The Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan 3-2-4 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-0013, Japan

Copyright © 2002 by The Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan Printed by Daikousha Printing Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval systems, transmitted in any form or by any means, electric, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Original Japanese language edition published by the Japan Ports and Harbours Association. Printed in Japan

PREFACE

Preface

This book is a translation of the major portion of the Technical Standards and Commentaries of Port and Harbour Facilities in Japan (1999 edition) published by the Japan Port and Harbour Association, stipulated by the Ordinance of the Minister of Transport, which was issued in April 1999. The translation covers about two thirds of the Japanese edition. Japanese islands have a long extension of coastline, measuring about 34,000 km, for the total land area of some 380,000 square kilometers. Throughout her history, Japan has depended on the ports and harbors on daily living and prosperity of people there. Japan did not develop extensive inland canal systems as found in the European Continent because of its mountainous geography, but rather produced many harbors and havens along its coastline in the past. Today, the number of officially designated commercial ports and harbors amounts to about 1,100 and the number of fishing ports exceeds 3,000. After 220 years of isolation from the world civilization from the 17th to 19th centuries, Japan began to modernize its society and civilization rapidly after the Meiji revolution in 1868. Modern technology of port and harbor engineering has been introduced by distinguished engineers from abroad and learned by many ambitious and capable young engineers in Japan. Ports of Yokohama, Kobe, and others began to accommodate large ocean-going vessels in the late 19th century as the Japanese economy had shown a rapid growth. Japanese engineers had drafted an engineering manual on design and construction of port and harbor facilities as early as in 1943. The manual was revised in 1959 with inclusion of new technology such as those of coastal engineering and geotechnical engineering, which were developed during the Second World War or just before it. The Japanese economy that was utterly destroyed by the war had begun to rebuild itself rapidly after the 1950s. There were so many demands for the expansion of port and harbor facilities throughout Japan. Engineers were urged to design and construct facilities after facilities. Japan has built the breakwaters and the quays with the rate of about 20,000 meters each per year throughout the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Such a feat of port development was made possible with provision of sound engineering manuals. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (formerly the Ministry of Transport up to January 2001) which was responsible for port development and operation, revised the basic law on ports and harbors in 1974 so as to take responsibility for provision of technical standards for design, construction, and maintenance of port and harbor facilities. The first official technical standards and commentaries for port and harbor facilities were issued in 1979, and published by the Japan Port and Harbour Association for general use. The technical standards were prepared by a technical committee composed of government engineers within the former Ministry of Transport, including members of the Port and Harbour Research Institute and several District Port Construction Bureaus that were responsible for design and construction in the field. Its English version was published by the Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute in 1980, but it introduced only the skeleton of the Japanese version without giving the details. The Technical Standards and Commentaries for Port and Harbor Facilities in Japan have been revised in 1988 and 1999, each time incorporating new technological developments. The present English translation endeavors to introduce the newest edition of 1999 to the port and harbor engineers overseas. It is a direct translation of essential parts of Japanese edition. Many phrases and expressions reflect the customary, regulatory writings in Japanese, which are often awkward in English. Some sentences after translation may not be fluent enough and give troubles for decipher. The editors in charge of translation request the readers for patience and generosity in their efforts for understanding Japanese technology in port and harbor engineering. With the globalization in every aspect of human activities, indigenous practices and customs are forced to comply with the world standards. Technology by definition is supposed to be universal. Nevertheless, each country has developed its own specialty to suit its local conditions. The overseas readers may find some of Japanese technical standards strange and difficult for adoption for their usage. Such conflicts in technology are the starting points for mutual understanding and further developments in the future. The editors wish wholeheartedly this English version of Japanese technical standards be welcomed by the overseas colleagues and serve for the advancement of port and harbor technology in the world. January 2002 Y. Goda, T. Tabata and S. Yamamoto Editors for translation version

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

-ii-

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

Preface Part I General

Chapter 1 General Rules .................................................................................................................................................1

1.1 1.2 1.3 Scope of Application .............................................................................................................................1 Definitions ...............................................................................................................................................2 Usage of SI Units ...................................................................................................................................2

Chapter 2 Datum Level for Construction Work .........................................................................................................4 Chapter 3 Maintenance ....................................................................................................................................................5

**Part II Design Conditions
**

Chapter 1 General .............................................................................................................................................................7 Chapter 2 Vessels ..............................................................................................................................................................9

2.1 2.2 Dimensions of Target Vessel ...............................................................................................................9 External Forces Generated by Vessels ...........................................................................................16

2.2.1 2.2.2 General .....................................................................................................................................16 Berthing.....................................................................................................................................16 [1] Berthing Energy..................................................................................................................16 [2] Berthing Velocity ................................................................................................................17 [3] Eccentricity Factor..............................................................................................................20 [4] Virtual Mass Factor ............................................................................................................21 Moored Vessels .......................................................................................................................22 [1] Motions of Moored Vessel..................................................................................................22 [2] Waves Acting on Vessel.....................................................................................................22 [3] Wind Load Acting on Vessel ..............................................................................................23 [4] Current Forces Acting on Vessel........................................................................................24 [5] Load-Deflection Characteristics of Mooring System ..........................................................25 Tractive Force Acting on Mooring Post and Bollard..................................................................25

2.2.3

2.2.4

**Chapter 3 Wind and Wind Pressure ..........................................................................................................................28
**

3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 General..................................................................................................................................................28 Wind .......................................................................................................................................................29 Wind Pressure......................................................................................................................................30 General..................................................................................................................................................32

Procedure for Determining the Waves Used in Design.............................................................32 Waves to Be Used in Design ....................................................................................................32 Properties of Waves..................................................................................................................33 [1] Fundamental Properties of Waves .....................................................................................33 [2] Statistical Properties of Waves...........................................................................................37 [3] Wave Spectrum..................................................................................................................38 Method of Determining Wave Conditions to Be Used in Design .................................................40 4.2.1 Principles for Determining the Deepwater Waves Used in Design ...........................................40 4.2.2 Procedure for Obtaining the Parameters of Design Waves ......................................................41 Wave Hindcasting................................................................................................................................42 4.3.1 General .....................................................................................................................................42 4.3.2 Wave Hindcasting in Generating Area ......................................................................................42 4.3.3 Swell Hindcasting......................................................................................................................46 Statistical Processing of Wave Observation and Hindcasted Data .............................................47 Transformations of Waves .................................................................................................................49 4.5.1 General .....................................................................................................................................49 4.5.2 Wave Refraction........................................................................................................................49 4.5.3 Wave Diffraction........................................................................................................................52 [1] Diffraction ...........................................................................................................................52 [2] Combination of Diffraction and Refraction..........................................................................69 4.5.4 Wave Reflection ........................................................................................................................70 -iii4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3

Chapter 4 Waves ..............................................................................................................................................................32

4.2 4.3

4.4 4.5

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

4.6

4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 5.1 5.2

[1] General .............................................................................................................................. 70 [2] Reflection Coefficient ......................................................................................................... 71 [3] Transformation of Waves at Concave Corners, near the Heads of Breakwaters, and around Detached Breakwaters ................................................................................... 72 4.5.5 Wave Shoaling.......................................................................................................................... 74 4.5.6 Wave Breaking ......................................................................................................................... 75 Wave Runup, Overtopping, and Transmission............................................................................... 80 4.6.1 Wave Runup ............................................................................................................................. 80 4.6.2 Wave Overtopping .................................................................................................................... 84 4.6.3 Wave Transmission .................................................................................................................. 90 Wave Setup and Surf Beat ................................................................................................................ 91 4.7.1 Wave Setup .............................................................................................................................. 91 4.7.2 Surf Beat................................................................................................................................... 92 Long-Period Waves and Seiche ....................................................................................................... 93 Waves inside Harbors ........................................................................................................................ 94 4.9.1 Calmness and Disturbances..................................................................................................... 94 4.9.2 Evaluation of Harbor Calmness ................................................................................................ 94 Ship Waves .......................................................................................................................................... 94

**Chapter 5 Wave Force ................................................................................................................................................. 100
**

General ............................................................................................................................................... 100 Wave Force Acting on Upright Wall ............................................................................................... 100

General Considerations .......................................................................................................... 100 Wave Forces of Standing and Breaking Waves ..................................................................... 101 [1] Wave Force under Wave Crest........................................................................................ 101 [2] Wave Force under Wave Trough..................................................................................... 105 5.2.3 Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves .......................................................................... 106 5.2.4 Wave Force on Upright Wall Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks..................... 109 5.2.5 Effect of Alignment of Breakwater on Wave Force ................................................................. 110 5.2.6 Effect of Abrupt Change in Water Depth on Wave Force ....................................................... 110 5.2.7 Wave Force on Upright Wall near Shoreline or on Shore........................................................111 [1] Wave Force at the Seaward Side of Shoreline .................................................................111 [2] Wave Force at the Landward Side of Shoreline ...............................................................111 5.2.8 Wave Force on Upright Wave-Absorbing Caisson ..................................................................111 Mass of Armor Stones and Concrete Blocks ................................................................................ 112 5.3.1 Armor Units on Slope.............................................................................................................. 112 5.3.2 Armor Units on Foundation Mound of Composite Breakwater ............................................... 117 Wave Forces Acting on Cylindrical Members and Large Isolated Structures ......................... 119 5.4.1 Wave Force on Cylindrical Members...................................................................................... 119 5.4.2 Wave Force on Large Isolated Structure ................................................................................ 121 Wave Force Acting on Structure Located near the Still Water Level........................................ 122 5.5.1 Uplift Acting on Horizontal Plate near the Still Water Level .................................................... 122 5.2.1 5.2.2

5.3 5.4 5.5

**Chapter 6 Tides and Abnormal Water Levels....................................................................................................... 127
**

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 7.1 7.2 7.3 8.1 8.2 8.3 9.1 Design Water Level........................................................................................................................... 127 Astronomical Tide ............................................................................................................................. 128 Storm Surge ....................................................................................................................................... 128 Tsunami .............................................................................................................................................. 130 Seiche ................................................................................................................................................. 133 Groundwater Level and Permeation .............................................................................................. 135 General ............................................................................................................................................... 138 Current Forces Acting on Submerged Members and Structures .............................................. 138 Mass of Armor Stones and Concrete Blocks against Currents ................................................. 140 General ............................................................................................................................................... 142 External Forces Acting on Floating Body ...................................................................................... 143 Motions of Floating Body and Mooring Force ............................................................................... 145 General ............................................................................................................................................... 148

Chapter 7 Currents and Current Force ................................................................................................................... 138

Chapter 8 External Forces Acting on Floating Body and Its Motions ........................................................... 142

**Chapter 9 Estuarine Hydraulics ................................................................................................................................ 148 Chapter 10 Littoral Drift .................................................................................................................................................. 154
**

10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 154 10.2 Scouring around Structures ............................................................................................................. 161 10.3 Prediction of Beach Deformation .................................................................................................... 163

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CONTENTS

**Chapter 11 Subsoil ...........................................................................................................................................................167
**

11.1 Method of Determining Geotechnical Conditions .........................................................................167

Principles.................................................................................................................................167 Selection of Soil Investigation Methods ..................................................................................168 Standard Penetration Test ......................................................................................................168 Physical Properties of Soils .............................................................................................................168 11.2.1 Unit Weight of Soil...................................................................................................................168 11.2.2 Classification of Soils ..............................................................................................................169 11.2.3 Coefficient of Permeability of Soil ...........................................................................................169 Mechanical Properties of Soils ........................................................................................................170 11.3.1 Elastic Constants ....................................................................................................................170 11.3.2 Consolidation Properties .........................................................................................................170 11.3.3 Shear Properties .....................................................................................................................173 Angle of Internal Friction by N-value ..............................................................................................175 Application of Soundings Other Than SPT....................................................................................176 Dynamic Properties of Soils .............................................................................................................178 11.6.1 Dynamic Modulus of Deformation ...........................................................................................178 11.6.2 Dynamic Strength Properties ..................................................................................................180 11.1.1 11.1.2 11.1.3

11.2

11.3

11.4 11.5 11.6

**Chapter 12 Earthquakes and Seismic Force ...........................................................................................................182
**

12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 General................................................................................................................................................182 Earthquake Resistance of Port and Harbor Facilities in Design ................................................182 Seismic Coefficient Method .............................................................................................................184 Design Seismic Coefficient ..............................................................................................................184 Seismic Response Analysis .............................................................................................................190 Seismic Deformation Method ..........................................................................................................192

**Chapter 13 Liquefaction .................................................................................................................................................195
**

13.1 General................................................................................................................................................195 13.2 Prediction of Liquefaction .................................................................................................................195 13.3 Countermeasures against Liquefaction .........................................................................................199

**Chapter 14 Earth Pressure and Water Pressure ...................................................................................................200
**

14.1 Earth Pressure ...................................................................................................................................200 14.2 Earth Pressure under Ordinary Conditions ...................................................................................200

Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil under Ordinary Conditions .......................................................200 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil under Ordinary Conditions ..................................................201 14.3 Earth Pressure during Earthquake .................................................................................................202 14.3.1 Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil during Earthquake....................................................................202 14.3.2 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil during Earthquake...............................................................204 14.3.3 Apparent Seismic Coefficient ..................................................................................................204 14.4 Water Pressure ..................................................................................................................................205 14.4.1 Residual Water Pressure ........................................................................................................205 14.4.2 Dynamic Water Pressure during Earthquake..........................................................................205 14.2.1 14.2.2

**Chapter 15 Loads .............................................................................................................................................................207
**

15.1 General................................................................................................................................................207 15.2 Deadweight and Surcharge .............................................................................................................207 15.3 Static Load ..........................................................................................................................................207

Static Load under Ordinary Conditions ...................................................................................207 Static Load during Earthquake................................................................................................208 Unevenly Distributed Load ......................................................................................................208 Snow Load ..............................................................................................................................208 15.4 Live Load ............................................................................................................................................209 15.4.1 Train Load ...............................................................................................................................209 15.4.2 Vehicle Load ...........................................................................................................................209 15.4.3 Cargo Handling Equipment Load ............................................................................................209 15.4.4 Sidewalk Live Load .................................................................................................................209 15.3.1 15.3.2 15.3.3 15.3.4

**Chapter 16 Coefficient of Friction ................................................................................................................................210
**

16.1 General................................................................................................................................................210

**Part III Materials
**

Chapter 1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 211

1.1 Selection of Materials........................................................................................................................ 211

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

1.2 2.1 2.2 2.3

Safety of Structural Elements .......................................................................................................... 211 Materials ............................................................................................................................................. 212 Steel Meterial Constants Used in Design Calculation ................................................................. 212 Allowable Stresses ............................................................................................................................ 212

General ................................................................................................................................... 212 Structural Steel ....................................................................................................................... 212 Steel Piles and Steel Pipe Sheet Piles ................................................................................... 213 Steel Sheet Piles .................................................................................................................... 214 Cast Steel and Forged Steel................................................................................................... 214 Allowable Stresses for Steel at Welded Zones and Spliced Sections .................................... 214 Increase of Allowable Stresses............................................................................................... 215 Corrosion Control .............................................................................................................................. 216 2.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 216 2.4.2 Corrosion Rates of Steel Materials ......................................................................................... 216 2.4.3 Corrosion Control Methods..................................................................................................... 217 2.4.4 Cathodic Protection Method ................................................................................................... 217 [1] Range of Application........................................................................................................ 217 [2] Protective Potential .......................................................................................................... 218 [3] Protective Current Density ............................................................................................... 219 2.4.5 Coating Method ...................................................................................................................... 220 [1] Extent of Application ........................................................................................................ 220 [2] Applicable Methods.......................................................................................................... 220 [3] Selection of Method ......................................................................................................... 220 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 2.3.7

Chapter 2 Steel ............................................................................................................................................................... 212

2.4

**Chapter 3 Concrete ....................................................................................................................................................... 221
**

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4.1 4.2 General ............................................................................................................................................... 221 Basics of Design Based on the Limit State Design Method ....................................................... 221 Design Based on Allowable Stress Method .................................................................................. 223 Concrete Materials ............................................................................................................................ 224 Concrete Quality and Performance ................................................................................................ 225 Underwater Concrete ....................................................................................................................... 227 General ............................................................................................................................................... 228 Asphalt Mat ........................................................................................................................................ 228

General ................................................................................................................................... 228 Materials ................................................................................................................................. 228 Mix Proportioning.................................................................................................................... 229 Paving Materials ................................................................................................................................ 229 Sand Mastic Asphalt ......................................................................................................................... 229 4.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 229 4.4.2 Materials ................................................................................................................................. 230 4.4.3 Mix Proportioning.................................................................................................................... 230 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3

Chapter 4 Bituminous Materials ................................................................................................................................ 228

4.3 4.4

**Chapter 5 Stone ............................................................................................................................................................. 231
**

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 7.1 7.2 7.3 General ............................................................................................................................................... 231 Rubble for Foundation ...................................................................................................................... 231 Backfilling Materials .......................................................................................................................... 231 Base Course Materials of Pavement ............................................................................................. 232 Quality of Timber ............................................................................................................................... 233

Structural Timber .................................................................................................................... 233 Timber Piles............................................................................................................................ 233 Allowable Stresses of Timber .......................................................................................................... 233 6.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 233 6.2.2 Allowable Stresses of Structural Timber ................................................................................. 233 Quality of Glued Laminated Timber ............................................................................................... 233 6.3.1 Allowable Stress for Glued Laminated Timber ....................................................................... 233 Joining of Timber ............................................................................................................................... 233 Maintenance of Timber..................................................................................................................... 233 6.1.1 6.1.2

Chapter 6 Timber ........................................................................................................................................................... 233

**Chapter 7 Other Materials ........................................................................................................................................... 234
**

Metals Other Than Steel .................................................................................................................. 234 Plastics and Rubbers ........................................................................................................................ 234 Coating Materials .............................................................................................................................. 236

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CONTENTS

7.4

**Grouting Materials .............................................................................................................................237
**

7.4.1 7.4.2 General ...................................................................................................................................237 Properties of Grouting Materials .............................................................................................237

**Chapter 8 Recyclable Resources .............................................................................................................................238
**

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 General................................................................................................................................................238 Slag ......................................................................................................................................................238 Coal Ash..............................................................................................................................................239 Crashed Concrete .............................................................................................................................240

**Part IV Precast Concrete Units
**

Chapter 1 Caissons .......................................................................................................................................................241

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 General................................................................................................................................................241 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................242 Floating Stability ................................................................................................................................242 Design External Forces ....................................................................................................................243

Combination of Loads and Load Factors ................................................................................243 External Forces during Fabrication .........................................................................................249 External Forces during Launching and Floating......................................................................249 External Forces during Installation..........................................................................................250 External Forces after Construction..........................................................................................250 [1] Outer Walls.......................................................................................................................250 [2] Bottom Slab......................................................................................................................251 [3] Partition Walls and Others................................................................................................253 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................254 1.5.1 Outer Wall ...............................................................................................................................254 1.5.2 Partition Wall ...........................................................................................................................254 1.5.3 Bottom Slab.............................................................................................................................254 1.5.4 Others .....................................................................................................................................255 Design of Hooks for Suspension by Crane ...................................................................................255 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5

1.5

1.6 2.1 2.2 2.3

**Chapter 2 L-Shaped Blocks ........................................................................................................................................256
**

General................................................................................................................................................256 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................256 Loads Acting on Members ...............................................................................................................257

General ...................................................................................................................................257 Earth Pressure ........................................................................................................................258 Converted Loads for Design Calculation.................................................................................258 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................259 2.4.1 Front Wall................................................................................................................................259 2.4.2 Footing ....................................................................................................................................259 2.4.3 Bottom Slab.............................................................................................................................259 2.4.4 Buttress ...................................................................................................................................260 Design of Hooks for Suspension by Crane ...................................................................................260 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3

2.4

2.5 3.1 3.2 3.3

**Chapter 3 Cellular Blocks ............................................................................................................................................261
**

General................................................................................................................................................261 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................261

Shape of Cellular Blocks .........................................................................................................261 Determination of Dimensions ..................................................................................................261 Loads Acting on Cellular Blocks......................................................................................................262 3.3.1 General ...................................................................................................................................262 3.3.2 Earth Pressure of Filling and Residual Water Pressure..........................................................262 3.3.3 Converted Loads for Design Calculation.................................................................................264 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................264 3.4.1 Rectangular Cellular Blocks ....................................................................................................264 3.4.2 Other Types of Cellular Blocks................................................................................................265 3.2.1 3.2.2

3.4

**Chapter 4 Upright Wave-Absorbing Caissons ......................................................................................................267
**

4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 General................................................................................................................................................267 External Forces Acting on Members ..............................................................................................267 Design of Members ...........................................................................................................................269 General................................................................................................................................................270 Determination of Dimensions ..........................................................................................................270

-vii-

Chapter 5 Hybrid Caissons .........................................................................................................................................270

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

5.3 5.4

**Design External Forces .................................................................................................................... 271 Design of Members ........................................................................................................................... 271
**

Section Force.......................................................................................................................... 271 Design of Composite Slabs .................................................................................................... 271 Design of SRC Members ........................................................................................................ 271 Design of Partitions................................................................................................................. 271 Design of Corners and Joints ................................................................................................. 271 Safety against Fatigue Failure ................................................................................................ 272 Corrosion Control .............................................................................................................................. 272 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 5.4.5 5.4.6

5.5

Part V Foundations

Chapter 1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 273 Chapter 2 Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations ........................................................................................ 274

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 274 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Sandy Ground ..................................................................... 274 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Clayey Ground .................................................................... 275 Bearing Capacity of Multilayered Ground ..................................................................................... 276 Bearing Capacity for Eccentric and Inclined Loads ..................................................................... 277 General ............................................................................................................................................... 280 Vertical Bearing Capacity................................................................................................................. 280 Lateral Bearing Capacity .................................................................................................................. 281 Allowable Axial Bearing Capacity of Piles ..................................................................................... 284

General ................................................................................................................................... 284 Standard Allowable Axial Bearing Capacity............................................................................ 284 Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity of Single Piles...................................................................... 285 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Loading Tests ........................................... 285 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Static Bearing Capacity Formulas ............ 286 Examination of Compressive Stress of Pile Materials ............................................................ 288 Decrease of Bearing Capacity Due to Joints .......................................................................... 288 Decrease of Bearing Capacity Due to Slenderness Ratio ...................................................... 288 Bearing Capacity of Pile Group .............................................................................................. 288 Examination of Negative Skin Friction .................................................................................... 290 Examination of Settlement of Piles ......................................................................................... 291 Allowable Pulling Resistance of Piles ............................................................................................ 291 4.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 291 4.2.2 Standard Allowable Pulling Resistance .................................................................................. 292 4.2.3 Maximum Pulling Resistance of Single Pile............................................................................ 292 4.2.4 Examination of Tensile Stress of Pile Materials...................................................................... 293 4.2.5 Matters to Be Considered for Obtaining Allowable Pulling Resistance of Piles...................... 293 Allowable Lateral Bearing Capacity of Piles ................................................................................. 293 4.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 293 4.3.2 Estimation of Allowable Lateral Bearing Capacity of Piles ..................................................... 295 4.3.3 Estimation of Pile Behavior Using Loading Tests ................................................................... 295 4.3.4 Estimation of Pile Behavior Using Analytical Methods ........................................................... 295 4.3.5 Consideration of Pile Group Action......................................................................................... 301 4.3.6 Lateral Bearing Capacity of Coupled Piles ............................................................................. 301 Pile Design in General ...................................................................................................................... 304 4.4.1 Load Sharing .......................................................................................................................... 304 4.4.2 Load Distribution..................................................................................................................... 305 4.4.3 Distance between Centers of Piles......................................................................................... 305 4.4.4 Allowable Stresses for Pile Materials...................................................................................... 305 Detailed Design ................................................................................................................................. 306 4.5.1 Examination of Loads during Construction ............................................................................. 306 4.5.2 Design of Joints between Piles and Structure ........................................................................ 307 4.5.3 Joints of Piles.......................................................................................................................... 308 4.5.4 Change of Plate Thickness or Materials of Steel Pipe Piles................................................... 308 4.5.5 Other Points for Caution in Design ......................................................................................... 308 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.1.9 4.1.10 4.1.11

Chapter 3 Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundations ............................................................................................. 280

Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Pile Foundations ................................................................................................ 284

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

**Chapter 5 Settlement of Foundations ..................................................................................................................... 310
**

5.1 5.2 Stress in Soil Mass ........................................................................................................................... 310 Immediate Settlement....................................................................................................................... 310

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CONTENTS

5.3 5.4 5.5 6.1 6.2

Consolidation Settlement .................................................................................................................310 Lateral Displacement ........................................................................................................................312 Differential Settlements ....................................................................................................................312 General................................................................................................................................................314 Stability Analysis ................................................................................................................................315

6.2.1 6.2.2 Stability Analysis Using Circular Slip Surface Method ............................................................315 Stability Analysis Assuming Slip Surfaces Other Than Circular Arc Slip Surface...................316

Chapter 6 Stability of Slopes ......................................................................................................................................314

**Chapter 7 Soil Improvement Methods .....................................................................................................................318
**

7.1 7.2 7.3 General................................................................................................................................................318 Replacement Method ........................................................................................................................318 Vertical Drain Method .......................................................................................................................318

7.3.1 7.3.2

Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................318 Determination of Height and Width of Fill................................................................................319 [1] Height and Width of Fill Required for Soil Improvement ..................................................319 [2] Height and Width of Fill Required for Stability of Fill Embankment ..................................319 7.3.3 Design of Drain Piles...............................................................................................................319 [1] Drain Piles and Sand Mat.................................................................................................319 [2] Interval of Drain Piles .......................................................................................................320 7.4 Deep Mixing Method .........................................................................................................................322 7.4.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................322 [1] Scope of Application.........................................................................................................322 [2] Basic Concept ..................................................................................................................323 7.4.2 Assumptions for Dimensions of Stabilized Body.....................................................................323 [1] Mixture Design of Stabilized Soil......................................................................................323 [2] Allowable Stress of Stabilized Body .................................................................................324 7.4.3 Calculation of External Forces ................................................................................................325 7.5 Lightweight Treated Soil Method ....................................................................................................326 7.5.1 Outline of Lightweight Treated Soil Method ............................................................................326 7.5.2 Basic Design Concept.............................................................................................................326 7.5.3 Mixture Design of Treated Soil................................................................................................327 7.5.4 Examination of Area to Be Treated .........................................................................................328 7.5.5 Workability Verification Tests ..................................................................................................328 7.6 Replacement Method with Granulated Blast Furnace Slag ........................................................328 7.6.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................328 7.6.2 Physical Properties of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag ...........................................................328 7.7 Premixing Method..............................................................................................................................329 7.7.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................329 [1] Scope of Application.........................................................................................................329 [2] Consideration for Design..................................................................................................329 7.7.2 Preliminary Survey ..................................................................................................................329 7.7.3 Determination of Strength of Treated Soil...............................................................................330 7.7.4 Mixture Design of Treated Soil................................................................................................330 7.7.5 Examination of Area of Improvement......................................................................................331 7.8 Active Earth Pressure of Solidified Geotechnical Materials........................................................333 7.8.1 Scope of Application ...............................................................................................................333 7.8.2 Active Earth Pressure .............................................................................................................333 [1] Outline ..............................................................................................................................333 [2] Strength Parameters ........................................................................................................334 [3] Calculation of Active Earth Pressure................................................................................334 [4] Case of Limited Area of Subsoil Improvement .................................................................335 7.9 Sand Compaction Pile Method (for Sandy Subsoil) .....................................................................336 7.9.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................336 7.9.2 Sand Volume to Be Supplied ..................................................................................................336 7.9.3 Design Based on Trial Execution ............................................................................................338 7.10 Sand Compaction Pile Method (for Cohesive Subsoil) ...............................................................339 7.10.1 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................................339 [1] Scope of Application.........................................................................................................339 [2] Basic Concept ..................................................................................................................339 7.10.2 Strength and Permeability of Sand Piles.................................................................................339 7.10.3 Shear Strength of Improved Subsoil .......................................................................................339 7.10.4 Stability Analysis .....................................................................................................................340 7.10.5 Examining Consolidation.........................................................................................................341

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

**Part VI Navigation Channels and Basins
**

Chapter 1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 345 Chapter 2 Navigation Channels ................................................................................................................................ 346

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.1 4.2 General ............................................................................................................................................... 346 Alignment of Navigation Channel .................................................................................................. 346 Width of Navigation Channel ........................................................................................................... 347 Depth of Navigation Channel .......................................................................................................... 348 Length of Navigation Channel at Harbor Entrance ...................................................................... 348 Calmness of Navigation Channel ................................................................................................... 348 General ............................................................................................................................................... 350 Width of Navigation Channel ........................................................................................................... 350 Depth of Navigation Channel .......................................................................................................... 350 General ............................................................................................................................................... 351 Location and Area of Basin ............................................................................................................. 351

Location .................................................................................................................................. 351 Area of Basin Used for Anchorage or Mooring ....................................................................... 351 Area of Basin Used for Ship Maneuvering.............................................................................. 352 [1] Turning Basin................................................................................................................... 352 [2] Mooring / Unmooring Basin ............................................................................................. 353 Depth of Basin ................................................................................................................................... 353 Calmness of Basin ............................................................................................................................ 353 Timber Sorting Pond ......................................................................................................................... 354 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3

Chapter 3 Navigation Channels outside Breakwaters ....................................................................................... 350

Chapter 4 Basins............................................................................................................................................................ 351

4.3 4.4 4.5

**Chapter 5 Small Craft Basins ..................................................................................................................................... 355 Chapter 6 Maintenance of Navigation Channels and Basins .......................................................................... 355
**

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................... 355

**Part VII Protective Facilities for Harbors
**

Chapter 1 General ......................................................................................................................................................... 357

1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 General Consideration ..................................................................................................................... 357 Maintenance....................................................................................................................................... 357 General ............................................................................................................................................... 358 Layout of Breakwaters ...................................................................................................................... 358 Design Conditions of Breakwaters ................................................................................................. 359 Selection of Structural Types .......................................................................................................... 359 Determination of Cross Section ...................................................................................................... 362

Upright Breakwater ................................................................................................................. 362 Composite Breakwater ........................................................................................................... 363 Sloping Breakwater................................................................................................................. 363 Caisson Type Breakwater Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks ........................ 364 External Forces for Stability Calculation ........................................................................................ 364 2.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................... 364 2.6.2 Wave Forces........................................................................................................................... 365 2.6.3 Hydrostatic Pressure .............................................................................................................. 365 2.6.4 Buoyancy ................................................................................................................................ 365 2.6.5 Deadweight............................................................................................................................. 365 2.6.6 Stability during Earthuakes ..................................................................................................... 365 Stability Calculation........................................................................................................................... 365 2.7.1 Stability Calculation of Upright Section................................................................................... 365 2.7.2 Stability Calculation of Sloping Section .................................................................................. 369 2.7.3 Stability Calculation of Whole Section .................................................................................... 369 2.7.4 Stability Calculation for Head and Corner of Breakwater ....................................................... 369 Details of Structures ......................................................................................................................... 370 2.8.1 Upright Breakwater ................................................................................................................. 370 2.8.2 Composite Breakwater ........................................................................................................... 371 2.8.3 Sloping Breakwater................................................................................................................. 372 -x2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4

Chapter 2 Breakwaters ................................................................................................................................................ 358

2.6

2.7

2.8

...........................................................386 3......................................10.11 Storm Surge Protection Breakwater .................................8................1 Layout of Training Jetties ..............................384 3...........................................1 2.............................................................................................................2 Floating Breakwater .........................................384 [2] Selection of Design Conditions ..........................389 Gate ................394 5...............................................................................2.............................2.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................389 Auxiliary Facilities .........................................................................................................................380 [4] Wave Force for Examination of Structural Stability .......................................................................6 5........385 [3] Design of Mooring System .........396 Design Conditions ...................377 General ...........................1 6...............................................378 [2] Crest Elevation ..................................................................................................................2.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................379 3.............................4 Sloping-Top Caisson Breakwater..................................................................................................................6.........................393 5......390 General..................................................................................10 Breakwaters for Timber-Handling Facilities ...................373 2................4 6......3 6..........4 4.........................380 [1] General.................................................................379 [1] General............................372 2.............................381 Non-Gravity Type Breakwaters ........................................................372 Breakwaters for Timber Storage Ponds and Timber Sorting Ponds .................................4................377 Upright Wave-Absorbing Block Breakwater ...........................398 Determination of Cross Section ..............385 [4] Design of Floating Body Structure.........................................................................1 3...................................................3 5.....................5 Principle of Design ....................................................................388 Size and Layout of Lock ....5 5......................392 5......................................................................................................................................................2 Water Depth at Tip of Training Jetty ...........................................2......................................376 3........389 Lock Chamber....................................................2 3...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................372 Fences to Prevent Timber Drifting ...........................................................384 [1] General...................................380 [5] Wave Force for Design of Structural Members ..378 [1] General...................................................................................3 4..............................3 Structure of Training Jetty .............................2 Chapter 3 Other Types of Breakwaters .........................................................3 Chapter 4 Locks..........................................................................................................4 Selection of Location .........1 3..........394 5..............................................376 Gravity Type Special Breakwaters............................373 2.........................................................................................................................................382 [1] General.............................................................................................................................2 Selection of Countermeasures......................................................................................1 Curtain Wall Breakwater ............372 2..............................380 [3] Determination of Dimensions for Wave-Absorbing Section ......................................................................3............................................................................................................................................................................................398 Details........................................................1 General ...................................389 Pumping and Drainage System ....392 5...........................................................................................................12 Tsunami Protection Breakwater ............................................................................................396 6..........................................................CONTENTS 2.......380 [2] Wave Force ....................378 [3] Wave Force .............................................................................388 Selection of Structural Type ...........................................4 Caisson Type Breakwater Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks...........................................................................................................................................390 Jetty .........9 Detailed Design of Upright Section ...........2 5......2...........384 [3] Design of Piles .......................................................................................................................................................................................1 5......................................................................1 5..........................................4..........................................................................................1 4....................................................................382 [2] Wave Force ..................................................................2 6...........................................2 5...............6.................398 -xi- ..............................................................................................10.........................................................2.........2 Selection of Structural Type ............................................373 2.6 Chapter 6 Revetments ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3.....................................3............................................5 4...................................................393 Facilities to Trap Littoral Transport and Sediment Flowing out of Rivers ............389 External Forces and Loads Acting on Lock..................................3...........................................................................................................394 5.........................................3 Wave-Absorbing Caisson Breakwater ..........................................380 3............................................................................391 Group of Groins .....382 3..........................2 Chapter 5 Facilities to Prevent Shoaling and Siltation .......................................................................................................................389 4....................................................................................................................................388 4.........392 Training Jetties ....................390 Details of Jetty..................................2 4..............................393 Countermeasures against Wind-Blown Sand .379 [2] Determination of Target Waves to Be Absorbed..............................................................................396 Structural Stability....................4....................................................390 Layout of Jetty...1 4.......................

...........................3...............................................................................................2 Cross Section of Tie Rod............................................3 6.................8....................................................................................................................... 426 5.................6 General Consideration .................................................................................. 428 5............ 406 Ancillary Facilities ............. 426 5...................................................................................... 411 Stability Calculations of Cellular Concrete Blocks ..................... 431 Principles of Design ......................................................................................................5 6................................................................... 434 -xii6.........................2 6.............................................................................................................................1 4............................................. 405 Design Water Depth ...........5 External Forces to Be Considered.................................................................3 4..........................................7............3 5.....2..............................4 2......... 424 5...........................3.. 429 5........................................... 433 6.............................6................................................................................................... 415 General ...... 411 Examination Concerning Overturning of Wall.............. 401 Length and Water Depth of Berths ...................................... 411 Examination on Soft Foundation..........................................................8............................................................................................................................................................................ 433 6......................................................... 414 4................................................ 417 Setting Level of Tie Rod .......5 4..........................................................3.....................................................................................3..................................................................................................................................................................... 431 Scope of Application ..........................2 5.......... 415 5......................................4 4.......4 Fitting of Tie Rods to Anchorage Work...........................1 1......................................... 419 Design of Tie Rods ...........1 5.........................................................................2 2....... 429 5................................................................. 410 Examination Concerning Bearing Capacity of Foundation .........................................................................................................1 Coping ............ 415 External Forces Acting on Sheet Pile Wall ......3 Design of Anchorage Work.6 Chapter 6 Sheet Pile Quaywalls with Relieving Platform .............5 5...............................4 5..........................................................3..........................................6..........................................................3 Tie Rod ...............8.........................2 ..........................................................4 4................8 5..................2 Design of Relieving Platform .3..................................................................... 410 Items to Be Considered in Stability Calculations ...........................................................................6 5....9 6.7............................................................. 425 Design of Anchorage Work ........................................................................................ 431 Determination of Height and Width of Relieving Platform ...........................................................................3 Design of Piles .........4 6................... 413 Detailed Design ...................................3...................................................................... 401 1.........7 5................................... 412 Effects of Backfill ..........5 4.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 408 External Forces and Loads Acting on Walls ......................................3.........5 2..... 401 Maintenance of Mooring Facilities ...................1 6..................................................................................................................................... 415 Design of Sheet Pile Wall ........2 Fitting of Tie Rods and Wale to Sheet Piles ................1 2......................................................... 410 Examination against Sliding of Wall................................................................................................................................................................... 417 Embedded Length of Sheet Piles ......3.... 408 Stability Calculations..............................................3 Principle of Design ................................ 425 Examination for Circular Slip ...... 402 Crown Heights of Mooring Facilities....................... 432 Design of Sheet Pile Wall .............1 Selection of Structural Type of Anchorage Work.......................6 5..........4............... 433 Design of Relieving Platform and Relieving Platform Piles ............................................................. 407 Chapter 4 Gravity Type Quaywalls ... 405 Ship Clearance for Mooring Facilities ..........................................................................................2 Location of Anchorage Work ........................................1 4.................... 424 Design of Wale .......................1 Tension of Tie Rod .............. 424 5........................... 417 Bending Moment of Sheet Piles and Reaction at Tie Rod Setting Point ...............................................................................................................................1 External Forces Acting on Relieving Platform ........................................................................ 432 Cross Section of Sheet Piles ............................................1 5..........................3 2.......... 419 Consideration of the Effect of Section Rigidity of Sheet Piles ..................................................................4.................................2 4...................... 432 Embedded Length of Sheet Piles ..3 Chapter 5 Sheet Pile Quaywalls ............................................... 406 Chapter 2 Dimensions of Mooring Facilities........................ 433 6..........................................................2 4........ 427 Detailed Design ................................1 5........... 426 5........................................................................................1 6......................................................................................TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Part VIII Mooring Facilities Chapter 1 General ....................7........................ 428 5.....................5...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 402 Chapter 3 Structural Types of Mooring Facilities ........ 405 Protection against Scouring.......................6............................................5.....................................2 2..................... 429 5..........................................................3.2 5......... 418 Cross Section of Sheet Piles .......................................4 5........... 408 4.............................. 429 Special Notes for Design of Sheet Pile Wall on Soft Ground..............................................................................8.................... 431 Earth Pressure and Residual Water Pressure Acting on Sheet Piles ..................................................................................................................................................................................

......................................3 Examination of Stability as Gravity Type Wall .............................................4...................457 8..............................459 8...439 Calculation of Deformation Moment.................................................3.................................3.............1 Design External Forces...............458 8...12 Detailed Design..........................CONTENTS 6.....12 Detailed Design......................................2.......2 Structure of T-Shaped Sheet Pile ..................7 Examination of Displacement of Wall Top ..........5 8......................2 8......................4 Chapter 7 Steel Sheet Pile Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls .....2 Calculation of Fender Reaction Force.....................................460 Layout and Dimensions .....................................................................................................11 Design of T-Shaped Sheet Pile ..................3 9................4...................................4 8..............450 7.........................................450 7.........1 8.................................456 Detailed Design.........................................................................................................................................................................3...........................................2.................1 8.................................1 Principle of Design ...............................................6 Examination against Sliding of Wall .......................458 8.......................439 Calculation of Resisting Moment..........................451 Chapter 8 Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls ...........2 Scope of Application ........1 Design of Pile to Support Coping ................................3...........................3 Examination of Wall Width against Shear Deformation ......................................464 9..........................................5 .........2......11.....................................................................................................................................................................3 7.................................................................3..................................2..........................................................................................................................................456 Embedded-Type Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls..........................................458 8.....................................................................................................................................................443 7........5 Examination of Bearing Capacity of the Ground ............................................436 External Forces Acting on Steel Sheet Pile Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywall .................3............................................................1 General ...........................3................................................................................................465 Design of Piles .................................................................3.......................6 8.................................................454 Examination of Bearing Capacity of the Ground ...................................................463 9..........455 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip.......................452 External Forces Acting on Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead ......3...............................460 9.3............464 Assumptions Concerning Sea Bottom Ground ..7 6.............................................2 Modulus of Subgrade Reaction....................................................................................4 Examination of Stability of Wall Body as a Whole..............3 8...................................................................457 8......................................462 Arrangement of Fenders and Bollards .1 9.458 8........448 7........................................2 9.......................................................................7 8...........................4.........................2..................................................443 7.............................................462 Size of Deck Block and Layout of Piles............................................................................5 Examination of Bearing Capacity of the Ground ...............................3 Chapter 9 Open-Type Wharves on Vertical Piles ............................1 General ................2 7.........448 7...............453 Examination of Wall Width against Shear Deformation ................438 7...........................434 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip...............10 Determination of Plate Thickness of Cell Shell and Arc Section....2 External Forces Acting on Embedded-Type Steel Plate Celluler-Bulkhead.......435 Principle of Design .................................448 7.................................................................................3...................2....................1 7....................3 Calculation of Subgrade Reaction and Wall Displacement.............................................................463 External Forces Acting on Open-Type Wharf ...........................................................3.................................................................................................................................................2.............4 9............................3......................11 Joints and Stiffeners........12..6 Examination against Sliding of Wall ...................................................................................................................................4 Examination of Stability of Wall Body as a Whole........................................2...........3....11..................................................8 7.......462 Dimensions of Superstructure.4............451 7.........................................2.........................................................................9 Layout of Cells and Arcs .............................3......................2.................458 8....................................................................................8 8......................................................456 8.......................................458 8..................................................................................................................1 9.........................449 7.................................................................................2.........................2 Principle of Design ..........................437 Examination of Wall Width against Shear Deformation .........................................3...............3 9.9 8...........2 Design of Coping.465 -xiii9..............................................................436 General ...........455 Layout of Cells and Arcs ....................................................438 Equivalent Width of Wall ........................452 8.................453 Examination of Stability of Wall Body as a Whole.............................................................................................................................4....................................................443 7...459 8...................................443 7..................9 Layout of Cells and Arcs ..............440 7.............................................................................................................2 7............................8 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip.....10 Calculation of Hoop Tension....................................................2.452 Principle of Design ..........................................449 7..1 7...........................................455 Determination of Thickness of Steel Plate of Cell Shell ........................................................452 Placement-Type Steel Plate Cellular-Bulkhead Quaywalls ..3.............................................464 9..............8 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip...................456 8............7 Examination of Displacement of Wall Top ........................12.......450 7.....................................463 9...................1 Determination of Slope Inclination .................................449 7...........................3........................2 Virtual Ground Surface.........................................................................................................................................................................................451 7.........458 8..........

..2 Layout and Dimensions ..................................................3........3....... 486 Ancillary Equipment ...............3 Design of Detached Pier ..................5............7 Embedded Length of Raking Pile ......................................................................... 466 Cross-Sectional Stresses of Piles....................................1 Design External Forces ........................................................................................................................................... 487 12............................................................... 483 10.. 470 9....................................................4 Examination of Load Carrying Capacity Using Simplified Method...... 478 9...3 11............................... 481 10.................................3. 478 9..................................................................................... 475 Design of Earth-Retaining Section ..9............................................2 Principle of Design .......................................................................................................................................................2.......................................1 Load Combinations for Superstructure Design............................ 478 9......................................... 483 10...........................................................................5...3 12......................................................................................7 9................................................................ 481 Dimensions of Supersutructure ...........................10 Detailed Design ............................ 481 10... 480 10............. 488 12.. 488 Dimensions of Pontoon...2 Examination Method of Earthquake-Resistant Performance......9............................5.....3...................................... 468 Examination of Embedded Length for Lateral Resistance......4 Cross-Sectional Stresses of Piles............ 481 10.....................2........6....................4 ... 486 11.............................................................................................................................2 Gangways ...1 Superstructure .............................5... 481 Arrangement of Fenders and Bollards....................................................................................................................................4 12................ 484 10............3......................... 486 Design of Girder....2 Principle of Design .............................................2 11....................................................................1 Determination of Slope Inclination ...... 481 10........................................................... 470 9......9....5......................5 Chapter 12 Floating Piers ....................................................................................................................... 481 Size of Deck Block and Layout of Piles ...............2. 485 External Forces and Loads...5 Determination of Forces Acting on Piles and Cross Sections of Piles ...................................9 General ..........................................................................2 Virtual Ground Surface .......... 481 10...6 9.................................................................................................................. 488 Design of Individual Parts of Pontoon............................ 490 -xiv12............................. 468 Examination of Pile Joints.......................................................3............................................... 485 Layout and Dimensions ... 480 10.......................................................................................................................... 481 10................................................ 468 Examination of Embedded Length for Bearing Capacity ................................. 487 12.......................................1 9.7 9............................................................................................................................ 486 11..... 486 Detailed Design ...................................................... 481 10...........6.............................................................................................4 11....4..... 485 11........................3.......................................4 11..............................................1 Principle of Design .................................................6 Examination of Strength of Wharf in the Direction of Its Face Line ....6......................................................................1 11................... 486 11..............................4 9....................6........................................................... 481 10..........................................................5...........................................................................................5 9. 473 9............................................................................................ 489 Design of Mooring System....................................................................5........................... 465 Coefficient of Horizontal Subgrade Reaction..................................................6.........................1 Horizontal Force Transmitted to Heads of Coupled Raking Piles.................................6 9........5.................................................................................. 488 External Forces and Loads Acting on Pontoon .............................5.................. 484 10.............. 484 10...............................TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 9.......................................... 484 10................................................................ 485 Design of Piers .........................3 Design of Pile Head ................5..................................................4 Assumptions Concerning Sea Bottom Ground............ 488 Stability of Pontoon...........3 Pushing-In and Pulling-Out Forces of Coupled Raking Piles ..........................................................2 12................... 477 Detailed Design ...............3 Design of Pontoon....... 478 9....... 466 Member Forces Acting on Individual Piles.........................................3 Determination of Seismic Motion for Examination of Earthquake-Resistant Performance..............1 Scope of Application ...................... 483 10........1 12............................................................1 Assumption of Cross Section for Earthquake-Resistant Performance Examination .. 485 11......5... 468 Examination of Earthquake-Resistant Performance ......................................................................2 Calculation of Reinforcing Bar Arrangement of Superstructure ............8 9.........................................1 10......................................................................8 Design of Earth-Retaining Section ..........................1 Scope of Application ..................5.....................5 Examination of Load Carrying Capacity Using Elasto-Plastic Analysis ....5......9 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip .................................................................................................................2 Vertical Load Transmitted to Heads of Coupled Raking Piles ................2 Calculation of Fender Reaction Force ...................8 9........ 485 11...........................................................................................................................2 9..................................................................................................................................5. 481 10...................... 468 Change of Plate Thickness or Material of Steel Pipe Pile .....9 Chapter 10 Open-Type Wharves on Coupled Raking Piles ....................2 10................................. 484 10... 471 9................................................................................................3........................................ 477 Examination of Stability against Circular Slip .........3 External Forces Acting on Open-Type Wharf on Coupled Raking Piles .....................................................................5................... 465 Virtual Fixed Point......................................................4...................................3.............3 9..................................................3 Chapter 11 Detached Pier ......... 469 9...........................................................................................3...........................................................................................

...................................5 13............................................................................................................498 [5] Basin Area...........................................................................................6 Principle of Design .......................510 17..................................1.....................................498 14...........1 Slipways ...........................................502 Tractive Force Acting on Mooring Buoy ...............................................512 -xv17.........494 External Forces Acting on Dolphins .....................................................499 [2] Pavement ..................494 13..................499 14.................................................................................................................................................................................2.....................................490 [2] Setting of Chain............1 Mooring Buoys .............................................................................508 17..........................2 13........497 [1] Elevations of Individual Parts ..............................................................508 Determination of Structural Form ................495 Caisson Type Dolphins ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 511 17.....................3 12......... 511 17.................................................................492 [1] Design External Forces ............................1 16........................................................................................................4 Front Wall and Pavement.... 511 17...................................512 17....................................................................1 Principle of Design ..........................................................................................................495 Pile Type Dolphins ................................................1 15..................3 Determination of Cross Section of Sheet Piles ............................................................492 Dimensions and Inclination .....................................................5.......2 16.................5......................................512 17...............................497 Location of Slipway ...........................................................5 Design 12.................................................................................................2 12...........497 Principle of Design ..................................................................................................4 13...............................3 13.............................................................................4......................498 [3] Water Depth ................................2 ................497 Dimensions of Individual Parts...............................1 13.....3 Mooring Method ....................................................504 [2] Sinker and Sinker Chain..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1..1 12..............................................................................................................7 Detailed Design............................1 Quaywall of Wave-Absorbing Type ......................................................................490 Design of Mooring Chain...........2........................................................6 External Forces during Construction....492 [2] Design of Mooring Anchor...............................................................1 Principle of Design ................492 of Access Bridge and Gangway ......................................2.............................2..........1............................2........................................501 Air-Cushion Vehicle Landing Facilities ..........................................508 Principle of Design ................................................492 Design of Access Bridge and Gangway..509 17............................................................3........2 Shallow Draft Quay .........................490 [1] Design External Forces .................................2 14...................................................501 Dimensions of Individual Parts ................................498 [4] Gradient of Slipway ......2...............................................................3 15..........................................................................................................1.1 14.................................................................................................494 Layout ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................1 17.............................................................................496 Chapter 14 Slipways and Shallow Draft Quays .........................................2 Cantilever Sheet Pile Quaywall .....................................1 12.............................................................................................................................2 Mooring Posts ....................4....................................................................1..................................................................................................................................................493 Chapter 13 Dolphins ............1................503 Design of Individual Parts of Mooring Buoy ....................493 Adjusting Tower .....................................497 14..............499 [1] Front Wall ..............................................................................4 Determination of Embedded Length of Sheet Piles .......................................................5 Examination of Displacement of Sheet Pile Crown....................................................1..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................497 [2] Slipway Length and Background Space...................................................................................................................507 16..............................................................................................................................................5.............................505 [4] Main Chain ................................2 15.............................499 14....................................................................................490 Design of Mooring Anchor..................508 17.........512 17...3 Sheet Pile Quaywall with Batter Anchor Piles .....502 16................................................................2....504 [1] Mooring Anchor ......502 Principle of Design ..3 Chapter 17 Other Types of Mooring Facilities...............501 Chapter 16 Mooring Buoys and Mooring Posts ...................................4 Principle of Design ..................................................................................2 12....................................495 Steel Cellular-Bulkhead Type Dolphins ..................................................................................1...................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 External Forces Acting on Sheet Pile Wall........509 17......................................................................................................500 15..500 Location ......................................................................................490 [3] Diameter of Chain .................................................1........4........................CONTENTS 12..........................504 [3] Ground Chain ...........................................................................................................507 16............................3 Chapter 15 Air-Cushion Vehicle Landing Facilities ..............................................................................................................506 [5] Floating Body .........................

