As discussed in the previous article, training isn’t anything more than a continuous process of adaptation. Every training session, exercise, set, rep, and so on serves as a stimulus that can lead to a training ef f ect. T he purpose of this article is to examine how to alter the stimulus to provide the desired adaptations.

Three general f actors
According to Z atsiorsky, there are three general f actors of adaptation—stimulus magnitude, specif icity, and accommodation. T he stimulus magnitude is quite simply the actual volume, intensity, and choice of exercises. T he specif icity of the training load is how well the actual tasks perf ormed in training will transf er to the competitive event. Finally, accommodation is the actual adjustment that has been made that results in an increase in the potential of work and a decrease in reaction to the physical load applied. From here, we will f urther examine these f actors.

Stimulus magnitude
As stated above, the stimulus magnitude revolves around the f ollowing three f actors: Volume of load—total amount of all work perf ormed Intensity of load—ef f ort calculated either as a percentage of a maximum, heart rate response, or rate of exertion Exercises selected—actual movements being used to bring about a training ef f ect T he three f actors above have to be adjusted to provide a stimulus above the current level. T his is the principle of overload that has been discussed many times, but it is the basis of how the process works. T here are various ways to modif y each of these, and this is what needs to be looked at in order to f urther the process of adaptation.

Volume considerat ions:
One of the simplest ways to manipulate loading is volume. Many times people only think of volume in terms of the total amount of work in each session. While adding a f ew sets or reps here will add some volume, many people neglect volume in the big picture. It needs to be looked at f rom a perspective of the sum of all training perf ormed. T he reasoning f or this is because in each session, only so much work can be done. Fatigue will set in, and at some point, more work will become counterproductive. Af ter a certain point, in order to overload but still provide quality stimulus, more workouts in a given time period will need to be included. T he issue that needs to be looked at here is that while workouts are being added, it needs to be done gradually. T his may mean initially decreasing some volume f rom certain sessions but adding it in the f orm of an additional session. While each session may have slightly less volume, the total sum of all volume will be greater. T his process can be repeated when an additional session may be needed in order to create or provide a greater stimulus. T he problem is that people are always on opposite sides of the f ence, and no one looks at the underlying issue. You either have the guys who train two to three times a week and hit just enough to barely create any overload and eventually stall, but keep doing the same thing without any results f or the f ear of overtraining or the guys who train haphazardly and add work on top of work without any tracking or consideration to what the total sum is or what ef f ect they’re trying to achieve.

when adding sessions.T he key here is to track the volume f rom session to session. in the case of athletes. Sometimes the old saying of “more isn’t more” is true. there are limitations placed by governing bodies such as the NCAA or similar organizations. While gradually increasing volume and correctly structuring training can lessen the chances of negative ef f ects. there can be the issue of impeding recovery and diminishing the quality of work. In a given session. and other responsibilities run out of time. and by piling more and more volume. Once f atigue sets in and the desired f orm of work can’t be maintained. When it appears that a trend of decreased stimulation may be surf acing. six to seven days a week. the practicality has to be looked at as well as the ability to recover. it has its limitations. the reality is that those of us with f ull-time jobs. (http://articles. f amilies. Additionally.jpg)While in some cases volume may be one of the most important and simplest modif ications to make. While it would be great if we all could train two to three times a day. it still has to be a consideration. When adding volume in each 71c95ee6. like stated bef ore. Also.elitef ts. attention has to be paid to the quality of work. the volume can only be so high bef ore f atigue sets in and there isn’t any positive outcome by adding more. It is important to remember that attention has to be paid to recovery. slowly accumulate more volume either by way of small additions to each session or by adding an additional session. Int ensit y considerat ions: . T he key is to do this slowly and only once it becomes clear that this is the missing variable. school. Don’t be the moron who goes f rom three sessions a week to twelve sessions a week split over six days two weeks later and think that a desired ef f ect will come out of this. it is time to shut it down and move on.

