' th t hestknown p1 opomn t ol cybcrpunJ... \\' illi.1111 Cib,ol1, describe~ a ITcogni,ablc geo-p nl i1 ical ~~Sll'lll, c harat H'l ,ed b1 1\'C'.tk nation-,tal<' ' and dominan! lr:u1,11<H ionals. 11-. incq n ;1li1ies

2 16

lntrod ucing Cu ltural Studies

Cultu re, time and history


rcfkc l th c lo n g--te rm te ncl c n c ies of lil e g loba l cco norn~ predict e d b)' David Har\'ey: h c ig h te n ed in te rnali o na 1 a ncl inte r-rcgio n a l co m p e ti lio tt , ,,ilh th e lcast acll'an taged co untric~ a nd rcgion~ sn ffcri ng th e ~c,cres t con sequ enccs ( llaney. 1990: 183). Btu, th o ugh in,pircd by the ckl'clopnwn t o f llC\\ tech n ologic~ like ,iru ra l r cality, p ersonal rompulers nncl th e lntt'l'lll'l. Cibson ~ n a rra ti,es focus as much on lhc socia l con ttaclic lio n s thn nm up b~ ler hnol ogl' a~ thl mac hin e r~ itself'. On 1he o n e hancl. cyberpunk is resolu lc ly posthumanist. lt cle lig hh in th c transformario n of ,,hat is m cam by b eing huma n : G ib~o n 's charac tc rs c mplm genc ri c e n g in nring. drugs a n d adl'a n cecl fo nns of surge~ lO tran sfonn th e tn~cln~s. On th e o thcr h a nd .