........................................................................................................3 Facilities for Passenger Embarkation and Disembarkation ........... 525 19........................................ 527 19.............4 17.................................................6...... 520 General ...............................................6....................................... 527 19............................................................. 515 17.......................11.............................2 18......1 General .................................................4 Fender System ....................................................4 Vehicle Ramp ...................................................3 Mooring Posts....................................................4.................6 Materials ................10 Vehicle Ramp..................................6........................................... 514 17........................................5....................................... 530 19.........5 Structure of Sign ..............................1 Principle of Design............................3...........................................................................3...............5 Safety Facilities ....................5..........................................................................4................. 529 19.............................6 Service Facilities ..........................1 Principle of Design.................... Bollards and Mooring Rings............ Bollards............. 513 Calculation of Horizontal and Vertical Forces Acting on Connecting Point ...6.......................................................................................................3 17...............................................................9 Curbing ................................................................................................ 517 17........................................ 527 19............................11........... 514 17..................................................................................3 Types and Location of Signs ...........3.................................................................................................................... 516 17............................................11.....7 Stairways and Ladders ...................2 Skirt Guard..................................... 513 Determination of Embedded Lengths of Sheet Pile and Batter Anchor Pile....... 525 19.........................................................3................................................................. 526 19............5..................... 528 19......................5 External Forces Acting on Sheet Pile Wall with Batter Anchor Piles .................... 522 19.............................4............................................................................................................................................. 519 Chapter 19 Ancillary Facilities .................. 525 19................ 522 19........3 Fence and Rope .............................................................................................................. 527 19....................................................5...................................................................5 Water Supply Facilities ................ 523 19.............................2 Arrangement of Fenders...................... 515 17................................... 525 19....11..........1 General ......................................1 General .......................... 517 17....................4.................................................................................................................................................. 513 Sheet Pile Quaywall with Batter Piles in Front .....................6..............4 Principle of Design ............................... 526 19............5.........2 Mooring Equipment ......................................................................9 Barricades.....................................8 Protective Fences .............................................5 17...... 520 19.......................4 ......................6 Fire Fighting Equipment and Alarm Systems ...............4 17.....................................................................................5..................................6..................................3...............4........................................................... 519 18...........................6 Detailed Design ..............8 Lifesaving Facilities ............. 526 19....... 516 17........11......................3................1 19...................................................................................11................................ 528 19........................................................... 525 19.............................................................. and Mooring Rings .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 18.............TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 17...........4....4............................................................................................................ Notices and Protective Fences ...4 Position of Sign...............................................................................................................................................................................2 Layout and Dimensions ....................4....................................5...........4 Selection of Fender.................... 521 Tractive Force of Vessel ...................................................................................................................................................................................5........ 520 Arrangement of Mooring Posts..... 513 Determination of Cross Sections of Sheet Pile and Batter Anchor Pile..................3.............................8 Signs or Notices............................4 Signs or Notices............................... 527 19........................................................ 515 17........... 530 19..............................................................................3 Berthing Energy of Vessel ......... 530 19.....11............................ 525 19............ 519 Outward Projecting Corner ................................................................5 Curbing .................1 General ................................................ 519 Transitional Part Where Quaywalls of Different Type Are Connected ................................................... 516 17...............4...........................................6.................................. 525 19.5 Embedded Length ......................................6....... 523 19.................................................................................................................2 Lighting Facilities .......7 Maintenance and Management ..... 525 19........ 522 19...............................................................................................................3 18.............2 19.........................................................4...................................................................................................................................................................... 531 -xvi19.....7 Fueling and Electric Power Supply Facilities ...................................................................1 General .................5..........3.........................11............... 516 Double Sheet Pile Quaywall ........... 527 19............11....... 526 19...4 Design of Open-Type Superstructure ...............................2 17.............................................. 521 Structure ..................................................................................................3....... 520 19............3 Design of Sheet Pile Wall ................................................3 Design of Double Sheet Pile Quaywall ...................................... 527 19.... 525 19..............2 Provision of Signs .. 525 19...11 Signs..........................................3 19...............6 Chapter 18 Transitional Parts of Quaywalls ........................................................................ 513 Detailed Design .......................2 External Forces Acting on Double Sheet Pile Quaywall ......................................... 520 19.................................................................................... 523 19...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Drainage Facilities .. 527 19........................................................ 525 19............. 519 Transitional Part Where Frontal Water Depth Varies ............................................

................................2 Composition of Pavement ..........................................4 Tie-Bar and Slip-Bar.................................................554 21................................................................................................................................................................4 Selection of Lighting Equipment.............................................................2..........3..............................................................................4 20...................................................................................6 Maintenance and Management..............................................................................540 20........7 Level Crossings.....559 1..................4...............................3.............................2 20.......................532 19........................................................1 General .............................1 Principle of Design ........................................................................559 Scope of Application ..................556 21.....................3 ..................................................2......................................................................................................................................................................................................................554 21...541 20....3 Design of Foundation with Piles ............................................................................................................................................................12 Lighting Facilities ........................552 20.........................................................................................2..................................555 Bearing Capacity of Piles ..........1 Principle of Design ...............................................................................................................1 20.............................................564 1................................1.........................................7.............................................1 Design Conditions ..........2...............3.......................5...............................12..................................................2 Standard Intensity of Illumination .....................................564 -xvii1..............................................531 [3] Standard Intensity of Illumination for Indoor Lighting ...........................2 Concrete Beam .......547 20....................................................................540 20..................3 Roadways and Lanes...........................................5...........................562 1.......553 20.......................................................................537 [2] Cleaning and Repair............................................................................................4 Clearance Limit .................................................................................556 21.....................2....548 20............................12.............................................................................................2.....................................................2 1....................................................................................................3 Joints...........................................................................................542 20.....................................554 21.......................................................541 Design of Concrete Pavement .......................................................................................3 20.......1 1....5 Widening of Roads at Bends............................559 Roads ................................................................7.................................540 Load Conditions ............................................................................556 21......................................................................6 Longitudinal Slope........................................................................5 End Protection..........................................................................................................2 Design Vehicles .....................................................................................................563 Car Parks ................................................3 Selection of Light Source ....................531 [2] Standard Intensity of Illumination for Outdoor Lighting ...........................................532 19............551 20...............................................................................................................................................2....540 Countermeasures against Settlement of Apron..................................................................................................................................................................540 Type of Pavement ...........................................................547 20.........547 Design of Asphalt Pavement ................................................1 General .........................................................................................................................3 End Protection.....................................................6...............................8 Pavement ....................534 [1] Outdoor Lighting.....................................................................................................................531 19....................551 Design of Concrete Block Pavement.........12........................................................................7 Chapter 21 Foundation for Cargo Handling Equipment ........5...............................538 Chapter 20 Aprons ...........................................................................................................................................................................CONTENTS 19...............................547 20............535 19....5...531 19.....................................................................................................561 1...........................................1..540 Width ......................2 Composition of Pavement ...........................9 Signs ....................................................................................................2.....................6..............................................559 Operation and Maintenance of Facilities for Land Traffic...........................................559 1...........3 20..................562 1.4 Design of Foundation without Piles ........555 Concrete Beam ................4......................12.........................................................................................................................2..............................................................................2 Part IX Other Port Facilities Chapter 1 Port Traffic Facilities .....559 1.........7.....................................534 [2] Indoor Lighting.........................1 General .......................................1 21....................................6......2........559 1..........559 1..................................534 19............................................................................540 Gradient ........................................................................12.................................................2 Type of Apron .......................5.................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 External Forces Acting on Foundation ...........6 20.......531 [1] Definition ................................1 Examination of Effects on Wharf.............537 [1] Inspections ........555 21................................551 20......................2 Composition of Pavement ...............................................................560 1...................................541 20.........................................................................................................1 Design Conditions .........................................................1 1........3 Joints....2 General.......................................................2.........................5 Design of Lighting ...............................................................................................................................................................................................5 20.........................................................................545 20......2..................................561 1..........................................12..........................1 Design Conditions .......

................. 570 Control and Operation Facilities ...........................................................................................2 3..6............ 575 Sorting Facilities for Hazardous Cargo .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 5... 579 5.....................................2 Container Cranes..3 1....................4 1........... 570 Bridges ............7 Chapter 2 Cargo Sorting Facilities ............................................3................ 568 Ventilation Towers ............................................................................ 578 General ........................... 581 1........................................4 Chapter 4 Facilities for Ship Services ...................................................................................................................................................................... 583 1......................... 578 Passenger Building ................... 568 Access Roads .....................10 1.........................................................................6................................6 1..................................7 1......................................6........................................................................................4................................4 1............................... 581 Design of Mooring Facilities ............................................................................................................................................................. 578 Design of Facilities for Passenger Boarding.............7 3................................. 573 General .........3 2.............2 Design of Passenger Buildings.................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Part X Special Purpose Wharves Chapter 1 Container Terminals ...........1...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 1...............1.................................................3 2....................................................... 578 Ancillary Facilities ......................................................1 5.........................9 1............................. 576 Yards for Dangerous Cargo and Oil Storage Facilities ............................................................................................1 3.................................. 573 Cargo Handling Equipment ..........................................................................5 1..............................................................................3 Ancillary Facilities ...............6................................ 583 1.........................................................................3 Structural Durability ........ 567 Tunnels .................................3 1............................................................................................................. 579 5.......................................6 2.......5 2............... 577 Chapter 5 Facilities for Passenger ........................................................ 567 Depth of Immersion .........................................2 1.. 564 1........................... 583 1...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 582 Fender System .......................................... 570 1. 573 Oil Handling Equipment ...................3............................ 569 Design of Immersed Tunnel Elements.........................2...........4........6 Railways ............................................1 2...........1 Chapter 3 Storage Facilities .......................................................... 570 1........................2......................................................................3...................................................................................................................................6......... 577 Water Supply Facilities ....1 2.........................6.....................................................................................2......................................................................2 Principle of Design ................................................................................................................................................2.................................4.......................................... 579 5........................2 1...........................................................1..7................3..................................... 577 Facilities for Passenger Boarding ................1.................................................. 576 General ...... 574 Operation and Maintenance of Cargo Handling Equipment ........................................................................................... 582 Mooring Equipment..............................4 General ..................7........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 573 Cargo Sorting Areas ...............................2 5...............................................................................................................2 2...................5 Maintenance Shop....................................... 571 1...................................................................................................................... 567 Principle of Planning and Design........................2 Size and Location .......................................... 583 1.............................. 573 2.................... 582 Length and Water Depth of Berths .............................................. 575 2.........3................................................................TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 1.................5 1........................1 1................. 578 Structural Types................................1 1.............................................................. 583 -xviii1.................................................................6........................... 571 1................................................3.............................................................3 ....................7.........................................6.. 570 1......................................2 Design Requirements ................................................................... 567 Heliports ......1 General .....4 Container Freight Station....................................... 574 Sorting Facilities for Marine Products .............. 569 Calculation of Stability of Immersed Tunnel Section ....... 583 Design of Land Facilities ............................................................ 574 Timber Sorting Areas . 567 General .................................................................. 579 5.... 568 Structure and Length of Immersed Tunnel Elements ........................................................................................................2.........................................................2 2................................................................. 573 Quay Sheds ..................................................................................8 1.........................2 5................................6.......3 4..........................................................................................................3 Container Yard................4 Fender System ...............................................1 General .........................2................7............................................................................................................ 576 Other Storage Facilities .............1 Apron ............................ 583 1.................................................... 569 Joints ..................6......1 4.................................................................................. 576 General ............... 578 5......................................................................................................................................................................

..................................2 Design of Moving Parts .....................................2............598 General..............................................................................................2 5.............7 1......................................586 Protection Works against Scouring ..........598 Land Storage Facilities ...............................5 6..................................2.................................................................................................................1 6...............................591 Mooring Basins ...................................3...............5....596 Access Bridges ...........590 Chapter 3 Navigation Channels and Basins..............................................................................................1 Width.........................593 Design Conditions for Mooring Facilities ..................................................................3.......................................6 5.........................................8 Administration Building...........................................................................587 2........................................4 5...........................................................................................................2...............................................599 INDEX -xix- ...........................................................................................5.....................4 Passenger Terminals ......5 Part XI Marinas Chapter 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................2 5........................................................................................................................2 Chapter 6 Facilities for Ship Services...................................CONTENTS 1......2 Principle of Design ......................2 3........................................586 Design of Vehicle Ramp ................................3 2...........2............................................................................587 2...........................................................................................................................3......................................................583 Chapter 2 Ferry Terminals ..........................5....................................................586 Facilities for Passenger Boarding ...................583 Gates................................................597 Lifting / Lowering Frame Facilities ......................595 Structural Design................................................587 Design of Other Facilities ....5 Safety Equipment.....................3............................3 Design of Moving Parts .............587 2............................................592 Chapter 5 Mooring Facilities .......................................................................................595 General ....596 Mooring Method .........591 Chapter 4 Protective Facilities ....................................585 Length and Water Depth of Berths................................. Length..............586 2.1 3... Gradient.....................................................................................................................................................................584 2......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 5..........589 Chapter 2 Main Dimensions of Target Boats ......583 Ancillary Facilities.....................................................................................................................................................3 2.........................................................................................588 2...............1 Roads.................................................596 Ancillary Facilities .. and Radius of Curvature ...........................................3.586 2.................591 Navigation Channels .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Passageways ....595 Examination of Safety .....................................................................................................4.......................................................................................................597 5...........................1 2........3 General...............................588 2......................................................................1 5.................................................................593 Floating Piers ........4 2..3..........................................4 5......591 3..................................................3.........................................................................................................................................3...............................5...586 2.............................................................................................. Gradient..5..............3......3...........................3 Car Parks ........................4............4 2........................................3......................................1 5.........................593 5...............1 2....3...................................................................................2 2...........587 2............................................ Length......................................................................................585 Fender System...............................................................584 Design of Mooring Facilities .............................587 2........................598 Chapter 7 Land Traffic Facilities......................1 Width.............6 1............................586 2...............................................................................595 Structure............................................................................................................................................................2 Ancillary Facilities and Signs............................... and Ancillary Facilities......................................................5 5............................................................................................585 Mooring Equipment ........................................................................................................................3 General.............................................

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN -xx- .

Part I General .

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there will be cases where the items shown in the Technical Standards may be inadequate for dealing with planning. The sections marked Commentary mainly give the background to and the basis for the Notification. designing.1 Scope of Application The Ministerial Ordinance stipulating the Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities (Ministry of Transport Ordinance No. Rather. a reliability design method makes it possible to gain a quantitative understanding of the -1- . maintaining or repairing of a particular individual structure of a port or harbor. basins. it is determined through experience to compensate for the uncertainty in a variety of factors. C. (5) Design methods can be broadly classified into the methods that use the safety factors and the methods that use the indices based on probability theory. 1999. 1974. shall be applied to the construction. when executing actual design works. along with reference sections marked Commentary and Technical Notes. hereafter referred to simply as the Ministerial Ordinance) and the Notification stipulating the Details of Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities (Ministry of Transport Notification No.1. appropriate methods other than those mentioned in the Technical Standards may be adopted. but when doing so it is necessary to make a decision using prudent judgement based on sound reasoning. In the case that the probability distributions of loads and structure strengths can be adequately approximated. [Commentary] (1) The Ministerial Ordinance and the Notification (hereafter collectively referred to as the Technical Standards) apply not to the port and harbor facilities stipulated in Article 2 of the “Port and Harbour Law”. after confirming the safety of a structure in consideration using appropriate methods such as model tests or trustworthy numerical calculations (following the main items of the Technical Standards). specific examples of structures. 30. There is also possibility that new items may be added in the future in line with technical developments or innovations. etc. A safety factor is not an index that represents the degree of safety quantitatively.1. which are found in outside of the legally designated port areas. The texts in large letters are the main items that describe the parts of the Notification and the basic items that must be obeyed.1 Statutory Structure of the Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities (4) This document is intended to help individuals concerned with correct interpretation of the Technical Standards and to facilitate right application of the Ministerial Ordinance and the Notification. Accordingly the Technical Standards also apply to facilities like navigation channels. which supplement the main items. (3) Figure C. both of which have been issued in line with Article 56-2 of the “Port and Harbour Law”. regarding the items related to the Notification. Depending on the conditions. 181.PART I GENERAL Part I General Chapter 1 General Rules 1. it may be acceptable to lower the values of safety factors.1. Port and Harbour Law [Article 56-2] (technical standards for port and harbour facilities) Port and Harbour Law Enforcement Order [Article 19] (stipulation of facilities covered) Port and Harbour Law Enforcement Regulations [Article 28] (stipulation of facilities excluded from coverage) Port and Harbour Law Enforcement Order Port and Harbour Law Enforcement Regulations The Technical Standards The Ministerial Ordinance The Notification Fig. it is possible to use a reliability design method. (2) Since the Technical Standards covers a wide rage of facilities.1 shows the statutory structure of the Technical Standards. With regard to matters for which there are no stipulations in the Technical Standards. Unlike the more traditional design methods in which safety factors are used. constructing. but rather to the port and harbor facilities stipulated in Article 19 of the Port and Harbour Law Enforcement Order. and maintenance of port and harbor facilities. In this document. improvement. the safety factors indicate values that are considered by experience to be sufficiently safe under standard conditions. The sections marked Technical Notes provide investigation methods and/or standards that will be of reference value.1. protective facilities and mooring facilities of the marinas and privately owned ports. hereafter referred to simply as the Notification). and other related materials. according to the way of judging the safety of structures. This document is made up of the main items.

(2) Passenger ship: A vessel with a capacity of 13 or more passengers. and is equal to the chart datum level (specifically the chart datum for which the height is determined based on the provisions of Article 9 (8) of the “Law for Hydrographic Activities” (Law No.000 t or more.2 Definitions The terms used in the Notification are based on the terminology used in the Ministerial Ordinance. (2) Datum level for construction work: This is the standard water level used when constructing. motorboat or other vessel used for sport or recreation. the Ministry of Transport and the Ministry of Construction have concluded to use the International System of Units in their public work projects starting from April 1999. the limit state design method can be classified as one form of reliability design method. in order to ensure the safe use of the port or harbor in question. 102. (3) Pleasure boat: A yacht. the Ministry of Agriculture. 1. in which case the gross tonnage is 25. Formally speaking. the datum level for construction work shall be determined while considering the conditions of extremely low water level that may occur during a drought season. 547. With a reliability design method. with the aim of executing a smooth switchover to SI units. improving or maintaining port and harbor facilities. 1992). (1) Dangerous articles: This term refers to those that are designated in the Notification stipulating the “Types of Hazardous Goods” for the “Port Regulation Law Enforcement Regulations” (Ministry of Transport Notification No. [Commentary] In addition to the terms defined above. the meanings of the following terms as stipulated in the law or notification are cited.000 t or more. Forestry and Fisheries. 51. However. except in the case of LPG carriers and LNG carriers. (1) Super-large vessel: A cargo ship with a deadweight tonnage of 100.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN likelihood of the failure of structure in question and then to keep the likelihood below a certain allowable value. design is carried out by using the partial safety factors and reliability indices. 1950)). in addition. the meanings of the following terms are listed below. -2- . 1. 1979). May 20.3 Usage of SI Units [Commentary] In line with the provisions in the “Measurement Law” (Law No. in the case of port and harbor facilities in lakes and rivers for which there is little tidal influence.

80665 × 104Pa ＝ 9.PART I GENERAL Table C.1.3.01m/s2 1kgf ＝ 9.80665J 1erg ＝ 100nJ 1PS ＝ 735.80665 × 104Pa ＝ 9.1 Conversion Factors from Conventional Units to SI Units Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Quantity Length Mass Acceleration Force Moment of a force Non-SI units µ kgf•s2/m Gal kgf dyn kgf•m SI units m kg m/s2 N N N•m Pa 7 Pressure kgf/cm2 N/mm2 Pa Pa 9 Stress kgf/cm2 N/mm2 J J W J W•s W/(m•ºC) W/(m2•ºC) J/(kg•ºC) dB Conversion factor 1µ ＝ 1µm 1kgf•s2/m ＝ 9.499W 1HP ＝ 746.80665 × 10-2N/mm2 1kfg•m ＝ 9.001163W/(m2•ºC) 1cal/(kg•ºC) ＝ 4.80665kg 1Gal ＝ 0.80665 × 10-2MPa 1kgf/cm2 ＝ 9.18605J/(kg•ºC) 1phon ＝ 1dB 8 mHg 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Work (energy) Power Quantity of heat Thermal conductivity Heat conduction coefficient Specific heat capacity Sound pressure level kgf•m erg PS HP cal cal/(h•m•ºC) cal/(h•m2•ºC) cal/(kg•ºC) － -3- .101W 1cal ＝ 4.80665N 1dyn ＝ 10µN 1kgf•m ＝ 9.322kPa 1kgf/cm2 ＝ 9.18605W•s 1cal/(h•m•ºC) ＝ 0.001163W/(m•ºC) 1cal/(h•m2•ºC) ＝ 0.80665 × 10-2N/mm2 1mHg ＝ 133.80665N•m 1kgf/cm2 ＝ 9.80665 × 10-2MPa 1kgf/cm2 ＝ 9.18605J 1cal ＝ 4.

S2. Here M2 is the principal lunar semi-diurnal tide. The LAT is defined as the lowest sea level that is assumed to occur under the combination of average weather conditions and generally conceivable astronomical conditions. and then the lowest water level is taken as the LAT.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 2 Datum Level for Construction Work [Commentary] The datum level for port and harbor construction work is the standard water level that shall form the basis for the planning. S2 is the principal solar semi-diurnal tide. However. Ministry of Land. (2) International Marine Chart Datum The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) has decided to adopt the Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT) as the international marine chart datum. however. and construction of facilities. tide levels for at least 19 years are calculated using harmonic constants obtained from at least one year’s worth of observations. K1 is the luni-solar diurnal tide. and O1 tides). -4- . (In the case that the observation period is short. design. and O1 is the principal lunar diurnal tide. K1. Infrastructure. and Transport. in the case of Japan. which is the long-term average of the hourly sea surface height at the place in question. [Technical Notes] (1) Chart Datum Level The chart datum level is set as the level below the mean sea level by the amount equal to or approximately equivalent to the sum of the amplitueds of the four major tidal constituents (M2. The chart datum level shall be used as the datum level for construction work. Note that the heights of rocks or land marks shown on the nautical charts are the elevation above the mean sea level.) The difference in height between the chart datum level and the mean sea level is referred to as Z0. but it is planned to meet the IHO recommendation by stating the difference between the LAT and the chart datum level in tide tables published by the Hydrographic Department of Maritime Safety Agency. and issued a recommendation to this effect to the Hydrographic Departments in various countries throughout the world in June 1997. There will be no switchover to the LAT in the near future in Japan. which are obtained from the harmonic analysis of tidal observation data. In actual practice. corrections for seasonal fluctuations should be made when determining the mean sea level. the chart datum level is obtained using the old method described in (1) above (approximate lowest water level). Japan.

along with related administrative work: mainly composed of periodic and special inspections Evaluation: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Evaluation of the level of soundness based on the results of inspection / checking. inspections. refer to the “Manual for Maintenance and Repair of Port and Harbor Structures”.) must be recorded and stored in a standard format. Maintenance: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Activities carried out with the aim of holding back the physical deterioration of a structure and keeping its function within acceptable levels. and then to implement maintenance work based on this plan. repairs. and reinforcement. shall be carried out. Maintenance data kept in good systematic order is the basic information necessary for carrying out appropriate evaluation of the level of soundness of the facilities in question. it is necessary to give due consideration to the system of future maintenance and to select the types of structures and the materials used so that future maintenance will be easily executed. At the same time the maintenace data is useful when taking measures against the deterioration of the facilities as a whole and when investigating the possibility in the life cycle cost reduction of the facilities. etc. repair. (2) With regard to the procedure for maintenance. but also to carry out proper maintenance after the facilities have been put into service. It is thus essential not only to give due consideration when initially designing the structures in question. (3) For basic and common matters concerning maintenance. (4) When designing a structure. (3) A whole variety of data concerning maintenance (specifically. Repair / reinforcement: • • Activities in which a structure that has deteriorated physically and/ or functionally is partially reconstructed in order to restore the required function and/or structure. evaluations.• [Technical Notes] (1) The concepts of the terms relating to maintenance are as follows: Inspection / checking: • • • •Activities to investigate the state of a structure. during which the functions demanded of the facilities must be maintained. [Commentary] (1) “Maintenance” refers to a system consisting of a series of linked activities involving the efficient detection of changes in the state of serviceability of the facilities and the execution of effective measures such as rational evaluation. reinforcement work. checks. evaluations. in line with the specific characteristics of the port or harbor in question. and executing their maintenance and repairs. Maintenance -5- . it is a good idea to draw up a maintenance plan for each structure while considering factors like the structural form. comprehensive maintenance including inspections.PART I GENERAL Chapter 3 Maintenance In order to maintain the functions of port and harbor facilities at a satisfactory service level and to prevent deterioration in the safety of such facilities. and judgement of the necessity or otherwise of repairs etc. the situation regarding damage and the remaining level of function. etc. repair. (2) Port and harbor facilities must generally remain in service for long periods of time. while reflecting this aspect in the detailed design. the tendency to deteriorate and the degree of importance.

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN -6- .

Part II Design Conditions .

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etc. Lifetime of the facilities should be determined by examinig the following: • Operational function of the facilities The number of years until the facilities can no longer be usable due to the occurrence of problems in terms of the function of the facilities. functions. service and construction conditions.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Part II Design Conditions Chapter 1 General In designing port and harbor facilities. lifetime. They are generally determined according to the results of surveys and tests. for example the water depth of a mooring basin becoming insufficient owing to the increase in vessel size. loads. the design conditions shall be chosen from the items listed below by taking into consideration the natural. (b) Importance of the facilities The degree of importance of the facilities should be considered in order to design the facilities by taking appropriate account of safety and broad economic implications. the design conditions should be precisely determined upon full understanding of the methods and results of such investigations and tests. design seismic coefficient. -7- . and the social requirements for the facilities. the environmental impacts. (1) Ship dimensions (2) External forces produced by ships (3) Winds and wind pressure (4) Waves and wave force (5) Tide and extraordinary sea levels (6) Currents and current force (7) External forces acting on floating structures and their motions (8) Estuarine hydraulics and littoral drift (9) Subsoil (10) Earthquakes and seismic force (11) Liquefaction (12) Earth pressure and water pressure (13) Deadweight and surcharge (14) Coefficient of friction (15) Other necessary design conditions [Commentary] The design conditions should be determined carefully. In the case of temporary structures. (a) Functions of the facilities Since facilities often have multiple functions. care should be exercised so that all functions of the facilities will be exploited fully. (c) Lifetime The length of lifetime should be taken into account in determining the structure and materials of the facilities and also in determining the necessity for and extent of the improvement of the existing facilities. The design criteria influenced by importance of facilities are those of environmental conditions. [Technical Notes] (1) In designing port and harbor facilities. • Influence upon other facilities if the facilities are damaged. the following matters should be taken into consideration. The design conditions listed above are just those that have a large influence on port and harbor facilities. • Influence upon human lives and property if the facilities are damaged. safety factor. because they exercise great influence upon the safety. and construction cost of the facilities. In determining the degree of importance of the facilities. • Economic viewpoint of the facilities The number of years until the facilities become economically uncompetitive with other newer facilities (unless some kind of improvements are carried out). • Replaceability of the facilities. the design conditions may be determined while considering also the length of service life. • Impact on society and its economy if the facilities are damaged. the following criteria should be taken into consideration. Thus. the characteristics of materials.

topographical and soil conditions. deterioration. ASCE. since the construction costs will depend on these things.1. Construction costs consist of the initial investment costs and maintenance costs.1) 1) E1 = 1 ( 1 1 ¤ T 1 ) where L1： lifetime length T 1： return period L1 (1. seismic. due consideration must be given to things like the structural type and the construction method. (d) Encounter probability The encounter probability is intimately linked with the lifetime length. the construction equipment. and influence on the environment and landscape when selecting the materials. The encounter probability E1 is obtained using equation (1. bottom material. (i) Construction period In the case that the construction period is stipulated. When doing this. structural type. Proc. new materials such as stainless steels. animal and plant life. L. It is most important to ensure the reguired quality. No. Note also that the initial investment costs mentioned here include compensation duties.. (h) Work accuracy It is necessary to carry out design considering the accuracy of construction works that can be maintained in actual projects. In recent years. the opening date and the natural conditions. titanium and new rubbers. cost. (f) Materials It is necessary to consider the physical external forces. lifetime. 1963. Vol. construction works. When carrying out design etc. and recycled materials such as slag. All of these costs must be considered in design and construction. The construction period is generally determined by things like the availability of the materials. which have direct influences on the design of the facilities. -8- . but also the water quality.: “Risk criteria”. [Reference] 1) Borgman. 89.1) (e) Environmental conditions Not only the wave. E. it is necessary to consider the early use of the facilities and to secure an early return on investment. atmospheric conditions and rising sea level due to global warming should be taken into consideration. in addition to more traditional materials.1-35. WW3. while ensuring the safety of service / construction. There is also a design approach that the facilities are put into service step by step as the construction progresses.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN • Social function of the facilities The number of years until the functions of the facilities that constituted the original purpose become unnecessary or until different functions are called for the facilities due to new port planning etc. (j) Construction costs etc. it is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the construction method. the degree of difficulty of construction. coal ash and dredged sediment have begun to be used. (g) Construction method In order to carry out design rationally. pp. in order that it will be possible to complete construction work within the stipulated period. it is necessary to give consideration both to the design and the construction method. • Physical property of the facilities The number of years until it is no longer possible to maintain the strength of materials composing the structures at the specified level due to processes such as corrosion or weathering of these materials.1.

2.2.1.1. (10) For the sake of consistency.1. T. as stipulated in the “Law Concerning the Measurement of the Tonnage of Ships”.2. equation (2.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Chapter 2 Vessels 2. use the principal dimensions of that vessel.2. for any given tonnage.2).1 lists the “principal dimensions of vessels for the case that the target vessel cannot be identified” by tonnage level. 1995 edition). of cargo that can be loaded onto a vessel.2 have been obtained using the same kind of procedure as those in Table T. is also used as an indicator that represents the size of a vessel. There will also be vessels that have a tonnage greater than that of the target vessel listed in the table.1. The values in Table T. These values have been obtained through methods such as statistical analysis 1). (3) Table T. (5) Since the principal dimensions of long distance ferries that sail over 300km tend to have different characteristics from those of short-to-medium distance ferries. expressed in tons. The “gross tonnage” is used as an indicator that represents the size of a vessel in Japan’s maritime systems. [Technical Notes] (1) Article 1. (4) Table T. Accordingly.1) shows the relationship between the deadweight tonnage (DWT) and the gross tonnage (GT) for the types of vessels that use the deadweight tonnage as the representative indicator 1). there will be some vessels that have principal dimensions that exceed the values in the table. the tonnages (usually either gross or deadweight tonnage) are used as representative indicators.1. the equation may be applied if the tonnage is within the range shown in Table T. (9) Tonnage The definitions of the various types of tonnage are as follows: (a) Gross tonnage The measurement tonnage of sealed compartments of a vessel.1. the principal dimensions of this vessel should be used. 47.1.2.2. in the case that the target vessel can be identified. the principal dimensions of “small cargo ships” can be obtained by referring to Table T.1. displaced by a vessel when it is floating at rest. In this table. (2) In the case that the target vessel cannot be identified in advance. it is necessary to carry out a survey on the mast heights of the target vessels. the principal dimensions of the target vessel may be determined by referring to Table T. but mainly for vessels that make international sailings. Accordingly.2. The values of the “gross tonnage” and the “international gross tonnage” can differ from one another. (2) In the case that the target vessel cannot be identified. (c) Displacement tonnage The amount of water. expressed in tons. such as in the case of port and harbor facilities for public use. which. Note however that there is also the “international gross tonnage”.1.” (6) Since the principal dimensions of Japanese passenger ships tend to have different characteristics from those of foreign passenger ships.2.1 has been obtained using the data from “Lloyd’s Maritime Information June ’95” and “Nihon Senpaku Meisaisho” (“Detailed List of Japanese Vessels”.2. in line with the provisions in treaties etc. and they mainly represent the 75% cover ratio values for each tonnage of vessels. the principal dimensions are listed separately for “long distance ferries” and “short-to-medium distance ferries.1.2.1 Dimensions of Target Vessel (Notification Article 21) The principal dimensions of the target vessel shall be set using the following method: (1) In the case that the target vessel can be identified. The definitions of principal dimensions in the table are shown in Fig. (b) Deadweight tonnage The maximum weight.1. but in the case of such small vessels there are large variations in the principal dimensions and so particular care should be exercised when using Table T.1. use appropriate principal dimensions determined by statistical methods. the relationship between the two is stipulated in Article 35 of the “Enforcement Regulations for the Law Concerning the Measurement of the Tonnage of Ships” (Ministerial Ordinance No. (8) In the case that the target vessel is known to be a small cargo ship but it is not possible to identify precisely the demensions of the ship in advance.2. For each type of vessels. 1981). but still have principal dimensions smaller than those of the target vessel.. and so when designing facilities like bridges that pass over navigation routes.1. -9- .1. Clause 2 of the Ministerial Ordinance stipulates that the “target vessel” is the vessel that has the largest gross tonnage out of those that are expected to use the port or harbor facilities in question. (7) The mast height varies considerably even for vessels of the same type with the same tonnage. the principal dimensions are listed separately for “Japanese passenger ships” and “foreign passenger ships”.

000 70.000 10.0 23.808DWT (11) Tables T-2.0 11.1 14.000 5.5 29.000 150.3 44.000 100.8 -10- . container ships.000 3.000 12. Container ships Deadweight tonnage (DWT) 30.553DWT GT = 0.000 30.3 38.7 14.2 m 32.9 m 13.1. bulk cargo carriers.3 to T-2.2.9 32.1.1.9 21.6 16.6 6.1 39.1 m 12.8 12. Cargo ships Deadweight tonnage (DWT) 1.7 15.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Cargo ships: Container ships: Oil tankers: Roll-on/roll-off vessels: where GT ： gross tonnage DWT ： deadweight tonnage GT = 0.6 11.8 19.6 27.2.000 2.9 13.000 18. which were analyzed by the Systems Laboratory of Port and Harbour Research Institute (PHRI) using the data from “Lloyd’s Maritime Informations Services (June ’98)”.6 list the frequency distribution of the principal dimensions of general cargo ships.3 32.000 Length overall (L) 218 m 244 266 286 Length overall (L) 67 m 83 94 109 137 144 161 185 200 218 233 249 256 286 Fig. Length overall Load water line After perpendicular Length between perpendiculars Fore perpendicular 64748 (2.000 90.9 5.2 13.6 9.1 16.1.0 13.1 Definitions of Principal Dimensions of Vessel Table T.1 Principal Dimensions of Vessels for the Case That the Target Vessel Cannot Be Identified Molded breadth (B) 10.3 36.541DWT GT = 0. T.000 ton 2.2 8.9 Molded breadth (B) 30.5 Full load draft (d) 11.5 8.9 m 4.000 50.000 60. and oil tankers.1.000 55.3 Full load draft Full load draft (d) 3.1) Moulded breadth Moulded depth 1.000 ton 40.3 32.000 40.880DWT GT = 0.

000 50.000 2.000 10.0 m 8.2 23.2 27.7 22.8 9.7 18.4 18.3 m 25.8 6.3 28.4 Length overall (L) 142 m 167 185 192 192 200 Molded breadth (B) 22.6 23.6 m 18. Ferries 3-A Short-to-medium distance ferries (sailing distance less than 300km) Gross tonnage (GT) 400 ton 700 1.8 m 13.6 6.1 m 4.0 m 4.000 Length overall (L) 70 m 94 114 130 165 184 200 Molded breadth (B) 11.000 12.000 70.7 4.9 Full load draft (d) 11.2 27.7 3-B Long distance ferries (sailing distance 300km or more) Gross tonnage (GT) 6.000 4.000 7.0 5.000 30. Roll-on/roll-off vessels Deadweight tonnage (DWT) 400 ton 1.000 ton 10.8 21.6 Length overall (L) 75 m 97 115 134 154 182 Molded breadth (B) 13.000 13.6 m 16.000 20.4 Full load draft (d) 4.5 20.000 5.500 3.3 35.000 20.4 3.7 m 28.500 5.5 6.3 21.0 Length overall (L) 83 m 107 130 147 188 217 Molded breadth (B) 15.2 Full load draft (d) 8.7 6.5 21.000 ton 30.5 Length overall (L) 180 m 207 248 278 Molded breadth (B) 25.0 7.500 2.5 27. Passenger ships 5-A Japanese passenger ships Gross tonnage (GT) 2.6 8.0 32.2 28.0 Full load draft (d) 3.5 30.000 5-B Foreign passenger ships Gross tonnage (GT) 20.3 Full load draft (d) 3.8 m 15.0 m 3.8 6.000 ton 4.000 25.8 7.4 6.0 30.9 5.0 8.3 7. Pure car carriers Gross tonnage (GT) 500 ton 1.000 18.2 Full load draft (d) 6.000 6.7 5.000 5.4 32.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 3.000 6.0 8.8 m 5.000 10.2 28.000 Length overall (L) 50 m 63 72 104 136 148 Molded breadth (B) 11.6 5.7 18.000 23.000 10.500 4.8 6.000 16.5 14.0 m 6.0 8.3 5.2 -11- .9 25.6 6.

000 50.0 m 9.9 8.9 5.4 Table T-2.3 38.2 32.3 m 3.000 ton 2.6 14.3 Frequency Distributions of Principal Dimensions of General Cargo Ships (a) DWT .000 15.2.000 10.1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 7.Breadth * (c) DWT .000 3.2 Principal Dimensions of Small Cargo Ships Deadweight tonnage (DWT) 500 ton 700 Length overall (L) 51 m 57 Molded breadth (B) 9.1.000 70.9 12.5 6.9 15.8 29.000 5.9 9.Length overall L (b) DWT .6 13.6 10.3 16.000 20.000 90.0 m 4.000 Length overall (L) 61 m 76 87 102 127 144 158 180 211 235 254 Molded breadth (B) 10.0 Table T.000 30. Oil tankers Deadweight tonnage (DWT) 1.1 Full load draft (d) 4.4 7.Full load draft @ -12- .0 41.8 23.2 m 12.8 20.5 Full load draft (d) 3.6 25.

PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Table T-2.1.Length overall L (b) DWT .Breadth * (c) DWT .4 Frequency Distributions of Principal Dimensions of Bulk Cargo Carriers (a) DWT .Full load draft @ -13- .

TEU -14- .Length overall L (b) DWT .TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T-2.5 Frequency Distributions of Principal Dimensions of Container Ships (a) DWT .Full load draft d unknown unknown (d) DWT .1.Breadth * (c) DWT .

Length overall L (b) DWT .Breadth * (c) DWT .6 Frequency Distributions of Principal Dimensions of Oil Tankers (a) DWT .1.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Table T-2.Full load draft @ -15- .

In particular.0) [Commentary] In addition to the kinetic energy method mentioned above. along with the influence of things like the winds. the data necessary for design are insufficient and the values of the various constants used in the calculations may not be sufficiently well known. or a berthing beam equipped with fenders. [Technical Notes] (1) If it is assumed that a berthing vessel moves only in the abeam direction. where f = C e ´ C m ´ C s ´ C c .2. Thus. C m . the influence of the wave force acting on a vessel is large and so due consideration must be given to the wave force.2. the mooring method and the properties of the mooring system. statistical methods. the berthing forces acting on the mooring facilities should be calculated based on the berthing energy of the vessel and using the load-deflection characteristics of the fenders. C s .0) C c： berth configuration factor (standard value is 1. -16- . should be considered. the tractive forces and impact forces generated by the motions of a moored vessel should be obtained by carrying out a numerical simulation of vessel motions taking into account the wave force acting on the vessel.e. the wind force. E f . the kinetic energy method is generally used.2 Berthing [1] Berthing Energy (Notification Article 22. M s . Clause 1) It shall be standard to calculate the external force generated by berthing of a vessel with the following equation: MsV2 -ö C C C C (2. (2) As a general rule.2) 1) may be used to give the relationship between the deadweight tonnage (DWT) or the gross tonnage (GT) and the displacement tonnage (DT).2 External Forces Generated by Vessels 2. and the load-deflection characteristics of the mooring system. for the cases of the mooring facilities in the ports and harbors that face out onto the open sea with long-period waves expected to come in. and C c represent the following: E f： berthing energy of vessel (kJ = kN•m) M s： mass of vessel (t) V： berthing velocity of vessel (m/s) C e： eccentricity factor C m： virtual mass factor C s： softness factor (standard value is 1. the berthing method and the berthing velocity. C e . waves and tidal currents. which are caused by the wave force. equation (2. then the kinetic energy E s is equal to ( M s V 2) ¤ 2 . [Commentary] (1) The following loads acting on mooring facilities should be considered when a vessel is berthing or moored: a) Loads caused by berthing of a vessel b) Loads caused by motions of a moored vessel When designing mooring facilities. a quaywall. of those installed in the open sea or harbor entrances such as offshore terminals. 2. methods using hydraulic model experiments. (2) The vessel mass M s is taken to be the displacement tonnage (DT) of the target vessel.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 2. the energy absorbed by the fenders (i. However.1 General The external forces acting on the mooring facilities when a vessel is berthing or moored shall be determined using an appropriate method. wind force and current force. V. and of those in the harbors where vessels seek refuge during storms.1) E f = æ -----------è 2 ø e m s c In this equation.. considering the dimensions of the target vessel. when a vessel is berthing at a dolphin. the current force. the berthing force must be considered first. the structure of the mooring facilities. However. and methods using fluid dynamics models 3). In the case that the target vessel cannot be identified. Then the impact forces and tractive forces on the mooring facilities due to the motions of the moored vessel.2. (3) As a general rule. with these alternative methods.2. there are also other methods of estimating the berthing energy of a vessel: for example. the berthing energy E f of the vessel) will become E s ´ f considering the various influencing factors.

if a vessel is fully loaded. 64444744448 (2. considering the type of the target vessel. (4) When a vessel berths.2. T. there are a few cases in which the berthing velocity is over 15 cm/s and so due care must be taken when designing ferry quays (see Fig. It is generally assumed that no energy is absorbed in this way and so the value of C s is often given as 1. meaning that the under-keel clearance is small. weather and oceanographic conditions. the berthing velocity is usually less than 10 cm/s for general cargo ships.506 ＋ 0. (2) Special vessels such as ferries.2. whereas if it is lightly loaded.332 ＋ 0.899 log (DWT) log (DT) ＝ 0.2. It was also clear from the above-mentioned survey results that the degree to which a vessel is loaded up has a considerable influence on the berthing velocity. Even for ferries which berth under their own power. the vessel may line up perpendicular to the quay. the lower the berthing velocity becomes. roll-on/roll-off vessels.588 log (GT) log (DT) ＝ 0. In these cases.4). (3) Figure T.2.000DWT)： Cargo ships (10.511 ＋ 0. moreover.026 ＋ 0.981 log (GT) log (DT) ＝ 0.341 ＋ 0. it has been prepared based on the data collected through experience. meaning that the under-keel clearance is large. It is thought that the effect depends on things like the berthing angle. lined up parallel to the quaywall at a certain distance away from it. and the berthing velocity. but there are a few cases where it is over 10 cm/s (see Fig. but little research has been carried out to determine it.953 log (DWT) log (DT) ＝ 1.2.388 ＋ 0. the position and structure of the mooring facilities.0. the berthing velocity must be set high if the mooring facilities is not sheltered by breakwaters etc.1 shows the relationship between the vessel handling conditions and berthing velocity by vessel size 4).2) [2] Berthing Velocity The berthing velocity of a vessel shall be determined based on the measurement in situ or past data of similar measurements. then the berthing velocity tends to be lower. This figure shows that the larger the vessel. The berthing velocity only occasionally exceeds 10 cm/s for large oil tankers that use offshore terminals (see Fig. Nevertheless. The energy that must be absorbed by the fenders is thus reduced.909 log (DWT) log (DT) ＝ 0. It is thus necessary to determine berthing velocities carefully based on actualy measured values.2.000DWT or more)： Container ships： Ferries (long distance)： Ferries (short-to-medium distance)： Roll-on/roll-off vessels： Passenger ships (Japanese)： Passenger ships (foreign)： Car carriers： Oil tankers： log (DT) ＝ 0. paying attention to the type of berthing method employed by the target vessel. and small cargo ships berth under their own power without assistance of tugboats. T.365 ＋ 0. This effect is considered when determining the berth configuration factor C c . it is common to set the berthing velocity to 10 ~ 15 cm/s based on past design examples. displaced by the vessel when fully loaded) GT： gross tonnage DWT： deadweight tonnage (3) The softness factor C s represents the ratio of the remaining amount of the berthing energy after energy absorption due to deformation of the shell plating of the vessel to the initial berthing energy. in tons.913 log (DWT) log (DT) ＝ 0.891 log (GT) log (DT) ＝ 1. and the availability or absence of tugboats and their sizes.956 log (DWT) where DT： displacement tonnage (amount of water.2.3).2. the under-keel clearance.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Cargo ships (less than 10. (4) According to the results of surveys on berthing velocity 5).657 ＋ 0. then the berthing velocity tends to be higher. the extent to which the vessel is loaded. When such a berthing method is adopted.6).550 ＋ 0.915 ＋ 0.2.683 log (GT) log (DT) ＝ 0. such vessels may berth while actually being pulled outwards by the tugboats. They are then gently pushed by several tugboats until they come into contact with the quay. the majority berth at the velocity of less than 10 cm/s. If there is a ramp at the bow or stern of such a vessel. the mass of water between the vessel and the mooring facilities resists to move out and acts just as if a cushion is placed in this space. [Technical Notes] (1) Observing the way in which large cargo ships and large oil tankers make berthing. In other words. When there is a strong wind blowing toward the quay.904 log (GT) log (DT) ＝ 0. -17- .2). a berthing method different from that for larger vessels described in (1) may be used. one notices that such vessels come to a temporary standstill. T. the shape of the vessel’s shell plating.

T. gravity types) Berthing velocity (cm/s) Displacement tonnage .2.2.3 Berthing Velocity and Displacement Tonnage for Large Oil Tankers 6) Stern berthing Bow berthing Berthing velocity (cm/s) Displacement tonnage .2.2. T.2.1 Relationship between Vessel Handling Conditions and Berthing Velocity by Vessel Size 4) Open type quay Wall type quay (sheet pile.2.6 (tons) Fig.6 (tons) Fig.000 tons) Fig.4 Berthing Velocity and Displacement Tonnage for Longitudinal Berthing of Ferries 5) -18- .6 (10.2 Berthing Velocity and Displacement Tonnage for General Cargo Ships 5) Berthing velocity (cm/s) Displacement tonnage . T.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Difficult exposed Difficulty of handling vessel / mooring facilities being shelterd or not Good berthing exposed Easy berthing exposed Difficult berthing sheltered Good berthing sheltered Berthing velocity (cm/s) Fig.2. T.2.

If the data are assumed to follow a Weibull distribution.2.6 All vessels 8.7 5.5 3.6 shows a berthing velocity frequency distribution obtained from actual measurement records at offshore terminals used by large oil tankers of around 200.1 Deadweight Tonnage and Average Berthing Velocity Deadweight tonnage (DWT) 1.41 cm/s and the standard deviation s is 2.000 DWT or over.000 class 10.4 5.8 7.2.2.000 class 30.9 3.2. The mean µ is 4.8 where V： berthing velocity (cm/s) (2.2.000 class 15.5 Relationship between Deadweight Tonnage and Berthing Velocity Fig. then the probability of the berthing velocity below the value 13 cm/s would be 99. the probability of the berthing velocity exceeding 14.0 N=738 Poisson distribution m = 3 Poisson distribution m = 4 Weibull distribution Normal distribution N Cargo ships Container ships Pure car carriers V (cm/s) Dead weight tonnage (DWT) V (cm/s) Fig.2 4.2.2.7 4.. Application of the Weibull distribution yields the probability density function f ( V ) as expressed in equation (2. The offshore terminals where the berthing velocity measurements were taken had a design berthing velocity of either 15 cm/s or 20 cm/s 7).2 5.3): V .2 Container ships 7. (7) In cases where cautious berthing methods such as those described in (1) are not used.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS According to the survey by Moriya et al. container ships. -19- . it is necessary to carefully determine the berthing velocity based on actually measured values etc.0 Pure car carriers 4.5 cm/s becomes 1/1000.2. Consequently.000 DWT. it is necessary to determine the berthing velocity based on actual measurement data etc.2.1 3. For small vessels in particular. it is recommended to carry out design works based on the design standards for fishing port facilities and actual states of usage. the berthing velocity is generally higher than that for larger vessels.08 cm/s. (8) When designing mooring facilities that may be used by fishing boats. T. and pure car carriers are as listed in Table T.4 4.2. (6) Small vessels such as small cargo ships and fishing boats come to berths by controlling their positions under their own power without assistance of tugboats.3 4. considering the ship drift velocity by currents. This survey also shows that the larger the vessel.6%.1 3.2.5.3) From this equation.4 5.000 class 5.5 5. T.6 Frequency Distribution of Berthing Velocity 10) (5) Figure T. T. the average berthing velocities for cargo ships.000 class All vessels Berthing velocity (cm/s) Cargo ships 8.1 6.6 4.exp ( V 1.000 class 50.. or in the case of berthing of small or medium-sized vessels under influence of currents.0 4.6 4.9 4.1.2. the lower the berthing velocity tends to be. Table T. and in some cases it can even exceed 30 cm/s.25 ) f ( V ) = -----0. The relationship between the deadweight tonnage and berthing velocity is shown in Fig.2.2. It can be seen that the highest measured berthing velocity was 13 cm/s. The highest berthing velocities observed were about 15 cm/s for vessels under 10.000 DWT and about 10 cm/s for vessels of 10.1 7.

2. Clause 2) The eccentricity factor shall be calculated by the following: 1 C e = ------------------lö 2 æ 1+ è rø (2.2.2.5. (2. it starts yawing and rolling.2. T.7). T.11 ) L pp where r： radius of gyration. Equation (2. when a vessel comes into contact with the fenders F1 and F2 with the point of the vessel closest to the quaywall being the point P.8.2.5 a + e ( 1 k ) L pp cos q L 1 = ( 0.7 8). 1969) 7) Fig. This means that after it comes into contact with the mooring facilities (fenders).2.4).2. C b = Ñ /( L pp Bd) ( Ñ : Volume of water displaced by the vessel (m3).6) or (2.7 Relationship between the Radius of Gyration around the Vertical Axis and the Block Coefficient (Myers.4) where l and r represent the following: l： distance from the point where the vessel touches the mooring facilities to the center of gravity of the vessel as measured along the face line of the mooring facilities (m) r： radius of gyration around the vertical axis passing through the center of gravity of the vessel (m) [Technical Notes] (1) When a vessel is in the middle of berthing operation.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [3] Eccentricity Factor (Notification Article 22.4) thus only considers the amount of energy used up by yawing. Alternatively. B: moulded breadth (m).2.2.5 a ek ) L pp cos q (2.19 C b + 0.2.5.2.2.6) (2. d: draft (m)) (3) As sketched in Fig. When k = 0. The amount of energy used up by rolling is small compared with that by yawing and can be ignored. it is not aligned perfectly along the face line of the berth.2.2. F1 keLpp cos θ eLpp cos θ A P Radius of gyration in the longitudinal direction (r) Length between perpendiculars (Lpp) F2 A Lpp B αLpp B G θ Q Block coefficient Cb Fig.2. the distance l from the point of contact to the center of gravity of the vessel as measured parallel to the mooring facilities is given by equation (2.2. this is related to the moment of inertia I z around the vertical axis of the vessel by the relationship Iz = M s r 2 L pp： length between perpendiculars (m) C b： block coefficient.8 Vessel Berthing L 2 = 0.5) r = ( 0. l is taken to be L 1 when k ＜ 0. (2) The radious of gyration r relative to Lpp is a function of the block coefficient C b of the vessel and can be obtained from Fig. T.2. one may use the linear approximation shown in equation (2. l is taken as whichever of L 1 or L 2 that gives the higher value of C e in equation (2.5 and L 2 when k ＞ 0.7) -20- . This results in some of the vessel’s kinetic energy being used up. T.5) .

and the full load draft (d).2.330 log (GT) Car carriers： log (Lpp) ＝ 1.046 ＋ 0. Clause 3) It shall be standard to calculate the virtual mass factor using the following equations: d p C m = 1 + -------. (2) As a general rule.787 ＋ 0.679 ＋ 0. this varies according to factors like the type of vessel.8) based on the results of model experiments and field observations.793 ＋ 0.285 log (DWT) Container ships： log (Lpp) ＝ 0.516 ＋ 0. The second term in equation (2. the actual values of the target vessel are used for the length between perpendiculars ( L pp ).6 ＋ 0. Regression equations have been proposed for the relationships between the deadweight tonnage.8) corresponds to M w ¤ M s in equation (2. 64444744448 Cargo ships (less than 10.401 log (GT) Roll-on/roll-off vessels： log (Lpp) ＝ 0. one may use the principal dimensions given in 2. the moulded breadth (B). as measured in the longitudinal direction of the vessel.2.9).´ -2 Cb B 64748 Ñ C b = -------------L pp Bd (2.8) where Cb. 6.5. and the block coefficient etc. B. which give the relationship between the deadweight tonnage (DWT) or the gross tonnage (GT) and the length between perpendiculars for different types of vessel 1).PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS where L 1： distance from the point of contact to the center of gravity of the vessel as measured parallel to the mooring facilities when the vessel makes contact with fender F1 L 2： distance from the point of contact to the center of gravity of the vessel as measured parallel to the mooring facilities when the vessel makes contact with fender F2 q： berthing angle (the value of q is set as a design condition.2.. Ms + M w C m = -------------------Ms where C m： virtual mass factor M s： mass of vessel (t) M w： mass of the water surrounding the vessel (added mass) (t) (2.2.349 log (DWT) Passenger ships (Japanese)： log (Lpp) ＝ 0.2.359 log (GT) Passenger ships (foreign)： log (Lpp) ＝ 0. the vessel (which has mass M s ) and the water mass surrounding the vessel (which has mass M w ) both decelerate.1 Dimensions of the Target Vessel. k： parameter that represents the relative location of the point where the vessel comes closest to the mooring facilities between the fenders F1 and F2 . 13. but it is generally taken at k = 0.401 log (DWT) Ferries (long distance. it is usually set somewhere in the range 0 ~ 10º) e： ratio of the distance between the fenders.000 GT or less)： log (Lpp) ＝ log (94.322 log (DWT) (2.10). but is generally in the range 1/3 ~ 1/2. k varies between 0 and 1.Ñ.613 ＋ 0.00596GT) Ferries (short-to-medium distance. The virtual coefficient is thus defined as in equation (2.000 DWT or more)： log (Lpp) ＝ 0.9). [4] Virtual Mass Factor (Notification Article 22.000 DWT)： log (Lpp) ＝ 0.000 t or less)： log (Lpp) ＝ 0.2. But when one of the standard ship sizes is used. to the length between perpendiculars a： ratio of the length of the parallel side of the vessel at the height of the point of contact with the fender to the length between perpendiculars.840 ＋ 0. It is also possible to use equations (2.10) -21- .867 ＋ 0. Lpp. the inertial force corresponding to the water mass is added to that of the vessel itself. and d represent the following: C b： block coefficient Ñ： volume of water displaced by the vessel (m3) L pp： length between perpendiculars (m) B： moulded breadth (m) d： full load draft (m) [Technical Notes] (1) When a vessel berths.280 log (GT) Oil tankers： log (Lpp) ＝ 0.2.9) Ueda 8) proposed equation (2. Accordingly.310 log (DWT) Cargo ships (10.2.964 ＋ 0. the moulded breadth and the full load draft 1).

