What is Design?

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Etymology & Grammar
• Comes from Italian word disegno: drafting or drawing of
a work; or the idea at the root of a work.

• A noun and a verb.
“Design is to design a design to produce a design.”

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

According to the OSU Department of Design
• Design is a purposeful, systematic,
and creative activity.

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Fine Art vs. Design
The primary motivation in:

• Art is usually oneself. • Design is usually others.

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Overview of Design History & Contributions

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

The Real Beginnings
• Stone tools created 2 million years B.C.

chopper

hand axe

scraper
Department of Design The Ohio State University

needle

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Industrial Revolution
• 1765-1880 • A shift from craft labor to mass production; workshops to
factories.

• Mass production and interchangeable parts allowed
design standardization.

• Steam engine. • Mass production & Mass marketing.
Design 200: Introduction to Design Department of Design The Ohio State University

The Steam Engine
• James Watt • 1765 • England • Powered by steam: expanding and cooling water within a
cylinder drove a piston up and down.

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Mass Production
• Cheap products, mass produced quickly. • Poor quality. • Many different styles: classical mythology, Baroque,
Gothic, Romanesque, Renaissance. were interchangeable.

• Lots of Ornamentation: machined lathed/band saw parts

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Steam Engine?
• Classical façade. • Excessive Ornamentation

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Toilet?
• Reference to classical
mythology “Chimaera,” part lion.

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Telephone?
• 1888 on top • 1914 on bottom

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

New Manufacturing Technologies
• Bent Beechwood • Thonet, 1859
Chair No. 14 Rocker

• Thonet, 1860

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Mass Marketing
• Josiah Wedgewood’s Pottery factory. • Used old energy sources: horses, moving water; not
steam; 1769.

• First to market to the middle class; pioneer of mass

marketing; earthenware that was affordable, aesthetically pleasing, could take sudden changes in temperature; quick to produce.

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Singer Sewing Machines
• 1850- Isaac Merritt Singer designs • 1855- Singer becomes the world's
first in-line shuttle sewing machine. largest sewing company. Singer begins overseas expansion, starting in Paris, France, making Singer the world’s first international company.

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Installment Payments
• 1856- Edward Clark, working for the Singer
Manufacturing Co., originates the “hire-purchase” plan, the prototype for all installment selling or time payment purchases.

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

World Fairs or Exhibitions
They provided an International marketplace, International competition, and exhibited the latest advancements in technology.

• London, 1851 • Paris, 1889
Design 200: Introduction to Design Department of Design The Ohio State University

The Road to Modernism

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Changing Aesthetics
• Driven largely by new technologies in manufacturing and
materials.

• Steam bending wood • Steel • Glass • Curvilinear vs. Rectilinear.
Design 200: Introduction to Design Department of Design The Ohio State University

Curvilinear vs. Rectilinear
C. R. Mackintosh French Furniture Company

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Curvilinear vs. Rectilinear
Henery van de Velde Frank Lloyd Wright

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Frank Lloyd Wright
• Guggenheim Museum • New York, 1956

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

“Form follows function.”
• Louis Sullivan • Chicago

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Simplification & Abstraction

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Perspective & Rationale

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Corporate Identity
• Peter Behrens • AEG - Electrical Products Manufacturer

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

The Bauhaus
• Founded in 1919 by
Walter Gropius

• Weimar, Dessau, Berlin • Closed in 1933 due to

the rise of the Nazi Party in Germany.

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Constructivism
Propaganda & Social Messages

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Streamlining
Transportation, Future Forms, & Marketing

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Evolution of a Chair

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

Red & Blue Chair
Gerrit Reitveld, 1918
Design 200: Introduction to Design Department of Design The Ohio State University

Chair
Marcel Breuer, 1921
Design 200: Introduction to Design Department of Design The Ohio State University

Wassily Chair
Marcel Breuer, 1925
Design 200: Introduction to Design Department of Design The Ohio State University

Barcelona Chair
Mies van der Rohe, 1929
Design 200: Introduction to Design Department of Design The Ohio State University

Grand Comfort Lounge
Design 200: Introduction to Design Department of Design The Ohio State University

Lounge Chair Wood
Charles and Ray Eames, 1945
Design 200: Introduction to Design Department of Design The Ohio State University

RAR Rocker
Charles and Ray Eames, 1948
Design 200: Introduction to Design Department of Design The Ohio State University

Lounge Chair &
Design 200: Introduction to Design Department of Design The Ohio State University

Tulip Chair
Eero Saarinen, 1956
Design 200: Introduction to Design Department of Design The Ohio State University

Panton Chair
Verner Panton, 1959
Design 200: Introduction to Design Department of Design The Ohio State University

That is about all we have time for.
Without taking another two hours to cover Scandinavien, Minimalism, Post Modernism, Deconstructivism...

Design 200: Introduction to Design

Department of Design The Ohio State University

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