a rate of perceived exertion (RPE)/intensity zone (IZ ). . there are some limitations that need to be examined. the f ollowing benef its can be seen. the intensity will be f inite. Let’s use a max of 500 pounds. It also isn’t out of the question to say that if you want to get f aster. If this is a max and you work up to it f or a single. T hese are recruitment (activation of motor units f or the given task). the cumulative loading won’t be enough to produce a stimulus. which would be 375 pounds X 12 reps. you would have a total work amount of 4. the most motor units are recruited along with the f astest motor units at the highest rates. T his won’t produce much stimulus f or muscle growth (granted that caloric surplus is in place). While all these produce strong ef f ects on the body and there are benef its. they also have to be looked at within the limitations. Additionally. rate coding (the actual rate at which motor units f ire). intensity can be looked at as a percentage of the maximum. If we are to look at the benef its of high-intensity work (and in the realm of lif ting weights. you need to lif t heavy weights at some point. we would be talking about maximal lif ts). simply going up to a heavy single won’t do much. Basically. We all know that if you want to get stronger. not including warm ups. you won’t be able to go any f urther. While this isn’t necessarily a bad thing on its own. at some point you will need to perf orm it at that rate. you will have to sprint. During maximal ef f orts. At some point. Not only does this produce more of a stimulus f or increased cross-sectional areas of muscle f iber. there are some things to consider. and the activity is synchronous. All of these are examples of high intensity.500 lbs. or measure of physiological responses such as heart rate. When it comes to intensity. the breakdown of protein is high. While this looks as if all training should be high intensity. if we’re looking at trying to induce metabolic reactions. If you were to do 12 reps split into sets of 3–6 at 75 percent of that weight. and synchronization (motor units being activated at the same time as opposed to separately. in each session. but we’re just talking work sets here). you don’t really accumulate volume.Another variable that can be manipulated to produce training ef f ects is intensity. Additionally. or if you want to become more skilled in a sporting movement at the speed you will perf orm it. if you just work up to one heavy max in each training session. which can be a f actor in the cumulative loading. which can lead to more growth. Over time. Z atsiorsky states that the central nervous system uses three options that occur f or varying muscle f orce production. but it also increases the total amount of work perf ormed. but the total amount of work is small (only 500 lbs of work. A true maximal ef f ort will mean that less volume will need to be perf ormed in each session.

and we attempt to vary these to continue to produce a disruption of homeostasis. T his needs to be considered because rarely do people lif t a submaximal weight one time f or one set in a workout. If we’re talking about lif ting. muscle tension increases and maximal available motor units are now being recruited. One method here is varying the actual exercise. someone will bring up the Bulgarians and how they “maxed out” in every workout multiple times a day. it is true that during submaximal ef f orts. With our exercises. more motor units are recruited. slap the shit out of each other. what is of ten f orgotten is that as f atigue sets in.(http://articles. what needs to be acknowledged is that they went to a training max. this could be switching the bar or stance. they had low volume in each session (i. changing up the grip. multiple days a week. Sprinters may compete in the 100-meter but at times run distances shorter than this. Of course. First. Exercise select ion considerat ions: Exercise selection is another way to vary the stimulus. T hink of other sports such as sprinting in track and f ield. T his wasn’t the basis of the system used in Bulgaria. jump around like idiots. T hese “maxes” were done without any arousal and of tentimes weren’t in line with what their competition max To an extent. using a box f or squatting. However. Also. All . the maximal amount of motor units aren’t recruited.elitef ts. So over multiple repetitions and multiple sets. adding bands or chains. and many aspects of their lives were controlled so that outside stressors weren’t as much of a f actor. Even though this is run at maximal intensity. they didn’t do 9. Many people get caught up with trying to set a PR in every workout when using an intensity-based approach.e. we’re looking at the particular movements that we will use. the shortened distance makes it a lower intensity than the 100-meter.000 other exercises af ter these movements). or make sure their f avorite song was played on repeat twenty times bef ore attempting these weights in training). which is dif f erent than a competition max (meaning they didn’t snort ammonia. or lif ting in supportive gear.