(4) For box-shaped vessels such as working craft. [Commentary] The wave force acting on a moored vessel is calculated using an appropriate method.3 Moored Vessels [1] Motions of Moored Vessel (Notification Article 23) As a general rule. the wind force. with consideration given to the random variations of the loads and the nonlinearity of the load-deflection characteristics of the mooring system.7 ~ 0. the wind force. the external forces generated by the motions of a vessel should be obtained by carrying out a numerical simulation of vessel motions. (3) For vessels that have a block coefficient of 0. [Technical Notes] (1) As a general rule. allowing an approximate evaluation of the wave force 13). when such a numerical simulation of vessel motions is not possible. The radiation force can be expressed as the summation of a term that is proportional to the acceleration of the vessel and a term that is proportional to the velocity.03 t/m3) 2. the external forces generated by the motions of a moored vessel shall be calculated by carrying out a numerical simulation of vessel motions. are liable to be moved under the influence of loads due to waves. winds. the kinetic energy due to such motions can exceed the berthing energy. -22- . or the finite element method. and the load-deflection characteristics of the mooring system. along with vessels moored during stormy weather. or at mooring facilities inside harbors for which long-period waves are expected to come in. the former can be expressed as an added mass divided by acceleration.2. The radiation force is the wave force exerted on the hull when the vessel undergoes a motion of unit amplitude for each mode of motions. for example the strip method. In such cases. In addition. while the latter can be expressed as a damping coefficient divided by velocity 12). (2) As a general rule. being set appropriately. etc. [Technical Notes] (1) Wave Force by the Strip Method 11). the source distribution technique.8 such as large oil tankers. the motions of a moored vessel should be analyzed through numerical simulation. Specifically. etc. the ship hull can be represented with an elliptical cylinder. with the wave force acting on the vessel. considering the type of vessel and the wave parameters. based on the factors such as the wave force acting on the vessel. the most common method used for vessels is the strip method. In some cases. a nonlinear fluid dynamic force that is proportional to the square of the wave height acts on the vessel (see 8. [Commentary] (1) Vessels moored at mooring facilities situated in the open sea or near to harbor entrances. [2] Waves Acting on Vessel The wave force acting on a moored vessel shall be calculated using an appropriate method. one may obtain the displacement of and loads on the mooring system either by using frequency response analysis for regular waves or by referring to results of an motion analysis on a floating body moored at a system that has load-deflection characteristics of bilinear nature 11). the boundary element method. the current force due to water currents. the current force due to currents. The wave exciting force due to incident waves is the wave force calculated for the case that motions of the vessel are restrained. currents.2 External Forces Acting on Floating Body).TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (3) The volume of water displaced by the vessel Ñ is determined by dividing the displacement tonnage DT by the density of seawater (1. the wave force can be obtained by taking the vessel to be either a floating body with a rectangular cross section or a floating body of a rectangular prism. 12) (a) Wave force of regular waves acting on the hull The wave force acting on the hull is taken to be the summation of the Froude-Kriloff force and the force by the waves that are reflected by the hull (diffraction force). it is thus advisable to give full consideration to the tractive forces and impact forces caused by the motions of vessels when designing bollards and fenders 10). (2) The total wave force acting on the hull of a vessel is analyzed by dividing it into the wave exciting force due to incident waves and the radiation force that is generated as the vessel moves. or when the vessel is moored at a system that is considered to be more-or-less symmetrical. However.

15) that are based on wind tunnel tests or water tank tests that have been carried out in the past.7 ~ 0. In the case of a moored vessel in front of a quaywall. using the drag coefficients C X and C Y in the X and Y directions and the pressure moment coefficient C M about the midship. (5) Since the wind velocity varies both in time and in space.. it is desirable to use the values for the target vessel. which depend on the cross-sectional form of the vessel.r U2 AL CY R Y = -2 a 1 .8). r a = 1. For standard vessel sizes.13). (d) Total force acting on the hull as a whole The total wave force acting on the hull as a whole can be obtained by integrating the Froude-Kriloff force and the diffraction force acting on a cross section of the hull in the longitudinal direction from x = L pp ¤ 2 to x = L pp ¤ 2 .11) ~ (2. (2) Waves Forces by Diffraction Theory 13) In the case that the vessel in question is very fat (i. one may refer to regression equations 1).PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (b) Froude-Kriloff force The Froude-Kriloff force is the force derived by integrating the pressure of progressive waves around the circumference of the hull. [3] Wind Load Acting on Vessel The wind load acting on a moored vessel shall be determined using an appropriate calculation formula. This velocity is referred to as the “equivalent relative velocity”. the wind velocity should be treated as fluctuating in the -23- .2.13) (2) It is desirable to determine the wind force coefficients C X .e. and C M through wind tunnel tests or water tank tests on a target vessel. it has a block coefficient C b of 0. it is taken to be the summation of the force of the incident waves and the force of the reflected waves from the quaywall. It is assumed that the velocity of the vessel in this case is equal to the velocity of the cross section of the hull relative to the water particles in the incident waves. and the motions of the vessel are considered to be very small.12) (2. this change in the pressure field can be replaced by the radiation force (the wave making resistance when the vessel moves at a certain velocity through a calm fluid) for the case that the hull is moved relative to fluid. the vessel may be represented with an elliptical cylinder and the wave force may be calculated using an equation based on a diffraction theory 13).2. C Y . it is acceptable to use the calculation equations for wind force coefficients 14). As an estimate.r U 2 AT CX R X = -2 a 1 . [Technical Notes] (1) The wind load acting on a vessel should be determined from equations (2.11) (2.2.2.r U 2 A L L pp C M R M = -2 a where C X： drag coefficient in the X direction (from the front of the vessel) C Y： drag coefficient in the Y direction (from the side of the vessel) C M： pressure moment coefficient about the midship R X： X component of the wind force (kN) R Y： Y component of the wind force (kN) R M： moment of the wind load about the midship (kN•m) r a： density of air. [Commentary] It is desirable to determine the wind load acting on a moored vessel while considering the temporal fluctuation of the wind velocity and the characteristics of the drag coefficients. (3) The maximum wind velocity (10-minute average wind velocity) should be used as the wind velocity U.2.23 ´ 10 3 (t/m3) U： wind velocity (m/s) A T： front projected area above the water surface (m2) A L： side projected area above the water surface (m2) L pp： length between perpendiculars (m) (2. (c) Diffraction force The diffraction force acting on a vessel is the force that is generated by the change in the pressure field when incident waves are scattered by the vessel’s hull. Since such experiments require time and cost. there are no reflecting structures such as quaywalls behind the vessel. 1 . (4) For the front projected area above the water surface and the side projected area above the water surface.

in practice it is difficult to rigorously separate the two resistances and investigate them individually.03 t/m3) C： current pressure coefficient V： flow velocity (m/s) B： side projected area of hull below the waterline (m2) (3) The current pressure force due to tidal currents can in principle be divided into frictional resistance and pressure resistance.16) is a simplification of the following Froude equation with r w = 1. a： exponent when the vertical profile of the wind velocity is expressed by a power law [ U µ ( z ¤ 10 ) a ] z： height above the surface of the ground or ocean (m) m： correction factor relating to the stability of the atmosphere.16).í 1 + æ -S u ( f ) = 2.03) gravitational acceleration (m/s2) temperature (ºC) wetted surface area (m2) -24- (2. The frequency spectra proposed by Davenport and Hino are given by equations (2.03. Equation (2. (2. 64748 5 ¤ 6 X2 2 f S u ( f ) = 4 K r U10 --------------------------(1 + X2 )4 ¤ 3 X = 1200 f / U 10 K r U10 ì fö2ü .2.16) R f = 0.14: Rf where R f： rw： g： t： S： = rw g l { 1 + 0. respectively.856 -------------è bø ý b î þ 2 (2.14) and (2.2. it is considered that K r = 0.17) R = 0.14) 64748 (2.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN analysis of the motions of a moored vessel.2.15). m is taken to be 2 in the case of a storm.2.825 current pressure force (N) specific gravity of seawater (standard value: rw = 1. [4] Current Forces Acting on Vessel The flow pressure force due to tidal currents acting on a vessel shall be determined using an appropriate calculation formula. Davenport 16) and Hino have proposed the frequency spectra for the time fluctuations of the wind velocity.2. over the ocean.003 is appropriate. t = 15ºC and l = 0.2.0043 ( 15 t ) } SV 1.0014 SV 2 where R f： current pressure force (kN) S： wetted surface area (m2) V： flow velocity (m/s) (2) Current Pressure Force Due to Currents Coming onto the Side of Vessel The current pressure force due to a current coming onto the side of a vessel may be calculated using equation (2.2. (2.169 ´ 10 3 ç -----------è K r ø è 10ø where S u ( f )： frequency spectrum of wind velocity (m2•s) U 10： average wind velocity at the standard height 10 m (m/s) K r： friction coefficient for the surface defined with the wind velocity at the standard height.15) æ U 10 aö æ z ö 2 m a 1 -÷ ----b = 1.2. [Technical Notes] (1) Current Pressure Force Due to Currents Coming onto the Bow of Vessel The current pressure force on the vessel due to currents coming onto the bow of a vessel may be calculated using equation (2.18) .5 r 0 CV 2 B where R： current pressure force (kN) r 0： density of seawater (t/m3) (standard value: r 0 = 1. It is thought that the resistance to currents coming onto the bow of a vessel is predominantly frictional resistance. However.2.17). whereas the resistance to currents coming onto the side of a vessel is predominantly pressure resistance.2.

000 20.000 Tractive force acting on a mooring post (kN) 150 250 350 350 500 700 1.2.) shall be modeled appropriately.000 10.1 Tractive Forces of Vessels (Notification Article 79. fenders.0 Relative current direction G( ) Fig. the values obtained from Fig. Table 2. they may show hysteresis. it shall be standard to assume that the tractive force stipulated in (1) acts horizontally and a tractive force equal to one half of this acts upwards simultaneously. with regard to the load-deflection characteristics of a fender.2. (5) Regarding the wetted surface area S and the side projected area below the waterline B.000 1.) is generally nonlinear.000 ＜ GT ≦ 20.000 2.13783 for a 250m-long vessel) (4) The current pressure coefficient C in equation (2. the load-deflection characteristics of the mooring system (mooring ropes.2.000 ＜ GT ≦ 50.5 7.2. T. (2) In the case of a mooring post. etc. it shall be standard to assume that the tractive force stipulated in (1) acts in all directions. 2.2. fenders.17) varies according to the relative current direction q.000 ＜ GT ≦ 10.4 Tractive Force Acting on Mooring Post and Bollard (Notification Article 79) (1) It shall be standard to take the values listed in Table 2.000 ＜ GT ≦ 5.000 1.000 3.500 -25Tractive force acting on a bollard (kN) 150 250 250 350 350 500 700 1.000 ＜ GT ≦ 2.1 1.1 as the tractive forces of vessels acting on mooring posts and bollards. Moreover.14741 for a 30m-long vessel and l = 0. Current pressure coefficient + Water depth draft @ D = 1. Appended Table 12) Gross tonnage (GT) of vessel (tons) 200 ＜ GT ≦ 500 500 ＜ GT ≦ 1. and so it is desirable to model these characteristics appropriately before carrying out the motion analysis of a moored vessel.9 may be used for reference purposes.9 Current Pressure Coefficient C [5] Load-Deflection Characteristics of Mooring System When performing a motion analysis of a moored vessel.000 5. one may use values obtained from a regression equations 3) that have been derived by statistical analysis.2. etc.000 .000 ＜ GT ≦ 3. (3) In the case of a bollard.2.2. [Technical Notes] The load-deflection characteristics of a mooring system (mooring ropes.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS V： flow velocity (m/s) l： coefficient (l = 0. T.

with the assumption that the mooring posts are installed at the place away from the wharf waterline by the amount of vessel’s width and that the breast lines are pulled in a direction 45º to the vessel’s longitudinal axis 17). see Part Ⅷ . it is desirable to consider the type of vessel. Bollards. and Mooring Rings. on the other hand. Alternatively. it has been assumed that there are tidal currents of 2 kt in the longitudinal direction and 0. (2) Regarding the layout and names of mooring ropes to moor a vessel.18).6 kt in the transverse direction. and the force due to motions of a vessel 9). close to the both ends of a berth so that they may be used for mooring a vessel in a storm. a vessel that is not covered in Table 2. and so both the required rope diameter and the breaking strength are large. etc.000 Tractive force acting on a mooring post (kN) 2. (4) The tractive force acting on a mooring post has been determined based on the wind pressure acting on a vessel in such a way that a lightly loaded vessel should be able to moor safely even when the wind velocity is 25 ~ 30 m/s. either on or near to the mooring facilities. in addition to the wind pressure.000 tons (i.e. The tractive force on mooring facilities at which vessels are moored even in rough weather or mooring facilities that are installed in waters with severe meteorological / oceanographic conditions should also be calculated by considering these conditions. (3) Regarding the layout and structure of mooring posts and bollards. 2. [Technical Notes] (1) It is desirable to calculate the tractive force acting on a mooring post and a bollard based on the breaking strength of the mooring ropes possessed by a vessel arriving at the berth.1) should be calculated by considering the meteorological and oceanographic conditions.2. with the assumption that the ropes at the bow and stern are pulled in a direction at least 25º to the vessel’s axis. or unberthing a vessel in normal conditions. the required safety factor has been set large owing to the factors such that there is little data on the past usage of such ropes and their abrasion resistance is low. the berthing situation. The tractive force for a bollard that is used for spring lines and is installed at the middle of a berth. it is not possible to apply the stipulations in (2) above.000 tons and two mooring ropes for a vessel of gross tonnage over 5.1. where the breaking strength of a mooring rope is evaluated according to the “Steel Ship Regulations” by the Nippon Kaiji Kyokai.. (5) When determining the tractive force from a small vessel of gross tonnage no more than 200 tons. (3) The tractive force due to a vessel whose gross tonnage is no more than 200 tons or greater than 100. see Part Ⅷ . for which the vessel’s berthing position is fixed. and if necessary also considering the force due to a berthing vessel. 11). “Bollards”. are installed close to the waterline of the mooring facilities so that they may be used for mooring. berthing. where the breaking strength of a mooring rope is evaluated according to the “Steel Ship Regulations” by the Nippon Kaiji Kyokai. the structure of the mooring facilities. in the case of berths for which the mooring vessels use only nylon ropes or type B vinylon ropes.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Gross tonnage (GT) of vessel (tons) 50. 19.000 tons.000 tons and there is no risk of more than one mooring rope being attached to a bollard that is used for spring lines at the middle of mooring facilities for which the vessel’s berth is fixed. etc.000 ＜ GT ≦ 100.2. the tractive force acting on a bollard may be taken as one half of the value listed in Table 2. During actual -26- . Note however that. The tractive force so obtained corresponds to the breaking strength of one to two mooring ropes. the wind pressure on a moored vessel. it is also possible to determine the tractive force acting on a mooring post and a bollard in accordance with (2) ~ (6) below.000 Tractive force acting on a bollard (kN) 1. although there are stipulations concerning synthetic fiber ropes in the “Steel Ship Regulations” by the Nippon Kaiji Kyokai with regard to nylon ropes and type B vinylon ropes (both of which are types of synthetic fiber rope). The tractive force acting on a bollard has been determined based on the wind pressure acting on a vessel in such a way that even a lightly loaded vessel should be able to moor using only bollards in a wind of velocity up to 15 m/s. the mooring posts can withstand the tractive force under the wind velocity of up to 35 m/s. In the above-mentioned tractive force calculations. where the breaking strength of a mooring rope is evaluated according to the “Steel Ship Regulations” by the Nippon Kaiji Kyokai. (2) In the case that the gross tonnage of a vessel exceeds 5.000 [Commentary] (1) “Mooring posts” are installed away from the waterline. the meteorological and oceanographic conditions at the place where the mooring facilities are installed. and the dimensions of vessels. corresponds to the breaking strength of one mooring rope.000 tons. For a small vessel of gross tonnage up to 1. Accordingly. the structure of the mooring facilities.3 Mooring Posts. The tractive force so obtained corresponds to the breaking strength of one mooring rope for a vessel of gross tonnage up to 5. past measurement data on tractive force.1 Length and Water Depth of Berths.

Congr.1. Note of PHRI. 4) Baker. 5) Masahito MIZOGUCHI. Kensei SUGIHARA: “A study on the berthing impact of the big tanker”. 45. Isherwood: “Wind resistance of merchant ships”. Tech. 596. 1972. (6) When calculating the tractive force in the case of vessels such as ferries. No. 14) R. 1967. No. No. Proc. 18) Iaso FUKUDA. 13) Yoshimi GODA. caution should be exercised in using Table 2. 427.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS design of mooring posts and bollards for vessels of gross tonnage no more than 200 tons. 12) Shigeru UEDA. 176. Tech. 1970 (in Japanese). L. Tech. Rept. 504. Hironao TAKAHASHI. A. 16) Davenport. 2. pp. 1998 (in Japanese). 22. Shigeru UEDA. of ASCE.: “Handbook of Ocean and Underwater Engineering”. No. Tech. Note of PHRI. Vol. 729. Note of PHRI. New York. Quest. Satoru SHIRAISI: “Method and its evaluation for computation of moored ship’s motions”. No. Technical Note of P. Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA. 11) Shigeru UEDA: “Analytical method of motions moored to quaywalls and the applications”. Note of PHRI. 181-218 (in Japanese). 2. Vol.I. No. Rome. No. 1984. 1983 pp. Tech. Tech. Eijiro OOI: “On the design of fending systems for mooring facilities in a port”. 23-74 (in Japanese). pp. 1984 (in Japanese). pp. 10) Shigeru UEDA. Satoru SHIRAISHI: “On the design of fenders based on the ship oscillations moored to quaywalls”. Vol. J. 4. McGraw-Hill.: “Gust loading factors”.R. 1992 (in Japanese). (PIANC). 1987 (in Japanese). because the wind pressure-receiving areas of such vessels are large.. Kouhei ASANO. Rept. Takashi NAKAMOTO: “Statistical analysis of ship dimensions for the size of design ship”. 170. 6) Hirokane OTANI. 15) Shigeru UEDA. 11-34. Tech. 9) Shigeru UEDA. 102. L. Note of PHRI. Tech. Tech. Satoru SHIRAISHI. of PHRI. energy of the ships”. 760. No. or passenger ships. [References] 1) Yasuhiro AKAKURA. 20. Takeo KATAYAMA: “Standardization of mooring posts and bollards for wharf”. Hiroyuki OSHIMA: “Proposal of equation of wind force coefficient and evaluation of the effect to motions of moored ships”. ST3. of PHRI. 12. Tanekiyo NAKAYAMA: “Studies on the berthing velocity. 7) Shigeru UEDA: “Study on berthing impact force of very large crude oil carriers”. 1974 (in Japanese). Int’l Navig. pp. Rept of PHRI. 17) Hirofumi INAGAKI. No. Note of PHRI. 1973 (in Japanese). Proc. 2) Yasuhiro AKAKURA and Hironao TAKAHASHI: “Ship dimensions of design ship under given confidence limits”. Note of PHRI. Koichi YAMAGUCHI. Tadahiko YAGYU: “Tractive force on mooring posts and bollards”. Sect II. 3) PIANC: “Report of the International Commission for Improving the Design of Fender Systems”. M. container ships. Tatsuru ICHIKAWA. A. 1969. 4. Supplement to Bulletine No. 1982 (in Japanese). 1981. Note of PHRI. 111-142. G. -27- . Naval Architects. 910. 1993 (in Japanese). 327-338. 1953. No.2. Tadashi SASADA: “Theoretical and experimental investigation of wave forces on a fixed vessel approximated with an elliptic cylinder”.H. Bulliten of the Royal Inst. Note of PHRI. September 1998. 169-209 (in Japanese). 8) Myers. 1994. it is standard to take the tractive force acting on a mooring posts to be 150 kN and the tractive force acting on a bollard to be 50 kN. pp.: “The impact of ships when berthing”. No. No.

n: constants (4) With regard to snow load acting upon port and harbor facilities. (3. and rain can also disrupt port and harbor works such as cargo handling.2) p = p c + D p exp æ ----ö (Myers’ formula) è rø where p： air pressure at a distance r from the center of typhoon (hPa) r： distance from the center of typhoon (km) p c： air pressure at the center of typhoon (hPa) r 0： estimated distance from the center of typhoon to the point where the wind velocity is maximum (km) D p： air pressure drop at the center of typhoon (hPa).1.3) (3. snow depth.1) or Myers’ equation (3. D p = p ¥ p c p ¥： air pressure at r = ¥ (hPa).(Fujita’ formula) p = p ¥ ------------------------------1 + (r ¤ r0 )2 (3. [Technical Notes] (1) In calculations concerning the generation of storm surge or waves due to a typhoon. rainfall. (4) Fog is a factor that is an impediment to the navigation of vessels when they are entering or leaving a harbor. snow load is considered as a static load acting on port and harbor facilities. meteorological factors such as winds. (3) Rain is generally divided into the rain of thunderstorms that have heavy rainfall in a short period of time and the rain that continues for a prolonged period of time (rain by a typhoon is a representative example of the latter).TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 3 Wind and Wind Pressure 3.4) -28- . (2) With regard to wind. and it can disrupt port and harbor works such as cargo handling. see 3. a (Sherman’s formula) R = --tn a (Talbot’s formula) R = ---------t+b where R： intensity of rainfall (mm/h) t： duration of rainfall (min) a.2 Wind.1 General When designing port and harbor facilities.2). In the case of sewage planning whereby the intensity of rainfall during a thunderstorm is a problem. and so r 0 and D p must be determined as the functions of time. the constants in the chosen equation are determined based on actual air pressure measurements in the region of typhoons.1. see 15. (2) Wind is a factor that governs the generations of waves and storm surge.4 Snow Load. it is common to assume that the air pressure distribution follows either Fujita’s equation (3. [Commentary] The effects that meteorological factors exert on the design of port and harbor facilities are as follows: (1) Air pressure and its distribution are the factors that govern the generations of winds and storm surge. (6) Air temperature affects the stress distribution within structures of port and harbor facilities and may lead to the occurrence of thermal stress in these structures. Dp .1.1.1. it is necessary to determine the intensity of rainfall both for the case where the amount of runoff increases very rapidly and for the case where the runoff continues for a prolonged period. When designing drainage facilities. p ¥ = p c + D p The size of a typhoon varies with time. air pressure. (3) Rainfall is a factor that determines the required capacity of drainage facilities in ports and harbors. and also decreases the productivity of port and harbor facilities.1. and air temperature should be considered.3. (5) In some cases.1) r0 (3. it exerts external forces on port and harbor facilities and moored vessels in the form of wind pressure. b. fog. Sherman’s formula or Talbot’s formula is used.

radius of curvature of isobars.2. the wind around a cyclone blows in a counterclockwise direction and inwards. (b) A gradient wind for which the isobars are straight lines (i. one should estimate the extreme distribution of the wind velocity based on actual measurement data taken over a long period (at least 30 years as a general rule) and then use the wind velocity corresponding to the required return period.0 hPa is 10 3 g/cm/s2. the sea surface wind blows at a certain angle a to the isobars as sketched in Fig.1) where Vg ： velocity of gradient wind (cm/s). Moreover.1.1) is infinite) is called the geostrophic wind. In the northern hemisphere.3. æ ¶p ¤ ¶ r ö -÷ Vg = r w sin f ç 1 + 1 + ---------------------------r a r w 2 sin 2 fø è (3. with the wind direction being represented using the sixteen-points bearing system and the wind velocity by the mean wind velocity over 10 minutes.67 50º 15º 0. Note that 1º of latitude corresponds to a distance of approximately 1. in the case of an anticyclone. etc.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 3. [Technical Notes] (1) Gradient Winds (a) The velocity of the gradient wind can be expressed as a function of pressure gradient.. ¶p -----： pressure gradient (taken to be positive for a cyclone.2.3. this is no more than a guideline.2.1) gives a negative value and so the absolute value should be taken.70 Angle a Velocity ratio V s ¤ V g Fig. In this case. either the actual wind measurements or the calculated values for gradient winds are to be used. latitude. whereas the wind around an anticyclone blows in a clockwise direction and outwards. (2) The velocity of the wind acting on port and harbor facilities shall be set based on statistical data for an appropriate period in line with the characteristics of the facilities and structures. It is standard to take the wind parameters to be the direction and velocity.1 Relationship between Sea Surface Wind Speed and Gradient Wind Speed Latitude Low High 10º 24º 0.2 Wind (Notification Article 3.11 × 10 7 cm.64 40º 17º 0. w = 7. equation (3. Table T.3. and an air pressure of 1. and air density as in equation (3. Clause 1) It shall be standard to set the wind characteristics for wave estimations and the wind characteristics as the cause of an external force on port and harbor facilities as stipulated in the following: (1) When calculating the wind velocity and wind direction used in estimations of waves and storm surges.3. The relationship under the average conditions is summarized in Table T. T. the wind velocity is V = ( ¶ p ¤ ¶ r ) ¤ ( 2 r a r w sin f ) . -29- .2.1). measurement units should first be converted into the CGS units listed above. (2) The actual sea surface wind velocity is generally lower than the value obtained from the gradient wind equation.29 ´ 10 5 ¤ s f： latitude (º) ra： density of air (g/cm3) Before performing the calculation. However.2. It is known that the relationship between the velocity of gradient winds and that of the actual sea surface wind varies with the latitude.51 20º 20º 0. negative for an anticyclone) (g/cm2/s2) ¶r r： radius of curvature of isobars (cm) w： angular velocity of Earth's rotation ( s 1 ).e. although the direction of a gradient wind is parallel to the isobars in theory.2 Wind Direction for a Cyclone (Low) and an Anticyclone (High) (3) When selecting the design wind velocity for the wind that acts directly on port and harbor facilities and moored vessels.2. their radius of curvature in equation (3.2. when estimating sea surface winds.60 30º 18º 0. it is necessary to make appropriate corrections by comparing estimations with actual measurements taken along the coast and values that have been reported by vessels out at sea (the latter are written on weather charts).2.2. with all necessary corrections having been made for the heights of measurements. T.

2) q = -2 a where q： velocity pressure (N/m2) r a： density of air (kg/m3) r a = 1.2 to 1. it may be set by referring to the Article 87 of the “Enforcement Order -30- . The wind pressure coefficient varies depending on the conditions such as the shape of the member or structure. However. a power law is simply used: i. For locations with topographical conditions different from that of the nearest among the above-mentioned meteorological offices. (3. p = cq where p： wind pressure (N/m2) q： velocity pressure (N/m2) c： wind pressure coefficient (3. and so in current design calculations for all kinds of structures.5 times the standard wind velocity (ten-minute mean wind velocity at a height of 10 m). in the case that the elevations of the structural members are considerably different from 10 m.1) Equation (3. In structural calculations on land.3.e. (4) Regarding the wind velocity used in estimating storm surges and waves.3. the wind pressure may be calculated using equation (3. the wind direction. under the assumption that wind velocity follows a double exponential distribution.3 Wind Pressure (Notification Article 3.3.1). and also the characteristics of the gust factor.2). h ön ---Uh = U0 æ è h 0ø where U h： wind velocity at height h (m/s) U 0： wind velocity at height h 0 (m/s) The value of the exponent varies with the situation with regard to the roughness near to the surface of the ground and the stability of the atmosphere. Accordingly.2 to 1. one should conduct observations for at least one year and then conduct a comparative investigation on topographical effects in order to make it possible to use the aforementioned estimation results. for some structures the mean wind velocity over a shorter time period or the maximum instantaneous wind velocity may be used.3. [Technical Notes] (1) When calculating the wind pressure acting on a moored vessel. 20. i. it is standard to use the value at a height of 10 m above sea level. 50. 100 and 200 years for 141 government meteorological offices have been estimated from the ten-minute mean wind velocity data of about 35 years. With the exception of cases where it is determined by means of the wind tunnel experiments. and it is common to use a value of n ≧ 1/7 out to sea. 34. This is because the maximum instantaneous wind velocity is about 1.1) multiplied by the area of that member or structure affected by the wind in a plane perpendicular to the direction in which the wind acts.23 kg/m3 U： design wind velocity (m/s) The design wind velocity should be taken at 1.e.3. The vertical profile of the wind velocity is generally represented with a power law. when attempting to use such observed values to estimate sea surface winds. Clause 2) The wind pressure shall be set appropriately.2. The total force due to the wind acting on a member or structure is thus the wind pressure as given by equation (3.r U2 (3. a value of n = 1/10 ~ 1/4 is used. it is necessary to correct the wind velocity with respect to the height.1) expresses the wind pressure. 1 . giving due consideration to the situation with regard to the structural types of the facilities and their locations.. the expected wind velocities with the return periods of 5.3 [3] Wind Load Acting on a Vessel. 10. the force due to the wind per unit area subjected to the wind force.. in which case it is necessary to gain an understanding of the relationship between the mean wind velocity over a certain time period and the maximum wind velocity. one should refer to 2. and the Reynolds number. Statistical data on wind velocity usually consider the ten-minute mean wind velocity. The wind velocities obtained at government meteorological offices are the values for a height of approximately 10 m above the ground level.3.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN In the Meteorological Agency’s Technical Observation Notes No. (2) In the case that there are no statutory stipulations concerning the wind pressure acting on a structure.5 times the ten-minute mean wind velocity.2.2) 3. The velocity pressure q is defined as in equation (3.

PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS of the Building Standard Law” (Government Ordinance No. 338. With regard to wind direction. -31- . 1950) or the “Crane Structure Standards” (Ministry of Labor Notification). with the exception of cases where it has been verified that there exists an overwhelmingly prevailing direction of winds. it is generally required to consider the wind direction that is most unfavorable to the structure.

deepwater waves.. Wave characteristics shall be obtained by carrying out necessary statistical processing and by analyzing wave transformations owing to sea bottom topography and others.2 Waves to Be Used in Design Significant waves. reflection. waves that occur in ordinary conditions: these are required when estimating the harbor calmness or the net working rate of cargo handling) and “storm waves” (i. T. “Wave transformation” includes refraction.1. Clause 1) The waves used in the investigation of the stability of protective harbor facilities and other port and harbor facilities.. significant waves have been commonly used to represent wave groups. and once the waves reach to the water depth about one half the wavelength. In the above-mentioned procedure for setting the wave conditions to be used in design.1. T. The setting of the wave conditions to be used in design should thus be carried out carefully. It is also known that the period of a significant wave is approximately equal to the period at the peak of the wave spectrum. equivalent deepwater waves and others shall be used in the design of port and harbor facilities.1 Procedure for Determining the Waves Used in Design (Notification Article 4. they start to experience the effects of topography and transform with the result of wave height change. In order to determine the wave conditions at the place where wave data is needed (for instance the place where a structure of interest is located).4. The significant wave is a hypothetical wave that is a statistical indicator of an irregular wave group.1. waves that occur in storm conditions: these are required when estimating the wave force acting on structures). highest waves.e. number of working days 3) Transport energy of incoming waves 4) Others 2) Storm waves Design deepwater waves Wave transformation Parameters of design waves 1) Significant wave 2) Highest wave 1) Wave force acting on structures 2) Amount of waves overtopping at seawall and revetments 3) Others Fig. and breaking. -32- .4.1 General 4. Significant waves have the dimensions that are approximately equal to the values from visual wave observations. [Technical Notes] A sample procedure for setting the wave conditions to be used in design is shown in Fig. Nevertheless. diffraction. as well as the examination of the degree of calmness of navigation channels and basins shall be set using wave data obtained from either actual wave measurements or wave hindcasting. it is necessary to give appropriate consideration to such wave transformations by means of numerical calculations or model experiments.1. Wave data 1) Actual measurement data 2) Hindcasting values Statistical analysis 1) Ordinary waves Wave occurrence rate of deepwater waves Wave transformation Wave occurrence rate at the place of interest 1) Harbor calmness 2) Net working rate. [Commentary] The size and structural form of facilities are determined by the factors such as the height and period of the waves that act on them.1.1 Procedure for Setting the Waves to Be Used in Design 4. depending on the purpose. and so they are used in wave hindcasting. Because of such advantages. It shall be standard to carry out the wave hindcasting using a method that is based on an appropriate equation for representing the relationship between the wind velocity and the wave spectrum or the significant wave parameters. it is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the irregularity of the waves and to treat the waves as being of random nature as much as possible. Deepwater waves propagate towards the coast. [Commentary] The waves used in the design of structures are generally “significant waves”. shoaling. it may be necessary to convert significant waves into other waves such as highest waves and highest one-tenth waves. The setting of wave conditions should be carried out separately for “ordinary waves” (i. The waves that are obtained by statistically processing data based on either actual measurements or hindcasting are generally deepwater waves that are unaffected by the sea bottom topography.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 4 Waves 4.e.

which depend on the planar topographical conditions at that place. Moreover. it is advisable to refer to the maximum wave such as the “maximum significant wave over a period of one day (or one month.1) 4.)”. the term “peak wave” is used (see 4. it is thus necessary to incorporate in advance the special conditions of the place in question. When applying the results of a two-dimensional model experiment or a theoretical calculation to the field. T1/10) The wave whose height and period are equal to the mean height and period of the highest one-tenth of the waves in a wave group. one year. However. -33- . the wave parameters are expressed with those of the significant wave at this place. it is expressed with the significant wave height. However. one month.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [Technical Notes] (1) Definitions of Wave Parameters (a) Significant wave (significant wave height H1/3 and significant wave period T1/3) The waves in a wave group are rearranged in the order of their heights and the highest one-third are selected. The deepwater wave height obtained by correcting the effects of diffraction and refraction with their coefficients is called the “equivalent deepwater wave height”. one day. In order to clearly specify the length of the observation period.3 Properties of Waves [1] Fundamental Properties of Waves Fundamental properties of waves such as the wavelength and velocity may be estimated by means of the small amplitude wave theory. planar topographical changes are not taken into consideration. which depend on the water depth at that place. and those by diffraction and refraction. the height of breaking waves and the runup height shall be estimated while considering the finite amplitude effects.2 Wave Refraction) Kd： diffraction coefficient for the place in question (see 4. (f) Equivalent deepwater wave height (H0¢) A hypothetical wave height that has been corrected for the effects of planar topographic changes such as refraction and diffraction. (e) Deepwater waves (deepwater wave height H0 and deepwater wave period T0) The waves at a place where the water depth is at least one half of the wavelength. (2) Maximum Wave The largest significant wave within a series of significant wave data that was observed during a certain period (for example. The “maximum wave height” is the maximum value of the significant wave height during a certain period.4 Statistical Processing of Wave Observation and Hindcasted Data). in hydraulic model experiments on the transformation or overtopping of waves in a two-dimensional channel or in two-dimensional analysis by wave transformation theory.5.3 Wave Diffraction) (4. the significant wave is then the hypothetical wave whose height and period are the mean height and period of the selected waves. (3) Significance of Equivalent Deepwater Waves The wave height at a certain place in the field is determined as the result of transformations by shoaling and breaking. mean period T ) The wave whose height and period are equal to the mean height and period of all of the waves in a wave group. when one wishes to clearly state that one is referring to the significant wave for the largest wave that occurred during a stormy weather. (b) Highest wave (highest wave height Hmax and highest wave period Tmax) The highest wave in a wave group. this is different from the definition of the “highest wave height”. The equivalent deepwater wave height at the place for which design is being carried out is given as follows: H0 ¢ = Kd Kr H0 where Kr： refraction coefficient for the place in question (see 4. or one year) is called the “maximum wave”. namely the effects of planar topographical changes (specifically the effects of diffraction and refraction).1. (d) Mean wave (mean wave height H . thus adjusting the deepwater waves into a form whereby they correspond to the deepwater incident wave height used for the experiment or theoretical calculation.1. into the deepwater waves for the place in question. etc. (c) Highest one-tenth wave (H1/10.5.

= ------------2 è 2 p h L T ø dt T sinh --------L 2p(z + h) cos h ---------------------2p ö 2p L 2p2H dw -t . Various characteristics of shallow water waves as obtained as a first approximation by small amplitude wave theory are listed below. Note that.1.cos æ ----.x --------------------------------------sin æ ---------.tanh 2 --------2p L (4.5) (e) Water particle acceleration (m/s) 2p( z + h ) cos h ---------------------2p 2p ö L 2p2 H du ----------------------------------.---------------------------------è T ø 2 p h L T sinh --------L where u： component of water particle velocity in the x direction (m/s) w： component of water particle velocity in the z direction (m/s) 644474448 (4.6) -34- . The water depth h is assumed to be constant and wave characteristics are assumed to be uniform in the transverse direction (y direction). with regard to the coordinates.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Technical Notes] (1) Small Amplitude Wave Theory The fundamental properties of waves are expressed as the functions of the wave height.tanh 2 C = ------------. and water depth.---------------------------------èL T ø 2ph T sinh --------L 2p(z + h) cosh ---------------------2p ö 2p L pH -t . (a) Surface elevation (displacement from still water level) (m) 2p ö H æ 2p .1.sin æ ----u = ------.x ----.sin ----h ( x . period.x -----t . the positive x direction is taken in the direction of wave travel and the positive z direction vertically upwards with z = 0 corresponding to the still water level.2) (b) Wavelength (m) g T2 ph .t ) = --èL 2 T ø where h： H： L： T： surface elevation (m) wave height (m) wavelength (m) period (s) (4.x ----w = ------.= ------------2 è T ø L 2 p h dt T sinh --------L where du -----： component of water particle acceleration in the x direction (m/s2) dt dw ------： component of water particle acceleration in the z direction (m/s2) dt 644474448 (4.1.1.x -----t cos æ --------.1.tanh 2 L = ---------------2p L where h： water depth (m) g： gravitational acceleration (m/s2) (c) Wave velocity (m/s) gT ph .= 2p L gL ph ----.3) (d) Water particle velocity (m/s) p( z + h) cosh 2 ---------------------2p ö 2p L pH -t .4) (4.

T4.10) (4. L0 ＝ 1. wave velocity C0.sin æ ----. Note that the units of period T are seconds (s).8) (4. Various characteristics of long waves may be obtained from the equations of small amplitude wave theory by taking h/L to be extremely small. The amount of the errors in calculations that arise from the use of the small amplitude wave theory varies according to the wave steepness H/L and the ratio of water depth to wavelength h ¤ L .x ----.r 0 g H ---------------------------------p = -èL T ø 2ph 2 cosh --------L where r0： density of water (1. and group velocity CG for deepwater waves thus become as below.1.1. the ratio increases as the wave height increases.56T 2(m). This figure was drawn up based on wave profile records from the field.1. -35- .1. The definition of the crest elevation hc is shown at the top of Fig.01~1.1. wave velocity. wave velocity.11) (4.1. C0 ＝ 1. The wavelength L0. with Ek = Ep. and group velocity for deepwater waves depend only on the period and are independent of the water depth.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (f) Pressure in water when wave acts (N/m2) 2p( z + h) cosh ---------------------2p ö 2p 1 L .1.05 × 103 kg/m3 for seawater) (g) Mean energy of wave per unit area of water surface (J) 1 .1. (h) Mean rate of energy transported in the direction of wave travel per unit time per unit width of wave (N • m/m/s) W = CG E = nCE CG = nC where CG： group velocity of waves (m/s) 4ph ö æ --------1ç L ÷ . and group velocity for long waves thus become as follows: L = T g h (m) C = CG = g h (m/s) (4. the error in wave parameters is usually no more than 20 ~ 30% with the exception of the horizontal water particle velocity u.9) (4.78T (m/s) ＝ 1. Various characteristics of deepwater waves may be obtained from the equations of small amplitude wave theory by letting h/L ® ∞ . (b) Wavelength of long waves Waves for which the wavelength is extremely long compared with the water depth (h/L < 1/25) are called the long waves.13) (3) Consideration of Finite Amplitude Effects The equations shown in (1) are not always accurate for general shallow water waves having a large height.1.t r0 g z .7) As expressed in equation (4. It shows the ratio of the highest crest elevation obtained from each observation record to the highest wave height Hmax in that record as the function of relative wave height H1/3/h. When carrying out calculations using finite amplitude wave equations.81T (km/h) (4.2.ç 1 + --------------------÷ n = -2ç 4 p h÷ sinh --------è L ø (2) Characteristics of Deepwater Waves and Wavelength (a) Deepwater waves Waves in water with the depth greater than one-half the wavelength (h/L > 1/2) are called the deepwater waves. One of the finite amplitude effects of waves appears on the crest elevation hc relative to the wave height. and so it is sometimes necessary to use equations for finite amplitude waves.12).12) (4. The wavelength. one should refer to “Handbook of Hydraulic Formulas” published by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers. Nevertheless.52T (kt) ＝ 2.56T (m/s) CG＝ 0. the wavelength.r g H2 E = E k + E p = -8 0 where Ek and Ep are the kinetic and potential energy densities respectively.

10 0. which is the asymptotic case of the cnoidal wave Crest Elevation (hc)max/Hmax and theory when the wavelength approaches to infinity.4.3 0.43 1. and the wave profile is represented as a series of (ηc)max Hmax trigonometric functions. On the Standard other hand.1. (5) Application of Finite Amplitude Wave Theories to Structural Designs Nonlinear theories. which include finite amplitude wave theories.05 0.7 a 0. In addition to these two theories. may be calculated using a long wave theory that includes nonlinear terms. With Relative Wave Height H1/3/h the exception of solitary wave theory. Errors become large. are applied to a wide variety of coastal engineering fields. the cnoidel wave theory is obtained by a perdeviation Number of turbation expansion method with the water depth to data points wavelength ratio assumed to be extremely small. Alternatively. 2) is adopted. An approximate calculation may be carried out using the following empirical equation 3): Hö 1 ¤ 2 æ z + hö 3 i cos h [ ( 2 p ( z + h ) ) ¤ L ] pH ---------.5.1 + a æ --è hø è h ø T sinh [ ( 2 p h ) ¤ L ] where the coefficient a is given as listed in Table T. and the solitary wave Fig. cnoidal wave theory. and the equations from solitary wave theory are used when the water depth to wavelength ratio is small. however. (a) Maximum horizontal water particle velocity umax at each elevation below the wave crest This information is vital in the estimation of the wave force on a vertical structural member. convergence of the series becomes extremely poor as the water depth to wavelength ratio decreases. However. the cnoidal wave theory or hyperbolic wave theory may be applied to this phenomenon (see 4. Table T.1.03 0.07 0. This means that the theory cannot be applied if the water depth to wavelength ratio is too small.25 0.14 (4.50 1. and others. If Dean’s stream function method 1). -36- . they are only applied to a limited number of fields such as those discussed below. A number of researchers have proposed several approximate series solutions. the equations contain elliptic integrals.6 Wave Breaking). meaning that calculations are not easy. there are also the hyperbolic wave theory.4. meanMean ing that it is valid when the water depth to wavelength ratio is small.5 0.27 (b) Wave shoaling Wave shoaling. the equations in all of these finite amplitude wave theories are complicated.50 1.2 Coefficient a for Calculation of Maximum Horizontal Water Particle Velocity h/L 0. however. which occurs as the water depth decreases. there are still a large number of unknowns.4. This mean water level change is taken into account for the calculation of the wave height change due to random wave breaking (see 4. In particular.2 0.1.2 Relationship between Maximum theory.97 h/L 0.14) a 1. and so. T. In this theory. with the cnoidal wave theory. (c) Rise and drop of the mean water level The mean water level gradually drops as waves approach the breaking point and then rises within the breaker zone toward the shoreline. in which a cnoidal wave is approximated as an H1/3 / h expansion of hyperbolic functions.1.5. as can be calculated from the theory of nonlinear interference between waves and currents.68 0. In the former. in the case of design at present.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (4) Types of Finite Amplitude Wave Theory The finite amplitude wave theories include the Stokes wave theory.49 0. The equations from the Stokes wave theory are used when the water depth to wavelength ratio is large.25 0. then the wave profile and water particle velocity can be obtained with good accuracy right up to the point where the wave breaks. when the water depth to wavelength ratio increases. making them very inconvenient to handle. the wave steepness is assumed to be relatively low.2.----------------------------------------------------u max ( z ) = ------.5 Wave Shoaling).

the significant wave height H 1 ¤ 3 .60 H (4.18) (4.---p ( H ¤ H ) = -è ø ý 2H î 4 H þ where p(H/H)： probability density function of wave heights H ： mean wave height (m) According to the Rayleigh distribution. One can thus envisage the method in which a wave height (Hmax)m with m = 0.12.1.20) H max = 0. it is only possible to give its occurrence probability. [Technical Notes] (1) Expression of Rayleigh Distribution The Rayleigh distribution is given by the following equation: ì pæ Hö 2 ü pH . it is advisable to consider the relative increase in the wave crest elevation due to the finite amplitude effect such as exhibited in Fig. (2) Occurrence Probability of the Highest Wave Height The highest wave height Hmax is a statistical quantity that cannot be determined precisely.1. then the expected value Hmax of Hmax . The highest wave height Hmax is difficult to determine precisely as will be discussed in (2) below. Thus a simple use of Hmax as the design wave might place structures on a risky side.21) . but in general it may be fixed as in the following relationship: H max = ( 1. that when Hmax is obtained for each of a large number of samples each containing N waves.16) (4. [Commentary] The assumption behind the theory of Rayleigh distribution is a precondition that the wave energy is concentrated in an extremely narrow band around a certain frequency. so long as the waves are defined by the zero-upcrossing method.1 is used.3 ) T (4.1. the significance level is m). Problems thus remain with regard to its applicability to ocean waves for which the frequency band is broad. where (Hmax)m is set such that the probability of the value of Hmax exceeding (Hmax)m is m (i. and the mean wave height H are related to one another by the following equations: H 1 ¤ 10 = 1. these relationships agree well with the results of wave observations in situ.1. [2] Statistical Properties of Waves In the design of port and harbor facilities. there will be a considerable number of cases in which Hmax exceeds Hmax. it has been pointed out that.---.1. waves with the heights greater than the breaking limit begin to break and that their heights are reduced.27 H 1 ¤ 3 H 1 ¤ 3 = 1.706 H 1 ¤ 3 l n æ --------------------------------è l n [ 1 ¤ ( 1 m ) ]ø -37- 678 (4. when a large number of samples each composed of N waves are ensembled.exp í -.1. however. If the wave height is assumed to follow a Rayleigh distribution. it shall be standard to consider the statistical properties of the waves with regard to wave heights and periods and to use the Rayleigh distribution for the wave heights of an irregular deepwater wave group. is given as follows: 0. T-4.1..1 ～ 1.706 æ l n N + --------------. Thus it is not possible to use the Rayleigh distribution for the wave heights within the breaker zone.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (d) Air gap of offshore structures When determining the amount of air gap of offshore structures above the still water level.05 or 0.5772ö (4. Nevertheless. the Rayleigh distribution can be applied to ocean waves as an acceptable approximation. the highest one-tenth wave height H1/10. The value of (Hmax)m for a given significance level m is given by the following equation: N -ö ( H max ) m = 0.6 ～ 2.e.17) It should be noted however that as waves approach the coast.H1 ¤ 3 è 2 l n Nø It should be noted.0 ) H 1 ¤ 3 The periods are related as follows: T max ≒ T 1 ¤ 3 = ( 1.15) On average.

40H1/3 1. q ) where f： frequency q： azimuth from the principal direction of the wave S(f.23) is called the Bretschneider-Mitsuyasu spectrum.39H1/3 5% significance level (Hmax) 0.24) is called the Mitsuyasu type spreading function.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T.1.q) are m2•s.4.14H1/3 2.84H1/3 1.24) is a parameter that represents the degree of directional spreading of wave energy.q). The frequency spectrum of equation (4.14H1/3 2. S(f) is a function that represents the distribution of the wave energy with respect to frequency. it is appropriate to use Hmax = (1.6 ~ 2.1.000 10.12H1/3 50% significance level (Hmax) 0.91H1/3 2.00H1/3 2.30H1/3 3.05 T 1 ¤ 3 ) If the units of H1/3 and T1/3 are meters and seconds respectively.86H1/3 1.68H1/3 1.000 2. [Technical Notes] (1) General Form of Wave Spectrum The general form of the wave spectrum is usually represented as in the following equation: S ( f. q ) = S ( f ) G ( f. The functions expressed in the following equations may be used for S(f) and G(f.72H1/3 1.39H1/3 2.257 H 1 ¤ 3 T1 ¤ 3 f exp [ 1.63H1/3 1. Table T. Because Hmax is not a definite value but rather a probabilistic variable. considering the facts that the wave height only approximately follows a Rayleigh distribution and that the wave pressure formula has been derived while containing a certain scatter of experimental data.52H1/3 1.81H1/3 1.000 Mode (Hmax) mode 1. It is given by the following formulas: f ö 2.q)： directional spectrum In the above.23) (4.q) is a function that represents the distribution of the wave energy with respect to direction.76H1/3 1.85H1/3 1.95H1/3 2.1. due consideration shall be given to the functional form of the wave spectrum and an appropriate expression shall be used.05H1/3 2.0) H1/3 by neglecting the very small or large values in the table.02H1/3 2.1. It may be represented in terms of the significant wave period T1/3 as in the following equation: f m = 1 ¤ ( 1. However. the value of Hmax / H1/3 varies greatly with N and m.5 1.03 ( T1 ¤ 3 f ) ] q G ( f.5 : f > fm S = S max æ ---è f mø 64748 (4.1.95H1/3 2.19H1/3 Mean (Hmax) 1.06H1/3 2.4 lists the values obtained from this equation.76H1/3 1.03H1/3 2.22H1/3 2.1.26) fö S = S max æ ---è f mø 5 : f ≦ fm where fm is the frequency at which the spectrum peak appears.94H1/3 2. it is called the “frequency spectrum”.05 1. -38- (4.47H1/3 [3] Wave Spectrum In the design of port and harbor facilities.1 1.86H1/3 1.27) .10H1/3 2.58H1/3 1.1. q ) = G 0 cos 2 S -2 where G0 is a constant of proportionality that satisfies the following normalization condition: i (4.1.50H1/3 1.24) òq qmax min G ( f. q ) dq = 1 (4.46H1/3 1.1.000 5.25) where qmax and qmin are respectively the maximum and minimum angles of deviation from the principal direction.1. S ( f ) = 0. then the units of S(f.12H1/3 2.19H1/3 10% significance level (Hmax) 0. The term S in equation (4.22) 2 4 5 4 (4.4 Relationship between Highest Wave Height Hmax and Significant Wave Height H1/3 Number of waves N 50 100 200 500 1.94H1/3 2. while equation (4.4.61H1/3 1.1. it is called the “directional spreading function”. G(f.31H1/3 2.22H1/3 2.

28) for the target spectrum in hydraulic model experiments. (4) Improved Model for Frequency Spectrum If waves are generated in a laboratory flume using the Bretschneider-Mitsuyasu spectrum expressed by equation (4. When a diffraction calculation on irregular waves is carried out using waves that have been refracted. In the figure.1. Judging by the value of wave steepness. the angle between the principal wave direction and the line normal to the depth contours. i.1.28) The peak frequency for equation (4. Figure T. T. Figure T.4. S max (αp)0 h/L0 Fig. The reason for such a deviation is that the original equation (4. but this is replaced with the significant wave period T1/3 by using equation (4. In the case of swell considering the process of wave decay and others.23) is given in terms of the peak frequency fm.27).1.5 Graph Showing the Change in Smax Due to Refraction Fig.1. (5) Relationship between Wave Spectrum and Typical Values of Wave Characteristics (a) Wave spectrum and typical value of wave height If the probability density function for the occurrence of a wave height H is assumed to follow the Rayleigh distribution. the spectral density at the peak is about 18% higher.4.1. This graph may be used in order to set an approximate value for Smax. it is appropriate to take a value of 20 or more.205 H 1 ¤ 3 T1 ¤ 3 f exp [ 0. S ( f ) = 0.. Smax = 25 for swell during initial decay.5 shows the values of Smax after waves have been refracted at a coastline with straight and parallel depth contour lines.1. and Smax = 75 for swell that has a long decay distance.4.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (2) Value of Directional Spreading Parameter It is standard to take a value of 10 for the maximum value Smax of the directional spreading parameter in the case of wind waves in deep water. and overall the spectrum is shifted towards the low frequency side. Goda 54) has thus proposed the following standard spectral form for which the significant wave period of the generated waves does not deviate from the target significant wave period. At the very least.1.4 shows a graph of approximately estimated values of Smax against wave steepness.23). the significant wave period of the generated waves often deviates from the target significant wave period. it is thus very important to consider such changes in the directional spreading function. Goda and Suzuki 4) have proposed using as the standard values Smax = 10 for wind waves.1.e.75 (T1 ¤ 3 f ) ] 2 4 5 4 (4. it is advisable to use the spectral form expressed by equation (4.1.1. (ap)0 is the incident angle of the principal wave direction at the deepwater boundary.23).4 Graph Showing Estimated Values of Smax against Wave Steepness (3) Change in Smax Due to Refraction The form of the directional spreading function changes as waves undergo the refraction process. T.28) is about 8% lower than that for equation (4.4.1. then the relationship between the mean wave height H and the zeroth moment of the wave -39- . it can be seen that Smax< 20 for wind waves.

0.30). [Commentary] (1) As for actual measurement data. The values of Tz / T are distributed in the range 0. with the mean being 0.30) Using the relationship H1/3 = 1. (b) Wave spectrum and typical value of period When waves are defined using the zero-upcrossing method. In other words. T. In either case. Tz = m0 ¤ m2 (4.1. the observed values may be used to obtain the design deepwater waves. in due consideration to the functions of the port and harbor facilities and the characteristics of the structures.4.2. the waves are highly nonlinear and so the relationship H 1 ¤ 3 = 4.29). the mean period Tz is given by the following equation according to Rice’s theory.8 m 0 .6 shows a comparison between the mean periods T obtained from actually observed wave profiles and the mean periods Tz estimated from spectrum calculations. It is thus acceptable to use equation (4. if waves were recorded during an extraordinary weather that only occurs once every a few tens of years and the values for these waves exceed all the hindcasted values.2 Method of Determining Wave Conditions to Be Used in Design 4. shall be determined appropriately.60 H . a relatively long period of measurements (10 years or more) is desirable.0 m 0 is satisfied.32) N = 171 data Mean . where the n-th moment of the wave spectrum is defined as in equation (4.74 T 1 ¤ 3 (4.6 Frequency Distribution of the Ratio of Mean Period Tz by Spectral Calculation to Actually Measured Mean Period T (6) Spectrum for Long-Period Waves The above explanation concerns the spectra for wind waves and swell components that have a relatively short period.0 m 0 (4.33) Figure T.5 m 0 ¥ (4. there is a very strong correlation between H 1 ¤ 3 and m0.1.29) (4. it is often the case that the best relationship is H 1 ¤ 3 = 3. -40- .31) According to the results of actual observations.1.83. with these being corrected by means of the available data of actual wave measurement. mn = H = ò0 f n S ( f ) df 2 p m 0 ≒ 2.1.8 Long-period Waves and Seiche. (2) When hindcasted values obtained from meteorological data are corrected using actual measurement data.1.31) and calculate the significant wave height from the spectrum. However. one arrives at the following relationship between the significant wave height and the spectrum. The deviation from Rice’s theory is thought to have been caused by the presence of second order nonliner components in the high frequency range of wave spectra. For long-period wave components that have a period of tens of seconds or more.1.832 Standard deviation . Fig.0. it is necessary that the measurement data should cover the period of 3 years at the minimum and contain a considerable number of cases of large storms. 4. the mean values obtained from wave profiles tend to be about 20% greater than those calculated from the moments of spectra. However.4.072 Calculating the mean period using the BretschneiderMitsuyasu type spectrum gives the following relationship: T z = 0. hindcasted values that have been obtained using at least about 30 years’ worth of meteorological data should be used.1 Principles for Determining the Deepwater Waves Used in Design (Notification Article 4.1.6 ~ 1. H 1 ¤ 3 ≒ 4. when there is a lack of such actual measurement data.1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN spectrum m0 is given by equation (4. Clause 2) The duration of statistical wave data used in setting the deepwater wave conditions for investigating the stability of the structures of port and harbor facilities etc.1. 0.1. In the case of wave data from the shallow waters where the wave height is large. see 4.

The wave direction hereby refers to the direction of the irregular wave component that has the highest energy density. the “encounter probability” means the probability that waves with a height larger than the return wave height for a given return period occurs at least once during the lifetime of the structure in question.1 Principles for Determining the Deepwater Waves Used in Design. NOWPHAS (Nationwide Ocean Wave Information Network for Ports and Harbors) data may be used. in a previous decade). [Technical Notes] The parameters of the design waves are determined according to the following procedures: (1) The effects of wave transformation such as refraction. shoaling. (5) When hindcasted values for a hypothetical typhoon are used. diffraction.2. (3) The wave force and other wave actions on the structure in question such as overtopping are determined for the waves obtained above. and so investigations should be carried out for all conceivable water levels. significant waves for the measurement location should be estimated as described in 4. in order to determine the parameters of the design waves at the design location. With such wave data.2. (5) The above calculations are carried out for each possible direction in which the deepwater waves may come in. there can be cases where the wave force becomes largest when the water level is low. although the directions for which the wave height is small and their effects on the structure are readily judged as negligible may be excluded. the record of such an event should be taken into consideration. and so it is not possible to determine it for the general case. Finally. and breaking are applied to the deepwater waves determined by following 4. Note however that. with regard to the hindcasted deepwater waves. -41- . Thus the wave height of the deepwater waves should be corrected by dividing the measured height by the refraction coefficient and the shoaling coefficient.1 Principles for Determining the Deepwater Waves Used in Design. (4) According to the various conditions related to wave actions.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (3) If there is absolutely no actual measurement data at the site of interest. or if the only measurement data available is for extremely limited conditions. the parameters of the deepwater waves should be estimated by means of wave hindcasting. Here. it is neccessary to take into account the fact that the measured wave height has been affected by refraction and shoaling. Since the wave force acting on the structure in question will not change greatly when the wave direction changes by only a few degrees. it is necessary to examine the external forces on and past damage of existing structures adjacent to the structure under design. shoaling. (6) When estimating deepwater waves using actual measurement data. and to even include an investigation on the occurrence probability of such a typhoon. the way in which the encounter probability is interpreted will depend on the functions. transformations due to refraction. Then. deepwater waves shall be determined by following 4. in other words. and other factors.2. In this case. it is considered that this wave record has been affected by wave breaking. these should also be taken into account. importance and return on investment of the structure. (8) It is advisable to determine the deepwater waves that will be used in design with consideration of the encounter probability based on the return period and the lifetime of the structure in question. (2) If the location in question is subject to special conditions (for example. However.5 Transformations of Waves. 4. The deepwater waves for which the wave action is largest or for which the effects on the structure in question or facilities in the hinterland are most unfavorable are chosen as the design waves. the waves that have the most unfavorable effects on the structure in question or facilities in the hinterland shall be used as the design waves. disturbances from externally reflected waves or an increase in wave height due to concave corners). it is also necessary to consider changes in the wave direction. and a comparison with the actual measurement data should be carried out. (7) If the significant wave height obtained from actual measurement data is more than one half of the water depth at the measurement location. the principal direction. measurement data for a neighboring place with similar natural conditions may be used. In this case. diffraction. it is advisable to sufficiently investigate the magnitudes of past typhoons and the courses that they followed. it is acceptable in design to represent the wave direction using the sixteen-point bearing system. (4) If it is known that an extraordinary storm event occurred in the area before the period for which wave hindcasting using meteorological data is carried out (for example. and breaking shall be evaluated. (9) When determing the deepwater waves that will be used in design. It must therefore be determined independently for each individual case by the judgement of the engineer in charge. (10) It is standard to set deepwater wave parameters separately for each direction of the sixteen-point bearings.2 Procedure for Obtaining the Parameters of Design Waves First.

Determination of the duration of hindcasting for each case.7). and so it is considered that the most rigorous way of carrying out evaluation is to examine the spectral form.3. and wind duration. It is thought that the accuracy of the supposed equilibrium spectrum itself affects the results greatly. 4. results can vary by 10 ~ 20% due to differences in the matters like the calculation mesh. However. meaning that the calculation is such that the significant wave height does not change very much even if the spectral form itself changes somewhat.1 General Wave hindcasting shall be carried out by using an appropriate hindcasting method. wind direction. it should be noted that even for the same wave hindcasting model. and it is characterized by four parameters: wind velocity. since the accuracy of wave hindcasting depends greatly on the accuracy of estimating ocean winds. and the parameteric methods that are based on the idea that the development and decay of a wave spectrum can be described by a certain small number of parameters 8). This is because the significant wave height is proportional to the square root of the integral of the directional spectrum. Accordingly. In particular. With the former.3 Wave Hindcasting 4. Preparation of the wind field chart. [Technical Notes] The wind field is to be set according to the following procedures: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Collection of surface weather charts and meteorological data. an equilibrium spectral form is assigned as the limit of wave development in the current spectral methods. the development of waves is described in terms of the influx of energy from the wind into the component waves that make up the spectrum and the weak nonlinear interaction between component waves. -42- . [Technical Notes] (1) Spectral Methods (a) General Spectral methods can be classified into the spectral component methods that have been developed by assuming that the components of the spectrum for each frequency and direction develop independently until some equilibrium state is reached 6). the spectrum methods and the significant wave methods are recommended as standard methods.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4.3. Nevertheless. (2) The field where waves are generated and developed is called the fetch (or wind field). [Commentary] (1) Wave hindcasting should be made in the following two steps: (a) Setting of the wind field (b) Calculation of wave development and attenuation. Where the wind field is set. [Commentary] The reliability of the results of the wave hindcast should be examined through the comparison with the wave measurement data.2 Wave Hindcasting in Generating Area For the hindcasting of waves in the generating area. The accuracy of wave hindcasting by spectral methods has not been sufficiently investigated yet. Estimation of the sea surface winds by empirical formulas and data of measurement. fetch length.9). Calculation of gradient winds from the surface weather charts. the boundary conditions or empirical constants. and so it is a good idea to investigate the accuracy with regard to the functional forms of frequency spectrum or the directional spectrum. it is necessary to investigate the validity and accuracy of hindcasted results by comparing them with observation values (examples of such comparisons are given in references 6)~11)). at present it is reasonable to believe that the accuracy of spectral methods is comparable to that of significant wave methods. the wave development and attenuation should be calculated by using the most appropriate hindcasting method for the wind field conditions. development of waves are treated as the overall result of strong nonlinear effects and a kind of similarity mechanism is assumed with introduction of a few parameters.10). The spectral methods have the following advantages over the significant wave methods. With the latter. Calculations are carried out by formulating and solving the equations that govern the development and transformation processes of waves using the parameters.

which were rewritten by Wilson 21) in 1965.37 1 --------------------------------------------------5 2pU ì g Fö 1 ¤ 3 ü æ í 1 + 0. Those developed by Japanese reserchers include Inoue’s model 6). and Yamaguchi and Tsuchiya’s model. the lower one is adopted as the hindcasted value.004 è ----ý 2 Uø î þ g T1 ¤ 3 1 ------------. q： component wave frequency and angle t： time x： position vector C G ( f )： group velocity vector U： wind velocity Ñ： differential operator (2) Significant Wave Methods (a) S-M-B method ① General 19).= 0. T. likewise for the period. t. Accordingly.4) where H 1 ¤ 3： significant wave height (m) T 1 ¤ 3： significant wave period (s) U： wind velocity at 10 m above sea surface (m/s). it is a good idea to make hindcasting again using a spectral method.3.= 1. q.20) The S-M-B method is used when the wind field is stationary.3. F： fetch length (m) g： acceleration of gravity (m/s2) (= 9. t. x ) + a ( f.4). U ) + b ( f.2) (4. q. Figure T.E ( f. (b) Details 6).81 m/s2) t： minimum duration (hr) -43- . t.008 è ----ý 2 U ø þ î t = -----ò0 C G i (4. x )： energy density of a two-dimensional wave spectrum a ( f. Cavaleri 13). g H1 ¤ 3 1 -------------.3. if the results of hindcasting using a significant wave method seem dubious.4. spectral methods have been researched and developed while primarily focusing on deepwater waves.1 has been drawn based on the relationships by equations (4. (4.3) F dF = -----------------------ò0 g T1 ¤ 3 ¤ 4 p i F dF (4.30 1 --------------------------------------------------2 2 U ì g Fö 1 ¤ 2 ü æ í 1 + 0. U ) E ( F.3. q.3. The height and period of deepwater significant waves are estimated from the wind velocity and wind duration in the fetch and the fetch length using Fig. x ) + F 3 + F 4 + F 5 (4.3. namely Collins 12). Of the wave height obtained from the wind velocity and that from the wind duration. The basis of these models is the following energy balance equation: ¶ ---.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS ① The effects of the variations of wind speed and direction on wave development are physically well described.3) and (4. t. ② Appropriate estimation results on wave heights and periods are obtained even when the wind field moves together with wave propagation. Golding 14) and Yamaguchi et al. Incidentally. U )： linear amplifying factor in Phillips’ resonance theory 15) b ( f.2).3.1) ¶t where E ( F. F 5： energy exchange due to the nonlinear interaction between component waves f.4.7) Wave forecasting methods by mean of wave spectrum have been developed by many researchers since the 1960s.3. There are only a few studies concerning shallow water waves. Isozaki and Uji’s MRI model 7). q.1. ③ Wind waves and swell mixed sea conditions can be reproduced in one calculation.3. U )： exponential amplifying factor in Miles’ theory 16) F 3： energy dissipated due to wave breaking F 4： energy loss due to internal friction during wave propagations etc. x ) = C G ( f ) Ñ E ( f.

e.6) 2 (4.3.3. for example in the case of a typhoon.1 Wave Forecasting Diagram by the S-M-B Method ② Handling of the effective fetch length When the fetch width is small relative to the fetch length (for example.2. while the development of the significant wave height and period are traced in the H1/3-t plane and T1/3-t plane. S F i cos q i F eff = ----------------------S cos q i where F eff： effective fetch length (km) F i： distance to opposite shore in the i-th direction (km) q i： angle between the direction of Fi and the predominant wind direction (º) (b) Wilson’s method 21). It includes improvements that it can be applied even to a moving fetch.5) -44- .) T 1 ¤ 3 = 3.3. This figure has been obtained by calculation based on equations (4. in a long bay).4. (c) Hindcasting for shallow water waves Methods that consider the influence of the water depth on wave development (i. the propagation of waves is traced in the F-T plane.4).3. If the distance to the opposite shore varies greatly when the direction is changed only slightly. T . It is known from experience that the significant wave period and the significant wave height satisfy the following relationship. respectively. the energy loss due to friction with the sea bottom) include the Sakamoto-Ijima method.3.3. the fetch length is determined by the distance to the opposite shore.3. (Note however that this applies only for wind waves within the fetch area.3.5) 22) when hindcasting is made.86 H 1 ¤ 3 where H 1 ¤ 3： significant wave height (m) T 1 ¤ 3： significant wave period (s) (4. t (h) H 1 3 (m) T 1 3 (s) Fig.2). 23) Wilson’s method is an extension of the S-M-B method. (4. it is advisable to use the effective fetch length defined by in equation (4. T.4.. Using the H1/3-t-F-T1/3 graph shown in Fig.3) and (4.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Wind Speed Fetch ( H 1 3 T 1 3 ) 2 = const.

With use of such a graph it possible to carry out the hindcasting of shallow water waves in a variable fetch.3.3. T.2 H1/3-t-F-T1/3 Graph (from Wilson's equations (1965)) In the Sakamoto-Ijima method. T.4. T.3 H1/3-F-CG Graph for Shallow Water Waves (Sakamoto-Ijima Method) -45- . with water depth (m) in brackets Fig. the ideas in Wilson’s method for deep water waves have been incorporated into the case for shallow water waves.3.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Fig.4. (A) Note: The numbers on the graph show wind velocity (m/s).4.3. resulting in an H1/3-t-F-CG graph such as shown in Fig.

3.3.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4.3. If a significant wave method is used in the hindcasting of waves in the generating area. the wave height and period of swell are hindcasted from the parameters of the significant wave.3 Swell Hindcasting When swell hindcasting is necessary.4. With the Bretschneider method. swell hindcasting is carried out by using Fig. the swell parameters are obtained by estimating the effects of the velocity dispersion and directional spreading of spectral components. no distinction is made between waves and swell in the generating area.4 Swell Hindcasting Diagram The term Fmin in the diagram is the minimum fetch length. in which case it is standard to use the Bretschneider method. numerical calculations are used. and HD and TD are the height and period of the significant wave at the swell hindcasting point respectively. Accordingly.4. [Technical Notes] In the Bretschneider method. the P-N-J method 5). and spectral methods. If the wave development is governed by the wind duration. generally. With the P-N-J method.3. Fig. the minimum fetch length Fmin is equal to the actual fetch length. [Commentary] Swell hindcasting methods include the Bretschneider method 24). and so the hindcasting accuracy is lower than that for waves in the generating area.4. with calculations for the component waves at all of the different frequencies being carried out simultaneously. it is standard to use the Bretschneider method. which is relatively simple and easy to use.7) . then Fmin is the fetch length corresponding to that wind duration and wind velocity. D is the decay distance of the swell. Note however that the amount of reliable observation data that has been obtained for swell is insufficient. If the significant wave height and period are determined by the wind velocity and the fetch length in the S-M-B method. it is necessary to treat swell hindcast values as representing no more than approximate values.= ---------t = ---------gTD C GD where C GD：group velocity corresponding to T D (m/s) -46- (4. and it is advisable to use them only after carrying out a comparative investigation with actual measurement data. The time t required for waves to propagate over the decay distance D is calculated from the following equation: 4pD D . and the results being the significant wave parameters for the combination of wind waves and swell. T. HF and TF are the height and period of the significant wave at the end of the fetch respectively. T. it is necessary to hindcast swell. With spectral methods as mentioned above.

the wave heights are rearranged in the descending order.42 0. The accuracy of the resulting estimated values depends largely on the reliability of the data used rather than on the statistical processing method. basic data for estimating the return wave height.50 0. 100 years.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 4. The values used for the Weibull distribution were determined by Petruaskas and Aagaard 26) using the same principle. In either case. values such as those in Table T.). (3) The peak waves. and then extrapolate it in order to estimate the return wave heights for a number of different return periods (say 50 years. Observation data are often available for the wave height and the period. If there are N data and the m-th largest wave height is denoted with xm. and the Hazen plot corresponds to the case a = 0. generally hindcast data must be used. It is commented that the Thomas plot often used in hydrology corresponds to the case a = 0. (2) Storm wave data shall be sorted by the peaks-over-threshold method so as to yield the data set of extreme wave heights for extreme statistical analysis. the logarithmic extreme value distribution.4.4.N is calculated using the following equation: ma P [ H ≦ x m.75) (k = 0.1) (k = 1. It is thought that sampled peak waves are mutually independent in statistical sense.1 are used. it is thus necessary to take due care in appropriately selecting the hindcasting method and to closely inspect the hindcasted results.4 Statistical Processing of Wave Observation and Hindcasted Data (1) Wave characteristics shall be expressed as joint distributions of wave height and period by wave direction using the monthly. Since the data on peak wave heights have not been accumulated over a prolonged period of time.44 0.47 0. and annual wave data.64 0. then hindcast data is used. N ] = 1 ------------N+b (4.4. and so it is standard to use hindcasting. it is necessary to gain a sufficient understanding of the local wind characteristics. it is not well known which distribution function is most suitable.25) (k = 1. Alternatively. the theoretical distribution function of the return wave height is not known.N. If observation data are not available. it is possible to obtain the maximum value of the “peak waves” for each year. and the probability of each value of wave height not being exceeded is calculated.12 0. find the functional form that best fits the data. the relationship between the wave height and the wave period is plotted for the data of peak waves (which have been used in estimating the return wave height). b = 0.44 0.37 The values used for a and b in this equation depend on the distribution function. The distribution functions used in hydrology include the Gumbel distribution (double exponential distribution).39 b 0.5) (k = 2.85) (k = 1. When drawing up the data set of peak waves using wave hindcasting. and then the wave period is determined appropriately based on the correlation between the two. b = 1. Since there are only a few places at which observation data extending over such a prolonged time duration are available. [Commentary] (1) The wave distribution characteristics for ordinary conditions are expressed separately for each wave direction as a joint distribution of wave height and period. seasonal. and so one should try to fit several distribution functions such as the those of the Gumbel distribution and the Weibull distribution.59 0.0) a 0.0) (k = 1.1) Table T.5. the data must first be transformed appropriately).46 0.4.42 0. and so it is standard to use such data.54 0. Since waves in ordinary conditions are often affected by the local wind. and then use the data as the annual maximum wave. Specifically. etc.51 0.1 Parameters Used in Calculating the Probability not Exceeding a Certain Wave Height Distribution function Gumbel distribution Weibull distribution “ “ “ “ “ “ (k = 0. it is possible to use the time series of data for which the peak waves exceed a certain threshold value during the period in question. are the wave (generally the significant wave) at the time for which the wave height becomes largest during the process of wave development and decay under a certain meteorological condition. [Technical Notes] (1) Estimation of Return Wave Height During statistical processing. There is generally not much observation data available for the wave direction.4. -47- .53 0. and the normal distribution (in the last case. (2) It is standard to represent the height of waves used in the design of protective facilities as the “return wave height” for the return period of the “peak waves” using data over a long time period (at least 30 years as a general rule). then the probability P that the wave height does not exceed xm. and the extreme wave heights shall be expressed in terms of the return perid. When estimating the return wave height. (4) With regard to the wave period corresponding to the return wave height. It is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the effects of swell.48 0. The values used for the Gumbel distribution were determined by Gringorten 25) in such a way as to minimize the effects of statistical scatter in the data.

4.75.27 k b = 0.0 (four preset values).4 and 2. then there will be a linear relationship between x and r v .4.2)) and the Weibull distribution function (equation (4.4.4.85.11) .4.4.25.9) (4.1.5). 1. ^ and B where A The return period Rp of the wave height H is related to the non-exceedance probability P (H ≦ x) as in the following: 1 Rp = K --. the “non-exceedance probability” (probability not exceeding a certain wave height) P is transformed into the variable r v ( = ( x B ) ¤ A ) using equation (4. 3.12 For the Weibull distribution.10) (4.44.-----------------------------N 1 P ( H≦ £ x) · or K P ( H ≦ x ) = 1 --------NRp where K： number of years during the period for which analysis was carried out N： number of data of peak waves (4.3) P [ H ≦x ] = 1 exp í æ ----------è A ø ý î þ In order to fit the data to the distribution function.75.44 + 0.4.4.4. which is a revised version of the method introduced above. 1. 1. The parameters A and B are determined using the method of least squares.4. namely the Gumbel distribution function (equation (4.4.0.20 + 0.3)) with k = 0.5. the data are assumed to follow the linear relationship shown in equation (4.4) or (4. the following equations are used for a and b in equation (4. b ＝ 0.4. a = 0.2) or (4.3) perfectly. Accordingly.2)). P [ H ≦x ] = exp [ { 1 + ( x B ) ¤ ( kA ) } ] k (4.4. 1. and the Fisher-Tippett type II distribution function with k = 2. 0.4.4. In place of the values listed in Table T. we thus introduce the method whereby one tries fitting eight distribution functions. respectively.4.23 k For the Fisher-Tippett type II distribution.1): For the Gumbel distribution. ì x Bö ü P [ H ≦ x ] = exp exp í æ ----------è A øý î þ (Gumbel distribution) (4.52 ¤ k b = 0. (a) Addition of the Fisher-Tippett type II distribution to the candidate distributions The Fisher-Tippett type II distribution is given by the following equation.4.11 ¤ k -48- (4.2) ì x Bö k ü (Weibull distribution) (4. 1.20 + 0.7) (2) Candidate Distribution Functions and Rejection Eriteria Goda has proposed the following method 51) ~ 53).1.0.5) If the data fit equation (4.4. rv = ln { ln P [ H ≦ x ] } rv = [ ln { 1 P [ H ≦ x ] } ] 1¤k (Gumbel distribution) (Weibull distribution) (4.4) (4.2) or (4.5 and 2.4.0 and 10.4.3)) with k = 0.4. 5. ^r +B ^ x = A v (4.0.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Following Petruaskas and Aagaard.0 (four preset values). the distribution function that best fits the data on any particular data set is then selected as the extreme distribution for that data set.33.6) ^ are the estimated values of the parameters A and B in equation (4. a = 0.4.6).4.8) The following nine functions are employed as the candidate functions to be tried for fitting: the Gumbel distribution function (equation (4. thus giving an equation for estimating the return wave height. the Weibull distribution function (equation (4.12 0.3).4. a ＝ 0. 1.

This is due to the change in local wave velocity caused by the change in water depth. and others.5. respectively (m/s) b1 .5.5. where Ks1 and Ks2 are the shoaling coefficients at water depths h1 and h2. then the continuity in the flux of energy transport results in the change of the wave height H1 at water depth h1 to the wave height H2 at water depth h2 as given by the following equation: H2 -----. The second is the DOL criterion.4. In this consideration. that function is rejected as being inappropriate. the 95% non-exceedance probability level is determined in advance.1 General (Notification Article 4.5 Transformations of Waves 4.5. respectively (m) In the equation. respectively.5. diffraction. For the residual of the correlation coefficient for each distribution function. C G 1 ¤ C G 2 can be water depth h1 water depth h2 represented as C G 1 ¤ C G 2 = K s 2 ¤ K s 1 . The changes in wave height and wave direction due to refraction shall be considered. [Technical Notes] (1) Refraction Calculations for Regular Waves (a) Refraction phenomenon and refraction coefficient (see Fig. which include refraction. If other sources of energy loss such as the friction along the sea bottom are ignored. The ratio of the wave height after the change to the original wave height in this case is called the “refraction coefficient”. while C G 1 ¤ C G 2 represents the change in wave height due to the change in water depth. CG2： group velocities at water depths h1 and h2. 4.2) Fig. The function for which the ratio of the residual of the correlation coefficient of the sample to the mean residual for the fitted distribution is lowest is judged to be the best fitting distribution function. 4. waves are refracted at the boundary due to the change in wave velocity caused by the change in water depth.5 Wave Shoaling). T. shoaling.1) where CG1 . b 1 ¤ b 2 represents the change in wave height due to refraction.4. Next. b2： distances between wave rays at water depths h1 and h2. If this value is below the 5% or above the 95% level of the cumulative distriburion of dimensionless deviation of the distribution function being fitted.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (b) Selection of the best function through introduction of rejection criteria Inappropriate functions are rejected by means of two sets of criterion. changes to b due to the refraction phenomenon. it can be assumed that no wave energy flux cuts across the wave ray and flows out. The refraction coefficient Kr is given by the following equation: Kr = b0 ¤ b -49- (4.1) If waves are obliquely incident on a straight boundary where the water depth changes from h1 to h2.2 Wave Refraction The phenomenon of wave refraction occurs in intermediate depth to shallow waters.0 will vary according to the distribution function.---CG 2 b2 (4. which is b0 for deepwater waves. If the residual of the correlation coefficient exceeds this threshold value for a distribution function when the extreme value data is fitted to that distribution function. breaking. the waves to be considered to exert actions on port and harbor facilities shall be the waves that are most unfavorable in terms of the structure stability or the usage of the port and harbor facilities.= H1 CG 1 b1 --------. appropriate attention shall be given to wave transformations during the propagation of waves from deepwater toward the shore. the best function is selected not simply according to the value of the correlation coefficient. Clause 3) As a general rule. The first is the REC criterion. but rather according to the MIR criterion.5.1 Schematic Diagram of Wave Refraction . the function in question is rejected as being inappropriate. Suppose that the distance between wave rays changes from b1 to b2 as a result. If the change in the wave ray width is not so large. Suppose that the wave ray width. This criterion takes into account the fact that the mean of the residual of the correlation coefficient relative to 1. T.5. The maximum value in the data is made dimensionless using the mean and standard deviation for the whole data. Using the shoaling coefficient (see 4.

T.5.4. as calculated using equations (4.3). comparing the graphs showing changes in the refraction coefficient and wave direction for regular waves and irregular waves at a coast -50- .5. swell-type waves and tsunamis. For waves like wind waves for which there is much directional spreading and the frequency band is broad. Figures T. the angle of incidence of the wave at water depth h.4) Here.4. Nevertheless.5. Fig. An appropriate calculation method is chosen in accordance with the situation. such calculations are applicable for waves for which there is little directional spreading and the frequency band is narrow. Parallel Depth Contours (2) Range of Application of Refraction Calculations Using Regular Waves Based on the principles behind calculations for regular waves. Note however that for a coastline for which the depth contours are straight and parallel to one another.4) and (4. for example.3 Graph Showing the Change in the Wave Direction of Regular Waves at Coast with Straight.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (b) Refraction calculation methods Refraction calculation methods for regular waves include the wave ray methods in which calculations using a computer are made possible.2 Refraction Coefficient of Regular Waves at Coast with Straight.3) (4.4. and the angle of incidence of the wave in deep water. a and a0 denote the wavelength at water depth h.5. respectively.5. it is necessary to carry out refraction calculations for irregular waves.2 and T.4. the change in the wave direction and the refraction coefficient can be calculated using the following equations: 2ph sin a = sin a 0 tanh --------L Kr = cos a 0 -------------cos a (4.5.5.5. Parallel Depth Contours Fig. and the numerical wave propagation analysis methods 27) in which surface wave equations are solved by computers using finite difference schemes. T.3 show the refraction coefficient and the wave direction. L. respectively.

5. Parallel Depth Contours -51- . However. the difference between the results of refraction calculations for regular waves and irregular waves is usually only slight. with the energy balance equation method.3 [3] Wave Spectrum). the wave spectrum becomes generally different from a standard form that has been assumed initially. meaning that the refraction coefficient does not become infinite even at a point in which two regular wave rays may converge. (b) Effects of diffraction When deepwater waves have been diffracted by an island or a headland. for irregular waves at a coast with straight. parallel depth contours. Thus it is necessary to use the spectral form after diffraction when performing the refraction calculation.4 and T.5. it can be seen that there is only a little difference between regular waves and irregular waves in this case. parallel depth contours Figures T. it is acceptable to use the component wave method. This means that the technique is basically the same in both cases. the energy balance equation method may be used for practical purposes with the exception of the case that the degree of intersection is large. refraction within a small but finite region is calculated.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS with straight. with the principal direction of deepwater waves (ap)0 as the parameter. which involves the linear superposition of refraction coefficients for regular waves and is thus simple and convenient. (c) Diagrams of the refraction coefficient and angle for irregular waves at a coast with straight. However. When determining the refraction coefficient for irregular waves. the mild-slope wave equation method is a strictly analytical method. On the other hand. As with the component wave method.5. Smax is the maximum value of the parameter that expresses the degree of directional spreading of wave energy (see 4. (3) Refraction Calculations for Irregular Waves (a) Calculation methods Refraction calculation methods for irregular waves include the following: ① the component wave method. The direction (ap)0 is expressed as the angle between the wave direction and the line normal to the boundary of deepwater. ② methods in which the wave energy balance equation 28) or the mild-slope wave equation is solved directly using a computer with finite difference schemes.5 show the refraction coefficient Kr and the principal wave direction ap.4. and then the refraction coefficient for the irregular wave is evaluated by making a weighted average of the component wave energies. This means that when the topography of a coastline is monotonous to the extent that the depth contours are considered to be straight and parallel to the shoreline. and so the results of refraction calculations using regular waves can be used as a good approximation. whereby the directional wave spectrum is divided into an appropriate number of component waves.1.4. when intersections of wave rays occur during a refraction calculation for a component wave. the energy balance equation is derived by assuming that wave energy does not cut across wave rays and flow out. parallel depth contours. Fig. respectively.4. but it is difficult to apply it to a large region. T. a refraction calculation is performed for each component wave.4 Refraction Coefficient of Irregular Waves at Coast with Straight.

For a harbor within which the water depth is assumed uniform.5.6 (a) ~ (c) show the diffraction diagrams by a semi-infinite breakwater for irregular waves with the directional spreading parameter Smax = 10. and 8 for irregular waves with Smax = 10. [Commentary] Diffraction is a phenomenon whereby waves wheel into a region that is screened by something like a breakwater. the errors will become large. in which case it is advisable to investigate the wave height in the harbor by means of either hydraulic scale model tests or else numerical calculation methods that also take refraction into account.5. waves exhibit the characteristics of flow rather than those of undulations.5.5 Change Due to Refraction in the Principal Direction ap of Irregular Waves at Coast with Straight. the diffraction coefficient Kd is given by the following equation: Kd = Hd ¤ Hi where Hi： incident wave height outside harbor Hd： height of wave in harbor after diffraction Diffraction diagrams and diffraction calculation methods assume that the water depth within the harbor is uniform. If there are large variations in water depth within the harbor. 4. 25. and 75.5. Figures T. Parallel Depth Contours (4) At places where the water depth is no more than about one half of the deepwater wave height.4. 25.4. 2.5. The ratio of the wave height after diffraction to the incident wave height is called the diffraction coefficient Kd. T. the diffraction diagrams for irregular waves with regard to a semi-infinite breakwater or a straight breakwater that has just one opening have been prepared. It is the most important phenomenon when determining the wave height in a harbor. In other words. 4. and 75.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Fig. This means that refraction calculations for wave directions and refraction coefficients can only be applied to the water where the depth is at least one half of the deepwater wave height.3 Wave Diffraction [1] Diffraction The wave height in regions in which waves are anticipated to be greatly affected by the phenomenon of diffraction caused by obstacles such as breakwaters or islands shall be calculated using an appropriate method.6 (a) ~ (l) show the diffraction diagrams through an opening of B/L = 1. [Technical Notes] (1) Diffraction Diagrams for Irregular Waves Figures T. (4.10) -52- . The irregularity of waves should be considered in a diffraction calculation.4.

PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS ---. T .Period ratio ─ Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Wave direction Fig.5.6(a) Diffraction Diagram by Semi-infinite Breakwaters (θ= 90º) for Smax = 10 -53- .4.

4.6(b) Diffraction Diagram by Semi-infinite Breakwaters (θ= 90º) for Smax = 25 -54- . T .Period ratio ─ Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Wave direction Fig.5.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN ---.

PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS ---. T .5.Period ratio ─ Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Wave direction Fig.6(c) Diffraction Diagram by Semi-infinite Breakwaters (θ= 90º) for Smax = 75 -55- .4.

0) for Smax = 10 -56- .4.5. T .TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.7(a) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 1.

7(b) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 1.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.5. T .0) for Smax = 25 -57- .4.

7(c) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.0) for Smax = 75 -58- .4. T .5.

5.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.0) for Smax = 10 -59- . T .4.7(d) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 2.

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.4.7(e) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 2.5.0) for Smax = 25 -60- . T .

T .PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.0) for Smax = 75 -61- .7(f) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 2.5.4.

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.0) for Smax = 10 -62- . T .5.7(g) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 4.4.

T .5.7(h) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 4.0) for Smax = 25 -63- .4.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.5.7(i) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 4.4. T .0) for Smax = 75 -64- .

0) for Smax = 10 -65- . T .PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.4.7(j) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 8.5.

5.0) for Smax = 25 -66- .TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction eriod ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.4.7(k) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 8. T .

5.0) for Smax = 75 -67- . T .PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Period ratio Diffraction coefficient Wave direction Fig.7(l) Diffraction Diagram by Breakwaters with an Opening (B/L= 8.4.

0 Angle between breakwater and incident wave direction q 15º 41º (26º) 36º (21º) 30º (15º) 30º 45º (15º) 41º (11º) 36º (6º) 45º 55º (10º) 52º (7º) 49º (4º) 60º 66º (6º) 64º (4º) 62º (2º) Note: Angle in the parentheses is the angle of deflection relative to the angle of incidence Principal direction of diffracted wave Principal direction of incident wave Fig.5.0 2.0 2.4.1 (a) ~ (c) list the direction of the axis of the diffracted waves as a function of the aperture ratio B/L and the direction of incidence.5. (a) Determining the axis of the diffracted wave When waves are obliquely incident to a breakwater that contains an opening.0 4. This diffraction diagram is next rotated until the direction of incidence matches the direction of the axis of the diffracted waves as determined from Table T.4.5.11) (a) Smax = 25 B/L 1.8) varies slightly from the direction of incidence q. These tables are used to obtain the direction q ¢ of the axis of the diffracted waves.7 (a) ~ (l).0 Angle between breakwater and incident wave direction q 15º 49º (34º) 41º (26º) 36º (21º) 30º 52º (22º) 47º (17º) 42º (12º) 45º 61º (16º) 57º (12º) 54º (9º) 60º 70º (10º) 67º (7º) 65º (5º) (a) Smax =75 B/L 1. T-4.8 Virtual Aperture B¢ and Angle of Axis of Diffracted Wave θ¢ (b) Fitting of a diffraction diagram Out of the diffraction diagrams of normal incidence in Figs. the direction q ¢ of the axis of the diffracted waves (see Fig.0 4.0 Table T. Tables T. and then the virtual aperture ratio B¢/L corresponding to q ¢ is obtained from the following equation: B ¢ ¤ L = ( B ¤ L ) sin q ¢ (a) Smax = 10 B/L 1.5.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Treatment of Obliquely Incident Waves When waves are obliquely incident to a breakwater that contains an opening.4. the diffraction diagram that has an aperture ratio nearly equal to the virtual aperture ratio is selected. T.1.4. The diffraction diagram is then copied and taken to be the diffraction diagram for obliquely -68- . T.1 Angle of Axis of Diffracted Waveθ¢ Angle between breakwater and incident wave direction q 15º 53º (38º) 46º (31º) 41º (26º) 30º 58º (28º) 53º (23º) 49º (19º) 45º 65º (20º) 62º (17º) 60º (15º) 60º 71º (11º) 70º (10º) 70º (10º) (4.0 4.5. it is advisable to obtain the diffraction diagram by means of a numerical calculation. the following approximate method may be used instead. or when the diffraction diagram is only required as a rough guideline.0 2.5. When this is not possible.4.5.

and the multicomponent coupling method of Nadaoka et al. it is necessary to simultaneously consider both diffraction and refraction within the harbor. an opening in the harbor model is set up within the effective wave making zone. the maximum error may amount to around 0. can be used for the diffraction calculation for the area within the harbor. Takayama’s harbor calmness calculation method. Next. [Commentary] (1) When the water depth within a harbor is made more-or-less uniform by say dredging (this is often the case with large harbors). it is acceptable to first carry out a calculation considering only refraction and breaking from the deepwater wave hindcasting point to the harbor entrance. -69- . (5) Studies Using Hydraulic Model Experiments Thanks to improvements in multidirectional random wave generating devices. whereby diffraction solutions for detached breakwaters are superimposed in order to obtain the change in the wave height of irregular waves within the harbor due to diffraction and reflection. However. it is easy to reproduce waves that have directional spreading in the laboratory nowadays. (3) Method for Determining Diffraction Coefficient in a Harbor The diffraction coefficient within a complex shape of harbor is generally estimated by numerical computation with a computer. the refraction of waves after diffraction can be ignored.5 Wave Shoaling) deepwater wave height (4. Diffraction calculation methods include Takayama’s method. meaning that diffraction experiments can be carried out relatively easily. and calculation methods that use the Green functions. There are also literatures in which other calculation methods are explained. the latter is called the directional spreading method. and the wave height is simultaneously measured at a number of points within the harbor. which involves linear super position of analytical solutions for detached breakwaters. In this case. In order to determine the wave height in the harbor in this case. a diffraction calculation for the area within the harbor is carried out. (4) Directional Spreading Method When the length of an island or the width of the entrance of a bay is at least ten times the wavelength of the incident waves. if the point of interest is just behind an island or headland. a method in which the Boussinesq equation is solved using the finite difference method 29).PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS incident waves.12) The energy balance equation method or the improved energy balance equation method in which a term representing dissipation due to wave breaking is added is appropriate as the refraction calculation method for the open sea.5. If ignoring wave reflection and just investigating the approximate change in wave height. wave refraction must also be considered. taking the incident wave height to be equal to the calculated wave height at the harbor entrance. and so the directional spreading method cannot be applied. provided there are no complex topographic variations within the harbor. the effects of diffracted waves will be large. it is possible to carry out refraction and diffraction calculations separately. the wave height at a point of interest within the harbor is expressed using the following equation: H = Kd Kr Ks H0 where Kd： Kr： Ks： H0： diffraction coefficient at the point of interest within a harbor refraction coefficient at the harbor entrance shoaling coefficient at the harbor entrance (see 4.1 in the absolute value. (2) When there are large variations in water depth even at places screened by a breakwater (this is often the case with relatively small harbors and coastal areas). Calculation methods that allow simultaneous consideration of refraction and diffraction of irregular waves include a method that uses time-dependent mild-slope irregular wave equations. and then estimate the change in wave height by multiplying together the refraction and diffraction coefficients obtained. The diffraction coefficient is obtained by dividing the significant wave height in the harbor by the significant wave height at the harbor entrance averaged over at least two observation points. in terms of the diffraction coefficient. [2] Combination of Diffraction and Refraction When carrying out diffraction calculations for waves in waters where the water depth varies greatly. When carrying out a model experiment.5. there will not be a large difference between the wave height estimate by the direct diffraction calculation and the estimate using the amount of directional wave energy that arrives directly at the point of interest behind the island or in the bay. The errors in this approximate method are largest around the opening in the breakwater.

H2.5.121 A ln ( RH ¤ m) a = 0.144 ln RT m = í î 0. ¼ Hn: significant wave heights of wave groups Note however that.08 ( ln R T ) 2 0. For example. An acceptable alternative is to determine the spectrum for each wave group. add these spectra together in order to calculate the spectral form when the wave groups coexist. Then the composite wave height is calculated by putting these significant wave heights into equation (4.5. (2) Composition of Periods The significant wave height to be used in calculating the wave force when two wave groups of different periods are superimposed may be determined by the energy composition method (i. the significant wave height is determined separately for each wave group by carrying out whatever calculation is necessary for that wave group. in the above equations.5.0 + a ( R H ¤ m ) 0.5.5.5. [Commentary] It is necessary to take note of the fact that waves reflected from port and harbor facilities can exercise a large influence on the navigation of vessels and cargo handling.20) 2 2 H 1 + H2 + ¼ + Hn 2 2 2 (4. I is assigned to the wave group with the shorter period and Ⅱto that with the longer period.4 0. The calculated wave height is valid for places that are at least about 0. The significant wave period T1/3 may be determined using the following equation 30): ( H 1 ¤ 3 ) I + ( H 1 ¤ 3 )II T 1 ¤ 3 = k -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 2 2 ( H 1 ¤ 3 ) I ¤ ( T 1 ¤ 3 ) I + ( H 1 ¤ 3 )II ¤ ( T 1 ¤ 3 )II where k = 1.0 R H = ( H 1 ¤ 3 ) I ¤ ( H 1 ¤ 3 ) II R T = ( T 1 ¤ 3 ) I ¤ ( T 1 ¤ 3 ) II : : : : 0. respectively (s) Note that. and multiple-reflected waves from quaywalls can cause agitations within harbors.4 Wave Reflection [1] General In the design of port and harbor facilities.19) (4. if the wave action varies with the wave direction.e. when the wave directions of various wave groups differ.15 ln R T ì 0.33 ln RT A = í î 10.5.16) (4.17) (4. Regarding the diffraction and/or refraction of waves for which wave direction is an important factor. (H1/3)II : significant wave heights of wave groups I and II before superimposition.1 ≦ RT ＜ 0.8 0.8 ≦ RT ＜ 1 0. respectively (m) (T1/3)I.14) (H1/3)I.13).13) (4. equation (4.6 ì 13. investigations shall be carried out onto the effects of reflected waves from neighboring structures on the facilities in question and also the effects of wave reflection from the facilities in question on neighboring areas.1 ≦ RT ＜ 0.5.13)).97 + 4. and then perform direct diffraction and/or refraction calculations using this spectrum. waves reflected from vertical breakwaters can cause disturbances in navigation channels.5.18) (4. -70- .TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4.5.5. the differences in the wave directions of various wave groups must be considered.7 wavelengths away from a reflecting boundary.15) (4.4 ≦ RT ＜ 1 (4.. [Technical Notes] (1) Composition of Reflected Waves and Incident Waves The wave height Hs when incident waves and waves reflected from a number of reflective boundaries coexist (a train of incident waves and those of reflected waves from reflective boundaries are termed the “wave groups”) can be calculated using the following equation: Hs = where Hs: significant wave height when all of the wave groups are taken together H1.632 + 0. (T1/3)II : significant wave periods of wave groups I and II before superimposition.

4.0 representing the incident waves.4. T. Since another assumption is made such that the water depth is uniform. In general. Next.. It is necessary to take heed of the fact that errors may become large if the sides are shorter than this.5. the virtual breakwater also becomes a semiinfinite breakwater in the opposite direction.5. one considers the situation whereby waves are incident on the virtual opening from both the wave direction of the incident waves and the direction symmetrical to this with respect to the detached breakwater (i.68 2 = 1. -71- .21 represents the mean value of the wave height ratio around the point A. then the wave height ratio with respect to the incident waves at point A is obtained by combining this value of 0. however.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (3) Methods for Calculating the Effects of Reflected Waves Calculation methods for investigating the extent of the effects of waves reflected from a structure include the poligonal island reflection method and a simple method by means of diffraction diagrams.9. respectively. This calculation method can also be applied to the reflection of irregular waves by means of superposing component waves. when it is difficult to carry out observation or when the structure in question has not yet been constructed. it is supposed that there are two semi-infinite virtual breakwaters with an opening. and past data. The method by Goda et al. Although the wave diffraction problems can also be analyzed with this calculation method.0 due to wave-absorbing work for example.5.9 Sketch Showing the Effect opening (dashed lines in Fig. so that the convex corners do not interfere with each other. the diffraction coefficient should be multiplied by the reflection coefficient before being used.68 with a value of 1.21 . the direction shown by the dashed arrow in Fig. it is assumed as a precondition that the lengths of the sides between convex corners are at least five times the wavelength of the incident waves. the reflected and the scattered waves. it is desirable to use irregular waves as the test waves. it is sufficient for practical purposes if the lengths of the sides between convex corners are at least about three times the wavelength of the incident waves. it is standard to estimate reflection coefficient by referring to the results of hydraulic model experiments. supposing that the diffraction coefficient at point A is read off as being 0. The range of of Reflected Waves influence of the reflected waves is represented by means of the diffraction diagram for the virtual breakwaters with the opening. 31) may be used for the analysis of irregular wave test data. [Technical Notes] (1) Approximate Values for Reflection Coefficient It is desirable to evaluate the value of reflection coefficient by means of field observations.5.e.4. Instead of the detached breakwater. the refraction of reflected waves cannot be calculated. and draws the diffraction diagram for the Fig. T.68. T. hydraulic model experiments. (b) Simple method by means of diffraction diagrams Explanation is made for the example shown in Fig. [2] Reflection Coefficient Reflection coefficients shall be determined appropriately based on the results of field observations. so that the method can be applied to the case where there are a number of convex corners. For the case of wave reflection by a semi-infinite breakwater. For example. the wave height ratio at the point A becomes 1 + ( 0.5. the theoretical solution that shows the wave transformation around a single convex corner is separated into three terms. It should be noted. T4. However. representing the incident. if the reflection coefficient of the detached breakwater is 0.9). In this case. since it is the energies that are added. such as shown with dashed lines in Fig.9.04 .4. When there are a number of convex corners.7 wavelengths of the detached breakwater.4 ´ 0. Accordingly. T. the wave height ratio becomes 1 + 0. that this value of 1. The wave height at a point A on the front face of an upright detached breakwater is estimated when waves are incident on the detached breakwater at an angle a.68 ) 2 = 1.9). because the errors due to a phase coupling effect will be large. there will be large errors if it is applied to the diffraction of waves by thin structures such as breakwaters. When the reflection coefficient of the front face of the breakwater is less than 1. It is not advisable to use this method for points within 0. (a) Poligonal island reflection method In this calculation method. The term for the scattered waves is progressively expanded to obtain an approximate equation.4 in the previous example. and so the diffraction diagram for a semi-infinite breakwater is used.

The same can be said for the influence of the main breakwater on the wing breakwater. it is quite acceptable to ignore the increase in wave height due to the presence of concave corner. -72- . If the breakwater is long. and b is the angle between the main breakwater and the wing breakwater. It should be noted. and around detached breakwaters. l2 is that of the wing breakwater.7 is for the case of a low crown with much overtopping) Submerged upright breakwater: 0. this is only the case when the wave-absorbing work extends along the whole of the breakwater. This increase in wave height shall be investigated thoroughly.3 ~ 0. The long dash-dot line in each graph shows the distribution of the maximum value of the wave height at each point as obtained using an approximate calculation. the irregularity of waves shall be considered in the analysis. However. The irregular waves used in the calculation has a spectral form with Smax = 75. the approximate calculation method may be used. when wave irregularity is incorporated into the calculation. However. (3) Wave-Height-Reducing Effects of Wave-Absorbing Work When a wave-absorbing work is installed in order to suppress the increase in wave height around a concave corner and if the wave-absorbing work is such that the reflection coefficient of the breakwater becomes no more than 0.0 (0.5. as obtained from numerical calculations for each principal wave direction. This figure may be used to calculate the wave height distribution near a concave corner. (2) Graphs for Calculating Wave Height Distribution around a Concave Corner Wave height distributions for irregular waves near a concave corner are shown in Fig. and the shape and dimensions of the structure. The length l1 is that of the main breakwater. and the peak value of the wave height becomes smaller. that with the upright wave-absorbing structure.3 ~ 0. Moreover.7 ~ 1. and around Detached Breakwaters Around the concave corners of structures. excluding the region within one wavelength of a concave corner.6 Precast wave-dissipating concrete blocks: 0.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN The following is a list of approximate values for the reflection coefficients of several types of structures.6 Natural beach: 0. however. [Technical Notes] (1) Influence of Wave Irregularity When the wave height distribution near a concave corner or the head of a breakwater is calculated for regular waves. the reflection coefficient varies with the wavelength. one cannot expect the wave-absorbing work to be very effective unless it is installed along the entire length of the breakwater. Upright wall: 0. This figure exhibits the form of the distribution of the maximum value of the wave height.05 ~ 0. a distributional form with large undulations is obtained. Calculation using regular waves thus overestimates the increase in the wave height around concave corners and the heads of breakwaters.10. T. the lower limits in the above ranges of reflection coefficient correspond to the case of steep waves and the upper limits to waves with low steepness.5 ~ 0. Kd is the ratio of the wave height at the front face of the main breakwater to the wave height of the incident waves.3 ~ 0. When it is not easy to use the calculation program. near the heads of breakwaters. which implies a narrow directional spreading.4.4. It has been assumed that waves are completely reflected by the breakwater. In the diagram. the undulated form of the distribution becomes smoothed out.5 Upright wave-absorbing structure: 0.2 With the exception of the upright wall. because the effect of waves reflected from the wing breakwater extend even to places at a considerable distance away from the concave corner.7 Rubble mound: 0. near the Heads of Breakwaters. [3] Transformation of Waves at Concave Corners. the wave height becomes larger than the normal value of standing waves owing to the effects of diffraction and reflection.

PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Computer method Approximate solution method Computer method Approximate solution method Fig.4.10 Distribution of the Maximum Value of the Wave Height around Concave Corner 32) -73- .5. T.

5 Wave Shoaling When waves propagate into shallow waters. it is necessary to take heed of the fact that the difference in water level between the inside and the outside of the breakwater gives rise to a large wave force. the wave direction for which the largest wave force occurrs is a = 30º (i.e.5. [Commentary] Shoaling is one of the important factors that lead to changing of the wave height in coastal waters.5.13 has been drawn up based on Shuto’s nonlinear long wave theory.4..5.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (4) Increase in Wave Height at the Head of a Breakwater Near the head of a semi-infinite breakwater or those of breakwaters at a harbor entrance (specifically within a distance of one wavelength from the head). Wave force ratio Irregular waves Regular waves 0 (5) Increase in Wave Height around Detached Breakwater Along a detached breakwater.4. In the diagram. H0¢ is the equivalent deepwater wave height.4. In particular.12 Wave Force Distribution along a Detached Breakwater 4. H is the wave height at water depth h.5. This is due to the effect of wave diffraction at the two ends of the breakwater 34). not when the waves are normally incident to the breakwater. waves diffracted by breakwaters exercise an effect of local wave height increase over the normal standing wave heights.11 Wave Force Distribution along a Semi-Infinite Breakwater 33) Wave force ratio 60° 45° α=30° 75° 90° α N N (m) Fig. In this calculation. Because the wave height distribution has an undulating form even at the back face of a breakwater. the place where the maximum wave force is generated can shift greatly with the wave direction and the ratio of the breakwater length to the wavelength. but rather when obliquely incident with a relatively shallow angle).4. It includes the linearized solution by the small amplitude wave theory and enables the estimation of the shoaling coefficient from deep to shallow waters.4. the ratio of the wave force to that of a standing wave) near the head of a breakwater. It exemplifies the fact that the wave height in shallow waters is also governed by the water depth and the wave period. Fig. T.. Figure T.12 shows an example of the results of a calculation of the wave force distribution along a detached breakwater for unidirectional irregular waves.11 shows an example of the results of a calculation of the wave force ratio (i. Ks is the shoaling coefficient. The wave force also becomes large due to the difference between the water levels in the offshore and onshore sides of the breakwater. Figure T. and L0 is the wavelength in deepwater. T.5. It shall be standard to consider the nonlinearity of waves when calculating the shoaling coefficient.5. it is necessary to take heed of the fact that.e. shoaling shall be considered in addition to refraction and diffraction. with a detached breakwater. Figure T. and the wave height distribution takes an undulating form even at the back face of the breakwater. -74- . waves with the height greater than that of normal standing waves are produced.