However. especially in sports with complex motor structures such as team games. alactic capacity. In other sports. overspeed yield/eccentrics. By altering these regimes. It won’t produce an ef f ect that f its the nature of the sport. All these regimes will have dif f erent ef f ects on the body. While these movements may make someone sore or f eel dif f erent and be dif f erent than what the training center down the street is doing. Technical skills will vary by position but examples include correct tackling f or def ensive players. let’s take the squat. the adaptation achieved is very dif f erent. Rest intervals should be closely monitored to ensure the correct training ef f ect of any movement used whether it is in the weight room. In this case. T his is the same as using a movement that makes sense but using poorly planned volumes.these will vary the movement. theref ore getting parents to spend money. and intensity as the bit. In f ootball. For example. the actual exercise itself is modif ied. intensities. Issurin def ined this as an exercise having unknown details or a new combination of known elements. but we keep the weight around 70–80 percent f or 3–6 sets of 6–12 reps with a rest interval of 1–2 minutes between sets. which will lead to dif f erent adaptations. Training specif icity When it comes to the specif icity of the training load. isometric holds either in a position or against a f ixed apparatus. explosive strength. or using specialized drills f or positional players of team sports. reactive ability. Keeping the bar weight in a similar range of 30–60 percent but with 4–6 sets of 10–15 reps with a rest interval of 3–4 minutes produces a dif f erent ef f ect of high speed movements against a low external resistance. Another method is changing the muscle work regime that an exercise is perf ormed with. the hole will be too small or too large to actually f asten. If we use 80–100 percent f or 1–3 reps f or 4–8 sets with a rest interval of 3–4 minutes. For example. You can also see many strength athletes adding bands. T his is an important variable because new exercises or combinations of movements need to be introduced. you’ll f ind some rather intriguing exercises that truly deserve the title of novelty. we are training f or maximal strength and explosive strength against a signif icant external resistance. it really doesn’t matter if they don’t produce a relevant adaptation in relation to the competitive movements. throwing with heavier or lighter implements or using modif ied techniques f or throwers. rest intervals in relation to the volume and intensity of work will greatly alter the training ef f ect. or in sport practice. Now. So even though this movement is the same. there are two f actors at hand—whether or not the exercises are being used to improve motor abilities or whether or not they’re being used to improve actual sport f orm through technique. and rest intervals. Now let’s say that we use a weight of 30–60 percent and perf orm 2–4 sets of 30–50 repetitions with rest intervals of 45–90 seconds. this could be using a resisted sprint f or a sprinter. T he training ef f ect is the hole that will be lef t by the drill and the bit. . the exercise is in ef f ect a dif f erent movement. reverse bands. Technical skill involves the actual movements that are used during the sport. Look at it this way—think of the exercise as a drill and the rest interval. Say that we decide to use the same movement. let’s look at f ootball f or this. It isn’t hard to come up with goof ball shit that no athlete has done bef ore. T his changes the ef f ect to maximal strength and hypertrophy. alactic power. In addition to changing the actual exercise or the muscle work regime that is emphasized. these exercises need to have logical application. chains. If the bit is the wrong size. One last thing to touch on is what can be ref erred to as exercise novelty. T his could involve slow yield/eccentrics. and other contraptions and coming up with some reverse kneeling Z ercher lunge. volume. on the f ield. we are working muscular endurance against a moderate external resistance. correct technique when running. If you go on YouTube and take a look through various private training f acilities. Motor abilities are attributes such as speed and strength that contribute to the sport. the motor abilities that are desirable are maximal strength. and aerobic capacity. and so on. or pass blocking f or linemen.

T his can be seen with excessively weighting a sprint with a sled or weighting a ball that would be thrown by a pitcher or quarterback. develop more f orce.For lower level athletes. Af ter a certain point. some movements may become detrimental to the competitive movements. which produces undesirable movement patterns. Low level lif ters will get a lot out of general accessory movements. . Technical skill includes exercises that are either the actual movement or closely related in the neuro-muscular sense. jumps. weights. but also physical preparation in the actual sporting movement. this is because they make gains in the motor abilities that are used in their actual sport and allow them to perf orm at a f aster rate of movement.” On one hand. such as the pushing of a weighted sled f or a lineman. One thing that is looked over here is that technical skill should also work the appropriate motor abilities and energy systems. However. and parts of practice that should be at game speed being stopped to “walk and talk. but on the other. Low level athletes will get a lot out of sprints. T his can negatively impact the technique once the weight is removed. and so on. T he neuromuscular coordination of these movements becomes too dif f erent. these exercises will have to either be a technical part of the actual exercise broken down or be a correction and practice of the exercise itself . In order to have a high positive transf er. and tempos. just becoming stronger or more explosive will be too general to have transf erence. drills being conducted without enough repetition to produce enough loading in a desired movement. Some specialized movements may have some transf er. simply increasing the motor abilities will have a positive transf er to their sport. practices need to be structured to not just work technical and tactical preparation. throws. errors need to be corrected. In the case of athletes. We can probably go and look at any f ootball practice in America and see an example of the wrong energy systems being taxed through something in a lactic zone.