For irregular waves. Therefore. For the region to the right of the dash-dot line on each graph.4.15 (a) ~ (e).13 Graph for Evaluation of Shoaling Coefficient 4. T4. the change in wave height is calculated using the shoaling coefficient (see 4. T.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 0 2% dec ay line 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fig. [Technical Notes] (1) Change in Wave Height Due to Wave Breaking The change in wave height due to wave breaking may be determined using Figs. 44) using a theoretical model of wave breaking.5. if the facilities in question are highly important. [Commentary] After the height of waves has increased owing to shoaling. the change in wave height due to wave breaking dominates. the place at which waves break is always the same: this is referred to as the “wave breaking point”. For regular waves. when calculating the wave force acting on a structure in a very shallow water. waves break at a certain water depth and the wave height decreases rapidly.4. changing of the wave height due to wave breaking shall be considered. the location of wave breaking depends on the height and period of individual waves.5 to 2. T. This phenomenon is called the wave breaking. and wave breaking thus occurs over a certain distance: this area is referred to as the “breaker zone”. -75- . a major portion of wave energy is converted to the energy of oscillating flows rather than to that of water level undulation.5.5 Wave Shoaling). and so the wave height must be determined using this graph.5. it is desirable to use the wave height at the place where the water depth is one half of the equivalent deepwater wave height.5.5. For the region to the left of this dash-dot line. it is appropriate to use the mean bottom slope over the region where the water depth to equivalent deepwater wave height ratio h/H0¢ is in the range of 1.14 (a) ~ (e) or Figs.5. It shall be standard to consider the irregularity of waves when calculating the change in the wave height due to wave breaking. As for the bottom slope.6 Wave Breaking At places where the water depth is no more than about three times the equivalent deepwater wave height. These figures show the change in wave height for irregular waves as calculated by Goda 35). (2) Scope of Application of Graphs of Wave Height Change At places where the water depth is no more than about one half of the equivalent deepwater wave height. It is an important factor to be considered when determining the wave conditions exercising on maritime structures.

5.5.14 (c) Diagram of Significant Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/30 Fig.4.4. T.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Bottom slope 0 0 Bottom slope 0 0 deca y lin e 2% 0 0 0 deca y lin e 0 h / H ' 00 Fig.14 (d) Diagram of Significant Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/50 -76- ay l ine . T.4.14 (a) Diagram of Significant Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/10 Fig.4.5.14 (b) Diagram of Significant Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/20 Bottom slope Bottom slope 0 0 0 0 0 ine ay l 0 2% 0 dec 2% 0 2% dec 0 0 0 Fig. T. T.5.

5.15 (b) Diagram of Highes Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/20 Fig. T.4.5. T.4.15 (a) Diagram of Highest Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/10 Bottom slope 0 0 Bottom slope 0 0 line 2% d e 0 0 0 cay l ine ecay 2% d 0 0 Fig.15 (c) Diagram of Highest Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/30 -77- 2% d ecay line .5.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Bottom slope Bottom slope 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 ec %d ay l ine 0 0 Fig.4. T.14 (e) Diagram of Significant Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/100 Fig. T.4.5.

5. T.2 tan q ] b max = max { 0. and tanq is the bottom slope.17.2 (4.8 K s H 0 ¢ } : h ¤ L 0 < 0. Similarly. 0.4. an approximate calculation formula for the highest wave height Hmax is given as follows: H max = where 0.5.29 exp [ 2.5 ] b* 0 = 0.24) The shoaling coefficient Ks is determined using Fig. 44): H1 ¤ 3 = where ｛ Ks H0 ¢ : h ¤ L0 ≧ ³ 0. then the graph for calculating the breaker depth becomes as shown in Fig.22) (4. b max H 0 ¢.5.4. it is acceptable to calculate wave height changes using the following simple formula 35).4 tan q ] } (4) Graph for Calculating Breaking Wave Height 35) If the maximum value (H1/3)peak of the significant wave height in the breaker zone is taken as representative of the breaking wave height.53 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) 0.5.8 tan q ] b* max = max { 1. the operators min{ } and max{ } take the minimum and maximum value of the mulitiple quantities within the braces.2 b* 1 = 0. 1.32 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 deca ) 0. T. b max H 0 ¢. respectively.2 min { ( b 0 H 0 ¢ + b 1 h ).52 exp [ 4.29 exp [ 2. considering the variability of the phenomenon and the overall accuracy.5 ] b 1 = 0.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Bottom slope 0 0 Bottom slope 0 0 ine cay l 2% d e 0 0 Fig. However. T.5.21) b 0 = 0.15 (e) Diagram of Highest Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/100 (3) Approximate Calculation Formulas for Breaking Wave Height Calculation of wave height changes based on a theoretical model for wave breaking generally requires use of a computer. then the breaker index curve becomes as shown in Fig.92.4 tan q ] } 0 0 y lin (4.028 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) 0.4. T.15 (d) Diagram of Highest Wave Height in the Breaker Zone for Bottom Slope of 1/50 Fig.052 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) ｛ 1. -78- e 64748 64748 .63 exp [ 3.65. If the water depth (h1/3)peak at which the significant wave height is a maximum is taken as representative of the breaker depth. T. K s H 0 ¢ } : h ¤ L 0 < 0.5.8 K s H 0 ¢ * * * : h ¤ L0≧ ³ 0.38 exp [ 20 ( tan q ) 1.38 exp [ 20 ( tan q ) 1.2 2% min { ( b0 H 0 ¢ + b 1 h ). 0.4.23) (4.5.5.16.4.13.5.

4.18 Breaking Wave Height Criterion for Regular Waves (4.5.4.( 1 + 15 tan 4 ¤ 3 q ) ý -----. When estimating the limiting wave height in the breaker zone. The curves in the graph can be approximated with the following equation: Hb ì ü ph . Instead.+ a --------------------.17 Diagram of Water Depth at which the Maximum Value of the Significant Wave Height Occurs slope 0 0 Fig.4.5 ----L L0 0 î þ (4.4.4.5.26) . T.5.16 Diagram of Maximum Value of the Significant 0 0 (5) Breaking Wave Height Criterion for Regular Waves Figure T.18 shows the limiting wave height at the point of first wave breaking.4. the water depth increases owing to the wave setup caused by wave breaking.5. T.= B exp í A æ ------è H 0 ¢ø ý H0 ¢ H0 ¢ î þ -79- B o tt o m sl o p e 0 0 0 Fig. Figure T.25) where tanq denotes the bottom slope. the following empirical equation may be used 36): Hx h + h¥ ì x öü .5.17 1 exp í 1.18 shows the breaking wave height criterion for regular waves. This figure can be used to calculate the breaking wave height criterion in hydraulic model experiments using regular waves.5. T.5.15.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Note: ( 0 1/3) peak is the water depth at which 0 1/3 is a maximum B Note: ( 0 in the breaker zone ot 1/3) peak is the maximum value to of 0 0 m 1/3 in the breaker zone o sl pe Fig.5. T.4. At places where the water is shallow. the change in wave height cannot be calculated directly using Figs.= 0.14 and T. it is thus necessary to consider this increase in water level. Bottom (6) Change in Wave Height at Reef Coasts At reef coasts where shallow water and a flat sea bottom continue over a prolonged distance.5.

There are calculation diagrams and equations based on the results of past researches that may be used.015 A = 0.b ------C 0 -8 è H 0 ¢ø (4.14. such as the wave characteristics.20 ( 4 m > H 0 ¢ ³ 2 m ) ï a = í ï ï ï 0.33. Overtopping.5.5. C0 is given by h x = 0 + hö 2 3 æ H x = 0ö 2 . Considering the breaking wave height criterion of a solitary wave. it is advisable to use the following values that have been obtained from the data of field observations.= H0 ¢ 3 2ö . H0 ¢ ü .ba C 0 ¤ æ 1 + -è ø 8 (4. for irregular waves. the configuration and location of the seawall.05 and 0.5. it is obtained from the significant wave height Hx = 0 at water depth h as follows.4.5. [Commentary] The phenomenon of wave runup is dependent upon a whole variety of factors.8 H x } (4. Using Fig. and the sea bottom topography. and h x is the rise in the mean water level at the distance x and is given by the following equation: hx + h -------------.5. When designing seawalls of gently sloping type and the like. x at the distance x from the tip of the reef may be obtained as follows.31) where min{a. respectively. Hx = 0 h + h¥ .TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN where H0¢： equivalent deepwater wave height Hx： significant wave height at a distance x from the tip of the reef h： water depth over the reef h ¥： increase in the mean water level at a place sufficiently distant from the tip of the reef The coefficients A and a are 0.1 Wave Setup).30) The term h x = 0 represents the rise in the mean water level at water depth h. it is advisable to set the crown elevation of the seawall to be higher than the runup height for regular waves.56.32) 4.+ -C 0 = æ ---------------------è H0¢ ø 8 è H0 ¢ ø (4. However. and Transmission 4.5. thus the runup height varies in a complex way. a --------------B = ------------H0 ¢ H0 ¢ The term (h+ h ¥ )/H0¢ is given by h + h¥ --------------. it is advisable to determine wave runup heights by carrying out hydraulic model experiments. b} is the smaller value of a or b.6 Wave Runup. The calculation method in the above has been derived under the assumption that the water depth h over the reef is small and waves break over the reef.+ 0.6. according to the results of hydraulic model experiments. x = min { 0.27) ì ý ï 0. although they are applicable only under certain limited conditions. When the seawall and sea bottom are complex in form.089 --------------ï h + h¥ ï ï (4. From the continuity of the mean water level at the tip of the reef (x = 0).7. the highest wave height Hmax.b ------------.33 ( H 0 ¢ ³ 4 m ) î þ The coefficient B corresponds to the bottom slope at the front of the reef.5. which is controlled by the bottom slope in front of the reef and wave steepness (see 4. depending on the wave height. However.= H0¢ 3 æ Hx ö 2 .29) (4. H max. and so -80- . 1.78 ( h + h x ). It is thus not possible to apply the method when the water is deep and wave breaking does not occur. T. overflow can occur.28) where b = 0.1 Wave Runup Wave runup shall be calculated appropriately by taking into account the configuration and location of the seawall and the sea bottom topgraphy.

e.+ ----è -----ø K s : a > ac 2a H0 ¢ H1 (4.2) where H0¢ is the equivalent deepwater wave height.5) The term hR in equation (4. which shows the runup height for a vertical wall. H1 is the wave height at the water depth at the foot of the slope. i. the runup height when h = hR). H1 1 3 .+ æ ----. (a) Region of standing waves Takada has proposed the following equation for determining the runup height when the water depth h at the foot of the levee is in the range where standing waves exist (i. (b) Region where the water is shallower than the breaker depth Takada has given the runup height for regions where the water is sufficiently shallow for wave breaking to occur as follows: h R ¤ H 0 ¢ = ( R max ¤ H 0 ¢ R 0 ¤ H 0 ¢ ) ----. 1ö ý Ks æ ------------R ¤ H 0 ¢ = í -------è cot a ø è H1 ø î 2ac þ a < ac (4.which assumes that there is good agreement between the value from Miche’s standing wave theory and experimental data. Ks is the shoaling coefficient. while Rmax is the maximum runup height for the region where the water depth is such that standing waves exist (i.e..075 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) 1 ¤ 2 : Bottom slope 1/20 ï 0.2 Wave Overtopping) no more than a certain permissible value. Firstly. -81- .e. wave breaking does occur on the front slope.6. and R is the runup height.coth kh × æ 1 + --------------------h s ¤ H 1 = 1 + p ----. it is assumed that the runup height is proportional to tan2/3a. with the runup height decreasing both when the slope is more steeply inclined than this and when it is more gently inclined.3) When the angle of inclination of the slope is smaller than ac.6.6. The term LR in the figure is the wavelength at water depth hR.+ R 0 ¤ H 0 ¢ hR where R0 is the runup height on the levee body at the shoreline (h = 0).4..046 ( H ¢ ¤ L ) 1 ¤ 2 : Bottom slope 1/30 0 0 î (4.6. hs is the crest elevation.5) is the water depth at the foot of the levee for which the runup height becomes largest.6. wave breaking does not occur over the slope.= -------------. [Technical Notes] The following is the description of methods for calculating the runup height over smooth impermeable slopes: (1) Simple Cross Section “A simple cross section” refers to the case in which a seawall (including an upright wall) having a front slope of an uniform gradient a is located at a certain place (of water depth h) on the sea bottom with an almost uniform gradient q.1) Accordingly. the case where wave breaking does not occur on the front slope and the case where such wave breaking does occur.18 ( H 0 ¢ ¤ L 0 ) 1 ¤ 2 : Bottom slope 1/10 ï R ¤ H 0 ¢ = í 0.6. Based on the experimental results of Toyoshima et al. according to Miche’s equation.4) When the water depth is such that standing waves exist. when the angle of inclination of the slope is greater than ac.6. the runup height can be calculated as above.6) (4. in which case the runup height is given by the following equation: hs p R -1 ö ------. -----------------------ö è L 4 sinh 2 kh 4 cosh 2 khø (4. leading to the following equation: cot a c 2 ¤ 3 hs ì p ü -ö : . the minimum angle of inclination of the slope ac for which wave breaking does not occur is found as that satisfying the following condition: 2 a c sin 2 a c H0 ¢ . He dealt with two cases separately. deeper than the depth at the breaker line)..6.6. Takada used the following equation for hs /H1.= æ . T.. It is estimated using Fig. In this case.1. The maximum runup height occurs when a = ac.--------------p p L0 (4. R0/H0¢ is given as follows: ì 0.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS ultimately the crown elevation and the form of the seawall are determined so as to make the quantity of overtopping (see 4.

6.4. T. T. This iterative process is repeated until convergence is achieved.6. and so this method should only be used when the bottom slope is steeper than 1/30.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Complex Cross Section A “complex cross section” refers to the case where the sea bottom topography and the configuration and location of the seawall (on the whole) are as shown in Fig.2) 37). ③ The runup height for this virtual gradient is calculated using Fig.6.2. Maximum runup point Wave breaking point Actual cross section Virtual gradient Fig.6. the new runup height is used to give a new virtual gradient and so on). T.2 Complex Cross Section and Virtual Gradient Fig. it is generally found that there is good agreement between the two.6. 0 0 (a) When the cross section can be considered to be complex.4.3.e.4. with the error usually being no more than 10%. ② Next. However.. the runup height R is assumed and the point A is set at the maximum runup point. the points A and B are joined by a straight line. Then. T. ④ The value so obtained is taken to be the runup height for the complex cross section in question.4 shows experimental results obtained for a bottom slope of 1/70. T. the agreement between the two becomes poor. T. If the two do not agree. 0 0 0 (b) When the results obtained from this method are compared with actual experimental results for a complex cross section. This figure provides a useful reference when estimating the runup height for a complex cross section with a gentle bottom slope.3 Runup Height on a Slope -82- . if the bottom slope is too gentle. (c) Figure T.4.1 Graph for Estimating hR for a Vertical Wall height is compared with the initially assumed runup height. and the calculated Fig.4.4. then a new runup height is assumed. the runup height of the seawall is obtained as follows (refer to Fig. Shoaling coefficient and the gradient of this line yields the virtual gradient cota. ① The wave breaking point B is determined from the deepwater wave characteristics.6. and the estimation are repeated (i.4.6.

6. T. However. Here. (4) Effects of Wave-Absorbing Work The runup height can be significantly reduced when the front face of a seawall is completely covered with wavedissipating concrete blocks.e.6.5 Relationship between Wave Incident Angle and Runup Height (Full Lines: Experimental Values by Public Works Research Institute. rather.. Figure T.6. b is the angle between the wave crest line of the incident waves and the centerline of the seawall. it is necessary to give consideration to the quantity of overtopping (see 4. It should also be noted that actual wave runup will frequently exceeds the design crown height because of wave irregularity when the crown height of a seawall is designed against the significant waves.4.2 Wave Overtopping). Accordingly. Ministry of Construction) 0 0 Fig. T. in extreme cases as many as about a half of the waves may exceed this height. the crown height of a seawall should not be decided based purely on the runup height of regular waves. when b = 0).6 Reduction in Runup Height Due to Wave-Absorbing Work -83- . T.4.6 shows an example.6. This figure can be used to estimate the effect of wave incident angle on the runup height.4.6. even if the scatter of the experimental data is not considered. Holland Smooth surface 0 0 Surface covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks 0 (Former) Russia Fig. and the incident angle coefficient Kb is the ratio of the runup height for angle b to the runup height when the waves are normally incident (i.6. and so in general it is advisable to determine the runup height by means of hydraulic model experiments.5 shows the relationship between the incident angle coefficient Kb and the angle b.4.4. in fact. (5) Estimation Errors It is important to note that the curves for determining the runup height have been obtained by averaging experimental data that show a large scatter.4 Runup Height on a Seawall Located Closer to the Land than the Wave Breaking Point (3) Oblique Wave Incidence Figure T.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Fig. the effect of the concrete blocks varies greatly according to the way in which they are laid.

(b) The wave-dissipating concrete blocks in the figures are made up of two layers of tetrapods. Furthermore.2 ~ 3 0. wave irregularity shall be considered.. or if the same kind of wave-dissipating concrete block is used but there are differences in the crown width.1 ~ 5 Wave-absorbing seawall 0. The quantity of overtopping and the rate of overtopping are generally expressed per unit width.1. These graphs have been drawn up based on experiments employing irregular waves. then there is a risk that the actual rate of overtopping may considerably differ from the value obtained by the figures.4. In this case. From the results of a comparison between the experiments and field observations. the overtopping quantity shall be calculated by carrying out hydraulic model experiments or by using data from hydraulic model experiments carried out in the past. or alternatively interpolation should be carried out.e.7 ~ 1.1 ~ 5 0. -84- .5 times 0.10. T. in the way in which the tetrapods are laid. but also damage by flooding to the roads. i.6. then not only there will be damage to the seawall body itself. that does not have anything like a toe protection mound or a crown parapet).2 ~ 3 0. [Technical Notes] (1) Diagrams for Calculating the Rate of Overtopping 38) For an upright or wave-absorbing seawall that has a simple form (i.4 ~ 2 0.6. If the quantity of overtopping is large.05 ~ 10 Note that when obtaining rough estimates for the rate of overtopping for irregular waves using Figs.2 Wave Overtopping For structures for which the quantity of overtopping is an important design factor.1 Estimated Range for the Actual Rate of Overtopping Relative to the Estimated Value q ¤ ( 2 g ( H 0' ) 3 ) 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 Upright seawall 0. 40) may be used. or in the form of the toe.4.7 ~ 4. the following should be considered: (a) If the actual values of the bottom slope and the deepwater wave steepness do not match any of the values on the graphs. it is obtained by dividing the quantity of overtopping by the time duration of measurement.6.7 ~ 4. on the other hand.4. (d) When there are difficulties in applying the graphs for estimating the rate of overtopping. it is necessary to make the quantity of overtopping no more than a certain permissible value that has been determined in line with the characteristics of structures and the situation with regard to their usage. [Commentary] The “quantity of overtopping” is the total volume of overtopped water.4. The “rate of overtopping”.5 ~ 2 times 0. (c) If the number of rows of concrete blocks at the crown is increased. If a different kind of wave-dissipating concrete block is used.6. it is thought that the accuracy of the curves giving the rate of overtopping is within the range listed in Table T.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4.6.10. when estimating the quantity of overtopping by means of experiments. the quantity of overtopping tends to decrease 39).6.. houses and/or port and harbor facilities behind the levee or seawall. During design. is the average volume of water overtopping in a unit time.e. Table T. The rate of overtopping for the waveabsorbing seawall has been obtained under the conditition that the lower armor layer at the crown consists of 2 rows of wave-dissipating concrete blocks. the rate of overtopping may be estimated using Figs. it is desirable to consider changes in tidal water level. despite that the levee or seawall is intended to protect them.6. the approximate equation of Takayama et al. the graph for which the values most closely match should be used. There is further a risk to users of water frontage amenity facilities that they may be drowned or injured. to carry out experiments for different water levels. T.

7 Graphs for Estimating the Rate of Overtopping for an Upright Seawall (Bottom Slope 1/30) -85- .PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Fig. T.4.6.

T.6.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Fig.4.8 Graphs for Estimating the Rate of Overtopping for an Upright Seawall (Bottom Slope 1/10) -86- .

PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 0 0 0 0 0 0 Co nc ret eb loc k 0 Co 0 nc ret 0 0 eb loc k 0 0 0 0 Co 0 0 nc 0 0 0 ret eb loc k 0 0 0 0 Fig.9 Graphs for Estimating the Rate of Overtopping for a Wave-Absorbing Seawall (Bottom Slope 1/30) -87- 0 0 .6.4. T.

6.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 0 0 0 0 0 Co 0 0 nc ret eb loc k 0 0 0 0 0 Co nc ret eb loc k 0 Co 0 nc ret eb 0 0 0 0 Fig.10 Graphs for Estimating the Rate of Overtopping for a Wave-Absorbing Seawall (Bottom Slope 1/10) -88- 0 0 loc k 0 0 0 . T.4.

0.7 Vertical-slit type seawall 40) Parapet retreating type Stepped seawall 39) seawall 39) : b = 0. using the results of experiments with regular waves. the distance over which a mass of water splash strongly affected by the wind velocity. Furthermore. Table T. -89- .0 ~ 0. and so it is anticipated that flooding due to overtopping or spray would cause particularly serious damage Other important areas Other areas About 0. If the equivalent crown height coefficient is less than 1.6. when the quantity of overtopping is small. the seawall under study has a form that is effective in reducing the quantity of overtopping. and back slope Concrete on front slope and crown. this means that the crown of the seawall under study can be lowered below that of an upright seawall and still give the same quantity of overtopping. with a larger distance at a higher wind velocity. public facilities etc.4.6 : b = 1. crown. This shows that.5 : b = 1. Goda 41) nevertheless gave the values for the damage limit rate of overtopping as listed in Table T. When the quantity of overtopping is large. the difference in the splash distance becomes small. Wave-absorbing seawall with concrete block mound 40): b = 0.3.7 ~ 1.05 0.06 (3) Equivalent Crown Height Coefficient The equivalent crown height coefficient can be used as a guideline when setting the quantity of overtopping for a seawall upon which wave-dissipating concrete blocks are laid or for a seawall of wave-absorbing type with vertical slits.01 About 0.4.02 ~ 0. when the quantity of overtopping is large.4.02 0. However. the smaller the spatial gradient of the quantity of overtopping becomes. The abscissa shows the spatial gradient of the quantity of overtopping. however.6.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (2) Permissible Rate of Overtopping The permissible rate of overtopping depends on factors such as the structural type of the seawall. The equivalent crown height coefficient is the ratio of the height of the seawall in question to the height of an imaginary upright seawall that results in the same quantity of overtopping.05 0. winds have a relatively large effect on the quantity of overtopping when it is small.4. although there is a lot of variation. behind the seawall. As can be seen from the figure. have considered the degree of importance of the facilities behind the seawall and have come up with the values for the permissible rate of overtopping as listed in Table T. in other words. the situation with regard to land usage behind the seawall.0 ì 1 sin 2 q : q ≦ £ 30 ° ü :b = í ý î 1 sin 2 i 30 ° : q > 30 ° þ (q is the angle of incidence of the waves. and the capacity of drainage facilities.005 or less Levee Table T. Nagai et al. Although it is thus impossible to give one standard value for the permissible rate of overtopping.2 based on past cases of disasters.3 Permissible Rate of Overtopping (m3/m•s) as a Function of the Degree of Importance of the Hinterland Areas where there is a high concentration of houses. it is 0º when the waves are normally incident on the seawall) When the waves are obliquely incident 42) (4) Effect of Winds on the Quantity of Overtopping In general.2 Damage Limit Rate of Overtopping Type Revetment Apron paved Apron unpaved Concrete on front slope. the larger the wind velocity.6. it must be set appropriately in line with the individual situation.6. the spatial gradient of the quantity of overtopping increases.6. (5) Overtopping of Multidirectional Random Waves In waters where the multidirectionality of waves is well clarified. the rate of overtopping may be corrected in line with Smax as in reference 42).9 ~ 0.02 0.2 0. Figure T.11 shows the results of an investigation on the wind effect on the quantity of overtopping based on field observations. where the conditions in terms of waves and the sea bottom topography are taken to be the same for the both cases. when the quantity of overtopping is small. the relative effect of winds decreases as the quantity of overtopping increases. but no concrete on back slope Concrete on front slope only Covering Rate of overtopping (m3/m•s) 0. Below are the reference values for the equivalent crown height coefficient b for typical types of seawall. while the ordinate shows the quantity of overtopping per unit area.4.

4. Transmitted waves include waves that have overtopped and/or overflowed. T. as well as waves that have permeated through a rubble mound breakwater or a foundation mound of composite breakwater. [Technical Notes] (1) Transmission Coefficient for a Composite Breakwater Figure T. it is necessary to examine the value of wave transmission coefficient.6. T.6.12. Fig. the transmission coefficient agrees pretty well with that shown in Fig.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Quantity of overtopping per unit area q Gradient Fig.6.4. because the coefficient serves as an indicator of the efficiency of the exchange of seawater. Even when the waves are irregular. In this case. Recently.4. several breakwaters have been built with caissons (which are originally not permeable) having through-holes in order to enhance the exchange of the seawater within a harbor. T.6.6.12 may be used to calculate the height of waves that are transmitted into a harbor when they overtop a composite breakwater or permeate through a foundation mound.3 Wave Transmission It shall be standard to calculate the height of waves transmitted behind a breakwater by overtopping and/or permeation through the core or the fundation mound of breakwater by referring to either the results of hydraulic model experiments or the past data. because the transmitted waves affect the wave height distribution behind the breakwater.12 is valid not only for the significant wave height. It has also been shown that Fig.4.11 Wind Effect on Spatial Gradient of Wave Overtopping Quantity 4. T.12 Graph for Calculating the Wave Height Transmission Coefficient -90- W in d ve lo cit y . [Commentary] It is necessary to appropriately estimate the transmitted wave height after waves have overtopped and/or passed through a breakwater. but also for the highest one-tenth wave height and the mean wave height.6.4.

7) where kt=1. the experimental results are available.4. and L is the wavelength of transmitted waves.4. B is the crown width of the structure. Figure T. the steeper the bottom slope.67. (b) For a curtain wall breakwater. The following empirical equation may be used to obtain the transmission coefficient of a typical structure.7.2. and other such breakwaters.1 ~ 0. 4.7. The effects of wave steepness and bottom slope on the rise of mean water level are clearly shown. the larger the rise of mean water level. When H0¢/L0 is in the range 0.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (2) Period of Transmitted Waves for a Composite Breakwater The period of the transmitted waves drops to about 50 ~ 80% of the corresponding incident wave period (this is true both for the significant wave period and the mean period). and pipe type breakwaters. [Technical Notes] (1) Diagrams for Estimating the Amount of Wave Setup The changes in the mean water level by random wave breaking on the bottom slopes of 1/100 and 1/10 as calculated by Goda 35). it is desirable to consider the phenomenon of wave setup as necessary. -91- .26 (B/d)0.1 and T. with the exception of very steep bottom slope. the empirial solutions of Morihira et al.1 Curtain Wall Breakwater). Stone breakwater: K T = 1 ¤ ( 1 + k t H ¤ L ) (4.3.01 ~ 0. water-permeable structure such as a rubble mound breakwater or a wave-dissipating concrete block type breakwater. horizontal-plate type permeable breakwaters. which occurs in the breaker zone owing to wave breaking as they approach the coast.7. (4) Transmission Coefficient for Structures Other than Composite Breakwaters (a) For a porous. Moreover. T. 3. rubble mound breakwaters armored with wave-dissipating concrete blocks. 44) are shown in Figs. (d) Types of breakwater aiming to promote the exchange of seawater include multiple-wing type permeable breakwaters. (3) Experimental Data on Other Types of Breakwater For composite breakwaters covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks. The transmission coefficients of these types of breakwater have been obtained by hydraulic model tests. The rise of in mean water level is thus important for the accurate calculation of the design wave height in shallow waters.4. 43) may be used (see Part VII. d is the depth from the water surface to the ground surface of the structure. The smaller the wave steepness (H0¢/L0.6. (5) Transmission Coefficient for a Submerged Breakwater A submerged breakwater is usually made by piling up natural stones or crushed rock to form a mound. (c) For the transmission coefficient of an upright breakwater of permeable type that has slits in both the front and rear walls. experiments on the transmitted wave height have been carried out by the Civil Engineering Research Institute of Hokkaido Development Bureau.3 shows the rise of mean water level at the shoreline.15)H0¢.1 Wave Setup When designing structures that will be placed within the breaker zone.7 Wave Setup and Surf Beat 4. the larger the rise of mean water level becomes. Kondo’s theoretical analysis may be referred to. (2) Consideration of the Rise in Mean Water Level in Design A rise of mean water level causes the wave breaking point to shift shoreward and the breaking wave height to increase. and then covering the surface with concrete blocks to protect underlayers. multiple-vertical cylinder breakwaters. For a submerged breakwater of crushed rock. the rise of mean water level near the shoreline is of the order (0. a graph showing the relationship between the crown height of the breakwater and the transmission coefficient is available. H is the height of incident waves. where H0¢ is the equivalent deepwater wave height and L0 is the wavelength in deepwater ).7.05.

4. 44): 0.7.= -----------------------------------H0¢ H0 ¢ h h ------.7.2 Change in Mean Water Level (Bottom Slope 1/100) z rms --------------------(h ) rms 0 0 0 Risc in mean water level Oarai Niigata Miyazaki Near shoreline Offshore Wave steepness 0 0 Fig.4. T.01 H 0 ¢ z rms = -----------------------------------.æ 1 + -------ö -ö L0 è L0 è H 0 ¢ø H 0 ¢ø (4.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 0 0 η/H ′ 0 0 Change in mean water level η /H ′ 0 0 0 0 h /H0 ′ Change in mean water level h /H 00 ′ Fig.1 + --------ø L è ¢ H 0 0 0 0 0 Fig.7.7. Goda has proposed the following relationship 35). [Technical Notes] Goda’s Formula for Estimating Surf Beat Amplitude Based on the results of field observations of surf beat. T. T.4 Ratio of Surf Beat Amplitude to Deepwater Wave Amplitude 4.4. surf beat with the period of one to several minutes shall be investigated as necessary.2 Surf Beat In shallow waters.04 ( h rms ) 0 0. T.3 Rise in Mean Water Level at the Shoreline 1¤2 H ¢ 0 æ h ö -------.4.7.7.æ 1 + ------------.1) -92- .1 Change in Mean Water Level (Bottom Slope 1/10) Fig.

[Commentary] Water level fluctuations with the period between one and several minutes sometimes appear at observation points in harbors and off the shore. field observations shall be carried out as far as possible. The term al in the figure is a parameter that represents the energy level of the long-period waves. (4) Calculation Method for Seiche See 6.8. Figure T.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS where zrms is the root mean square amplitude of the surf beat wave profile. inundation at the head of the bay or reverse outflow from municipal drainage channels may occur. it is thus desirable to give consideration to making the shape of the harbor to minimize the seiche motion as much as possible.4. it corresponds to a significant wave height of about 10 ~ 15 cm. resulting in breaking of the mooring ropes of small vessels.7.1 shows a comparison between an observed spectrum and an approximate form of the standard spectrum. the dimensions of the vessel in question.4. and appropriate measures to control them shall be taken based on the results of these observations. it can be assumed that the phenomenon of “seiche” is taking place.8. it is advisable to investigate either hard or soft countermeasures. If the amplitude of such seiche becomes significantly large. Also high current velocities may occur locally in a harbor.4. [Technical Notes] (1) Threshold Height of Long-period Waves for Cargo Handling Works It is necessary to give due consideration to the fact that long-period waves in front of a quaywall can induce ship surging with the amplitude of several meters through resonance. The threshold height of long-period waves for smooth cargo handling works depends on the factors such as the period of the longperiod waves. This equation shows that the amplitude of the surf beat is proportional to the deepwater wave height. When conspicuous water level fluctuations with the period several minutes or longer occur at an observation point in a harbor. -93- .7.8 Long-Period Waves and Seiche With regard to long-period waves and seiche in harbors. (hrms)0 is the root mean square amplitude of the deepwater wave profile. When drawing up a harbor plan. This phenomenon occurs when small disturbances in water level generated by changes in air pressure out at sea are amplified by the resonant oscillations of the harbor or bay. resulting in large effects on the cargo handling efficiency of the port. H0¢ is the equivalent deepwater wave height.1 Comparison between Standard Spectrum (3) Standard Spectrum for Long-period Waves with Long-period Components and When there has been insufficient field observation Observed Spectrum data of long-period waves out at sea and the longperiod wave conditions that determine the design external forces have not been established. If the period of such long-period waves is close to the natural period of oscillation of the vibration system made up of a vessel and its mooring ropes. and that it increases as the deepwater wave steepness H0¢/L0 decreases. T. the standard spectrum shown in reference 48) or its approximate expression may be used. according to field observations carried out in places like Tomakomai Bay 46). Figure T. and h is the water depth. L0 is the wavelength in deepwater. Observed spectrum Approximate form of standard spectrum Fig.5 Seiche for a calculation method for seiche. Such fluctuations are called long-period waves. the mooring situation. If it is clear from observations that long-period waves of significant wave height 10 ~ 15 cm or more frequently arise in a harbor. the phenomenon of resonance can give rise to a large surge motion even if the wave height is small. (2) Calculating the Propagation of Long-period Waves It is desirable to calculate the propagation of longperiod waves into a harbor by setting up incident wave boundary out at sea and then using either the Boussinesq equation 29) or a calculation method that uses long linear wave equations 47). and the loading conditions.1) and actual observation values.5 shows a comparison between the estimation by equation (4. that it falls as the water depth increases. Nevertheless. 4.

and then taking the square root. it is desirable to examine the influence of waves generated by moving vessels. wind waves generated within the harbor may require attention. and the ship-generated waves by larger vessels may cause troubles for small vessels. and thus obtain the wave conditions at the harbor entrance. and the period and direction of waves. [Commentary] The problem of harbor calmness is extremely complex. which form the basis of the criteria for determining the harbor calmness. the wave period in the harbor may be taken to be the same as the period of the diffracted waves. (5) It is standard to express the occurrence rate of waves in a harbor as the percentage of the waves exceeding 0.9. using say the energy balance equation method. the operating rate of vessels. 4. and so care is required when evaluating the net working rate for ports and harbors that face out onto the open sea. [Technical Notes] The following method may be used for evaluating the harbor calmness: (1) To estimate the waves in the harbor. However. It involves not only physical factors such as waves.5 to 1. the factors that give rise to disturbances in the harbor shall be set appropriately. adding the results. etc. Nevertheless.9 Waves inside Harbors 4. but also the factors requiring human judgement: the latter include the easiness of vessels entering and leaving a harbor. -94- . For harbors where the effects of transmitted waves are relatively slight. If necessary. focusing mainly on diffraction and reflection. (2) Next.10 Ship Waves In canals and navigation channels. first establish the joint distribution of the height and direction of deepwater waves. carry out an investigation on wave transmission at this time. and the cost of constructing the various facilities required to improve the harbor calmness.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4. it should be noted that the critical wave height for cargo handling is lower for waves of long-periodicity such as swell 49). such as the efficiency of cargo handling works. 4. include the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Waves penetrating through the harbor entrance Transmission of waves into the harbor over breakwaters Reflected waves Long-period waves Seiche In large harbors. it depends on the purpose for which the wharf facilities are used. calculate the wave transformations by refraction and breaking that takes place between the deepwater wave observation and/or hindcasting point and the harbor entrance. a value of 0. and the threshold conditions of works at sea.9. it is also acceptable to take into consideration the exceedance probability for other wave height classes. (3) Obtain the wave height in the harbor. vessel refuge during stormy weather. depending on the usage purpose. rather. The factors that lead to wave disturbances in harbors.and wave-resistance of working machinery.1 Calmness and Disturbances When evaluating the harbor calmness. winds.5 m or 1. The harbor calmness is obtained by subtracting from 100% the occurrence probability (in percentage) that the wave height in the harbor exceeds the threshold level for cargo handling works at the berth in question. The harbor calmness is further related with the economic factors. (4) The wave height in the harbor can be estimated by taking the squares of each of the diffracted wave height.0 m in height or in terms of the number of days. the reflected wave height and the transmitted wave height. and the wind.0 m (significant wave height) may be used as a reference value. vessel motions. Note that the wave height in the harbor should be investigated for each wave direction for various classes of wave heights with the occurrence probability outside the harbor. the dimensions of vessels. However.2 Evaluation of Harbor Calmness The harbor calmness shall be evaluated by considering individual wave components estimated separately for respective factors that cause disturbances in the harbor. It is not possible to determine a value for the threshold wave height for cargo handling works that is valid universally.

One group of waves spread out in a shape like 八 (the Chinese character for 8) from a point slightly ahead of the bow of the vessel. On the other hand..= T 0 coth æ ------------.10.4.L coth æ --------è Lt ø è Lt ø g t (4.4) -95- (4.3) (4.4. the wavelength and period are both longest for the first wave and then become progressively shorter.330 V k T 0 = ----g . the area over which the ship waves extend is limited within the area bounded by the two cusplines with the angles ± 19º28' from the sailing line and starting from the origin (i.V = 0. it is composed of two groups of waves. The divergent waves cross the transverse waves just inside the cusplines. implying that the transverse waves often cannot be discerned from an aerial photograph.4). this is where the wave height is largest.V = 0.10.2) g where L0： wavelength of transverse waves at places where the water is sufficiently deep (m) Vk： sailing speed of vessel (kt). The former waves are termed the “divergent waves”. In deep water. (a) The wavelength of the transverse waves can be obtained by the numerical solution of the following equation. Vk = 1.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [Technical Notes] (1) Pattern of Ship Waves as Viewed from Top If ship waves are viewed from top.1 Plan View of Ship Waves (2) Wavelength and Period of Ship Waves The wavelength and period of ship waves differ for the divergent waves and the transverse waves.e. T. while the latter are termed the “transverse waves”.10..3) or (4. Amongst the divergent waves. The wave steepness is smaller for the transverse waves than for the divergent waves.1.1) 2p . It is given by equation (4.10. the smaller the gap between waves.e. the wavelength of the transverse waves is given by the following equation: 2p 2 2 .= V 2 : (provided V < g h ) 2p Lt where Lt： wavelength of transverse waves (m) h： water depth (m) V： sailing speed of vessel (m/s) Note however that when the water is sufficiently deep.10.169 V k L 0 = ----(4. it appears as shown in Fig.10. gLt 2ph ------.946V (m/s) (b) The period of the transverse waves is equal to the period of progresseive waves with the wavelength Lt (or L0) in water of depth h. Specifically.10.tanh --------. with the latter having both a longer wavelength and a longer period. Tt = 2p 2 p hö 2 p hö . the closer to the sailing line. which is derived from the condition that the celerity of the transverse waves must be the same as the velocity at which the vessel is sailing forward.10. the point from which the cusp lines diverge) lying somewhat in front of the bow of the vessel. V essel's sailing line Fig. the transverse waves are approximately arcshaped. The divergent waves form concave curves. with the gap between waves being constant (i. The other group of waves are behind the vessel and are such that the wave crest is perpendicular to the vessel’s sailing line. independent of the distance from the sailing line). T.

the angle of travel q of the divergent waves can be obtained as shown in Fig. and ship waves propagate into shallow waters.4. Note however that for actual vessels the minimum value of q is generally about 40º. and their properties vary when the water depth decreases relative to the wavelength of ship waves.10. ship waves are affected by the water depth. which are derived from the condition that the component of the vessel’s speed in the direction of travel of the divergent waves must be equal to the velocity of the divergent waves. a is the angle between the cusp line and the sailing line. As can be seen from this table. T.10. and q is usually about 50º ~ 55º for the point on a particular divergent wave at which the wave height is a maximum. -96- Ratio of the period of the divergent waves to that of the transverse waves Td / T0 . Situations in which they must be regarded as shallow water waves include the following cases: a high-speed ferry travels through relatively shallow waters. as shown in the illustration in the figure. T.1.10. the angle q directs the location of the source point Q from where the divergent wave has been generated. as a function of the position of the place under study relative to the vessel.10.2 Wave Direction and Period of at Places Where the Water is Sufficiently Deep (3) Shoaling Effect on Ship Waves As common with water waves in general. Note also that.10. Note that ship waves in shallow water have a longer wavelength and period than those generated by the vessel sailing in deep water at the same speed.10.7).6). Angle between the direction of travel of the divergent waves and the sailing line G (4.7 g h (4. the waves generated by vessels in normal conditions can generally be regarded as deepwater waves.5) (4.10. as listed in Table T-4. a motorboat travels through shallow waters.4. L d = L t cos 2 q T d = T t cos q where Ld： wavelength of divergent waves as measured in the direction of travel (m) Td： period of divergent waves (s) q： angle between the direction of travel of the divergent waves and the sailing line (º) According to Kelvin’s theory of wave generation at places where the water is sufficiently deep.2.6) 0 0 Relative position of observation point x / s Fig.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN where Tt： period of transverse waves in water of depth h (s) T0： period of transverse waves at places where the water is sufficiently deep (s) (c) The wavelength and period of the divergent waves are given by equations (4. This shoaling effect on ship waves may be ignored if the following condition is satisfied: V ≦ 0.10.5) and (4.10.7) The critical water depth above which ship waves may be regarded as deepwater waves is calculated by equation (4.

0 1.2 × 10-6 (m2/s) full-load displacement of vessel (m3) Equation (4. Tugboats sailing at full speed produce relatively large waves.10.5 16. It is considered that the wave height decays as s-1/3.11) (4.5 8.1 2.075 ¤ æ log ---------- 2ö è ø n where SHPm： r0： V0： CF： n： Ñ： 2 (4.10. r0 = 1030 (kg/m3) full-load cruising speed (m/s).15).0 ~ 2.5 3. specifically.10.10.10. The upper limit of the height of ship waves occurs when the breaking criterion is satisfied. that the conditions for deepwater waves are satisfied.4 8.10.10.0 6.4 5.14) can be applied is either the vessel length Ls or 100 m.9) (4. n ≒ 1.14) where Hmax： maximum height of ship waves at any chosen observation point (m) s： distance from the observation point to the sailing line (m) Vk： actual cruising speed of the vessel (kt) Equation (4. the upper limit of the wave height at any given point is given by equation (4.3 12. Accordingly: 100ö H max = H 0 æ -------è s ø 1¤3 Vk 3 æ -----ö è V Kø (4. the approximate minimum value of s for which equation (4.10.6 S HPm 1 3C .4 1.514VK frictional resistance coefficient coefficient of kinematic viscosity of water (m2/s). while the values of the coefficients have been determined as averages from the data from ship towing tank tests. E HPW = E HP E HPF E HP = 0. this criterion is expresed as the steepness Hmax/Lt of the highest divergent wave being equal to 0. 2 H limit = 0.0 17.0 34. whichever is the smaller.1 15.010 V k (4.7 7.8) has been obtained by assuming that the energy consumed through wave making resistance is equal to the propagation energy of ship waves.14. If the angle between the wave direction and the sailing line is assumed to be q = 50º at the point on a divergent wave where the wave height becomes largest.14) cannot be applied if s is too small.8) where H0： characteristic wave height of ship waves (m).5 Ñ L s V0 Ls C F = 0.0 m. The characteristic wave height H0 varies from vessel to vessel. where s is the distance of the observation point from the sailing line.8 20.0 22.10.15) where -97- .5 3.10.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Table T-4.10. although for medium-sized and large vessels it is about 1.10) (4.0 5. This also assumes.6 9.0 49.6 4.9 (4) Height of Ship Waves The Ship Wave Research Committee of the Japan Association for Preventing Maritime Accidents has proposed the following equation for giving a rough estimate of the height of ship waves: Ls 1 ¤ 3 E HPW -ö -----------------------H 0 = æ -------è 100ø 1620 L s V K (4.12) (4.6 25.r SV 0 E HPF = -F 2 S ≒ 2.0 12.3 30. however.10. or the maximum wave height observed at a distance of 100 m from the sailing line when a vessel is sailing at its full-load cruising speed Ls： length of the vessel (m) V K： full-load cruising speed (kt) EHPW： wave-making power (W) The wave-making power EHPW is calculated as follows. It is also considered that the wave height is proportional to the cube of the cruising speed of the vessel.10.9 5. V0 = 0.1 Conditions under Which Ship Waves Can Be Regarded as Deepwater Waves Speed of vessel Vk (kt) Water depth h (m) ≧ Period of transverse waves T0 (s) 5.5 10.13) continuous maximum shaft power (W) density of seawater (kg/m3).

S. Geopyhs.. 18. Zeit. W. Vol.. Neumann and R. Papers of Meteorology and Geophysics. 1972. the time needed for a component wave to propagate at the group velocity from the point Q at wave source to the point P is equal to the time taken for the vessel to travel at the speed V from the point Q to the point O. U. Jour. Volume 1. while q getting gradually larger for subsequent waves. 1965. S. 18) Hasselmann. and T. 210. the transverse waves propagate in the direction of vessel’s sailing line. 9) Uji. W. T. 601. 1981. 15.. J. Society of Japan. No. Geophys. TR-67-5. Vol. Gulf Pub. P. J. R. Kawai and Y. Takeuchi and Nanasawa gave an example of such transformations. Y. Hydro. and even when the water is of uniform depth. H.: “On the growth of the spectra of a wind gererated sea according to a modified Miles-Phillips mechanism and its application to wave forecasting”. 2. -98- . 1952. C11. the length of wave crest spreads out (the wave crest gets longer). As one moves inwards along the wave crest. Geophys.. R. No. pp.: “Stream function wave theory and application”. Jour.10. M.. H. A. 10) Günther. T. 1975 (in Japanese). Vol. Geophysical Science Lab. 1. (6) Generation of Solitary Waves. James: “Practical methods for observing and forecasting ocean waves by means of wave spectra and statistics”.10. 207-231. 1964. 1947. Vol. No. Around the mouths of rivers. I. pp. 1983.. pp. Trans. 24 No.: “Weak-interaction of ocean waves”. L. J. Note of PHRI. 1991. 37.. 1967. Note of PHRI. B. 1959. Jour... G. 16) Miles.: “Prediction of shallow water wares”. (d) The propagation velocity of a divergent wave at any point on the wave crest is the group velocity corresponding to the period Td at that point (see equation (4. O..: “Wave forces on a vertical circular cylinder: Experiments and proposed method of wave force computation”. 303-313. Rept. Jour. No.. pp. 305-309 3) Goda. pp. 1-74. Res. Dalrymple: “Water Wave Mechanics for Engineers and Scientists”. S. Phys.: “A coupled discrete wave model MRI-II”. 603. Vol. M. 5. B: “A wave perdiction system for realtime sea state forecasting”. 77. Pub. pp. Uji: “Numerical prediction of ocean wind waves”. 19) Sverdrup. G. S and K. 2) Dean G. Vol. the wave height decays in a manner inversely proportional to the square root of the distance traveled. 568-582. 1985. (Tohoku Geophys.. 1975. 20) Bretschneider. 28. Toba: “Ocean wave prediction by a hybrid model combination of single-parameterized wind waves with spectrally treated swells”.4. When a vessel sails through shallow waters. Soc. pp. J. L.6)). 1979. 8.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Hlimit： upper limit of the height of ship waves as determined by the wave breaking conditions (m) (5) Propagation of Ship Waves (a) Among two groups of ship waves. U. Navy Hydrographic Office. Res. 11) Takeshi SOEJIMA. Jour. 5) Pierson. and R. J. 1985. Vol. and W. A. 109. Munk: “Wind Sea and Swell. Deut. 4) Yoshimi GODA. Quat. and P. New York. 2. Theory of Relations for Forecasting”. Academic Press Inc. In the illustration in Fig. 84. Vol. 1991. Yasumasa SUZUKI: “Computation of refraction and diffraction of sea waves with Mitsuyasu’s directional spectrum”. 21) Wilson. M. Jahrg. pp. No.. Ht. H.3º at the outer edge of a divergent wave. 6. et al: “A hybrid parametrical wave prediction model”.. I.2. 86 No. Note however that as the waves propagate. T. According to Kelvin’s theory of wave generation.3). Royal Meleorol. In this case. Rizzoli: “Wind wave prediction in shallow water: theory and applications”. C. the waves appear to pass beyond the cuspline and vanish one after the other at the outer edge of the divergent waves. 3.: “The generation and decay of waves in deep water”. (b) The direction of propagation of a divergent wave varies from point to point on the wave crest. W. 3. 15) Phillips. Ser. 7) Isozaki. pp. 1968. K. Oceanogr. Res.3º. Sci. Hydrographic Office.10. 63-94. 1369-1377.). J. Part I: A new method for efficient computations of the exact nonlinear transfer integral”. 40. New York Univ. Tomoharu TAKAHASHI: “A comparison on wave hidcasting methods”. This spatial change in the direction of propagation of the divergent waves can be estimated using Fig. 14) Golding. 1973. F. 1-24 (in Japanese). Vol. U. Tohoku Univ. Tech. Pub. 6) Inoue. there is a possibility of small vessels being affected by such solitary waves generated by other large vessels 50). 12) Collins. the waves have a typical nature of regular waves (with the period being given by equation (4.. No. 17) Hasselmann. 2693-2702. 10961-10973. Basic Developments in Fluid Dynamics. Vol. No. 5727-5738. G.: “On the generation of surface waves by shear flows”. Tech. the value of q approaches 90º. 8) Joseph. Vol. 230.10. pp. pp. 74 p.: “On the generation of waves by turbulent wind”. and they propagate at the group velocity. 1981. 393-416. Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. 1955. [References] 1) Dean. Since each wave profile propagates at the wave velocity (phase velocity). Oceanogr.4. pp.: “Numerical prediction of ocean waves in the North Atlantic for December 1959”. solitary waves are generated in front of the vessel if the cruising speed Vk (m/s) approaches g h . the angle between the direction of propagation and the sailing line is q = 35. Vol. H. 13) Cavaleri. World Scientific. Jour. pp. of PHRI.2. 417-445. undergoing transformation such as refraction and others. T. 1957. Rept. F. U. 2.. S. Hasselamann: “Computations and parameterizations of the nonlinear energy transfer in a gravity wave spectrum. Jr. and continue to propagate even if the vessel changes course or stops. No. W. The first (c) arriving at a any particular point has the angle q = 35. 15.

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Rept. pp. Yasuharu KISHIRA. 3. Singapore.. Rept. 18-31. Mutsuo OSATO: “A study of wave height distribution along a breakwater with a corner”. 1-27 (in Japanese). Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. Vol.: “Graphical approach to the forecasting of waves in moving fetches”. Tsuyoshi KANAZAWA. Isao UEHARA. Naota IKEDA. 814. 14. (in Japanese). Hiroyuki OSHIMA. Rept. Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “Amplification mechanism of harbor oscillation derived from field observation and numerical simulation”. Satoru SHIRAISHI. Junzo HASEGAWA: “Standard frequency spectrum of long-period waves for design of port and harbor facilities. Shigenori TAMAKI. 1975. Kohei ASANO: “Allowable wave height and wharf operation efficiency based on the oscillations of ships moored to quay walls”. Note of PHRI. Naota IKEDA: “Estimation of infragravity waves in consideration of wave groups .: “The effect of fetch width on wave generation”. 1. Yoshimi GODA: “Experimental investigation of a curtain-wall breakwater”. 18. Tech. 1995. 1991. 10. 1. pp. R. 44) Yoshimi Goda: “Irregular wave deformation in the surf zone”. 39-52. 1964. Rept. No. 1971 (in Japanese). 347-364. B. Proc. Jr. Chapt. 21. 46) Tetsuya HIRAISHI. pp. Tech. Yasumasa SUZUKI. Yasuharu KISHIRA: “Experiments on irregular wave overtopping characteristics of low crest types”. 43) Michio MORIHIRA. 31. Vol. 3-36 (in Japanese).: “Decay of ocean waves: Fundamentals of ocean engineering . 11 (Statistical Analysis of Extreme Waves). 1970. Corof. Vol.. Tech. pp. 31) Yoshimi GODA. Vol. 1972. 3. J. World Scientific. B. No. Yutaka KAMIYAMA: “Laboratory investigation on the overtopping rate of seawalls by irregular waves”. 22nd Int. 35. 1190. 32) Koji KOBUNE. JSCE. Rep. 1971 (in Japanese). of PHRI. 70. 3-44 (in Japanese). 2000. B. pp. 899-913. 4. Proc. (in Japanese). of PHRI. No. Atsuhiro TADOKORO. 28) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA. 15. No. No.. Ocean Industry. Rept of PHRI. 37) Saville. Shusaku KAKIZAKI. Webster and J. pp. No. 4. 54) Yoshimi GODA: “Statistical variability of sea state parameters as a function of wave spectrum. 44 p. 2. 33) Yoshiyuki ITO. of PHRI. C. Satoshi NAKAMURA. Hideyoshi FUJISAKU: “Characteristics of long period waves observed in port”. 68 No. Haruhiro MARUYAMA. of PHRI. 691-699. Rept. of PHRI Vol. Vol. Note of PHRI. I.Part 8b”. No. Rept. Osamu KIKUCHI: “Estimation of incident and reflected waves in random wave experimen”. 1976. 1997. 1958. 3-25 (in Japanese). 30. C. 4550. T. 9. Tech. pp. C. Rept. Tomotsuka YOSHIMURA: “Wave force computation for structures of large diameter. Tech. Vol. 35. Rept. E. Rept. 2. 4. 15th Symp. pp. of PHRI. 1996. 151-205 (in Japanese). of PHRI. 1976 (in Japanese). Vol. 1985. 28 p. Vol. 70 p.. 35) Yoshimi GODA: “Deformation of irregular waves due to depth-controlled wave breaking” Rept. Conf. 1988. 27) Yoshiyuki ITO. pp. and P. 1968. V. 30) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. 1996. 1990. Coastal Eng. Nav. I. 36) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA. Note of PHRI. Coastal Eng. 34) Yoshimi GODA. 39-64 (in Japanese). Shoichi YAMAMOTO: “Wave height distribution in the region of ray crossing application of the numerical analysis method of wave propagation -”. No. 32 p. of PHRI. Osamu KIKUCHI: “Wave transformation on a reef ”. B. Katsutoshi KIMURA. pp. 53) Yoshimi GODA: “Random Waves and Design of Maritime Structures (2nd Edition)”. E.: “A plotting rule for extreme probability paper”. B. 52) Yoshimi GODA and Koji KOBUNE: “Distribution function fitting to storm waves”. 25. 51) Yoshimi GODA: “On the methodology of selecting design wave height”. 1976. pp. 21st Int. of PHRI. 1970. ASCE. 137-163 (in Japanese). 40) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA. Kazuo SATO. 1982.” porc. C. Note of PHRI. 39) Yoshimi GODA. pp. Conf. Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “Practical computation method of directional random wave transformation”. No. Memo. 813-814. No.

so that sufficient attention shall be paid to the conditions under which such a force is generated when calculating the wave force. or a wave force due to a broken wave.2 Wave Force Acting on Upright Wall. an investigation against the highest wave should be included. It is considered that the wave force changes -100- . it is desirable to consider the effect of the successive action of the irregular waves. Depending on the water depth and the topography of the sea bottom. It is thus necessary to use an appropriate calculation method in accordance with the structural type. the water depth on and the berm width of the mound. the characteristics of these blocks and the crown height and width of the mound will affect the wave force. For some types of structures with a few experiences of construction. the cross-sectional form of the structure. [Commentary] (1) Parameters Affecting Wave Force on an Upright Wall 1) The major parameters that affect the wave force acting on an upright wall are the wave period. 5. (2) Types of Wave Force The wave force acting on an upright wall can be classified according to the type of waves as a standing wave force. the water depth. the crown height of upright wall. as well as the tidal level. (2) Wave Irregularity and Wave Force Sea waves are irregular with the wave height and period varying from wave to wave. It is also necessary to give sufficient consideration to the irregularity of waves. their wave forces have not been sufficiently elucidated. it is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the failure process of the structure and to use an appropriate measurement method. if the front face of upright wall is covered with a mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks. [Commentary] (1) Structure Type and Wave Forces Wave forces can be generally classified by the type of structure as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) Wave force acting on a wall-type structure Wave force acting on armor stones or concrete blocks Wave force acting on submerged members Wave force acting on structures near the water surface The wave force is different for each type of structure. straight wall of infinite length. and those of concrete blocks or armor stones on the slope. it is also necessary to consider the effect of the wall alignment. Furthermore. waves that are just breaking. with regard to the stabilities of floating structures and cylindrical structures with small rigidity. The wave force acting on an upright wall shall thus be calculated appropriately while considering these items. it is important to include the waves that cause the severest effect on the structure. However. when carrying out experiments using regular waves.1 General (Notification Article 5. An upright wall on a steep seabed or a high mound is often subjected to a strong impulsive wave breaking force. In addition. the greater the wave force becomes.1 General Considerations The wave force acting on an upright wall varies with the wave conditions.2. It is thus acceptable to focus on the wave force of the highest wave among a train of irregular waves attacking the structure.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 5 Wave Force 5. or waves that have already broken. the wave height. the wave direction. It is necessary to give sufficient consideration to wave irregularity and to the characteristics of the wave force being produced in accordance with the type of structure. a breaking wave force. Clause 1) The wave force acting on a structure shall be determined using appropriate hydraulic model experiments or design methods described in 5. (3) Calculation of Wave Force Using Hydraulic Model Experiments When studying wave force using hydraulic model experiments. and the water depth at the base of upright wall. The wave force on an upright wall with a concaved alignment may be larger than that on an upright. When calculating the wave force. it may be assumed that the larger the wave height. with the design waves determined by the procedures described in Chapter 4 Waves. the bottom slope. In particular. and therefore it is desirable to carry out studies including hydraulic model experiments for such structures. there may appear waves that have not broken. the water depth.2 Wave Force Acting on Upright Wall 5. In general. and the configuration of the alignment of the structure. the water level. the sea bottom topography.

3) (5.75 ( 1 + cos b ) l 1 H D (5.7) a 3 = 1 ---. with the exception of very shallow water conditions.5 ( 1 + cos b ) a 1 a 3 l 3 r0 g H D -101- (5.1) (5. p u = 0.2.8) .5) ì h b dö æ H Dö 2 2 d ü . or on an upright wall set on a high mound (even if built on a gentle seabed). As the wave height increases. and p2 at the sea bottom. A standing wave force is produced by waves whose height is small compared with the water depth.2. This correction provides a safety margin against uncertainty in the wave direction. but the resultant angle shall be no less than 0º.2 Wave Forces of Standing and Breaking Waves [1] Wave Force under Wave Crest (Notification Article 5. 5. the force exerted by waves breaking just in front of an upright wall is larger than the wave force by higher waves that have already broken well.6) ü h¢ ì 1 (5. and the change in the wave pressure over time is gradual. Number 1) (1) Wave Pressure on the Front Face of an Upright Wall Assuming a linear distribution of wave pressure with a maximum value p1 at the still water level. the largest wave force is generated by the waves breaking just a little off the upright wall.2.2.2) (5. Clause 1. -----x 2 = min í æ ------------è ø è d ø HD ý î 3 hb þ (5.6 + -2í î sinh ( 4 p h ¤ L ) þ (5. 0 at the height h* above the still water level.2.-----. with the pressure intensity at the front toe pu given by the following equation and 0 at the rear toe.. In general.2.--------------------------------ý a 1 = 0. a very strong impulsive breaking wave force may be generated.b}： smaller value of a or b (2) Uplift beneath Upright Wall The uplift acting on the bottom of an upright wall is described by a triangular distribution. It is necessary to note that when breaking waves act on an upright wall on a steep seabed.2.2. wave pressure modification factors (1.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS its type continuously with the variation in the offshore wave height.4) p 1 = 0. l2： h： L： HD： height above still water level at which intensity of wave pressure is 0 (m) intensity of wave pressure at still water level (kN/m2) intensity of wave pressure at sea bottom (kN/m2) intensity of wave pressure at toe of upright wall (kN/m2) density of water (t/m3) gravitational acceleration (m/s2) angle between the line normal to the upright wall and the direction of wave approach.5 ( 1 + cos b ) ( a 1 l 1 + a 2 l 2 cos 2 b ) r 0 g H D p1 p 2 = --------------------------------cosh ( 2 p h ¤ L ) p3 = a3 p1 where h*： p1： p2： p3： r0： g： b： l1.í 1 --------------------------------hî cosh ( 2 p h ¤ L ) ý þ where hb： water depth at an offshore distance of 5 times the significant wave height from the upright wall (m) d： water depth at the crest of either the foot protection works or the mound armoring units of whichever is higher (m) h¢： water depth at toe of upright wall (m) min {a. the wave force also increases.0 is the standard value) water depth in front of upright wall (m) wavelength at water depth h used in calculation as specified in the item (3) below (m) wave height used in calculation as specified in the item (3) below (m) 2 1 ì 4 ph ¤ L ü . the wave pressure from the bottom to the crown of the upright wall shall be calculated by the following equations: h* = 0. Accordingly.2. The angle shall be reduced by 15º.

5.2. Its single-equation formula enables to calculate the wave force from the standing to breaking wave conditions without making any abrupt transition. The correction to the incident wave angle b is exemplified in Fig.0 is the standard value) (3) Wave Height and Wavelength Used in the Wave Pressure Calculation The wave height HD and the wavelength L are the height and wavelength of the highest wave. should be considered separately. The extended Goda pressure formula is that proposed by Goda and modified to include the effects of wave direction and others.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN where pu： uplift pressure acting at front toe of upright wall (kN/m2) l3： uplift pressure modification factor (1.1 illustrates the distribution of wave pressure acting on an upright section of a breakwater. Further. and is subjected to a strong impulsive wave pressure due to breaking waves.3 Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves).9) Hmax = 1. the equation is designed to examine the stability of the whole body of vertical wall. thus such should be considered during examination of the stress of structural members. The wavelength of the highest wave is that corresponding to the significant wave period. while the height of the highest wave is as follows: (a) When the upright wall is located off the breaking zone: HD = Hmax (5.2.2. T. It should therefore be carefully applied with consideration of the possibility of occurrence of impulsive wave pressure due to breaking waves (see 5. When breaking wave actions exist.2. However. where the upright wall is located on a steep seabed.5. the formula may underestimate the wave force. Any hydrostatic pressure difference between the offshore and onshore sides of the wall.5. or built on a high mound. T.2. F 678 1 η* D? @ D Buoyancy D F u F 2 F 3 Fig. if presents.8H1/3 where Hmax： highest wave height of incident waves at the water depth at the upright wall (m) H1/3： significant wave height of incident waves at the water depth at the upright wall (m) (b) When the upright wall is located within the breaking zone: HD is the maximum wave height considering the breaking of irregular waves (m) [Commentary] It is standard to calculate the maximum horizontal wave force acting on an upright wall and the simultaneous uplift pressure using the extended Goda equation.1 Wave Pressure Distribution Used in Design Calculation -102- . The wave pressure given by the Goda formula takes the hydrostatic pressure at the still water condition as the reference value. [Technical Notes] (1) Wave Pressure on the Front Face According to the Extended Goda Formula Figure T.2. the equation does not necessarily express the local maximum wave pressure at the respective positions.

2. l3 Equations (5.1) ~ (5. however.1 for shallow water waves and 0. the intensity of the wave pressure p1 at the still water level is given by 2. (4) Application of Other Theoretical and Calculation Equations When the ratio of the wave height to the water depth is small and a standing wave force is obviously exerted on a upright wall. it takes the limiting values of 1.6 Wave Breaking) should be used by referring to the location of the peak wave height in the zone in the onshore side of the 2% decay line. Nevertheless.4 Wave Force on Upright Wall Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks).1. a2 gradually increases from zero to its maximum value. combining this with the maximum value of a1 of 1. hb within the equation for a2 is taken as the water depth at the distance of 5 times the design significant wave height from the upright wall. the graphs for determining the highest wave height (Fig. As can be seen from equation (5.6 for deepwater waves. it is necessary to conduct sufficient investigations into the occurrence of the highest wave and then choose an appropriate value (see 4. The appearance of the highest wave in an irregular wave group is probabilistic. The effect of the bottom slope also appear when evaluating the maximum wave height to be used in the calculation. because the wave height used in the calculation is the maximum wave -103- 90 ° Pr inc ipa ld ire c tio n of wa ve Normal Line to the alignment . In order to determine whether or not the highest wave is subject to wave breaking.9).1.8 times the significant wave height as the height of the highest wave when the upright wall is located off the breaking zone.15 (a)~(e) in 4. If using a value other than 1. If the highest wave height is to be obtained using the approximate equation (4. In the wave breaking zone.5. Since the Goda formula incorporates the effect of period on the wave pressure as well as on the maximum wave height. The effect of period also appear when evaluating the maximum wave height to be used in the calculation. the longer the period.8 as the coefficient on the right-hand side of equation (5. it is necessary to evaluate the largest wave force that can be given by the Goda formula using the highest wave.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS β 15 ° Fig.2r0gHD.2 Way of Obtaining the Incident Wave Angle b (2) Highest Wave In breakwater designs in general. it is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the irregularity of waves in the field. after examination of the results of applying the current method to breakwaters in the field. It is acceptable to consider that the highest wave is not subject to wave breaking when the water is deeper than that at the peak height.. and so it is not possible to determine the highest wave explicitly.6). as the mound height is gradually increased from zero (i. With regard to the effect of the bottom slope. a2 then decreases until it reaches zero again when d = 0. the larger the maximum wave height in the surf zone. (3) Correction Factors l1. T. it is necessary to take sufficient care when determining the period in the design conditions. a steep bottom slope results in the same effect as having a high mound. a high-accuracy.2. for a constant deepwater wave height. including the effect of period.5) expresses the effect of the period (strictly speaking h/L).2. It contains three correction factors so that it can be applied to walls of different shapes and conditions.5.3 [2] Statistical Properties of Waves).2. Moreover.5. the steeper the bottom slope.6 Wave Breaking. the larger the wave height. It has also been made standard to use the wavelength corresponding to the significant wave period as the wavelength of the highest wave. The parameter a1 given by equation (5. it has been made standard to use 1. After reaching its maximum value. Another feature of the Goda formula is that the change in the wave force with the mound height and the bottom slope is considered by means of the parameter a2.5. For an upright wall. (5) Features and Application Limits of the Goda Formula The first feature of the Goda formula is that the wave force from standing waves to breaking waves can be evaluated continuously. but that it is subject to wave breaking when the water is shallower than this.e. when the applicability can be verified based on past results for existing breakwaters. T. The wave pressure acting on other types of wall such as a caisson covered with a mound of wavedissipating concrete blocks or a perforated-wall caisson may be expressed using the extended Goda formula with appropriate correction factors (see 5.4. In this case.23) in 4. and to evaluate the force due to the highest wave.5.2. the Sainflou formula 3) and the Hiroi formula may also be used for a design wave force calculation.8) are the extended version of the Goda formula. l2.0. hb should be substituted as h in the first term in the braces { } on the right-hand side of the equation. standing wave theory may be applied.1.2. d = h). Because of this artifice.2. the correction factors are of course 1. The maximum value of a2 is 1.

In other words. there are still many points that are unclear. 4) carried out experiments on the wave force acting on the upright section of a composite breakwater by using waves with a bimodal spectrum. the distance to the place where the wave height becomes two fold tends to go to infinity. it is appropriate to consider that the wave pressure of progressive waves acts on the upright wall.2. and so care must be taken when setting the bottom slope in the design conditions. it is necessary to consider not only a2 in equation (5. Mizuno and Sugimoto carried out experiments into the wave force acting on a breakwater with a high crown. Considering these points and application to breakwaters in the field. Nakata and Terauchi have proposed a method for calculating the wave force for a breakwater with a low crown height. (9) Wave Force for High Crested Upright Wall When the crown of the upright wall is considerably higher than that for a normal breakwater.5. (8) Wave Force for Low Crested Upright Wall According to results of model experiments. the horizontal wave pressure and the uplift pressure from the Goda formula are multiplied by a modification factor lh. there will be no overtopping.5(1+cosb).4 Wave Reflection). It is difficult. and there are actual cases of such observations in the field.e. thus reducing the wave force. the significant wave period after superimposition may be obtained using the method by Tanimoto et al.2) for wave direction by multiplying a2 (which represents mound effects) with cos2b.7 Wave Force on Upright Wall near Shoreline or on Shore). the Goda formula considers the effects of the mound height and the bottom slope on the wave pressure. have come up with a method that is based on the approach by Morihira et al. (see 5.6) but also the impulsive breaking wave force coefficient aI by Takahashi et al. it takes a considerably large distance from the tip of breakwater until the wave height becomes two times the incident height. As b approaches to the limiting value of b = 90º. reaching zero at the limiting value b = 90º. Traditionally. meaning that the wave force may be larger than that given by the Goda formula. and verified that the Goda formula can be applied even in such a case. However. and have proposed a method for calculating the wave force. however. For a caisson in which the upper part of the upright section is inclined (sloping-top caisson). oblique wave incidence). The bottom slope thus has a strong influence on the wave force. However. Morihira et al. If each frequency spectrum of the two wave groups before superimposition can be considered to be a Bretschneider-Mitsuyasu type. in this case. They also proposed a method for calculating the significant wave period to be used in the wave force calculation (see 4. the horizontal wave force is reduced not only for the sloping part but also for the vertical part. As explained above. along with the reduction in uplift pressure and others.3 Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves). were the first to propose a method for calculating the wave force in such a case. The effects of wave direction have been considered only for breaking waves. When applying the Goda formula.e. (see 5. It is also necessary to consider the vertical component of the wave force for the sloping part for stability analysis of breakwaters. and to use aI in place of a2 when aI is the larger of the two. Tanimoto et al. One explanation is such that because actual breakwaters are finite in extension. For cases such as the wave force acting on an upright wall near the shoreline. the spectrum is bimodal (i.2. having two peaks).2. Tanimoto and Kimura 5) have carried out experiments on the wave force for trapezoidal caisson walls. for standing waves. In the method.2. and under such conditions the Goda formula may underestimate the wave force. and yet standing waves are assumed to maintain as the perfect standing wave condition. and then multiplying the whole term by 0. to clearly define where the limit of applicability lies. but the method by Hosoyamada is more general and can be applied for a wider variety of sloping-top caissons (see Part VII. it has been decided to correct equation (5. with a high mound. The Goda formula cannot be applied accurately for broken waves. 3. it is thus necessary to pay attention to the risk of an impulsive breaking wave force arising. Nevertheless. it is advisable to use other calculation equations together with the Goda formula. Hosoyamada et al.. by multiplying the wave force by cos2b. the horizontal wave force is more-or-less the same as that for a perfectly upright wall. for an upright wall on a high mound or a steep sea bed. where b is the angle between the direction of wave approach and the line normal to upright wall alignment. when the incident angle is large (i. it is necessary to consider the vertical component of the wave force acting on the inclined surface. Then this significant wave period may be used in wave force calculation. Another case is the superposition of diffracted waves coming from the entrance of a harbor and waves transmitted by means of overtopping. a large impulsive breaking wave force may act. In particular.2. -104- . One more problem with the Goda formula concerns its applicability to extremely shallow waters. In such cases. no correction has been made for wave direction to the wave force.4 Sloping-Top Caisson Breakwater)... this has resulted in the irrational situation whereby the breaking wave force is assumed to decrease as the wave angle b increases. (6) Modification of the Original Goda Formula for Wave Direction Although results from a number of experiments on the effect of wave direction on the wave force are available. for example near to the shoreline.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN height at the a distance 5H1/3 offshore from the upright wall. (10) Wave Force on Inclined Walls When the wall is slightly inclined. the stability of upright wall tends to increase as the crown height is reduced. (7) Wave Force and Significant Wave Period for Waves Composed of Two Groups of Different Periods Examples of two wave groups of different periods being superimposed are such a case that waves enter a bay from the outer sea and another group of waves are generated within the bay by local winds.

in general the resultant force is not significantly different to that without the footing. T. with the magnitude of this wave pressure being zero at the still water level and having a constant value of pn from a depth 0.10) Seaward Shoreward 0. Number 2) The negative wave force at the time of wave trough acting at a wall shall be calculated using either appropriate hydraulic model experiments or an appropriate calculation formula. with the uplift pressure pu at the front toe being given by equation (5. a negative wave force acts corresponding to the trough depth of the water surface from the still water level. while the uplift pressure at the rear toe is zero. It is necessary to note that the negative wave force may be comparable in magnitude to a positive wave force when the water is deep and the wavelength is short.2. it has been verified that the wave force is not greatly different from that acting on an upright wall with a flat face. As explained. Here. if the width and/or slope of the mound are considerably different from normal. and the uplift pressure at the rear toe being zero. however. a wave force acts downwards on the upper surface of the footing on the seaside. it is advisable to carry out studies using hydraulic model experiments.5. and Hayashi et al.3 Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves). considering the change in the uplift pressure p¢u at the front toe of the footing. it is necessary to use the highest wave height as the wave height HD used in the design calculation.5.4 Negative Wave Pressure Distribution at the front toe.5. Note however that if the berm is sufficiently wide.5.5 r 0 g H D where pn： intensity of wave pressure in constant region (kN/m2) r0： density of seawater (usually 1. Through their researches.2.2. A “negative wave force” is the force directed seaward. Specifically. [2] Wave Force under Wave Trough (Notification Article 5. (13) Wave Force Acting on an Upright Wall Comprised of a Row of Vertical Cylinders Nagai et al. Consequently.2.5HD below the still water level right down to the toe of the wall.2.2. if the width is more than one half of the wavelength. Nevertheless. Incidentally. the negative uplift pressure acting on the bottom of the upright wall can be assumed to act as shown in Fig.10)) T. Fig.2. it can be assumed that an uplift pressure acts downwards with its intensity being pn (as given by equation (5. have carried out studies on the wave force acting on an upright wall comprised of a row of cylinders (a pile breakwater). It is thus acceptable to ignore the footing. Even with the standard formula. It is thus acceptable to treat an upright wall comprised of a row of cylinders as having a flat face and calculate the wave force using the Goda formula.4.03 t/m3) g： gravitational acceleration (9. and having a triangular distribution in-between. [Technical Notes] (1) Negative Wave Pressure Distribution The negative wave pressure acting on an upright wall at the wave trough can be approximately estimated as shown in Fig. In addition. [Commentary] When the trough of a wave is acting at a wall. it is thus standard to use the water depth on the mound for evaluation of both the wave height and the wavelength to be used in the wave force calculation.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (11) Uplift on a Caisson with a Footing When a caisson has a footing.2. pn is given as follows: p n = 0. and to assume that the uplift pressure has a triangular distribution as shown in Fig. Clause 1.2.5. and an uplift pressure of p¢u acts at the front toe. it may be considered as a part of the topography of the sea bottom. Specifically. -105- . T.3 Uplift Pressure When There Is a Footing (12) Wide Mound Berm in Front of the Upright Wall The wave force acting on the upright wall of a composite breakwater varies not only with the mound height but also with the berm width and the front slope of mound (see 5. it can be assumed that a wave pressure acts toward the sea.81 m/s2) HD： wave height used in design calculation (m) (5.8). of these three factors. it is necessary to calculate the uplift pressure appropriately.4. the Goda formula incorporates only the effect of the mound height. T. T.3. zero at the rear toe.5 0. If the footing is extremely long.

3 Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves (1) When it is apprehended that an impulsive pressure due to breaking waves may be generated. If a large impulsive pressure due to breaking waves cannot be avoided. a sufficient covering with wave-dissipating concrete blocks can stop the occurrence of the impulsive pressure itself. and breaking waves form a vertical wall of water at the slope or at the top of the mound 7). the berm width is suitably wide or the slope gradient is gentle. the negative wave force at the wave trough may become larger than the positive wave force at the wave crest. and that the upright wall may slide toward offshore. with a high mound. then an impulsive pressure is liable to be generated. The wave direction also has a large effect on the occurrence of an impulsive pressure. In this case. When the water is deep and standing waves are clearly formed.03) are satisfied simultaneously. and presented calculation diagrams for negative wave pressure.2. a study including hydraulic model experiments shall be carried out as a general rule. (a) Steep bottom slope When the three conditions (the bottom slope is steeper than about 1/30. and therefore. the wave force can be greatly reduced by sufficiently covering the front face with a mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks. and so it is hard to determine the conditions under which such an impulsive pressure will be generated. In particular. and their equivalent deepwater wave steepness is less than 0.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Negative Wave Force by Finite Amplitude Wave Theory Goda and Kakizaki 6) have carried out a wave force calculation based on the fourth order approximate solutions of a finite amplitude standing wave theory. it may be assumed that a large impulsive pressure will not be generated. the berm width and the slope gradient of the mound all play a part. based on the results of a variety of experiments. it is desirable to redesign the structure such that the wave force will be reduced. Nevertheless. Because of the impulsive nature of the wave force. (b) High mound Even if the bottom slope is gentle. [Commentary] An impulsive pressure is generated when the wave front of a breaking wave strikes a wall surface. Accordingly. it can be said that an impulsive pressure is liable to occur in the following cases when the wave angle b is less than 20º. In general. the effects on stability and the stress in structural elements vary according to the dynamic properties of the structure. (2) Countermeasures If a large impulsive pressure due to breaking waves acts on an upright wall. It should be noted that.6. for a deepwater breakwater. [Technical Notes] (1) Conditions of Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves A whole variety of factors contribute to generation of an impulsive pressure due to breaking waves. such a wave pressure acts only locally and for a very short time. It has been verified that their calculation results agree well with experimental results. When the seabed slope is gentler than about 1 ¤ 50 and the ratio of the depth of water above the top of the mound (including any armor work) to the water depth above the seabed is greater than 0. there are waves that break slightly off the upright wall. it is necessary to give consideration to the response characteristics of the structure to -106- .0r0 gHD). In some cases the action of an impulsive pressure can also be avoided by using special caissons such as perforated-wall caissons or sloping-top caissons 7). 5. for example by providing appropriate wave-absorbing works. the crown height. It has been shown from model experiments that under certain conditions the maximum wave pressure may rise as much as several tens of times the hydrostatic pressure corresponding to the wave height (1. in addition to the wave conditions. an impulsive pressure will be generated when the mound is relatively high. it is acceptable to use the results of this finite amplitude standing wave theory of higher order approximation. and even slight changes in conditions lead to marked reduction in the wave pressure. (3) Investigating Wave Force Using Model Experiments When investigating the wave force using hydraulic model experiments for the case that an impulsive pressure due to breaking wave acts. it is necessary to take appropriate countermeasures by understanding the conditions of the impulsive pressure generation and the wave force characteristics by means of hydraulic model experiments. However. when there is a risk of a large impulsive pressure due to breaking waves being generated. the shape of the rubble mound may cause an impulsive pressure to be generated. and so it is difficult to describe the conditions in general. one possible countermeasure is to ensure that the wave direction is not perpendicular to the breakwater alignment. (2) It is desirable to avoid the adoption of cross-sectional forms and structure type that may induce the generation of large impulsive pressure due to breaking waves.

the impulsive wave pressure is largest when the structure is located slightly shoreward of the wave breaking point for progressive waves.11) (5. (Upright Wall on a Steep Slope) In this case. However. as the slope gradient becomes smaller. He investigated the change in the total wave force with the water depth at the location of the upright wall. it becomes as follows: hM -----. the intensity of the maximum impulsive pressure decreases.2. In particular. 1/25. T. -107- .5.2.12) Hom-ma. it becomes important to carry out investigations for waves with a height lesser than that of the design waves. (4) Impulsive Pressure Due to Breaking Waves Acting on an Upright Wall on a Steep Seabed. In any case. (a) Water depth that produce a maximum wave pressure and the mean intensity of wave pressure Mitsuyasu 8). When the Mitsuyasu equation is rewritten in terms of the deepwater wavelength.2.2 tan q deepwater wave height (m) deepwater wavelength (m) gradient of uniform slope (5. Hom-ma et al.2. and obtained an equation for calculating the water depth hM at the upright wall for which the impulsive wave force is largest. Mitsuyasu carried out a wide range of experiments using regular waves whereby he studied the breaking wave force acting on an upright wall on uniform slopes of gradient 1/50. Goda and Haranaka 10).2.5 shows the total wave force when the impulsive wave force is largest for a number of slope gradients.5 as a gross guideline. Figure T. and 1/15 for a variety of water depths. Horikawa and Hase have proposed a slightly different value for CM based on the results of experiments with a gradient of 1/15 and other data. 11) have carried out studies on the impulsive wave pressure acting on an upright wall on a horizontal floor that is joined to a steep slope. as described in (1) (a). (c) Impulsive wave force acting on an upright wall on a horizontal floor adjoining a steep slope Takahashi et al. T. it can be seen that the smaller the wave steepness.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS the impact force. when placing an upright wall closer to the shore where waves already broken act upon. have been set by primarily employing Fig.5. and Fujisaki and Sasada have all carried out studies on the impulsive pressure due to breaking waves acting on an upright wall on a steeply sloping sea bottom. They have proposed an equation (valid for certain wave conditions) for calculating the upright wall position at which the wave force is largest and the maximum wave force in that condition.5. For irregular waves in the sea. and to study the strength of structural elements such as parapets by stress and strain measurements. Horikawa and Noguchi.5 Mean Intensity of Wave Pressure the mean intensity of the wave pressure for for the Severest Wave Breaking this equivalent deepwater wave steepness.5. Morihira et al. as based on the results of Mitsuyasu’s experiments. the larger the impulsive pressure is generated.2. One may refer to Fig.= H0 where CM = H0： L0： tanq： H 0 1 / 4 -ö C M æ ----è L0 ø 0. it has then been plotted against the deepwater wave steepness. the mean intensity of the wave pressure p has been obtained and then divided by r0gHD to make it dimensionless. and then measured the wave pressure that acts on an upright wall at a variety of positions with regular waves.5 in order to obtain an approximate estimate of Fig. In this figure. (b) Conditions for generation of impulsive breaking wave pressure The conditions for the occurrence of an impulsive pressure on a steep seabed. It is better to study the stability of the upright wall as a whole by sliding tests. Hb should be taken to be the aforementioned Hmax. the wave steepness can be evaluated as the ratio of the equivalent deepwater wave height corresponding to the highest wave height Hmax to the deepwater wavelength corresponding to the significant wave period: the wave height Hmax is to be evaluated at the distance 5H1/3 from the upright wall. 9).59 3. T.. Specifically. One can also envisage an installation of a breakwater at a place where the risk of impulsive pressure generation is not large for the design waves. They employed a horizontal berm connected to a slope of gradient 1/10 or 3/100 in a wave channel. Also. It is possible to gain an understanding of the overall trend from this figure.

2 α I = α α I0 BH I1 α 0 0 I0 = H:H d d H 2 : d < 2 = > 2 d 0. one should use aI in place of a2 (equation (5. 1. the impact of the wave front results in the generation of an impulsive force.14) α 0.8 0. the impulsive breaking wave pressure coefficient aI. T.2. and if there is an upright wall at this place.2. it would seem reasonable to take the mean intensity of the wave pressure equivalent to the sliding shear force to be (2.3 0.0 0.6 Impulsive Breaking Wave Pressure Coefficient aI1 (c) Effect of the wave direction According to the results of the sliding experiments of Tanimoto et al. Note that equation (5. It is expressed as the function of the ratio of the wave height to the depth of water above the mound in front of the caisson H/d. The impulsive peak pressures fluctuate significantly. the larger the value of aI. based on the results of sliding experiments with consideration of such dynamic response effects. there is a rapid drop in the magnitude of the wave force as b increases to 30º or 45º. the ratio of the depth of water above the mound to the original water depth at the upright wall d/h. but the fluctuations in the impulse are not large. it is reasonable to assume that the condition for the generation of an impulsive wave force is that b is less than 20º. For example. have carried out calculations of the shear force at the bottom of an upright section using dynamic models.6)) if aI is larger than a2.1 0. based on the results of sliding experiments. This is a coefficient that represents the extent of the impulsive pressure due to breaking waves when the mound is high. This coefficient aI may be used when examining the sliding of an upright wall against the waves of relatively large height.2. Mizuno et al.2. It attains the maximum value of 1 when d/h is 0. when the crown is high.6 0.6 shows the distribution of aI1. and the ratio of the berm width of the mound to the wavelength at this place BM/L.4 and BM /L is 0.13) for aI has been derived for the case of H/h being equal to 0.4 0. the larger the impulsive breaking wave force is. the greater the risk of an impulsive breaking wave force being generated. an impulsive breaking wave force is generated even when the mound is relatively low.0 (5. although the duration time of the impulsive pressure is very short.2 0. Goda 12) as well as Takahashi and Shimosako. The impulsive breaking wave pressure coefficient aI takes values between 0 and 2.2. based on the results of sliding experiments 7). This is because the steep front of a breaking wave often takes a nearly vertical cliff of water above the still water level.1 I1 hd h 0.2. When calculating the wave force using Goda’s formula.4 0.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (5) Impulsive Wave Pressure Acting on a Composite Breakwater (a) Effect of the mound shape (impulsive breaking wave pressure coefficient) Takahashi et al. 7).5.13) (5.5 ~ 3.8 0. It is necessary to evaluate the contribution of the impulsive breaking wave force to sliding in terms of the dynamic response. considering deformation of the mound and the subsoil. have pointed out the tendency that.5. (b) Effect of the crown height of the upright wall The higher the crown height. have proposed.9 0. the instantaneous local pressure can rise up to several tens of times the hydrostatic pressure corresponding to the wave height. The impulsive breaking wave pressure coefficient aI is expressed as the product of aI0 and aI1 as in the following equations: a I = a I0 a I1 £2 ìH ¤ d : H ¤ d ≦ a I0 = í : H¤d>2 î2 Figure T.6 0.4 BM L Fig.12. By considering the fluctuation in the wave direction. even if conditions are such that a large impulsive pressure is generated when the wave angle b is 0º. (d) Dynamic response of the upright section to an impulsive force and the sliding of upright section When an impulsive pressure due to breaking waves acts on an upright section.2 0. The impulsive breaking wave pressure coefficient aI has been introduced.0) r0gH.60 or greater. -108- . Note that the wave height H is the design wave height (highest wave height). Judging by the results of these calculations and the results of various sliding experiments.

Nevertheless. In general.0 1. (d) If even a small portion of the upper part of the upright section is left uncovered. (b) The larger the wave height.3 : 0. the values of h*. considering the crown height and width of the wave-absorbing work as well as the characteristics of the wave-dissipating concrete blocks. and Tanaka and Abe amongst others and have revealed the following: (a) Wave-dissipating concrete blocks cause a considerable reduction in the breaking wave pressure.2. when nonbreaking waves act on an upright wall. the features of wave force acting on the wall are changed. the smaller the modification factors l1 and l3 become.2 . They have thus proposed the following equations: 678 l1 = 1. (2) Modification Factors for the Extended Goda Formula The method using the extended Goda formula can be applied by assigning appropriate values to the modification factors l1. and (5. The extent of this change depends on the characteristics of incident waves. l2. (5.3 ＜ H/h ≦ 0. there is a risk of the wave force here becoming an impulsive breaking force.2. in particular. and the composition of the wave-absorbing work.4 Wave Force on Upright Wall Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks The wave force acting on an upright wall covered with a mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks shall be evaluated based on hydraulic model experiments or an appropriate calculation equation. 14).2. -109- . In this method with the standard formula given in 5. the wave force acting on the upright wall may be calculated using the extended Goda formula. 14) have summarized that in general. the change in wave force upon the upright wall covered with wave-dissipating blocks is not large.15) (5.2. and pu given by equations (5. such a reduction in the wave force is only achieved when the wave-absorbing work has a sufficient width and crown height. but it is necessary to assign appropriate values to the wave pressure modification factors l1. it should be noted that if the top of the wave-absorbing work is below the design water level. [Technical Notes] (1) Wave Force Calculation Formula for Upright Wall Sufficiently Covered with Wave-Dissipating Concrete Blocks The wave force acting on an upright wall covered with a mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks varies depending on the composition of the wave-absorbing work. and l3 in accordance with the design conditions. the type of wave-dissipating concrete blocks used.16) (5. the wave-absorbing work often invites an increase in the wave force. However.(2/3)(H/h) 0. Based on such experimental results. if the crown elevation of the waveabsorbing work is as high as the top of the upright wall and the wave-dissipating concrete blocks are sufficiently stable against the wave actions. the wave pressure reduction factor l2 may be taken to be zero. (c) The larger the ratio of the block mound width to the wavelength. the above equations give l1 = l3 = 0.2.17) l3 = l1 l2 = 0 In the breaker zone. [Commentary] If the front face of an upright wall is covered with a mound of wave-dissipating precast concrete blocks. where breakwaters covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks are generally used.2).6 (5. when a large impulsive breaking wave force acts. 13).8 : H/h ≦ 0. Studies have been carried out by Tanimoto et al. and therefore it should be evaluated using the results of model experiments corresponding to the design conditions. Takahashi et al.8.2. p1. and l3.2 Wave Forces of Standing and Breaking Waves.2. while the values of l1 and l3 depend primarily on the wave height H (the highest wave height). Sekino and Kakuno.8) are used respectively. when the upright wall is sufficiently covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks. along with the crown height and width of the wave-absorbing work.2.6 : H/h ＞ 0. l2.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 5. the wave force can be reduced significantly by covering the upright wall with a mound of wave-dissipating blocks. and so it is generally acceptable to set the breaking wave pressure modification factor l2 to zero. Takahashi et al. However. the smaller the modification factor l1 for standing wave type pressure and the modification factor l3 for uplift pressure become.1).

5. and then calculate the wave force based on the standard calculation formula. It should be appropriately determined based on the distribution of the standing wave height (see 4.2. The variation of wave heights along the breakwater is particularly prominent when the breakwater alignment contains a corner that is concave with respect to the direction of wave incidence (see 4. and that one of the causes of this type of damage is the differences in the local wave forces induced by the non-uniform wave height distribution. Nevertheless. It is thus acceptable to increase the wave height for the design calculations in accordance with the extent of the effect of the shape of the breakwater alignment as in equation (5. Nevertheless. it may be considered to be about 1. it is desirable to calculate the wave force acting on the upright wall based on hydraulic model experiments. the distribution of the wave height along the face line of breakwater becomes non-uniform due to the effects of wave reflection and diffraction. The limit value Kcb of the height increase coefficient for breaking waves has not been clarified in details.4 based on experimental results up to the present time.0 Kcb ≒ 1. the wave height to be used in design must not be less than the original incident wave height.2. near the Heads of Breakwaters. However.2. and around Detached Breakwaters) along the face line of breakwater as determined under the condition that the waves do not break.19) 5.2. there is a good correlation between the increase in the wave height owing to the shape of the breakwater alignment and the increase in the wave force.0.5 Effect of Alignment of Breakwater on Wave Force In the case when the distribution of wave heights along the face line of a breakwater is not uniform. Ito and Tanimoto 16) have pointed out that most damaged breakwaters having been struck by storm waves equivalent to design waves show a pattern of meandering distribution of sliding distance (they have termed this “meandering damage”). (5. Kc ≧ 1. In particular.19). and around Detached Breakwaters).4 Kcb： limit value of the height increase coefficient for breaking limit waves.2. for a detached breakwater that extends over a short length only. Moreover.5. -110- .4 [3] Transformation of Waves at Concave Corners.6 Effect of Abrupt Change in Water Depth on Wave Force For an upright wall located in a place where the water depth changes abruptly owing to the presence of reefs and others. [Commentary] When the extension of breakwater is not infinitely long. then the coefficient for wave height increase varies considerably along the breakwater. Variations in wave heights along the breakwater alignment may also occur near the head of the breakwater.18) is generally expressed as in equation (5. It is thus desirable to carry out an investigation using hydraulic model experiments. It should be noted that the value of Kc obtained in this way varies along the breakwater and that there may be regions where Kc < 1.4 [3] Transformation of Waves at Concave Corners. It is thus reasonable to consider the irregularity of the period and the direction of incident wave. [Technical Notes] Wave force calculation methods that consider the effects of the shape of the breakwater alignment have not reached to the level of reasonable reliability yet.2.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 5. HD： wave height used in the wave force calculation when the effects of the shape of breakwater alignment are not considered (m) Hb： breaking wave height at the offshore location with the distance of 5 times the significant height of progressive waves from the upright wall (m) The height increase coefficient Kc in equation (5. the height increase coefficient is very sensitive to the period of the incident waves and the direction of incidence. HD¢ = min {KcHD. Kc = HS / {HI (1 + KR)} where HS： standing wave height along the front wall of breakwater (m) HI： incident wave height (m) KR： reflection coefficient for the breakwater in question If the waves are treated as being of regular trains. diffracted waves from the two ends may cause large variations in wave heights 17).18) where HD¢： wave height to be used in the wave force calculation in consideration of the effect of the shape of breakwater alignment (m) Kc： coefficient for the increase in wave height due to the effect of the shape of breakwater alignment.2. near the Heads of Breakwaters.18). KcbHb} (5. by taking the rapid transformation of waves into consideration. the wave force shall be calculated by giving appropriate consideration to this aspect of wave height distribution.

PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [Technical Notes] Ito et al. It is necessary to carry out an appropriate wave force calculation in line with the design conditions. Specifically. When applying the standard wave pressure formula to the places where the water depth is less than one half the equivalent deepwater wave height. Moreover. 5. considering the effects of water level changes due to surf beat etc. 18) have carried out experiments on the wave force acting on an upright wall located on or behind a reef where the water depth is more-or-less uniform. considering changes in the wave force due to the structure of the wave-absorbing compartment.2. and the complex processes of random wave breaking. and have presented a method for calculating the wave pressure acting on the slit and rear walls for four representative phases. [Commentary] The wave force acting on an upright wave-absorbing caisson (perforated-wall caisson etc. it should be noted that the wave force varies significantly according to whether or not the top of wave chamber is covered with a ceiling slab. one can use the extended Goda formula to calculate the wave force. [2] Wave Force at the Landward Side of Shoreline It is desirable to calculate the wave force on an upright wall situated on the landward side of the shoreline based on hydraulic model experiments. Moreover. [Technical Notes] (1) Wave Force without a Ceiling Slab in the Wave Chamber The wave force acting on an upright wave-absorbing caisson varies depending on the structural conditions of the wave-absorbing compartment. [Technical Notes] For an upright wall situated on the landward side of the shoreline. Very roughly speaking. for the normal case where there is no ceiling slab in the wave chamber. the formulas by the US Army Coastal Engineering Research Center (CERC) 19) are available. the water depth. Horikawa and Hase is applicable in the regions where the seabed slope is steep and the water is of intermediate depth. it is necessary to carry out studies using hydraulic model experiments matched to the individual conditions. whereby the wave pressure given by the extended Goda formula is multiplied by a modification factor l for the vertical-slit wall caisson. This method can be used to -111- . The formula of Hom-ma. the topography of sea bottom and the shape of the mound as with the case of a normal upright wall. the standard formula in 5. 5. It is necessary to sufficiently investigate not only the wave force to be used in the stability investigation but also the wave force acting on structural members. if the calculation method that is sufficiently reliable for the structure in question has not been proposed. Consequently. It is thus difficult to designate a general calculation method that can be used in all cases.2. The formula of Tominaga and Kutsumi is applicable in the regions near the shoreline. Takahashi et al.8 Wave Force on Upright Wave-Absorbing Caisson The wave force acting on an upright wave-absorbing caisson shall be calculated based on hydraulic model experiments or appropriate calculation formulas. provided necessary modifications are made.) varies in a complex way. Nevertheless. one may refer to the research that has been carried out by Tominaga and Kutsumi on the wave force acting on an upright wall situated on the landward side of the shoreline. it may be appropriate to use the values for the wavelength and wave height at the water depth equal to one half the equivalent deepwater wave height in the calculation.2 Wave Forces of Standing and Breaking Waves are applicable in the regions where the seabed slope is gentle and the water is relatively deep.7 Wave Force on Upright Wall near Shoreline or on Shore [1] Wave Force at the Seaward Side of Shoreline It is desirable to calculate the wave force acting on an upright wall in shallow water near the shoreline based on hydraulic model experiments. but it also varies with the structure of the waveabsorbing compartment. [Technical Notes] A number of different wave force formulas have been proposed for upright walls near the shoreline and on shore. 20) have carried out experiments on a vertical-slit wall caisson. it varies with the wave characteristics. they give specific values for the modification factor for the slit and rear walls for each phase. with the offshore slope of the shoal having a gradient of about 1/10. considering increases in the water level due to surf beat and wave setup as well as wave runup. and so it is not possible to calculate this wave force for all general cases involved. the water level.2.

Considering this fact and past experiences. meaning that the wave force may actually increase 22).3. 5.3 Mass of Armor Stones and Concrete Blocks 5.2) It can be seen that the nominal diameter is proportional to the wave height with the constant of proportionality being 1/DNS. by means of appropriate hydraulic model experiments or the following equation: rr H 3 M = --------------------------3 NS ( S r 1 ) 3 where M： minimum mass of rubble stones or concrete blocks (t) rr： density of rubble stones or concrete blocks (t/m3) H： wave height used in the stability calculation (m) NS： stability number Sr： specific gravity of rubble stones or concrete blocks relative to sea water [Commentary] (5. but recently it has become common to use Hudson’s formula with a stability number.3. it is also standard to use the significant wave height when using the generalized Hudson formula.1). it has been decided to make it standard to use the significant wave height of incident waves at the place where the slope is located as the wave height H in equation (5. there is thus a problem of which defcinition of wave heights should be used. 23). by introducing the nominal diameter Dn = (M/rr)1/3 and the term D = Sr .3. and so it is necessary to ensure that an armor unit has a mass sufficient to be stable against wave actions so that it does not scatter itself.1)).TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN give not only the wave force that is severest in terms of the sliding or overturning of the caisson. such as the armor units on the mound of a composite breakwater. Clause 5) It shall be standard to calculate the mass of rubble stones or concrete blocks necessary to cover the front slope of a sloping structure that is subject to wave forces. the following relatively simple equation is obtained: H/(DDn) = NS (5.1). Consequently. [Technical Notes] (1) Hudson’s Formula The required mass of armor units on a slope can be expressed using the Hudson formula with a stability number (this is also referred to as the generalized Hudson formula) 24) (see equation (5. (2) Stability Number and Nominal Diameter The stability number directly corresponds to the necessary size (nominal diameter) of the armor stones or concrete blocks for a given wave height. it should be noted that if these air holes are too large.3. In other words. there is a tendency for damage to occur not when one single wave having the maximum height H among an irregular wave train attacks the armor layer. Note however that for places where the water depth is less than one half the equivalent deepwater wave height. It is thus necessary to give consideration to this impulsive pressure in particular with regard to the wave pressure used in design of structural elements.1 and substituting them into equation (5.3. However.1 Armor Units on Slope (Notification Article 48. -112- . the rising water surface will directly hit the ceiling slab without air cushion. the required mass was calculated in the past by Hudson’s formula with an appropriate coefficient (KD value). The latter is more general in that it can also be applied to other cases. but also the wave force that is severest in terms of the design of the elements for each wall.3. the significant wave height at the water depth equal to one half the equivalent deepwater wave height should be used. The mass required to produce such stability can be calculated using a suitable calculation formula. This impulsive pressure can be reduced by providing suitable air holes.1) The armor layer for the slope of a rubble mound breakwater protects the rubble stones in the inside. but rather for damage to progress gradually under the continuous action of waves of various heights. an impulsive pressure is generated at the instant when the air layer in the upper part of the wave chamber is trapped in by the rise of water surface. For example. with structures that are made of rubble stones or concrete blocks. When applying it to the action of actual waves (which are irregular). However. (2) Wave Force with a Ceiling Slab in the Wave Chamber When the top of the wave chamber is closed off with provision of a ceiling slab. because the significant wave height is representative of the overall scale of an irregular wave train. for the armor units on the slope of a rubble mound breakwater. (3) Design Wave Height The Hudson formula was proposed based on the results of experiments that used regular waves.

back face. it is thus desirable to use the results of experiments matched to the conditions in question. 3 = K D cot a NS (5. The NS value is a coefficient that represents the effects of the characteristics of structure.3. etc. this formula (i. etc.3. etc. breakwater trunk. wave spectrum. In order to calculate more reasonable values for the required mass. there was a tendency for the irregular wave action to be more destructive than the action of regular waves.) There is no problem with this process if the KD value is an established one and the slope angle is within a range of normal design. replacing the previous Iribarren-Hudson formula. those of armor units. most of the KD values obtained up to the present time have not sufficiently incorporated various factors like the characteristics of the structure and the waves. the required mass of armor stones or concrete blocks varies with the wave height and the density of the armor units.3.3) where a： angle of the slope from the horizontal line (º) KD： constant determined primarily by the shape of the armor units and the damage ratio The Hudson formula was based on the results of a wide range of model experiments and has proved itself well in usage in the prototype design. berm.) ④ Crown height and width. In the past. -113- . thickness. composite breakwater. it was found that the ratio of the height of regular waves to the significant height of irregular waves that gave the same damage ratio (within the error of 10%) varied in the range of 1. relative damage) Consequently. the one using the KD value) has thus been used in the calculation of the required mass of armor units on a slope. and so the generalized Hudson formula with the stability number can be considered as being the standard equation for calculating the required mass of armor units on a slope..) ② Gradient of the armored slope ③ Position of armor units (breakwater head. and is also used for the armor units of other structures such as submerged breakwaters. The stability number NS can be derived from the KD value and the angle a of the slope from the horizontal line by using equation (5. wave grouping characteristics (d) Extent of damage (damage rate. wave characteristics and other factors on the stability. position relative to still water level. Thus.) ⑤ Wave direction.) ③ Strength of armor material (c) Wave characteristics ① Number of waves acting on armor layers ② Wave steepness ③ Form of sea bottom (bottom slope. i. or else to use calculation formulas (calculation diagrams) that include the various relevant factors as described below. breakwater covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks. and also the stability number NS. for armor stones. the NS value used in design must be determined appropriately based on hydraulic model experiments in line with the respective design conditions. breaker type. Hudson developed equation (5. Hudson published the so-called Hudson formula 24).3. regular laying or random placement. It is thus better to employ irregular waves in experiments. existence of reef.e.3. The main factors that influence the NS value are as follows. It is thus now more commonly used than the old formula with the KD value. However.3. their diameter distribution) ② Placement of armor units (number of layers.) ④ Ratio of wave height to water depth (as indices of nonbreaking or breaking wave condition. In other words. and degree of surface roughness) (b) Characteristics of the armor units ① Shape of armor units (shape of armor stones or concrete blocks.1).e. etc. However. (5) Stability number NS and KD value In 1959.0 to 2.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (4) Parameters Affecting the Stability Number As shown in equation (5. etc. and shape of superstructure ⑤ Inner layer (its coefficient of permeability. (a) Characteristics of the structure ① Type of structure (rubble mound breakwater.1)) has been used for quite a while for calculating the required mass of armor units on the mound of a composite breakwater (to be discussed later). the generalized Hudson formula that uses the stability number (equation (5. By comparing the results of regular wave experiments with those of irregular wave experiments.0 (depending on the conditions).1) by himself using K D cot a instead of NS. front face and top of slope. this method of determining the stability number NS from the KD value cannot be guaranteed to yield economical design always. damage level.

3. Kajima et al.5. but also the wave steepness.3) being divided by the square of the nominal diameter Dn50 of the armor stones. van der Meer carried out systematic experiments concerning the armor stones on the slope of a rubble mound breakwater with a high crown.1) erosion area of cross section (see Fig. with design where a certain amount of deformation is permitted.3. However.5. g = 9.5) (also called the surf similarity parameter) wave steepness (H1/3/L0) deepwater wavelength (L0 = gT1/32/2p.81m/s2) significant wave period modification factor due to wave breaking [=1.5 1:2 1:3 1:4 1:6 Initial damage 2 2 2 3 3 Intermediate damage 3～5 4～6 6～9 8 ～12 8 ～12 Failure 8 8 12 17 17 (7) Stability Number for Armor Concrete Units of Rubble Mound Breakwater Van der Meer has carried out model experiments on several kinds of precast concrete blocks. T. and the damage level 25). 28). and H0’ is the equivalent deepwater wave height.3. much research has been carried out on the stability of breakwaters covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks.1. In addition. Note however that the following formula has been slightly altered in comparison with van der Meer’s original one in order to make calculations easier.5. It is defined as the result of the area A eroded by waves (see Fig. and failure. which considers not only the slope gradient. However. In addition.3. NS = max {Nspl. The deformation level S is an index that represents the amount of deformation of the armor stones.3.3.3. T. the wave height H2% for which the probability of exceedance is 2% has been replaced by H1/20.3.5.3.5) (5.5. T. (8) Stability Number for Concrete Units of the Wave-Dissipating Block Mound in Front of Upright Walls (horizontallycomposite breakwater) The wave-dissipating concrete block mound of a horizontally-composite breakwater may have various crosssectional forms. have carried out systematic research on the stability of wave-absorbing concrete blocks.5.3. and Hanzawa et al.1 Deformation Level S for Each Failure Stage for a Two-layered Armor Slope 1 : 1.5IrP where Nspl： Nssr： Ir： Som： L0： T1/3： CH： H1/3： H1/20： a： Dn50： M50： P： S： A： N： stability number for plunging breakers stability number for surging breaker Iribarren number (tan a/Som0. it is common to use the deformation level for initial damage for N = 1000 waves.1) Ir. when all the front face of an upright wall is covered by wave-dissipating concrete blocks. Burcharth and Liu 27) have proposed a calculation formula. In Japan. other people are also proceeding with research into establishing calculation formulas for precast concrete blocks.1 is for a point at a distance 5H1/3 from the breakwater. the stability is higher than for the normal case of armor concrete units covering a rubble mound breakwater because the permeability is high.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (6) Van der Meer’s Formula for Armor Stones In 1987. In particular. Table T. and proposed the formulas for calculating the stability number NS 26).4) (5. For example. T.3.4 / (H1/20/H1/3) ] (=1. and it is a kind of damage ratio.2) deformation level (S = A / Dn502) (see Table T.3) number of waves (in storm duration) (5. Nssr} Nspl = 6.5. T. Takahashi et al.0 in the region where wave breaking does not occur) significant wave height highest one-twentieth wave height (see Fig. usage of the value for intermediate damage can also be envisaged. intermediate damage.2 / N 0. For example.1) (cota)0. With the standard design.2CHP 0. Tanimoto et al.13 (S 0.. -114- .18 (S 0. it should be noted that these are based on the results of experiments for a rubble mound breakwater with a high crown.2 / N 0.0. 29) have proposed the following equation for wave-dissipating concrete blocks that are randomly placed in the mound covering the whole of upright wall.6) The wave height H1/20 in Fig. the number of waves.1) angle of slope from the horizontal line (º) nominal diameter of armor stone (=(M50/rr)1/3) 50% value of the mass distribution curve of an armor stone (required mass of an armor stone) permeability coefficient of the inner layer (see Fig.5. three stages are defined with regard to the deformation level of the armor stones: initial damage. For example. As shown in Table T. He proposed the following calculation formula for the stability number.5 Nssr = CHP-0.