An example of an objective measure is using a blood sample to determine the blood lactate level in response to prolonged moderate exercise. T hese show that the stimulus is having less of a reaction and has become “easier” to perf orm. T here will also be an ability to tolerate an increase in the amount of work that can potentially be perf ormed. To view the levels of accommodation that have occurred. the objective measures will be more valid. T his doesn’t mean that subjective measures should be disregarded though because a lot can be f ound out by communicating with the right athletes. the stimulus will no longer be causing as great of a reaction.jpg) Accommodation When accommodation has occurred.(ht t p://art icles. In general. seeing an RPE7 in video analysis and bar speed.elit ef t s. one can use either objective or subjective measures. Another example is having an athlete perf orm a set of 5 reps in the squat at a given weight at RPE9 in the f irst week and. .com/wp-cont ent /uploads/2013/06/Box-Jump-copy. by the second or third week.

Volumes and intensities also need to be tracked to make sure a decrease in reaction to the stimuli is being observed. T his is where the standardization of training loads f rom the last article comes into ENSIT Y%20OF%20ST RENGT H%20T RAINING%20FACT S%20AND%20FALLACIES%20-%20Z AT Z IORSKY. T his is the problem with many practices in team sport. don’t talk to the slapdicks who will jerk you around). It also comes down to monitoring which athletes respond better or worse and taking note of this. If all you do is just throw random shit at the body. Accommodation should not be something that is constantly avoided by randomly rotating movements in training/practice and hoping f or the ENSIT Y%20OF%20ST RENG T H%20T RAINING%20FACT S%20AND%20FALLACIES%20-%20Z AT Z IORSKY. IL. it doesn’t really necessarily know what to accommodate to. it should be programmed and tracked rather than arbitrarily going with the “f uck it. T he body must be able to restructure (i. Human Kinetics: Champaign. a coach should always look f or ways to communicate with athletes about this. Training isn’t a process that should be equated to randomly throwing shit at the wall to see what sticks. which in turn will lead to accommodation and adaptation. run blood work.A subjective measure is something like an athlete saying that everything f elt light or easy or that the movement has become more ef f ortless and he has a greater level of relaxation while perf orming it. there has to be a decrease in the reaction to that stimulus. the stimulus magnitude will play a part in what ef f ect is gained.e.salisbury. Coaches and athletes have to track the variables so that any positive or negative ef f ects are noted and the process that brought them on is documented. f or whatever reason.salisbury. Some may say that this isn’t an accurate way to view accommodation. While coaches need to do both repetition and “walk and talk” to reinf orce technical and tactical skills. T his all comes down to knowing your athletes and knowing which ones to talk to (i. at some point. In the thoughts of some. or do any of the other more in-depth tests to view this. but in reality. exercise selection. Z atsiorsky VM (1995) Science and Practice of Strength Training. Intensity of Strength Training Facts and Theory: A Russian and Eastern European Approach. Communicating with athletes can be a simple way of f inding out how they f eel in regards to training. accommodation is something bad that should be avoided at all costs. slow it down” and “let’s walk and talk here”). run it again” mentality of many f ootball coaches in drills and team of f ense and def ense periods) and another.e. changes need to be made to keep producing training ef f ects. While it is true that we strive to keep hitting the body with an overload to produce a reaction. Many coaches don’t track reps or the intensities that the reps are being perf ormed at. Because of this. Z atsiorsky VM. but they don’t have to be made in every single session.pdf ). Conclusion When looking at creating adaptations. intensity. you might have the volume/intensity swing to the opposite end in an incredibly low amount (think of days when a coach might say “hold on. and specif icity. adapt) to be able to handle this stimulus. At: http://www. it can vary f rom day to day.pdf (http://www. Ultimate Athlete Concepts: Michigan. Standardization will help lead to better training ef f ects. Like I said bef ore. By manipulating volume. there must be some kind of standardization to guide the process. Ref erences Issurin V (2008) Principles and Basics of Advanced Athletic Training . In order f or a restructuring to occur. vastly dif f erent training ef f ects can be reached. we run it until I’m happy with it” or “let’s slow it down and talk a minute” mentalities. One day you might have a massive load (think of the “f uck it. . Most of us don’t have the massive budgets or time available to purchase an Omega Wave.

com/url?q= JbUOCwONWZ 2vW5a3Rq2-eQUw) Adaptation Revisited ( .google.elitef Articles: Training with Purpose: Some T houghts on Adaptation ( q= T he Overlooked Essentials for Your Ultimate Adaptation (https://www.elitef f qwHuqgE&ved=0CAoQFjAB&client=internal-udscse&usg=AFQjCNF9UlCCB86PV37Z VQMncf iiS0xFow) (http://www.elitefts.

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