5.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Sea Bottom slope 1/100 Sea Bottom slope 1/50 Sea Bottom slope 1/30 H0′/L0 H0′ : Equivalent deepwater wave height h/H0¢ Fig.3.2 Permeability Coefficient P -115- . no core Nominal diameter of armor stones Nominal diameter of filter material Nominal diameter of core material Fig. T. T. T.3.5.5.3.1 Ratio of H1/20 to H1/3 (H1/20 Values are at a Distance 5H1/3 from the Breakwater) Arm er or lay Imp able erme layer Filter layer yer or la Arm ter layer Fil Area of eroded part r r laye Armo Core Armo r laye r Fig.3 Erosion Area A No filter.

60º and 90º. (10) Submerged Armor Units Since the action of waves on a rubble mound breakwater is weaker midwater than around the waterline. a = 2. 30º.3.3. Moreover.7) where N0： relative damage (a kind of damage ratio that represents the extent of damage: it is defined as the number of concrete blocks that have moved within a width Dn in the direction of the breakwater alignment. and there is a greater risk of the armor units on the top of the slope falling not so much forward but rather toward the rear side. for detached breakwater composed of wave-dissipating concrete blocks.3. Christensen et al. a large wave force may act on concrete blocks. -116- . (11) Effect of Wave Direction The extent to which the incident wave angle affects the stability of the armor stones has not been investigated sufficiently. it is necessary to note that the concrete blocks around its crown (in particular on the shoreward side) are easily damaged. This means that the concrete blocks near the crown (in particular at the rear) are easily damaged.e. the design mass as calculated using the method of Takahashi et al.4. and forms a relatively flat and shallow sea bottom. (14) Armor Units of Low Crest Breakwater For a rubble mound breakwater with a low crown. The value of N0 = 0.5H1/3 below the still water level. is more-or-less the same as that calculated using the KD value in the past. unlike a caisson breakwater covered with wave-dissipating concrete blocks. a = 2. a reef rises up at a steep slope from the relatively deep sea. Hudson suggested to raise the mass by 10% in the case of stones and 30% in the case of concrete blocks. Stones or concrete blocks to be used at the head of a breakwater must thus have a mass greater than the value given by equation (5. (13) Armor Units in Reef Area In general. The stability of wave-dissipating concrete blocks situated on a reef must thus be investigated based either on model experiments matching the conditions in question or on field experiences for sites having similar conditions. subject to their shapes. direction of incidence is perpendicular to the breakwater alignment).2 in 5. 45º. if the number of waves is 1000 and the relative damage N0 is 0. if cot a = 1.2 + b } (5. where M is the mass of a concrete block) CH： modification factor due to wave breaking. 29) have further presented a method for calculating the cumulative relative damage (the expected relative damage) over the lifetime of a breakwater. Consequently. It is thus necessary to carry out appropriate investigations while considering the possibility of large wave force (see Takeda et al. and then the regenerated waves propagate over the reef in the form of surge. In the future. reliability design methods that consider the expected relative damage will become important in the advanced design methodology. and indeed such cases of block damage have been reported. but also to confirm that the block itself has sufficient structural strength.2 [1] Wave Force under Wave Crest) is 45º or less. when a large wave arrives at such a reef.3. It would be desirable to use the mass at least 1.42. (12) Integrity of Concrete Blocks With a precast concrete block.). For example. making the situation more complicated than that in general cases. it is considered that when the wave angle b (see Fig.1) for both stones and concrete blocks. where Dn is the nominal diameter of the concrete blocks: Dn = (M/rr)1/3. H1/20 / H1/3 = 1.5 ) 0. there is no supporting wall at the back and the crown is not high. CH = 1. The characteristics of waves over a reef are strongly dependent on not only the incident wave conditions but also the water depth over the reef and the distance from the tip of the reef. stones or concrete blocks of reduced mass may be used at depths more than 1. In the region where wave breaking does not occur. The stability of wave-dissipating concrete blocks situated on a reef also varies greatly for the same reasons. (15) Effect of Steep Slope Bed When the bottom slope is steep and waves break in plunging form. b： coefficients that depend on the shape of the concrete blocks and the slope angle (for concrete blocks with the KD value of 8. the damage ratio for a wave direction of 45º or smaller is more-or-less the same as that when the wave direction is 0º. the damage ratio drops. Based on these results. and so CH = 1.2. T. However.33.5. if cot a = 4/3.32 and b = 1. it breaks around the tip of the reef. (9) Breakwater Head Waves attack the head of a breakwater from a whole angle of directions. Nevertheless.3.2.3 corresponds to the conventionally-used damage ratio of 1%. it is necessary not only to ensure that the block has a mass sufficient to be stable against the design waves. according to the results of experiments carried out by van de Kreeke 30) in which the wave angle was changed between 0º (i. the minimum mass should not be corrected for wave direction.5 times the value given by equation (5. when the wave direction is more than 60º.1).4 / (H1/20 / H1/3) (in the region where wave breaking does not occur.32 and b = 1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN N S = C H { a ( N 0 ¤ N 0. it is thought to be insufficient.5) Takahashi et al..0) a. 31) have shown that the stability increases when the directional spreading of random waves is large.

However. where the wave height H is inversely derived from the Hudson formula with the mass of armor units as the input. breakwater trunk. and so it has still not been sufficiently elucidated.2 Armor Units on Foundation Mound of Composite Breakwater (Notification Article 48. the shape of the mound (thickness.). the effects of the wave characteristics and the mound shape are more pronounced than those in the case of the armor units covering the surface of sloped breakwater in 5. Even for the systematic experiments. with three different wave trains). (c) It is standard to study the action of 1000 waves in total of three runs for each wave height level. for the deformation level and the degree of damage. for example.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (16) High-density Blocks The minimum mass of blocks that are made of high-density aggregate may also be determined using the Hudson formula with the stability number (equation (5. For evaluating the damage ratio.).5H below the still water level or to the bottom elevation of the armor layer (take a shallower depth). (17) Effect of Placement The stability of wave-dissipating concrete blocks also varies with the method of placement (random placement or regular placement etc. The following points should be noted when carrying out studies using model experiments. the deformation level or the degree of damage may also be used. However. and carrying out model experiments if necessary. and the type of armor unit. As shown by the equation. (d) For the description of the extent of damage.0 times its height.3. and its position (breakwater head. The inspection area is taken from the elevation of wave runup to the depth of 1. Moreover. by means of appropriate hydraulic model experiments or the following equation: rr H3 M = --------------------------3 NS ( S r 1 ) 3 where M： rr： H： NS ： Sr： minimum mass of rubble stones or concrete blocks (t) density of rubble stones or concrete blocks (t/m3) wave height used in the stability calculation (m) stability number specific gravity of rubble stones or concrete blocks relative to sea water (5. an armor unit is judged to be damaged if it has moved over a distance of more than about 1/2 to 1. its placement method.). the stability is also affected by the crown height and width of the mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks.1)). it is necessary to take sufficient heed of the effects of wave irregularity.3. the stability of the regular placement with well-interlocking was markedly improved for most of the cases tested. The damage ratio is the ratio of the number of damaged armor units in an inspection area to the total number of armor units in the same inspection area. The deformation level is suitable when it is difficult to count the number of armor stones or concrete blocks that have moved. the experiment should be repeated at least three times (i. slope angle. (18) Standard Method of Hydraulic Model Experiments The stability of concrete blocks is influenced by a very large number of factors. Moreover. (b) For each particular set of conditions. etc. According to the results of a number of experiments.3. Clause 5) It shall be standard to calculate the mass of armor stones or concrete blocks for the foundation mound of a composite breakwater. research. 5. it is desirable to apply more than 500 waves or so.3. high-density blocks have a high stability. there is a tendency of greater stability when the crown is high and wide. berm width.. -117- . and it is needed to progressively accumulate the results of such experiments.1 Armor Units on Slope. in addition to the damage ratio which has been commonly used in the past. the water depth. when experiments are carried out by systematically varying the mass and other factors and a large amount of data can be acquired. In particular. while the degree of damage is suitable when one wishes to represent the damage to wave-dissipating concrete blocks. It is thus necessary to appropriately determine the mass. etc. This means that it is necessary to carry out studies using model experiments for the design of prototype breakwaters. (a) It is standard to carry out experiments using irregular waves.e. and actual experience in the field. one run for each test condition will suffice.1) [Commentary] The mass required for an armor unit covering the foundation mound of a composite breakwater varies according to the wave characteristics. According to the results of experiments carried out to compare the random placement over the whole cross section and that of regular two-layer placement upon a stone core. so a stable armor layer can be made using relatively small blocks of high density. considering the results of past studies. there is no need to define the inspection area.

25 N S = max í 1. T.3 ----------1 / 3 H k k 1 / 3 H1 ¤ 3 þ 1¤3 î k = k 1 ( k 2 )B 4ph¢ ¤ L ¢ k 1 = ----------------------------------sinh ( 4 p h ¢ ¤ L ¢ ) ( k 2 )B = max { a s sin 2 b cos 2 ( 2 p l cos b ¤ L ¢ ). T.5 -----------------.3. the shape of the mound. whichever gives the larger value of (k2)B (see Fig.----------. They investigated the relationship between the number of waves N and the damage ratio. the wave height used in the design calculation is generally the significant wave height.).10) (5.. Kimura. and the waves used in the model experiments should be irregular.4) L： wavelength corresponding to the design significant wave period at the water depth h¢ (m) as： correction factor for when the armor layer is horizontal (= 0.9) (5. the generalized Hudson formula may also be used as the basic formula for calculating the minimum mass of armor units for the breakwater mound 33).3. Because it has a certain degree of validity even from a theoretical standpoint. equation (5.11) where h¢： water depth on top of rubble mound foundation (excluding the armor layer) (m) (see Fig.+ 1.1). the following formulas by Tanimoto et al.5. and the characteristics of the armor units.3.5) H1/3： design significant wave height (m) The validity of the above formulas have been verified for the breakwater trunk for oblique wave incidence with an angle of incidence of up to 60º. have carried out stability experiments for the special case such that the mound is low and no wave breaking occurs. breakwater head. 33) are based on the flow velocity near the mound and allow the incorporation of a variety of conditions. The extended Tanimoto formulas have thus been made the standard formulas. it may be possible to achieve stability even when the armor units are relatively small. i. the wave characteristics. which is based upon the work of Brebner and Donnelly and past experience of damage.8.e.45) b： incident wave angle (see Fig. (a) Extended Tanimoto formulas ì 1 k h¢ ( 1 k )2 h ¢ ü . 1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Note however that the stability of the armor units covering the foundation mound of a composite breakwater is not necessarily determined purely by their sizes. but also with their position of the placement (breakwater trunk. and they have been extended by Takahashi. the generalized Hudson formula has been used widely.3.3.5. Ever since Brebner and Donnelly 32) used it as the basic equation for calculating the required mass of the armor stones of the rubble mound for an upright wall. [Technical Notes] (1) Generalized Hudson’s Formula for Calculating the Required Mass Similarly with the stable mass of armor units on a slope.8 exp 1. either BM or BM¢.3. the required mass of armor units covering the foundation mound of a composite breakwater can be calculated using the generalized Hudson formula (the Hudson formula with the stability number). cos 2 b sin 2 ( 2 p l cos b ¤ L ¢ ) } s a (5. and Tanimoto 35) to include the effects of wave direction.3.4 Standard Cross Section of a Composite Breakwater and Notations (b) Stability Number When a Certain Amount of Damage is Permitted Sudo et al. etc.4) l： in the case of normal wave incidence. and in Japan it is also known as the Brebner-Donnelly formula.----------. (2) Stability Number for Armor Stones The stability number NS can be determined using the method of Inagaki and Katayama 34). Note however that the stability number NS varies not only with the water depth. Depending on the structure and the layout of armor units.5.5. -118- . Seaward h BM d BM ' Shoreward Upright section C ' h h Foot protection blocks Armor material Rubble mound Foot protection blocks Armor material Fig. However. and proposed the following equation that gives the stability number NS* for any given number of waves N and any given damage ratio DN (%). T.ý : B M ¤ L ¢ < 0. It is thus necessary to assign the stability number NS appropriately through model experiments corresponding to the design conditions. T.3.3. Moreover.8) (5. the berm width BM (m) In the case of oblique wave incidence.

(6) Armor Units for Breakwater Head At the head of a breakwater.4. it is standard to increase the mass to at least 1. it is best to employ irregular waves.3.5 Shape of the Breakwater (5) Armor Layer Thickness Alignment and Effects of It is standard to use two layers of armor stones. It is thus appropriate to use the stability number for armor stones on a mound only when h¢/H1/3 ≧ 1: when h¢/H1/3<1. It is also necessary to appropriately evaluate the drag coefficient and the inertia coefficient by means of model experiments or field measurement results. it is thus desirable to examine the validity using hydraulic model experiments. When carrying out such experiments. it is advisable to set it to 1. as well as to the wave surface elevation. in which the wave force is expressed as the sum of a drag force that is proportional to the square of the velocity of the water particles and an inertia force that is proportional to the acceleration. one could think of compensating the use of one layer only by setting the damage ratio in the aforementioned equation (5. If hydraulic model experiments are not carried out.3. The mass of the armor stones at the breakwater head can also be calculated using the extended Tanimoto formula.5. wave breaking often causes the armor stones to become unstable. [Commentary] Structural members such as piles that have a small diameter relative to the wavelength hardly disturb the propagation of waves. If N = 1000 and DN = 5%. It should further be noted that the impact of the wave front may -119- Br eak w ate r tru nk .PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS N S * = N S [ D N ¤ exp { 0.3. This means that the required mass decreases to about 1/3 of that required for N = 500 and DN = 1%.5 times that at the breakwater trunk. while the damage ratio 3% to 5% can be allowed for a 2-layer armoring.4 Wave Forces Acting on Cylindrical Members and Large Isolated Structures 5. for the breakwater head. It is thus desirable to evaluate the stability number by means of hydraulic model experiments. the flow velocity parameter k in equation (5. Breakwater head Fig. provided that consideration is given to past experiences of breakwaters. Note however that with the Morison equation. In design it is necessary to take N = 1000 considering the progress of damage. (4) Conditions for Applying the Stability Number for Armor Stones on Foundation Mound When the water above the armor units covering a mound is shallow.13) (5.25 (5. although two layers may be laid if the shape of the blocks is favorable for two layer placement and the design wave conditions are severe.3.5 times that for the breakwater trunk. it is necessary to assign accurate values to the water particle velocity and acceleration of the waves.12) to a low value of DN = 1% for N =1000 acting waves.12) where NS is the stability number given by the Tanimoto formula when N = 500 and the damage ratio is 1%. 5.44NS.1 Wave Force on Cylindrical Members The wave force acting on an cylindrical member can be calculated as the sum of a drag force that is proportional to the square of the water particle velocity under waves and an inertia force that is proportional to the water particle acceleration. For concrete armor blocks.3.5 times that for the breakwater trunk. meaning that the armor units become liable to move. it is better to use the stability number for armor stones on a slope of mound breakwater. it is Wave Direction acceptable to use only one layer.3 ( 1 500 ¤ N ) } ] 0.9) should be rewritten as follows: k = k 1 (k 2)T (k2)T = 0. (3) Stability Number for Concrete Units The stability number NS for concrete blocks varies according to the shape of the block and the method of placement. It is thus necessary to verify the extent to which the mass of armor units should be increased at the breakwater head by carrying out hydraulic model experiments. T. The validity of the stability number for armor stones in the Tanimoto formulas has not been verified experimentally for when h’/H1/3 is small: when h’/H1/3 is about 1 or less.3. However. In this case.14) Note however that if the calculated mass turns out to be less than 1. The wave force acting on such members can be obtained using the Morison equation.22 (5. Specifically. it is rather standard to use one layer. strong currents occur locally near the corners at the edge of the upright section. then NS* = 1.

it is necessary to estimate these components as accurate as possible. and that a lift force may act upon it.1) represent those of the water particle motion at the center of the member. the highest wave height and the significant wave period should be used in the analysis for rigid structures. The water particle velocity and acceleration components in the equation both vary in time and space. CD should not be set below 0. When evaluating these terms using theoretical values.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN generate an impulsive wave force if the member is located near to the still water level or if breaking waves hit the member. and to study the wave characteristics that are severest to the safety of member or structure in question. It is necessary to take sufficient heed of these variations. the surface roughness.1) . Note however that the drag coefficient varies with the shape of the member. (3) Drag Coefficient In general. depending on the shape and position of the member. a lower value may be used if its value is based on the results of model experiments matched to the conditions. the surface roughness. The arrows on top of symbols indicate that the force. in the direction perpendicular to the member axis that lies within the plane containing the member axis and the direction of motion of the water particles (i.4. the drag coefficient for steady flow can be used as the drag coefficient CD for wave force. For a circular cylindrical member. It is thus necessary to set the value of the inertia coefficient appropriately in line with the given conditions. i. that the inertia coefficient varies with the shape of the member and other factors such as the Reynolds number.1) is a generalized form of the equation presented by Morison et al. the elevation of wave crest. (2) Water Particle Velocity and Acceleration Components The components of water particle velocity and acceleration u n and a u n in equation (5. Note. the same direction as u f n) (these components are for incident waves that are not disturbed by the presence of member) u n ： absolute value of u n (m/s) CD： drag coefficient CM： inertia coefficient D： width of the member in the direction perpendicular to the member axis as viewed from the direction f n (m) of u A： cross-sectional area of the member along a plane perpendicular to member axis (m2) r0： density of seawater (normally 1. Note also that when estimating the water particle velocity by means of an approximate equation.3 Properties of Waves.4.7. These components are in the direction perpendicular to the member axis. and the separation distance between neighboring members. while the second term represents the inertia force. based on either experimental dater or theoretical prediction. where the direction of n this force lies in the plane containing the member axis and the direction of motion of the water particles and is perpendicular to the member axis (kN) u n.4. it is necessary to give sufficient consideration to the range over which the wave force acts.e. respectively.0 if the finite amplitude properties of the waves are fully evaluated. it is necessary to use a value for the drag coefficient that has been adjusted for the estimation error in the water particle velocity (4) Inertia Coefficient The calculated value by the small amplitude wave theory may be used for the inertia coefficient CM.. Moreover. and to investigate the distribution of the wave force that is severest to the member or structure in question. Even in this case. it is standard to set CD = 1. For an unmanned structure. and are evaluated under the assumption that waves are not disturbed by the presence of the structure in question.. It is necessary to consider these conditions when setting the value of drag coefficient.1. In particular. velocity and acceleration are the components in the direction perpendicular to the member. an approximation using small amplitude wave theory becomes insufficient to yield reliable estimate. [Technical Notes] (1) Morison’s Equation The wave force acting on a structural member is calculated based on the following equation: 1 un A D S . however. meaning that when the wave height is large. the Reynolds number Re. it is desirable to use the finite amplitude wave theory that agrees with the characteristics of the design waves. to give the wave force acting on a section of a very small length DS of a member orientated in any given direction. based on 4. however. It also varies with the KeuleganCarpenter number (KC number) because the flow is of oscillating nature. For a -120- (5. a u n： components of the water particle velocity (m/s) and acceleration (m/s2). 36).C r u u D D S + CMr0 a fu = -n 2 D 0 n n where u f ： force that acts on a small length DS (m) in the axial direction of the member. when the member extends above the mean water level.e.03 t/m3) Equation (5. and the separation distance between neighboring members. Note also that it is necessary to take full account of wave irregularity with regard to the wave height and period used in the wave force calculation. In general. The first term on the right-hand side represents the drag force. When calculating the wave force. the water particle velocity component contributes to the wave force with its second power. the KC number.

0 may be used as a standard value. Moreover.1 in 7.19 D Cube D3 1. analytical solutions obtained by means of diffraction theory are available.5. However. the lift force acts on an underwater member in the direction perpendicular to the plane containing the member axis and the direction of the water particle motion. for long and thin members. CM = 2.4. there is not sufficient data in the region of high Reynolds number.2 Current Forces Acting on Submerged Members and Structures may be used..67 D D Sphere D πD 3 6 πD2 4 1.2 Wave Force on Large Isolated Structure The wave force acting on a large isolated structure built in the sea shall be calculated using an appropriate numerical calculation or hydraulic model experiments./ . Goda 45).0 (8) Experimental Values for Drag Coefficient and Inertia Coefficient of Circular Cylinder There are many experimental values for the drag coefficient and inertia coefficient of a vertical circular cylinder./ . it is standard to use the value listed in Table T. those of Keulegan and Carpenter 41). 5. but it is necessary to take heed of the fact that the lift force may become a problem for horizontal members that are placed near to the seabed.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS circular cylindrical member. 44).3. [Commentary] The wave force acting on a large isolated structure whose dimensions are comparable to the wavelength can be calculated using the velocity potential. (6) Standard Value for Drag Coefficient When the water particle velocity can be calculated accurately.1 for the inertia coefficient CM. provided the diameter of the member is no more than 1/10 of the wavelength. In general.1). it is acceptable to ignore this lift force. it is necessary to take heed of the fact that the lift force may induce vibrations.4. Sarpkaya 42).5 Flat plate D . According to the experiments of Hamada and et al. -121- . Chakrabarti 46). However. In particular. considering the size of the structure and the crosssectional form. (7) Standard Value for Inertia Coefficient When the diameter of the object in question is no more than 1/10 of the wavelength. 47).0 D Square-based prism D D D D2 2.5. Yamaguchi.4 to 2.85 1.4. Oda has produced a summary of these researches which may be referred to.7. 43). The value of inertia coefficient shown here is mostly from the study by Stelson and Mavis 40).4. for example. it is necessary to adjust the value of CM for the error in the estimate of water particle acceleration. when estimating the water particle acceleration by means of an approximate equation. and Koderayama and Tashiro. which is experienced in actual design.1 Inertia Coefficient Shape Reference volume Inertia coefficient Circular cylinder πD2 4 D 2. it is necessary to calculate the breaking wave force by means of hydraulic model experiments if there is a possibility of breaking wave force exerted on structure. because it is generally possible to ignore the drag force.2./ =1 =2 = 0. There are much variations between these values. However. the value of drag coefficient for steady flow such as those listed in Table T. for structures of a simple shape. (5) Lift Force In addition to the drag and inertia forces of equation (5. Table T. the inertia coefficient for a cube under waves is in the range of 1. Nakamura.61 0.

5.5.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Technical Notes] (1) Diffraction Theory MacCamy and Fuchs 59) have determined the velocity potential of waves around an upright circular cylinder of large diameter using diffraction theory.1 (a).5. T. and the uplift becomes of complex nature. T. Goda and Yoshimura 60) have applied diffraction theory to an upright elliptic cylinder. such as integral equation methods. [Technical Notes] (1) Characteristics of Impulsive Uplift If the bottom face of the plate is flat. (2) Isolated Structure of Arbitrary Shape For a structure that is complex in shape.5 Wave Force Acting on Structure Located near the Still Water Level 5. an impact wave force may act on the bottom face of the plate (this wave force is hereafter referred to as the uplift).5. a layer of air is trapped between the wave surface and the plate. the wave surface is disturbed by the beams.1 (b). depending on the wave conditions and the structural form of the plate. and so it is necessary to carry out a numerical calculation. the impulsive uplift acting on a horizontal plate near the still water level varies with the impact (uprising) velocity of the wave surface and the angle between the wave surface and the plate. It is thus necessary to give consideration to the change in the uplift with respect to the shape of the bottom face of the horizontal plate. (a) Pressure distribution Wave impact (b) Pressure distribution Wave impact Fig.1 Uplift Acting on Horizontal Plate near the Still Water Level For a horizontal plate located near the still water level. Various methods are available. With beams. As shown in Fig. When there exists such a risk.5. T. On the other hand. and compression of this layer of air results in the almost uniform wave pressure distribution. The shape of the impacting wave surface varies greatly according to the condition whether the wave is progressive or standing in nature. and calculated the wave force from the water pressure distribution at the surface of cylinder. when there is an angle between the wave surface and the plate. and pointed out that it is necessary to consider these effects when the water is shallow.1 Impact between Wave Front and Horizontal Plate In case of a pier with a deck plate supported by horizontal beams.5. the impulsive uplift shall be evaluated by means of an appropriate method including hydraulic model experiments etc. the shape of the impacting wave front varies with the -122- . when the angle between the wave front and the plate is close to 0° as shown in Fig.5. The distinct feature of the wave pressure in this case is its rapid rise in time. and presented their results in terms of the inertia coefficient CM. a layer of trapped air is often formed and this layer of air is compressed by the uprising wave surface. Yamaguchi has investigated the effect of the wave nonlinearity on the wave force acting on an upright circular cylinder of large diameter by means of nonlinear diffraction theory. it is difficult to obtain the wave force analytically. 5. With standing waves. The distinct feature of the wave pressure in this case is its oscillation in time with having a short period and damping. the wave surface runs along the bottom face of the plate and the wave pressure distribution becomes as shown there.

03 t/m3) gravitational acceleration (9.5. Using von Karman’s theory.4) p = r 0 g ( 8 H 4. (2) Uplift Acting on Horizontal Plate with Flat Bottom Face (with standing waves) Goda thought of the uplift acting on a horizontal plate as being the force arising from the sudden change in the upward momentum of wave surface by its collision with the plate. Provided the length of the horizontal plate is sufficiently small compared with the wavelength L and the bottom face of the horizontal plate is flat. the angle of contact b between the wave surface and the horizontal plate as well as the impact velocity Vn are given by Stokes’ third order wave theory. In general.81 m/s2) H： wave height of progressive waves (m) (generally the highest wave height Hmax) L： wavelength of progressive waves (m) B： extension width of plate perpendicular to wave incidence (m) h： water depth (m) s： clearance of the plate above the still water level (m) s¢： clearance of the plate above the level corresponding to the middle of the wave crest and trough (m) One should take note of the fact that the uplift in the above equations does not depend on the length of the horizontal plate. the presence of beams causes air to become trapped in and the wave surface to be distorted.03 t/m3) g： gravitational acceleration (9. the impact between the wave surface and the floor slab is disturbed by the beams. The experimental conditions were the wave height up to 40 cm. With this calculation method.81 m/s2) incident wave height (m) (Hmax) distance from the water level to the underside of access bridge (m) Note however that the peak value of the intensity of the uplift given by equation (5.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS distance between the position of wave reflection and the horizontal plate. --P = z -------.4) acts only for an extremely short time.HLB tanh --------.0 to experimental values.2) s ¢ = s p -----. 61) have proposed another method for calculating the uplift acting on horizontal plate based on Wagner’s theory. and that the phase of this uplift varies from place to place.1) . agreement is relatively good provided H/s ¢ is no more than 2. Tanimoto et al.3) 2 L H2 s¢2 where T is the wave period and l is the length of the horizontal plate. he obtained the following formulas for calculating the uplift from standing waves acting on a horizontal plate.0 s and 2. Comparing calculated values with z = 1. the result being that the impact force is less than for a horizontal plate with a flat surface. the value obtained from this calculation method may be thought of as being the upper limit of the uplift for an ordinary pier. making it possible to obtain the spatial distribution of the impact pressure and its change over time. It cannot be applied directly to structures of complicated shape such as an ordinary pier that have beams under the floor slab. This calculation method is intended for use when the bottom face of the horizontal plate is flat. Accordingly.5. According to the measurement records of wave pressure gauges attached to the access bridge. Note however that the use of Stokes’ third order wave theory makes the calculation rather complex.5.coth --------L L where P： total uplift (kN) z： correction factor r0： density of seawater (1. a period of 1. the mean of these peak values is given approximately by the following equation: (5. r0 g 2 p h æ H s ¢ö (5.5.1) well represents the features of the uplift well (despite the fact that the equation is simple).5. (3) Uplift Acting on Open-type Wharf (with standing waves) Ito and Takeda 62) have conducted scale model tests of open piled marginal wharves (open-type wharves) to obtain the uplift acting on an access bridge. This means that even if the intensity of the uplift p exceeds the deadweight q (specifically the weight per unit area (kN/m2)) of the access -123- . the peak value of the uplift varied considerably from wave to wave even under the same conditions. Nevertheless. It is thus necessary to consider such differences. and a water depth of 56 cm and 60 cm. equation (5. The impact force has the magnitude given by the above equations and takes the form of a pulse that lasts for a time t from the moment of the impact.5.--4 L è s ¢ Hø H2 2ph (5.5 s ) where p： r0： g： H： s： mean peak value of the intensity of uplift (kN/m2) density of seawater (1.4 s. that is given as follows: pT l2 s¢ . and its minimum weight to prevent moving and falling.----------------------t = ----------(5.

It is also thought that because the uplift acts very locally and for an extremely short time. Ito and Takeda also tested the access bridge with holes or slits of various sizes. 7) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. pp. Vol. 3-39 (in Japanese). Suketo HARANAKA: “An experiment on the shock pressure of breaking waves”. Vol. Vol.. 1-39. Vol. 1928. 12. 3) Sainflou. Note of PHRI.5. Rept of PHRI. Vol. No. No. they proposed the following equation for the uniformly distributed equivalent static load.5) is one fifth of the intensity of the uplift as given by equation (5. 12. The falling threshold weight was found to be 1/2 to 1/3 of the moving threshold weight.. they measured the stress occurring in the deck slabs of a detached pier model. Based on the upper limits of their experimental results. the change in the moving threshold weight by the void ration is only slight. Coastal Eng. 2) Yoshimi GODA: “A new method of wave pressure calculation for the design of composite breakwaters”. 3-29 (in Japanese). (5) Uplift Acting on Superstructure of Detached Pier (with progressive waves) Ito and Takeda 62) have also carried out studies on the uplift from progressed waves acting on a detached pier.5. and Sawaragi and Nochino. 13) Katsutosi TANIMOTO. Kazuyuki MYOSE: “Experimental study of random wave forces on upright sections of breakwaters”. 47. Tech. 1-18 (in Japanese). the equivalent static load becomes much smaller than the peak value of the uplift. pp. pp. p = 2 r0 g H [References] 1) Yoshiyuki ITO. 63) have proposed a method for calculating this impulsive uplift. 1973. Annales des Ponts et Chaussées. 6) Yoshimi GODA. 1986. 1983. Experimental research into the uplift acting on a pier has also been carried out by Murota and Furudoi. No. 5-48. Ito and Takeda have obtained the threshold weight at which the access bridge starts to move and that at which the deck slab falls down.4 s. Toru KIKUYA: “Experimental study on wave force damping effects due to deformed artificial blocks”. 14. the weight per unit area excluding the voids). 1966. pp. pp. pp. Vol. 4. 98. 25. Rept of PHRI. In these access bridge experiments. Rept of PHRI. on the other hand. 1973. -124- (5. 1967. No. G. 1962. Nagai and Kubo. Tanimoto et al. 5. 1966. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. No. 2. 1. Rept of PHRI. 4) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. the relationship between the moving threshold weight per unit area q and the wave height H was as follows: q = r 0 g ( 1. Horikawa and Nakao. 31-69 (in Japanese). 1981. the bridge will not necessarily move or fall down. No. 22. H.5) The moving threshold weight given by equation (5. Based on this perspective. 14th Conf. based on the same theory by Wagner that was used for impulsive uplift by standing waves. No. 3-25 (in Japanese). For waves of period 2. pp. 3. (4) Uplift Acting on Horizontal Plate with Flat Bottom Face (with progressive waves) An impulsive uplift also acts when progressive waves act on a horizontal plate that is fixed near to the still water level. pp. 47-100 (in Japanese).6) Note however that the value given by this equation corresponds to the upper limit of the experimental values and should thus be thought of as corresponding to the case that the distance s from the water level to the underside of the is almost 0. 4. Antonio Paulo dos Santos Pinto: “Random wave forces and design wave periods of composite breakwaters under the action of double peaked spectral weves”. Vol.6) is generally lower than the uplift acting on a horizontal plate with a flat bottom face. Furthermore. No.5. they proposed the following equation for the equivalent static load (kN/m2) assumed to act with uniform distribution on the deck slab. Vol. 8) Mitsuyasu. Vol. Vol. No. 32. p = 4 r0 g H (5. Report of Trans. Ito and Takeda 62) have attached a strain gauge to the deck slab of the model of open-type wharf and measured the stress. The falling threshold weight.1702-1720. Note of PHRI. In general. No. It is thought that this is partly because the beams disturb the impacting wave front and cause air to become trapped in. Rept of PHRI. Rept of PHRI. 1-57 (in Japanese). pp. No. No. drops noticeably when the void ratio exceeds 20%. Based on their results. and investigated how the threshold weights changed when the void ratio was changed. 9) Michio MORIHIRA. pp. 5.9 s ) (5.5. ASCE. Rept of PHRI.5. 11) Shigeo TAKAHASHI. 528. 3-31 (in Japanese).6 H 0. Shigeo TAKAHASHI. Tech. Inst. 3. No. (in Japanese).e. Takao KITATANI: “On the stability of breakwaters”.5. pp. 10) Yoshimi GODA. 2. 1985 (in Japanese). also “New wave pressure formulae for composite breakwater” Proc.: “Experimental study on wave force against a wall”. Katsutoshi KIMURA.: “Essai sur les diques maritimes verticales”. Katsutoshi KIMURA: “A hydraulic experimental study on trapezoidal caisson breakwaters”. 3-31 (in Japanese). 1974. Tech. 20. Note that the bridge weight referred to here is the weight per unit area of the substantial part (i. 23. 6. 12) Yoshimi GODA: “Motion of composite breakwater on elastic foundation under the action of impulsive breaking wave pressure”. Rept of PHRI. Mutsumi Fujishima. pp. 10. 1984.7) . The equivalent static load given by equation (5. Satoshi SUZUMURA: “Generation mechanism of impulsive pressure by breaking wave on a vertical wall”. Rept of PHRI. Res. Shigeo TAKAHASHI. 1967. Shusaku KAKIZAKI: “Study on finite amplitude standing waves and their pressures upon a vertical wall”. 3. 5) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. Specifically. Takao KITATANI: “Experimental study of impact breaking wave forces on a vertical-wall caisson of composite breakwater”. 134p. Shusaku KAKIZAKI.4).TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN bridge.

. Sand. Koji KOBUNE: “Dynamic response of an offshore platform to random waves”. 28) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. pp. of Tech. W. H. 152p. J. pp. Jour. No. 1977. 42) Sarpkaya. pp. 2.. No.analytical model for compression of an enclosed air layer -”. 4. pp. Vol. 265-278. Tryde: “Behavior of rubble-mound breakwater in directional and unidirectional waves”.: “Stability of cubes. WW3. Vol. W. 1971. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. Tadao KANEKO. N. 1-30 (in Japanese)... No. and S. Vol. Hitoshi SASAKI: “Experimental study on wave forces acting on perforated wall caisson breakwaters”. 33-87 (in Japanese). Doctoral thesis.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 14) Shigeo TAKAHASHI. No. 36) Morison. Vol. Proc. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. Y. R. 85. Michio GOMYO. Rept of PHRI. 450. 23) Sigeo TAKAHASHI. 21. 345-354. 29) Shigeo TAKAHASHI. 16) Yoshiyuki ITO. 167-184. Proc. pp. J. 34) Hirofumi INAGAKI. pp. -”. and L. Tech. 408-429. 1. Masahiko ITO: “Reflection and diffraction of water waves by an insular breakwater”. 25) Van der Meer. 39) Yoshiyuki ITO. 2. J.. III. 44) Sarpkaya. Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA. pp. No. Proc. No. pp. R. pp. 95-108.field data analysis -”. 21) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. No. 3-31 (in Japanese). Venice. Vol. 1. Vol. 3-53 (in Japanese). Y. Yoshikazu IZUMIDA. 1958. pp. Liu: “Design of Dolos armour units”. pp. the first rept. Rept of PHRI. G.WW3. Conf. Vol. Vol. Vol. Prepr. Carpenter: “Forces on cylinders and plates in an oscillating fluid”. 1969. Koichiro OGURA: “Experimental study on impulsive forces by breaking waves on circular cylinder”. pp. Takao KITATANI. Tetrapods and Accropode”. A. Petroleum Trans. Note of PHRI. Yoshimi GODA: “Stability of armor units for foundation mounds of composite breakwater by irregular wave tests”. H. No. J. 40) Stelson. T. Rept of PHRI. J. pp. 1971. 670-1 ～ 670-9. 29. 19. 24) Hudson. Conf. ASCE. 19) Coastal Engineering Research Center: “Shore Protection Manual” Vol. 74p.112. 1990. Minoru HANZAWA. 149-154. 95. Shigeo TAKAHASHI. Masaki KITAHARA: “Study of impulsive breaking wave forces on piles”. 60 No. E. O'Brien. pp. pp. 38) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. Rept of PHRI. Broberg. 3. and P. 45) Goda. Rept of PHRI. and D. 5. 1-22 (in Japanese). Waterway and Harbors Div. Tech. Rept of PHRI. No. 32) Brebner. 1976. W. Proc. S. Prepr. 93-121. 7180. Ken-ichirou SHIMOSAKO. 8th Offshore Tech. F. R. 29. Report of P. 5. 10531066. pp. or Van der Meer. 26) Van der Meer. T. and Z. 1950. Tsutomu MURANAGA. 37) Yoshimi GODA. 1991. 1975. -125- . 8. Rept of PHRI. F. No. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “yStability of armour units of composite breakwater mound against oblique waves”. Takeo KATAYAMA: “Analysis of damage to armor stones of mounds in composite breakwaters”. H. 1986. 31) Christensen. US Army Corps of Engineers.. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “Uplift forces on a ceiling slab of wave dissipating caisson with a permeable front wall (2nd Report) . Coastal Eng.: “In-line and transverse forces on cylinders in oscillatory flow at high Reynolds number”. 1955. 20) Shigeo TAKAHASHI. No. 30. No. 8.study on wave-dissipating concrete blocks covering horizontally composite breakwaters. Rept of PHRI. No. pp. II. Vol. P. 127. 11. Jour. 38. J.. pp. Tomotsuka YOSHIMURA. 81. A.Design equations”. Suketo HARANAKA. 1971 (in Japanese). pp. 1972. ASME. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “Meandering damages of composite type breakwaters”. Coastal Engineering. Tech. Vol. Hirokazu SATO. 1964. National Bureau of Standards. Schaaf: “The force exerted by surface waves on piles”.. Kazuo YAMAZAKI: “Experimental study on the stability of wave dissipating concrete blocks against irregular waves”. pp. 1. No. Kozo SHIBATA. Vol. No. Masahiko TODOROKI: “An experimental investigation of upright breakwaters at reefs”. 2. 3.: “Forces on cylinders and spheres in a sinusoidally oscillating fluid”. E. 41) Keulegan. Roshi OJIMA: “Experimental study of wave forces acting on a superstructure of sloping breakwaters and on block type composite breakwaters”. 3-42 (in Japanese). Tech. 23rd Int. 6. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. 3-36 (in Japanese). 3-25 (in Japanese). T. W. 2. 1990. Katsutoshi KIMURA. pp. 219239. 17) Yoshimi GODA. 1998. Delft Univ. 1962. 1983 (in Japanese). Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “Lifetime damage estimation with a new stability equation for concrete blocks . Suketo HARANAKA. Tsutomu MURANAGA “Uplift forces on a ceiling slab of wave dissipating caisson with a permeable front wall . 1985. No. T. 1980. pp. No. 1992. 33) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. Rept of PHRI. T. Proc.23. Note of PHRI.. Ken-ichirou SHIMOSAKO: “Wave and block forces on a caisson covered with wave dissipating blocks”. 27) Burcharth. Coastal Eng. J. R. UK..: “Wave forces on a vertical circular cylinder: Experiments and proposed method of wave force computation”. 35) Sigeo TAKAHASHI. 4. Tadahiko YAGYU.. 11. pp. Ken-ichiro SHIMOSAKO. 22) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO.. Vol. No. 1982. Kiyoshi TERAUCHI. 1966. 1984.. 189. No. pp. Vol. Johonson. H.2. Eiji TOMIDA.2901.: “Rock slopes and gravel beaches under wave attack”. 1980. ASCE. T. No. Applied Mechanics. II. 59-86 (in Japanese). 10. 24. Keisuke SHIOTA. T. Koji KOBUNE. pp. 25. 1984. M. 423-440. Donnelly: “Laboratory study of rubble foundations for vertical breakwaters”. Vol. Collins. ASCE. 1974 (in Japanese). 1984. 19. 189. Shigeo TAKAHASHI. 54-75 (in Japanese). Note of PHRI. Suketo HARANAKA. Eastbourne. 3-28 (in Japanese). 1988. 1988. Vol. Rept of PHRI. Trans. 86-121 (in Japanese). 32-37. C. Evans: “Wave forces on rough-walled cylinders at high Reynolds numbers”. Mavis: “Virtual mass and acceleration in fluids”. 42.: “Stability of breakwater armour layer .. Vol. 30) Van de Kreeke. Vol. Coastal Eng. Separate No. 9th Offshore Tech. Note of PHRI. 43) Sarpkaya. Rept of PHRI. Vol. 15) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. 1959. 18) Yoshiyuki ITO.. 670. 1987. New Mexico City. Vol. No. 3-52 (in Japanese). of Breakwater '88. 8th Conf. TP2846.: “Laboratory investigation of rubble-mound breakwater”. Rept of PHRI. Note of PHRI. No. and S. pp. 1. 3-34 (in Japanese). pp. P. Satoshi SUZUMURA: “A hydraulic experimental study on curved slit caisson breakwaters”.: “Damage function of rubble mound breakwaters”.. Jour. Conf. I. Tech. and F.

ASCE. 60) Yoshimi GODA. WW4. S. Vol. 2633. Port. 106. 651p. Rept of PHRI. 56) Yamamoto. 1977. Rept of PHRI. and A. Yoshikazu IZUMIDA: “A calculation method of uplift force on a horizontal platform”. 54) Yoshimi GODA. 1979. Hibbard: “Analysis of simultaneous wave force and water particle velocity measurements”. London. R. pp. Memo. 48) Kim. pp. 47) Chakrabarti.. Ltd. T. 471486. 1981. U. Vol. T. 1967. 557-583.12th OTC Paper No. Isaacson: “Mechanics of Wave Forces on Offshore Structure”. S. Tomotsuka YOSHIMURA: “Wave force computation for structures of large diameter. Waterways. 129-156. 1980. No. Wollbert. 1971. T. Harbors and Coastal Eng. 49) Borgman. 4. 63) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. and R. Fuchs: “Wave forces on piles. 1975.: “Wave force prediction from non-linear random sea simulation”. 219-226. T. H... Prepr. Preprint No. 50) Borgman. A. J. isolated in the offshore”. Proc. 3-52 (in Japanese). 1976. 1975. 4. Coastal and Ocean Div. No. Masahiko TODOROKI. No. S. No. Div. Hideaki TAKEDA: “Uplift on pier deck due to wave motion”. and H. 11th OTC. 2. T. 17p. C. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ‘Mechanics of Wave-Induced Forces on Cylinders’. 561-576. 9th OTC Paper No. 161-166. Prepr. E. L. Rept of PHRI. Vol. 37-68 (in Japanese). 62) Yoshiyuki ITO. Vol. Y. 61) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. S. 3761. pp. and M.: “Ocean wave simulation for engineering design”. Tadashi SASADA. Rajabi.. 7th OTC. 53) Tickell.: “Spectral analysis of ocean wave forces on pilling”. No. Beach Erosion Board. Prepr. 2898. Jour. 51) Hudspeth. pp. pp. Vol. K. pp. 1967. 6. 4. 16. 59) MacCamy. pp. pp. pp. Rept of PHRI. 2505-2514. 45-81 (in Japanese). National Water Resources and Ocean Engineering Convention. pp. No.. C. Pitman Pub. 3. L. No. K. WW2. Proc. Vol. William: “Wave forces on vertical circular cylinder”.2193. 10. Prepr. Shigeo TAKAHASHI. 1977. pp. pp. ASCE. Elwany: “A probabilistic description of forces on a member in a short-crested random sea”. T. 461-469. ASCE. Army Corps of Engineers. pp. A. Yoshikazu IZUMIDA: “Horizontal wave forces on a rigid platform”. No.: “Hydrodynamic drag on bottom-mounted smooth and rough cylinders in periodic flow”. Rept of PHRI. 39-68 (in Japanese). a diffraction theory”. 93 No. Tatsuhiko IKEDA. WW2. 1976.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 46) Chakrabarti. 1980. Dean: “Second-order directional seas and associated wave forces”. 1979. Yasuharu KISHIRA: “Study on design wave forces on circular cylinders erected upon reefs”.. No. and F. 1978. 17. Shigeo TAKAHASHI. 11. 1. H. ASCE. -126- .: “In-line and transverse forces on cylinders near a wall in oscillatory flow at high Reynolds numbers”. 2192. No. 57) Sarpkaya. pp. 3-47 (in Japanese). G. 55) Sarpkaya. 58) Sarpkaya. 52) Sharma. Nath: “Forccs on many cylinders near a plane boundary”. 1954.3645. Y. L. R. pp. G. Tech. WW2. Vol. Waterway. 7th OTC. R. Vol. 203-221. and R. 69. Vol. and J. Prepr. ASCE. E. 102. 95 No. and M. Vol. Jour.: “Inline forces on fixed vertical cylinder in waves”. 145-155. 1972. 1969.

and seiche Storm surge and tsunamis both occur only very rarely.1 Design Water Level (Notification Article 6) The water level that is to be used for the structural design and stability analysis of port and harbor facilities shall be determined based on either the measured values or the hindcast values of astronomical tides and meteorological tides. which are essential for the design water level. However.2 shows the IPCC panel’s forecast for the mean sea level rise. it is hard to evaluate this rise quantitatively.5 IS 92 c/Low/1.5. It is thus unavoidable that countermeasures in response to a rise in the mean sea level will have to be carried out through maintenance work such as raising of the crests of structures.5 shown in the three graphs represent the climate sensitivities for the three scenarios. The ice melting parameter represents the extent to which the ice at the poles. and high represent the value of ice melting parameter for the three scenarios. and is treated separately. studies on the long-term sea level rise are being carried out both in Japan and abroad. (2) Simultaneous occurrence of storm surge. it is estimated that the mean sea level will rise 15 cm to 95 cm between 1990 and 2100.5. when designing important structures for which it is anticipated that subsequent repairs would be extremely difficult (for example. medium. for port and harbor facilities on lakes or rivers for which the effects of tides are not large. along with abnormal water levels caused by tsunamis and others. IS 92 e/High/4. Although it is known that the mean sea level will rise in the future.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Chapter 6 Tides and Abnormal Water Levels 6. However. Fig. According to the Secondary Evaluation Report of the IPCC 1). tsunamis. Since the quantitative extent of the mean sea level rise is uncertain.1. [Commentary] (1) Design water level As a general rule. Seiche in the narrower sence occurs independently of storm surge or tsunami. The IPCC panel has thus produced three estimates.6.2 IPCC Panel’s Forecasts for Mean Sea Level Rise 1) (BaU Scenarios) -127- . Note 2: The low. and 4.6. and so it may be assumed that they will not occur at the same time. in Greenland. Figure T. [Technical Notes] (1) Rising of Mean Sea Level Apart from astronomical tides and storm surge. the water level shall be determined appropriately based on the water level records or the like. appropriate consideration should be given to the amount of mean sea level rise in the future. 2.5 Mean sea level rise over the whole world (cm) IS 92 a/Medium/2.1.5 Year Note 1: The values 1. respectively. T. and in highland glaciers melts in response to a rise in air temperatures. in general it is hard to take account of it at the design stage. the water level that is most dangerous to the safety of the structure in question is used as the design water level. when designing the clearance of a bridge that will have to remain in service for a very long time or when designing the drainage outlets of reclaimed land).

1 shows an example of the relationship between these water levels. The causes of storm surge are the depression of atmospheric pressure and the resultant rise of sea surface.2 Astronomical Tide Consideration shall be given to the following astronomical tide parameters: the chart datum level. and hindcast values for abnormal meteorological conditions. the water levels of rivers. there are also the high water of ordinary spring tides (HWOST) and the low water of ordinary spring tides (LWOST). the mean water level is taken to be the average of the water level over one year. [Commentary] (1) Definition of Storm Surge Fluctuations in the sea level occur as the result of a combination of astronomical tide.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 6. -128- . [Technical Notes] (1) In addition to the above definitions of water level. the sea level fluctuation due to meteorological factors. are referred to as meteorological tides or deviations. For practical purposes. Figure T. such as air pressure fluctuations caused by passing of high or low pressure area and winds.3 Storm Surge The storm surge parameters shall be determined by referring to the observed tide records collected over as long a period as possible. seasonal fluctuations in the atmospheric pressure. and seiche. including the spring tide and the neap tide. inundation records for past disasters. (d) Mean monthly-lowest water level (LWL) The average of the monthly-lowest water level. and the mean monthly-lowest water level. (c) Mean monthly-highest water level (HWL) The average of the monthly-highest water level. specifically an abnormal rise of the sea level that occurs when a typhoon passes by. The height of the HWOST as measured from the chart datum is known as the spring rise. these parameters shall be determined from the tide observation records over one year or a longer period. and the wind setup. the mean sea level for Tokyo Bay (Tokyo Peil TP). These refer respectively to the water levels at the height h above and below the mean water level. the seawater temperature. for the Tokyo Tide Observation Station. (e) Mean high water level (MHWL) The mean value of all of the high water levels. where the monthly-highest water level for a particular month is defined as the highest water level occurring in the period from 2 days before the day of the lunar syzygy (new moon and full moon) to 4 days after the day of the lunar syzygy. along with the chart datum level (CDL). [Commentary] (1) Definitions The definitions for the various types of water level are as follows: (a) Mean sea level (MSL) The average height of the sea level over a certain period is referred to as the mean water level for that period. As a general rule. (g) Near highest high water level (NHHWL) The water level obtained by adding the sum of the amplitudes of the four principal tidal components (M2. including the spring tide and the neap tide. 6. Out of these factors. and coastal waves. Chapter 2 Datum Level for Construction Work. The deviation of sea level from the astronomical tide during a storm surge is called the storm tide. meteorological tide. the resonance of water in embayments. the mean water level. and other commonly used water levels.2. K1 and O1) to the mean sea level. The term “storm surge” refers to a type of meteorological tides. the mean monthly-highest water level. S2. (f) Mean low water level (MLWL) The mean value of all of the low water levels. along with the effects of factors such as ocean currents. (b) Chat datum level (CDL) See PartⅠ. where h is the sum of the amplitudes of the tidal components M2 and S2.6. where the monthly-lowest water level for a particular month is defined as the lowest water level occurring in the period from 2 days before the day of the lunar syzygy to 4 days after the day of the lunar syzygy. the propagation of elevated sea surface as long waves.

3. [Technical Notes] (1) Meteorological Tide (a) General Meteorological tide parameters to which consideration should be given include the storm tide and its duration. T. The rise in water level z (cm) is given by the following equation: z = 0. the sea level rise h 0 (cm) at the shoreline is given by the following equation: F . Colding has obtained a value of k ＝ 4. If the angle between the wind direction and the line perpendicular to the shoreline is a. 1953) Observation datum level (DL) Mean value over 1991~1995 Fig.8 × 10-2 from the observation data in the Baltic Sea. and to collect data on past disasters.AP) Lowest water level ever recorded (Feb 13.6. resulting in a rise in the sea level.( U cos a ) 2 (6.2.99 D P (6. the water level in the sea area where the atmospheric pressure has dropped rises relative to the surrounding areas where the atmospheric pressure has not dropped. (b) Wind setup When a strong wind continues to blow for a prolonged time in a shallow bay. 1979) (during the statistical period to obtain standard water level) Mean monthly-highest water level* HWL HWOST Mean sea level for recent 5 year period* MSL Mean sea level for Tokyo Bay (Tokyo Peil -TP) Edogawa construction work datum level (YP) Mean monthly-lowest water level* LWL LWOST Chart datum level (CDL) = Work datum level (WDL) Arakawa construction work datum level (Arakawa Peil .1) h 0 = k -h where F： fetch length (km) U： constant wind velocity (m/s) h： mean water depth (m) The term k is a coefficient that varies depending on the bay characteristics. 1917) (observed before the statistical period to obtain standard water levels) Highest water level ever (Oct 19.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Bench mark Highest water level ever recorded (Oct 1. In order to carry out a study of storm surge covering the longest possible period.3. (c) Static water level rise caused by depression in the atmospheric If the atmospheric pressure drops slowly by D P (hPa).1 Water Level Diagram for the Tokyo (Harumi) Tide Observation Station (2) Observation Period It is desirable to study the storm surge records covering as long a period as possible. seawater accumulates in the littoral zone. If the wind is onshore. it is thus necessary to also carry out hindcasting from meteorological conditions. seawater is dragged by the wind. newspapers and old documents.2) -129- . to study records from storm surge damage reports. However. there are only a few tide observation stations that have put together storm surge records covering several tens of years. because of the pressure difference. the minimum necessary observation period is considered to be 30 years.

or else this plus a little extra allowance.1 Wave Setup. As a tsunami approaches the coast. and the wind data that have been observed at the place in question. The change in the water level and the flow velocity at each point is then progressively calculated for a series of time steps. The topography of the bay is approximated using a grid system (with adjacent mesh points separated by say a few kilometers). (d) Determine the design water level based on economic factors. and the damage to the hinterland for each water level. equation (6. are given as external forces. T. considering the occurrence probability of various storm surge levels. and the tsunami period. the wave height rises rapidly owing to the shoaling and the concentration effect of the sea bottom topography. (b) Use the elevation above the mean-monthly highest water level by the amount of either the highest storm tide observed in the past or the storm tide predicted for a model typhoon. (4) Rise in Mean Water Level Due to Waves (Wave Setup) The rise in mean water level due to waves can be estimated using Fig. but also the possibilities of losing small vessels that have been moored in a harbor but are carried away by strong currents of tsunami. b. With this method. and sliding or overturning of breakwaters. 4. by solving the equations of motions and continuity. along with the cost of constructing storm surge protection facilities. this rise is 10% or more of the deepwater significant wave height. and then use the water level that is expected to be exceeded only once within a certain return period (say 50 years or 100 years) (this water level is obtained by extrapolating the probability curve). (a) Use the highest water level observed in the past. Near to the shoreline.3. numerical computations are carried out.3) where h 0： maximum amount of storm tide (cm) P： lowest atmosperic pressure (hPa) U： maximum wind velocity (m/s) q： angle between the predominant wind direction that causes the highest storm tide and the wind direction at the time of maximum wind speed U (º) The coefficients a.3. by referring to the measured data (taken over as long a period as possible) and the heights of tsunami runup traces during past disasters. h 0 = a ( 1010 P ) + bU 2 cos q + c (6. (2) Numerical Computation of Storm Surge In order to analyze the phenomenon of storm surge in detail.7. the water level deviation (rise of water level by tsunami above the astronomical tide). the atmospheric pressure. [Commentary] (1) Tsunamis are waves with an extremely long period that mainly occur when the sea floor is raised and/or dropped by an earthquake in the sea. with the average water depth at each mesh being inputted in advance. and c are determined by the relationship between the storm tide.3) may be used to estimate the maximum amount of storm tide. 6. meaning that tsunami often causes tremendous damage to coastal areas. the rise of sea surface caused by a depression in the atmospheric pressure (see (1)(c) above). These parameters shall be determined using an appropriate method.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN where D P： pressure difference (hPa) z： rise in water level (cm) (d) Estimation formula for storm tide For places where numerical computation of storm surge have not been carried out. and thus it cannot be ignored when waves are high. The atmospheric pressure and wind velocity within a typhoon is often calculated using Myers’ formula or a similar theoretical model.4. (3) Design Water Level for the Facilities for Protection against Storm Surge The following four methods exist for determing the design water level for storm surge protection facilities.4 Tsunami The following tsunami parameters shall be considered: the highest water level. (c) Obtain the occurrence probability curve for past storm surge levels. -130- . It is important to investigate not only the possibility of flooding damage as a result of overflowing a tsunami barrier.2 in 4. This equation incorporates the factors of suction caused by a depression in the atmospheric pressure and wind setup. along with the tangential stress at the sea surface due to the wind and the tangential stress at the sea bottom due to viscosity.7. scouring of seabed at the openings of breakwaters.1 and Fig.7. the tsunami wave height. the lowest water level.

but it can nevertheless be detected by means of continuous observations recorded by a wave gauge out at sea. the tsunami wave height may be analyzed using the zero-upcrossing method. (a) Estimated tide level This is the tide level obtained by smoothing the tide level on a tide observation record by removing the components that are thought to be of the tsunami and any oscillation component of shorter period by seiche. (c) Deviation The difference between the actual tide level and the estimated tide level described in (a).6. the tsunami parameters used in design are determined from the past tsunami records for the place in question or the values obtained from numerical computations for the place in question.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (2) The wave height of a tsunami in the outer sea is generally extremely small. (2) Tsunami Period The period of tsunamis observed in a bay varies depending on the scale of the earthquake.4. This estimated tide level may thus differ somewhat to the hindcasted tide level obtained from the tidal harmonic constants.1. the distance from the epicenter. -131- .1 Definitions of Tsunami-related Terms (f) Initial motion This term refers to the instance at which a tsunami reaches the observation point and the water level first starts to deviate from the estimated tide level. T.4. T. and the difference between the maximum and minimum water levels within that section is taken as the tsunami wave height for that wave. and others. the initial motion is referred to as the pushing initial motion. Note that the runup height of a tsunami is often determined based on an investigation of tsunami traces left at the site in question. (e) Tsunami wave height As with wind waves. The elevation of a trace of a tsunami that has run up over the land or a structure above the CDL is called the tsunami trace height. (b) Runup height and tsunami trace height The elevation of the highest point to which a tsunami has runup the land or a structure is called the runup height above the CDL (chart datum level). The maximum value of the deviation when the actual tide level is higher than the estimated tide level is sometimes referred to as the maximum deviation or the tsunami height. The wave height of a tsunami in a harbor is greatly affected by the period of the tsunami. the section between a point where the tsunami wave profile crosses over the estimated tide level from the negative side to the positive side and the next such point is taken as one wave. If the first observed deviation of water level caused by the tsunami is a rise relative to the estimated tide level. and the resonance characteristics of the bay. the initial motion is referred to as the drawing initial motion. Tsunami wave height Deviation Highest water level First arrival time Estimated tide level Time Fig. In this case. The estimated tide level is expressed as the elevation above the CDL (chart datum level). [Technical Notes] (1) Definitions of Tsunami-Related Terms The definitions of various terms related to tsunamis are shown in Fig. the wave height increases greatly. Since the increase in wave height depends on the topography and natural periods of the bay. If it is a fall relative to the estimated tide level. (d) Highest water level The maximum value of the actual tide level above the CDL (chart datum level). The maximum tsunami wave height in a continuous tsunami wave record is defined as the highest tsunami wave height. During a design process. but also tsunamis having the period same as the natural period of the bay or harbor in question. it is thus desirable to carry out investigations on not only tsunamis having the periods that have actually been measured in the past. When a tsunami enters a bay.6.

which may be evaluated using say Manning’s roughness formula. it is necessary to take note of the fact 3) that if the tide observation station is within a harbor. When the water level exceeds the crown elevation of a breakwater or levee in the calculation region. Even though the height of the incident tsunami was the same in both cases. and the aperture loss 6). With regard to the momentum loss that is proportional to the mean flow velocity. Accordingly.1) -----. and there were rapid undulations of surface elevation with the period around 5 to 10 s. it is assumed to have a constant intensity of p below the water surface. However. Under the assumption of small amplitude waves. there was a tendency for the bore type tsunami to have a higher runup than the standing wave type tsunami. The method of Iwasaki and Mano may be used to obtain the runup height over the land in a numerical computation of tsunami. there is a high possibility of tsunami record being different from a tsunami just outside harbor because of the interferences of structures such as breakwaters etc. (5) Bore Type Tsunami 3) Notable features of the tsunami that accompanied the Nihonkai-Chubu Earthquake of 1983.2.5H above the still water level and p (=1.1r0gH) at the still water level. the influence of the change in cross-sectional area may be calculated approximately using Green’s equation (equation (6.4.) on a tsunami 3). within the harbor. along the northern coast of Akita Prefecture where a coastline with a shallow bottom slope of about 1/200 continues for as much as 30 km. (6) Tsunami Simulation Numerical simulations of tsunamis correspond to the case where the meteorological disturbance term (which represents a forcing external force) is removed from the numerical computation scheme for storm surge. which takes place when there is a sudden constriction or widening of the cross section at the opening between breakwaters. When estimating the effectiveness of tsunami mitigation facilities. it did not produce multiple bores. consideration is given to friction along the sea bottom.4.1) is applicable under the conditions that the variations in both the width and the water depth are very gentle and that no reflected waves moving offshore are generated. 4). the quantity of overtopping per unit width may be calculated using Hom-ma’s formula.4. that if there is a breakwater. It is also acceptable to use one half of the standing wave height as the incident wave height. When h/L < 0. and the increase in wave height induced by seiche in the bay. the wave force is assumed to be zero at a height h = 1. forming the shape of multiple bores. when this tsunami arrived at coastlines with a relatively steep bottom slope (around 1/50) such as the west coast of the Oga Peninsula. (7) Tsunami Wave Force The wave force of tsunami is given as the wave force of a long wave.4. Note. the equation cannot be applied to the area of shallow water nor the case when there are reflection effects at the end of the bay. when handling such data. (4) Tsunami on Tide Observation Records Tide observation records provide an extremely useful source of tsunami data. but rather took the shape of standing waves. were that the wave profile transformed markedly as the tsunami propagated.1)). however. In this case the distance between the maximum water level in front of the breakwater and the still water level may be used as the incident wave height. T. owing to reflection. according to the results of numerical simulations. In tsunami simulations that use hydraulic model experiments. a tsunami wave profile that has previously been reproduced by a numerical simulation is generated at the model boundary to investigate the effectiveness of breakwaters and the effects of the topography of reclaimed land 5).= æ ----è Bø è hø H0 where H： height of long waves for a cross section with the width B and the water depth h (m) H0： height of long waves for a cross section with the width B0 and the water depth h0 (m) Note however that equation (6. The incident wave profile is assigned in advance. The simulation makes it possible to investigate the effectiveness of breakwaters designed to protect harbors and coastal zones against tsunamis and the effect of topographic changes (land reclamation etc. Moreover it does not consider the energy loss due to friction. and the wave height H is that of progressive tsunami. However. Correction for wave direction is not made. A method for calculating the tsunami wave force when a bore type tsunami acts on an upright wall has been presented based on experimental results 3). the loss in tsunami momentum is an important factor. or it is assumed that the initial variation in the water level is equal to the displacement of the sea floor in the earthquake fault model. and to have a linear distribution in between. -132- . and may be assumed to be as sketched in Fig.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (3) Transformation of Tsunami in a Bay The most important types of transformations that a tsunami undergoes in a bay are the increase in wave height and flow velocity caused by the decrease in the cross-sectional area toward the end of bay. B0 1 ¤ 2 h0 1 ¤ 4 H -ö æ ----ö (6.6. the tsunami wave height in front of the breakwater becomes twice that for the case when there is no breakwater.04 and there is no wave breaking.

5. which is long and narrow in shape and surrounded by quaywalls.6.1 Bay Shape Models In an actual bay.2) of the following: 4l (6.9228 ln ----a = í 1 + ----p 4lø ý lè î þ 1¤2 (6. ì p bö ü 2b æ . but the water of the open sea around the bay entrance also oscillates somewhat. narrow rectangular shape as shown in Fig. 1.81m/s2) Fig. When seiche occurs in a harbor.…) > h： mean water depth in the bay (m) > = g： gravitational acceleration (m/s2) (= 9. which can cause severe problems to moored vessels and cargo handling work. Seiche is particularly liable to occur in an artificially excavated harbor.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Fig.1) T = ------------------------------( 2m + 1 ) gh l where l T： natural period (s) l： length of bay (m) m： number of nodes in the bay (0.5.2 Distribution of Wave Pressure by Tsunami 6. the amplitude of these fluctuations may be anything from a few tens of centimeters up to around 2m. Small long waves in the outer sea may have an amplitude of the order of a few centimeters. not only does the seawater within the bay oscillate in a periodic fashion. Depending on the topography. the presence of seiche shall be considered as necessary when fixing the design water level or investigating the tranquility in mooring basins.1 (a) are given approximately as in the following equation: 4l (6. [Technical Notes] (1) Natural Periods The natural periods of a bay that has a long.4. It occurs when small fluctuations of the water level are generated by a microscale variations of the atmospheric pressure by an air front or a low in the outer sea.6. the long wavelength results in a great deal of water movement in the horizontal direction. It is thus necessary to make a correction to the natural period with equation (6.5. T. and then the amplification factor for these waves in the harbor is calculated. T. This can be done using say a numerical calculation 9).0. as obtained from the following equation 10).3) -133- . even if the wave height is only a few tens of centimeters.2) T = a --------gh where h： mean water depth in the bay (m) a： bay entrance correction factor.6. It is desirable to avoid such the shape of a harbor that the amplitude of long waves may be amplified by ten times or more within the harbor. T. It is thus desirable to investigate the effects of seiche when drawing up a harbor plan. whereby incident waves with the period from a few minutes up to around one hour are inputted. 2.5.5. [Commentary] Seiche is a phenomenon involving abnormal oscillations of the water level with a period of approximately a few minutes to a few tens of minutes.5.5 Seiche For harbors where the seiche motion is anticipated. and the components of these oscillations whose period is the same as a natural period of the harbor are amplified through resonance.

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

where l： length of bay (m) b： width of bay (m) Table T- 6.5.1 lists the values of the bay entrance correction factor a calculated for different values of b/l.

Table T- 6.5.1 Bay Entrance Correction Factor b/l a 1 1.320 1/2 1.261 1/3 1.217 1/4 1.187 1/5 1.163 1/10 1.106 1/25 1.064

The natural periods of a rectangular harbor that has a narrow entrance as shown in Fig. T- 6.5.1 (b) may be calculated approximately with the following equation: 2 (6.5.4) T = -----------------------------------------------2 2 nö ü ì mö m - + æ --g h í æ --è bø ý è lø î þ where b： width of harbor (m) m： number of nodes in the harbor in the length direction (0, 1, 2, …) n： number of nodes in the harbor in the width direction (0, 1, 2, …) Note however that because of the effect of the harbor entrance, the natural periods of an actual harbor are slightly lower than those calculated using this equation. (2) Amplitude The magnitude of amplification factor for the resonant oscillations in a harbor by seiche is limited by the energy carried out by the disturbance waves that are radiated from the harbor entrance, and the energy lost through the vortices at the harbor entrance and the bottom friction within the harbor. Accordingly, even if the period of longperiod waves arriving at the harbor coincide with one of the natural periods of the harbor, it is not the case that the amplitude of the oscillations in the harbor will rise to infinity. Note however that when there is very little energy loss by vortices and friction, it is necessary to take heed of the harbor paradox, which refers to a phenomenon whereby the narrowing of a harbor entrance results in the greater amplification within the harbor. The amplitude amplification factor R for the concave corners at the head of a rectangular-shaped harbor when the entrance loss is ignored may be obtained as a function of the ratio of the harbor length to the wavelength using either Fig. T- 6.5.2 or Fig. T- 6.5.3. According to Fig. T- 6.5.2, in a harbor with a long, narrow rectangular shape, resonance occurs when the period is slightly longer than that corresponding to a wavelength that satisfies the conventionally-cited resonance condition, namely the harbor length being odd quarters of the wavelength (1/4, 3/4, 5/4, etc.). According to Fig. T- 6.5.3, the resonance points for a harbor with a wide rectangular shape are more-or-less the same as those for a completely closed rectangular lake; in other words, they are given approximately by the following equation: -- = L

l

n2 m 2 + ------------bö 2 æ2 ----è lø

: m, n = 0 , 1 , 2 , …

(6.5.5)

Amplitude amplification factor R

Relative length of the port

Amplitude amplification factor R

Relative length of the port

Fig. T- 6.5.2 Resonance Spectrum for a Harbor with Long, Narrow Rectangular Shape 11)

Fig. T- 6.5.3 Resonance Spectrum for a Harbor with Wide Rectangular Shape 11)

-134-

PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

(3) Countermeasures against Seiche Seiche is the phenomenon whereby long-period waves penetrates into a harbor from the entrance, repeates perfect reflection within the harbor, and increases its amplitude. In order to hold down the amplitude of seiche, it is thus necessary to make the reflection imperfect around the inner perimeter of the harbor, or increase the energy loss within the harbor. For this reason, it is not advisable to build solid quaywalls around the whole perimeter of a harbor. If a permeable rubble-mound breakwater with a gentle slope is used, wave reflection can be reduced to some extent, and in addition one can expect a certain energy loss within the core of breakwater. Furthermore, by installing an inner breakwater close to the position of a node of the seiche in a harbor, the amplitude of the seiche can be somewhat reduced. Regarding the shape of the harbor, it is thought that an irregular shape is better than a geometrically regular shape.

**6.6 Groundwater Level and Permeation
**

The groundwater level in coastal aquifers of sandy beaches shall be examined when there is a risk of arousing a problem by the change of the groundwater level. The flow velocity and rate of permeation through water-permeable ground or structures shall be examined when there is a risk of arousing a problem by their changes.

[Technical Notes] (1) Groundwater Level in Coastal Aquifer The elevation of brackish groundwater intruding in a coastal aquifer may be estimated using the following equation (see Fig. T- 6.6.1) 12): 2 2 x 2 2 (6.6.1) h = h 0 + ( h l h 0 ) -L where r1 r1 - z , h l = --------------z h 0 = -------------r2 r1 0 r2 r1 l h： depth below the sea surface of the interface between fresh water and saltwater at the distance x (m) h0： depth below the sea surface of the interface between fresh water and saltwater at x = 0 (m) hl： depth below the sea surface of the interface between fresh water and saltwater at x = L (m) r 1： density of the fresh water (g/cm3) r 2： density of saltwater (g/cm3)

Fresh water level

Sea

Fresh water

Salt water

Salt w

ater le

vel

Fig. T- 6.6.1 Schematic Drawing of Groundwater at Coast

z 0： elevation of fresh water above the sea surface at the coast (x ＝ 0) (m) z l： elevation of fresh water above the sea surface at x ＝ L (m) L： distance from the coast (x ＝ 0) to the reference point (m) x： landward distance from the coastline (m)

Equation (6.6.1) cannot be applied if an impermeable layer exists close to the ground surface or in the aquifer: For the relationship between the rise of groundwater level due to wave runup and beach profile change, see in 10.1 General [Technical Notes] (8). (2) Permeation into Foundation and Structures (a) Permeation through a sheet pile wall The flow rate of permeation through a sheet pile wall is not determined purely by the permeability of the wall; rather, the permeability of the soil behind the wall has a dominating influence. Shoji et al. 13) examined this problem, and carried out comprehensive permeation experiments in which they not only varied the tension of the joints, but also added the cases with and without sand filling in the joint section. They concluded to propose the following experimental formula: q = where q： K： h： n： Kh

n

(6.6.4)

flow rate of permeation through a sheet pile joint per unit length in the vertical direction (cm3/s/cm) permeation coefficient for the joints (cm2-n/s) pressure head difference between the front and back of a joint (cm) coefficient depending on the state of the joints (n ≒ 0.5 when the joints are not filled with sand, and n ≒ 1.0 when the joints are filled with sand) When there was sand on both sides of the sheet pile and the joints were under tension, Shoji et al. obtained a value of 7.0 × 10-4 cm/s for K in their experiments. However, they also pointed out that if the permeation flow

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

is estimated with this value, then the flow rate turns out to be as much as 30 times that observed in the field. For actual design, it is thus necessary to pay close attention to any difference between the state of the sheet pile wall used in the experiments and those used in the field. (b) Permeation through rubble mound The flow rate of permeation through a rubble mound foundation of a gravity type structure may be estimated using the following equation: q = UH U = where q： U： H： d： g： DH/DS： z： 2gd DH -------- × ------z DS

flow rate of permeation per unit width (m3/s/m) mean permeation velocity for the whole cross section of rubble mound (m/s) height of the permeable layer (m) rubble stone size (m) gravitational acceleration (= 9.81 m/s2) hydraulic gradient resistance coefficient

Equation (6.5.5) has been proposed based on the experimental results using eight different types of stones of uniform size, with the diameter ranging from 5 mm to 100 mm. The virtual flow length DS may be taken to be as the total of the 70% to 80% of the permeable layer height and the width of the caisson base. The coefficient of resistance is shown in Fig. T- 6.6.3. When R e ( = Ud / n ) > 10 4 , it is acceptable to take z ≒ 20.

Fig. T- 6.6.3 Relationship between Resistance Coefficient and Reynolds Number

678

Ud R e = -----n

(6.6.5)

[References]

1) IPCC: “Climate Change 1995”, IPCC Second Assessment Report, The Science of Climate Change, 1995, 572p. 2) Toshihiko NAGAI, Kazuteru SUGAHARA, Hiroshi WATANABE, Koji KAWAGUCHI: “Long team observation of the mean tide level and lond waves at the Kurihama-Bay”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1996. (in Japanese). 3) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Kazuo MURAKAMI, Shigeru MURATA, Hiroiti TSURUYA, Shigeo TAKAHASHI, Masayuki MORIKAWA, Yasutoshi YOSHIMOTO, Susumu NAKANO, Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “Field and laboratory investigations of the tsunami caused by 1983 Nihonkai Chubu Earthquake”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 470, 1983, 299p. (in Japanese). 4) Chiaki GOTO, Kazuo SATO: “Development of tsunami numerical simulation system for Sanriku Coast in Japan”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1995. (in Japanese). 5) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “Hydraulic model tests on tsunamis at Suzaki Port”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 549, 1986, 131p. (in Japanese). 6) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Norihiro NAGAI, Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “The numerical calculation of tsunami in Tokyo Bay”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 454, 1986, 131p.(in Japanese). 7) Toshihoko NAGAI, Noriaki HASHIMOTO, Tetsuya HIRAISHI, Katsuyoshi SHIMIZU: “Characteristics of the HokkaidoEast-off-Earthquake Tsunami”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 802, 1995, 97p. (in Japanese). 8) Koji KOBUNE, Toshihiko NAGAI, Noriaki HASHIMOTO, Tetsuya HIRAISHI, Katsuyoshi SHIMIZU “Characteristics of the Irianjaya Earthquake Tsunami in 1996”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 842, 1996, 96p. (in Japanese).

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**PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS
**

9) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA, Tetsuya HIRAISHI: “Amplification mechanism of harbor oscillation derived from field observation and numerical simulation”, Tech. Note of PHRI, No. 636, 1988, 70p. (in Japanese). 10) Honda, K., T. Terada, and D. Ishitani: “Secondary undulation of oceanic tides”, Philosophical Magazine, Vol.15,1908, pp.88126. 11) Ippen, A.T. and Y. Goda: “Wave-induced oscillations in harbors: the solution for a rectangular harbor connected to the open sea,” M.I.T. Hydrodynamics Lab. Report No.59, 1963, 90p. 12) Todd, D. K.: “Groundwater Hydrology”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1963. 13) Yoshihiro SHOJI, Masaharu KUMEDA, Yukiharu TOMITA: “Experiments on seepage through interlocking joints of sheet pile”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1982, pp. 41-82 (in Japanese).

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

**Chapter 7 Currents and Current Force
**

7.1 General

(1) The current parameters that shall be used in the design of port and harbor facilities are the velocity and the direction. The severest conditions shall be set, based on either the field measurements at the installation location of the facilities in question or the numerical estimation. (2) For the current force, consideration shall be given to the drag and lift, depending on the type of the facilities in question and the structural form.

[Commentary] For structures that are located in a place where there is strong currents such as a tidal currents or river flow, it is necessary to carry out investigations on the forces produced by the currents with the largest velocity from the most unfavorable direction. Depending on the type of structures or members, it may also be necessary to consider the vertical distribution of the current velocity. When waves coexist with currents, it is necessary to use the current velocity and direction in the state of coexistence. Types of currents in the sea area include ocean currents, tidal currents, and wind drift currents, which are described in the [Technical Notes] below, along with density currents caused by the density differences due to salinity or water temperature. In addition, in the coastal area, there are longshore currents and rip currents caused by waves. [Technical Notes] (1) Ocean Currents Ocean currents are the phenomenon involving the circulation of seawater around the ocean as a whole. They are the result of a combination of the following currents: a) density currents that are based on local differences in the density of seawater, b) wind-driven drift currents that are caused by the wind, and c) gradient currents that accompany spatial inequalities in the atmospheric pressure, along with d) compensation currents (upwelling currents and or sinking currents) that supplement the aforementioned currents. Ocean currents maintain the almost steady direction and strength over prolonged periods of time. (2) Tidal Currents (a) The nature and strength of tidal currents vary with the geographical conditions of the sea area in question and the celestial movements. In order to analyze the harmonic components of tidal currents, it is necessary to carry out continuous observation for at least 25 hours or advisably for full 15 days. In particular, if the topography of a place is going to be changed considerably, for example when carrying out large-scale land reclamation in shallow coastal waters, it is desirable to examine the resultant changes in tidal currents at the planning stage. (b) The tidal currents are the flow of seawater in the horizontal direction that accompanies a tidal variation of sea level. This variation consists of the tidal components (diurnal tide, semi-diurnal tide, etc.) of the water level and is thus periodic. (3) Wind-Driven Currents When a wind blows over the sea surface, the friction on the boundary between the air and the sea surface produces a shear stress that causes to induce a flow on the sea surface. As this flow develops, the turbulent eddy viscosity of the seawater causes the lower layers to start to be pulled along by the upper layers. If the wind velocity and direction remain constant for a prolonged period of time, a steady state of currents is eventually reached. Such the currents are referred to as the wind-driven currents. (4) Nearshore Currents In the surf zone, there exist special currents called the nearshore currents induced by waves. Because the nearshore currents are induced within the surf zone, they transport suspended sediments and cause topographical change of beaches. Consequently, an understanding of the pattern of nearshore currents leads to a deeper perception of topographical change.

**7.2 Current Forces Acting on Submerged Members and Structures (Notification Article 7)
**

It shall be standard to calculate the drag and lift forces caused by currents acting on a member or a structure that is submerged or near the water surface using the following equations: (1) Drag Force 1 - C r AU 2 F D = -2 D 0

(7.2.1)

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

where F D： CD： r0： A： U：

drag force acting on the object in the direction of the current (kN) drag coefficient density of water (t/m3) projected area of the object in the direction of the current (m2) flow velocity (m/s)

(2) Lift Force 1 - C r A U2 F L = -2 L 0 L where FL： lift force acting on the object in the direction perpendicular to the current (kN) CL： lift coefficient AL： projected area of the object in the direction perpendicular to the current (m2)

[Commentary]

(7.2.2)

The fluid force due to the currents acting on members of a pile-supported structure such as a pier, a pipeline, or the armor units of a mound is proportional to the square of the flow velocity. It may be divided into the drag force acting in the direction of the current and the lift force acting in the direction perpendicular to this. Note also that a thin, tubelike object in the water may be subject to vibrations excited by current-induced vortices. [Technical Notes] (1) Drag Coefficient The drag to a submerged object due to currents is expressed as the sum of the surface resistance due to friction and the form drag due to pressure difference around the object. The drag coefficient varies according to the shape of the object, the roughness, the direction of the current, and the Reynolds number, and thus the value appropriate to the conditions in question must be used. When the Reynolds number is greater than about 103, the values listed in Table T- 7.2.1 may be used as standard values for the drag coefficient. Note that for a circular cylinder or sphere with a smooth surface, there is a phenomenon whereby the value of the drag coefficient drops suddenly when the Reynolds number is around 105. However, for a circular cylinder with a rough surface, this drop in drag coefficient is not particularly large, and the drag coefficient settles down to a constant value that depends on the relative roughness. For the values of the drag coefficient when a prism or L-shaped member is oriented diagonally relative to the current, search for references. The data for the cube have been obtained from wave force experiments carried out by Hamada, Mitsuyasu and Hase.

Table T- 7.2.1 Drag Coefficients

**Shape Circular cylinder (rough surface) Rectangular prism Circular disc Flat plate
**

a

Projected area

D

D

Drag coefficient

1.0 D

B

B

2.0

B

D

πD2 4

1.2

= /> = 1 = /> = 2 = /> = 4 =/>= 10 =/>= 18 = /> =

b

ab

1.12 1.15 1.19 1.29 1.40 2.01

Sphere Cube

D D

D

πD2 4

D

0.5

0.2

D2

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1.3

1.6

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

(2) Lift Coefficient As with the drag coefficient, the lift coefficient varies with the shape of the object, the direction of the current, and the Reynolds number. However, the lift coefficient is not well understood (see 5.4.1 Wave Force on Submerged Members). (3) Current Force Acting on Submerged Breakwater As for the force acting on the coping of the submerged section at the opening of tsunami protection breakwater, Iwasaki et al. have measured the pressure on the coping due to the currents. They obtained the values of 0.94 for the drag coefficient and 0.48 for the lift force coefficient. Tanimoto et al. have carried out similar measurements, obtaining the values 1.0 to 1.5 for the drag coefficient and 0.5 to 0.8 for the lift coefficient. They have also pointed out, however, that when the flow velocity in the breakwater opening is large, the presence of the water surface gradient causes the coefficient values to increase.

**7.3 Mass of Armor Stones and Concrete Blocks against Currents (Notification Article 48, Clause 6)
**

It shall be standard to calculate the required mass for the armor units (rubble etc.) on a rubble mound to be stable against currents by means of either appropriate hydraulic model experiments or else the following equation: p rr U 6 M = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------(7.3.1) ( 48 ) g 3 y 6 ( S r 1 ) 3 ( cos q sin q ) 3 where M： rr： U： g： y： Sr： q： minimum mass of armor stones and blocks (t) density of armor stones and blocks (t/m3) current velocity above armor stones and blocks (m/s) gravitational acceleration (= 9.81 m/s2) Isbash’s constant (1.20 for embedded stones; 0.86 for exposed stones) specific gravity of armor stones and blocks relative to water slope angle in the axial direction of the channel bed (º)

[Technical Notes] (1) Isbash’s Equation With regard to the mass of rubble stone that is stable against currents, the US Army Coastal Engineering Research Center (CERC) has presented equation (7.3.1) for the mass that a rubble stone must have in order to prevent scouring by tidal currents 8). (2) Isbash’s Constant Equation (7.3.1) has been derived by considering the balance between the drag caused by a flow acting on a spherical object on a sloped surface and the frictional resistance of the object. The coefficient y is termed Isbash’s constant. It would appear that the values of 1.20 and 0.86 for embedded stones and exposed stones, respectively, were determined by Isbash, but the details were not documented. Since equation (7.3.1) has been obtained by considering the balance of forces for steady flow, for places where it is anticipated that strong vortices will be generated, it is necessary to use rubble stones of larger mass. (3) Armor Units for the Mound at the Opening of Tsunami Protection Breakwaters Iwasaki et al. have carried out two-dimensional steady flow experiments in which they used precast concrete blocks as the armor for the mound in the opening of breakwaters designed to protect harbors and coastal area against tsunamis. They obtained a value of 1.08 for Isbash’s constant in equation (7.3.1). Tanimoto et al. have carried out three-dimensional experiments on the opening of a tsunami breakwater. They clarified the structure of the three-dimensional flow near the opening, and revealed the relationship between the damage ratio and Isbash's constant when stones or precast concrete blocks were used as the covering material. [References]

1) Kazuo MURAKAMI, Masayuki MORIKAWA, Tatsuya SAKAGUCHI: “Wind effect and water discharge effect on constant flow - discussion using observation data at off-Sennan (1978-1981) -”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1982, pp. 3-39 (in Japanese). 2) Masch, F. D.: “Mixing and dispersion of wastes by wind and wave action”, ‘Advances in Water Pollution Research,’ Proc. Int. Conf., Vol. 3, 1962, pp. 145-168. 3) Longuet-Higgins, M.S. and R.W. Stewart: “Radiation stress and mass transport in gravity waves, with application to ‘surf beat’”, J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 13, 1962, pp. 481-504. 4) Bowen, A. J., D. L. Inman, and V. P. Simons: “Wave ‘set-down’ and ‘set-up’”, J. Geophs. Res. Vol. 73, 1968, pp. 2569-2577. 5) Kazumasa KATOH, Shin-ichi YANAGISHIMA, Tomoyoshi ISOGAMI, Hiroyuki MURAKAMI: “Wave set-up near the shoreline - field observation at HORF -”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1989, pp. 3-41 (in Japanese).

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

6) Yoshimi GODA: “Deformation of irregular waves due to depth-controlled wave breaking”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1975, pp. 59-106 (in Japanese), also “Irregular wave deformation in the surf zone”, Coastal Engineering in Japan, JSCE, Vol.18, 1975, pp.13-26. 7) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO, Katsutoshi KIMURA, Keiji MIYAZAKI: “Study on stability of submerged disk at the opening section of tsunami protection breakwaters”, Rept of PHRI, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1988, pp. 93-121 (in Japanese). 8) Coastal Engineering Research Center: “Shore Protection Manual”, Vol. II, U.S. Army Corps of Engineering, 1977

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

**Chapter 8 External Forces Acting on Floating Body and Its Motions
**

8.1 General

The motions of a floating body produced by external forces such as those due to winds, currents and waves, along with the mooring force, shall be given due consideration in design of the floating body and related facilities.

[Commentary] (1) Floating Body In general, a floating body refers to a structure that is buoyant in water and its motions within a certain range is permitted during use. When designing a floating body, it is necessary to investigate both its functions that are going to be demanded and its safety. In general, the design conditions for the investigation of its function differ from those for the examination of its safety. (2) Mooring Equipment Mooring equipment comes in a whole variety of types and is generally composed of a combination of mooring lines, mooring anchors, sinkers, intermediate weights, intermediate buoys, mooring rods, connection joints, and fenders. The mooring equipment has a large influence on the motions of a floating body, and so it is important to design this equipment safely and appropriately. [Technical Notes] (1) Classification of Floating Bodies The floating bodies used as port and harbor facilities can be divided into floating terminals, offshore petroleum stockpiling bases, floating breakwaters, mooring buoys, and floating bridges. Moreover, researches for development of extra large floating structures (mega-float) are being carried out. (2) Classification of Mooring Methods and Characteristic Features of Each Method Floating bodies can also be classified by the type of mooring methods. As described below, mooring methods include catenary mooring (slack mooring), taut mooring, and dolphin mooring. (a) Catenary mooring (Fig. T- 8.1.1(a)) This is the most common mooring method. With this method, the chains or whatever used in the mooring are given sufficient lengths to make them slack. This means that the force restraining the motions of the floating body is small, but nevertheless the mooring system fulfills the function of keeping the floating body in moreor-less the same position. There are various types of catenary mooring, depending on factors like the material of the mooring lines, the number of mooring lines, and the presence or absence of intermediate buoys and sinkers. (b) Taut mooring (Fig. T- 8.1.1(b)) This is a mooring method that reduces the motions of the floating body greatly; a tension leg platform (TLP) is an example. With this method, the mooring lines are given a large initial tension so that they do not become slack even when the floating body moves. The advantages of this mooring method are that the floating body does not move much, and only a small area is needed for installing the mooring lines. However, it is necessary to take note of the fact that because a large tensile force is generated in the mooring lines, the design of the lines becomes the critical factor on the safety of the floating body. (c) Dolphin mooring (Fig. T- 8.1.1(c)) With this method, mooring is maintained using either a pile-type dolphin or a gravity-type dolphin. In general, this method is suitable for restraining the motions of a floating body in the horizontal direction, but a large mooring force acts on the dolphin. This method has been used for mooring floating units of offshore petroleum stockpiling bases. (d) Mooring method using a universal joint (Fig. T- 8.1.1(d)) The mooring system shown in the figure is an example of a mooring method that can be used to moor a large offshore floating body. Examples of mooring systems that use a universal joint on the sea bottom include a SALM (Single Anchor Leg Mooring) type mooring buoy and a MAFCO (MAritime Facility of Cylindrical cOnstruction) tower.

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

Fender

Chain Mooring anchor

Dolphin

(a) Catenary mooring

(c) Dolphin mooring

Damper

Universal joint

(b) Taut mooring

(d) Mooring by universal joint

Fig. T- 8.1.1 Examples of Mooring Methods for Floating Body

**8.2 External Forces Acting on Floating Body (Notification Article 26, Clause 1)
**

When a port or harbor facility is made of a floating structure, it shall be standard to take the following forces in design calculation: wind drag force, current drag force, wave-exciting force, wave-drift force, wave-making resistance, restoring force, and mooring force. These forces shall be calculated by means of an appropriate analytical method or hydraulic model experiments, in accordance with the mooring method for the floating body and the size of facility.

[Technical Notes] (1) Wind Drag Force With a structure for which a part of the floating body is above the sea surface, winds exert a force on the structure. This force is called the wind drag force (or wind pressure), and is composed of a pressure drag and a friction drag. If the floating body is relatively small in size, the pressure drag is dominant. The pressure drag is proportional to the square of the wind velocity and is expressed as in the following equation: 1 -r C A U 2 (8.2.1) F w = -2 a DW W W where Fw： wind drag force (N) ra： density of air (1.23 kg/m3) AW： projected area of the part of the floating body above the sea surface as viewed from the direction in which the wind is blowing (m2) UW： wind velocity (m/s) CDW： wind drag coefficient The wind drag coefficient is a proportionality constant and is also known as the wind pressure coefficient. It may be determined by means of wind tunnel experiments or the like. However, it is also acceptable to use a value that has been obtained in the past experiments for a structure with a shape similar to the structure under current study. Values such as those listed in Table T- 8.2.1 have been proposed as the wind drag coefficients of objects in the uniform flow. As can be seen from this table, the wind drag coefficient varies with the shape of the floating body, but it is also affected by the wind direction and the Reynolds number. Note that it is considered that the wind pressure acts in the direction of the wind flow, with the point of application being the centroid of the projection of the part of the floating body that is above the water surface. However, it is necessary to take heed of the fact that this may not necessarily be the case if the floating body is large. Moreover, the velocity of the actual wind is not uniform in the vertical direction, and so the value of the wind velocity UW used in the wind pressure calculation is set as that at the elevation of 10 m above the sea surface.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

Table T- 8.2.1 Wind Pressure Coefficient

Square cross-section

2.0 1.6

1 2

**Rectangular cross-section 2 (ratio of side lengths = 1:2)
**

1

2.3 1.5

(when one face is in contact with the ground) Circular cross-section (smooth surface)

1.2 1.2

(2) Current Drag Force When there is currents such as tidal currents, these currents will exert a force on the submerged part of the floating body. This force is referred to as the flow pressure or the current drag force. Like the wind drag force, it is proportional to the square of the flow velocity. Note however that since the velocity of the current is generally small, the current drag force is actually expressed as being proportional to the square of the velocity of the current relative to the velocity of motion of the floating body as in the following equation: 1 - r C A | UC U | ( U C U ) (8.2.2) F C = -2 0 DC C where FC： current drag force (N) r0： density of fluid (for seawater, 1030 kg/m3) AC： projected area of the submerged part of the floating body as viewed from the direction of the currents (m2) UC： velocity of the currents (m/s) U： velocity of motion of the floating body (m/s) CDC： drag coefficient with respect to the currents The drag coefficient CDC is a function of the Reynolds number. When the Reynolds number is large, however, the values for steady flow in Table T- 7.2.1 in 7.2 Current Forces Acting on Submerged Members and Structures may be used. The drag coefficient for the currents varies with the shape of the floating body and the direction of the currents. As with the wind pressure, the direction of the force exerted by the currents and the direction of the currents itself are not necessarily the same. In general, the deeper the draft of the floating body relative to the water depth, the larger the drag coefficient for the currents becomes. This is referred to as the shoaling effect, and the drag coefficient increases because the smaller the gap between the sea bottom and the base of the floating body, the harder it is for water to flow through this gap. (3) Wave-Exciting Force The wave-exciting force is the force exerted by incident waves on the floating body when the floating body is considered to be fixed in the water. It is composed of a linear force that is proportional to the amplitude of the incident waves and a nonlinear force that is proportional to the square of the amplitude of the incident waves. The linear force is the force that the floating body receives from the incident waves as reaction when the floating body deforms the incident waves. The velocity potential for the deformed wave motion is obtained using wave diffraction theory. The nonlinear force, on the other hand, is composed of a force that accompanies the finite amplitude nature of waves and a force that is proportional to the square of the flow velocity. The former force due to finite amplitude effect can be analyzed theoretically, but in practice it is often ignored. The latter force that is proportional to the square of the flow velocity becomes large, in particular when the diameter of the floating body is small relative to the wavelength; it is necessary to determine this force experimentally. (4) Wave-Drift Force When waves act on a floating body, the center of the floating body’s motion gradually shifts in the direction of wave propagation. The force that causes this shift is called the wave-drift force. If it is assumed that the floating body is two-dimensional and the wave energy is not dissipated, then the wave-drift force is given by the following equations: 1 - r g H 2R (8.2.3) F d = -8 0 i

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PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS

ì 4ph ¤ L ü R = K R2 í 1 + ------------------------------(4ph ¤ L) ý sinh î þ where r0： density of seawater (kg/m3) Fd： wave drift force per unit width (N/m) Hi： incident wave height (m) KR： reflection coefficient R： drift force coefficient

(8.2.4)

If the dimensions of the floating body are extremely small relative to the wavelength, the wave drift force may be ignored as being much smaller than the wave-exciting force. However, as the floating body becomes larger, the wave drift force becomes dominant. When irregular waves act on a floating body moored at a system having only a small restraining force, such as a single point mooring buoy designed for use of supertankers, the wavedrift force becomes a dominant factor as it may give rise to slow drift motions. (5) Wave-Making Resistance When a floating body moves in still water, the floating body exerts a force on the surrounding water, and the floating body receives a corresponding reaction force from the water; this reaction force is called the wavemaking resistance. This force may be determined by forcing the floating body to move through the still water and measuring the force acting on the floating body. In general, however, an analytical method is used whereby each mode of the floating body motions is assumed to be realized separately, and the velocity potential, which represents the motion of the fluid around the floating body, is obtained. Only the forces that are proportional to the motion of the floating body may be determined analytically; the nonlinear forces that are proportional to the square of the motion cannot be determined analytically. Out of the linear forces (i.e., that proportional to the motion of the floating body), the term that is proportional to the acceleration of the floating body is called the added mass term, while the term that is proportional to the velocity is called the wave damping term. (6) Restoring Force The static restoring force is the force that makes a floating body to return to its original position when the floating body moves in still water. It is generated by buoyancy and gravity, when the floating body heaves, rolls or pitches. This force is generally treated as being proportional to the amplitude of the motion of the floating body, although this proportionality is lost if the amplitude becomes too large. (7) Mooring Force The mooring force (restraining force) is the force that is generated in order to restrain the motion of the floating body. The magintude of this force depends greatly on the displacement-restoration characteristics of the mooring system. (8) Solution Method for Wave-Exciting Force and Wave-Making Resistance Using Velocity Potential The method adopted for calculating the wave-exciting force and the wave-making resistance involves deriviation of the velocity potential, which represents the motion of the fluid, and then calculating the waveexciting force and the wave-making resistance from the potential. The analytical method with the velocity potential is the same for both the wave-exciting force and the wave-making resistance, the only difference being the boundary conditions. The velocity potential may be obtained using any of a number of methods, such as a region segmentation method, an integral equation method, a strip method, or a finite element method. (9) Wave Force Acting on Fixed Floating Body with Rectangular Cross Section When a floating body is fixed in position, the velocity potential that satisfies the boundary conditions at the sea bottom and around the floating body can yield the wave force. The wave force acting on a floating body with a long rectangular cross section such as a floating breakwater can be determined using the approximation theory of Ito and Chiba 2). (10) Materials for Mooring For the materials used in mooring and their characteristic features, search for appropriate references. (11) Forces Acting on an Extra Large Floating Structure For an extra large floating structure (mega-float), the external forces described in (1) ~ (10) above are different from those for a smaller floating body, because of its large size and elastic response characteristics of the floating body structure. It is thus necessary to carry out sufficient investigations on the motions and elastic response characteristics of the floaty body structure.

**8.3 Motions of Floating Body and Mooring Force (Notification Article 26, Clause 2)
**

The motions of a floating body and the mooring force shall be calculated by means of an appropriate analytical method or hydraulic model experiments, in accordance with the shape of the floating body and the characteristics of the external forces and the mooring system.

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TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN

[Commentary] The motions of a floating body can be determined by Heaving solving the dynamic equilibrium equation, with the Yawing Rolling external forces taken to be the forces due to winds and Surging waves, the restoring force of the floating body itself, and the reaction forces of the mooring lines and fenders. If the floating body is assumed to be a rigid body, then its motions are comprised of the six Pitching components shown in Fig. T-8.3.1, namely surging, swaying, heaving, pitching, rolling and yawing. Out of Swaying these, the modes that represent motions within the horizontal plane, namely surging, swaying and yawing, may show long-period oscillations with the period of a Fig. T- 8.3.1 Components of Vessel’s Motion few minutes or more. Such long-period oscillations have a large influence on the occupancy area of a vessel at a mooring buoy and the design of the mooring system. One may thus give separate consideration to the long-period oscillations, taking only the wave-drift force and the long-period oscillation components of the winds and waves as the external forces when doing analysis. If the floating body is very long, elastic deformation may accompany the motions of floaty body and this should be investigated as necessary. [Technical Notes] (1) Methods of Solving the Equations of Motions (a) Steady state solution method for nonlinear equations of motion The equations of motions for a floating body are nonlinear, meaning that it is not easy to obtain solutions. Nevertheless, if it is assumed that the motion amplitudes are small and the equations of motion are linearized by using linear approximations for the nonlinear terms, the solutions can be obtained relatively easily. For example, for a three-dimensional floating body, one ends up with a system of six simultaneous linear equations involving the amplitudes and phases of the six modes of motions. Note that if the floating body is assumed to be a rigid body and its motions are linear, then the motions are proportional to the external forces. In particular, if there are no currents or wind, then the motions are proportional to the wave height. (b) Numerical simulation of nonlinear motions The wind drag force and the current drag force are in general nonlinear, and moreover the restraining forces of mooring equipment are also often nonlinear. In this case, an effective solution method is to use a numerical simulation whereby the equations of motion are progressively solved for a series of time steps. Such numerical simulation is commonplace nowadays. First, the time series data (which will be used as the external forces) are obtained for the wave-exciting force and the flow velocity due to the waves from the input of incident wave spectrum, as well as the fluctuating wind speed from the wind spectrum. The external forces obtained from these time series data are then put into the equations of motions for the floating body, and the time series data for the motions of the floating body and the mooring force are calculated. Numerical simulations are used for analyzing the motions of all kinds of floating bodies. For example, Ueda and Shiraishi 3) have carried out numerical simulations on the motions of a moored vessel, and Suzuki and Moroishi 4) have analyzed the swinging motion of a vessel moored at a buoy. Note that the following is usually assumed as preconditions in a numerical simulation: ① the fluid is an ideal fluid; ② the amplitudes of motions of the floating body are small; ③ the incident waves are linear and their superposition is allowed. If these assumptions cannot be held, it is necessary to carry out hydraulic model experiments. (2) Hydraulic Model Experiments Hydraulic model experiments provide a powerful technique for determining the motions of a floating body and the mooring force. Up to the present time, hydraulic model experiments have been carried out for all kinds of floating body. For examples, see references 5) and 6). (3) Law of Similarity for Mooring Systems The characteristics of the motions of a floating body vary greatly with the mooring method. When carrying out hydraulic model experiments on a floating body, it is thus particularly important to give appropriate consideration to the laws of similarity for the displacement and reaction force characteristics of the mooring equipment. For example, with a mooring rope, if the material used in the hydraulic model experiments is kept the same as that used in the field and the size is simply scaled down while maintaining the same shape, then the law of similarity will not hold; rather it is necessary to scale down the elastic modulus of the material used in the models relative to that used in the prototype. In practice, however, it will probably be unable to find such a material, in which case various other contrivances must be used.

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Shigeru CHIBA: “An approximate theory of floating breakwaters”. 829. Vol. Rept of PHRI. 6) Sigeru UEDA: “Analytical method of ship motions moored to quay walls and the aplications”. No. 1983. No. 15-28 (in Japanese). Shin-ichiro TACHINO: “Feild observation of motions of a SALM buoy and tensions of mooring hawsers”. Note of PHRI. 22. 181-218 (in Japanese). 2. Masami FURUKAWA. -147- . 5) Yasumasa SUZUKI: “Study on the design of single point buoy mooring”. 4) Yasumasa SUZUKI. Vol. pp. 48 p. No. Vol. 3) Shigeru UEDA. Tech. Note of PHRI. 21. (in Japanese). Tetsuya HIRAISHI. 107-150 (in Japanese). No.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [References] 1) Tomotsuka TAKAYAMA. Rept of PHRI. pp. 542. 11. 1972. Tech. No. Kunihisa SAO. 2. 4. Note of PHRI. 38 p. No. pp. 1984. (in Japanese). Kazuyuki MOROISHI: “On the motions of ships moored to single-point mooring systems”. 372 p. Satoru SHIRAISHI: “Method and its evaluation for computation of moored ship’s motions”. 1985. 2) Yoshiyuki ITO. 1982. 1996. Rept of PHRI. 504. (in Japanese). Tech.

it can be applied to an estuary where the tidal range is small (less than 20 cm) and the tidal compartmut is not long (say up to about 3 to 4 km upstream).2). ---------.1 Diagram Showing Water Level Curves m/s2) Equation (9. waves.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 9 Estuarine Hydraulics 9.1. ------.1 General (Notification Article 8) In planning and designing port and harbor facilities in an estuary where a river flows into the sea.( H z ) -----.1. estuarine hydraulic phenomena such as the flow situation at the times of high water and low water in the river.1) 2 2 aQ æ 1 1 ö Q æ 1 1 ö -------------D h = h1 h2 = z2 z1 Dx ------. T.1. However. It is thus necessary to give consideration to both conditions of rivers and the sea when handling estuarine hydraulics.81 Fig.ç -------+ -------2 2 2 ÷ 2 ÷ 2gs ç 2 è A1 A 2 ø è K1 K2 ø (9. the bedload. estuaries are also affected by the tide level changes. it cannot be applied to an estuary where there are strong tidal effects and a reverse.9. [Commentary] In addition to the effect of outflow of fresh water during floods and droughts and the sediment transport from rivers.1. -------i + -----=0 2 ¶t 3 è 3 2 ø ¶x ¶x gA ¶t ¶x (9. (a) When tides are negligible (see Fig. K 2 = A 2 R 1 / 3 / n 2 R： hydraulic radius (m) n： Manning’s roughness coefficient (s/ m1/3) Dx： distance between two cross sections (m) t： time (s) B： river width (m) H： water level from an arbitrary datum level (m). --------------.1. T. Consequently. These phenomena have a large influence on the flow regime in the estuary and the transport of sediment and others. the formation of density currents. Even so. and the coexistence of waves and river flow shall be estimated appropriately.2) gA gA gA K ¶A ¶Q . several hydraulic phenomena occur such as the periodic changes in water level and current speed. As a result.9.+ -----.1. it should only be used for the order estimate of hydraulic quantities during planning.1. and the settling and deposition of sediment. because the calculation is only an approximation while ignoring tides. and littoral drift.1) (b) When tides are considered 64748 1 ¶ Q 2 QB ¶ H Q B æ ¶ Hö Q ¶B ¶H Q Q . .-----.1) or equation (9. [Technical Notes] (1) Tides in River The surface water level in a river channel can be calculated using either equation (9.+ ----------. tidal changes and density currents. longshore currents. upstream flow occurs during a flood tide.-----.+ -----¶t ¶x where Dh： difference in water depth between two cross sections (m) h1： water depth at cross section 1 (m) h2： water depth at cross section 2 (m) z1： height of river bed above an arbitrary datum level at cross section 1 (m) z2： height of river bed above the arbitrary datum level at cross section 2 (m) z： height of river bed above the arbitrary datum level (m) a： velocity coefficient a ≒ 1. tidal currents. -148- 2 2 .= 0 -----.0 Q： flow rate (m3/s) A： cross-sectional area (m2) K： flow carrying capacity of cross section (m3/s). H = h + z Cross Section 2 Cross Section 1 i： channel bottom slope g： gravitational acceleration (g = 9.1) is a modified form of the basic equation for non-uniform flow in a channel of arbitrary cross section.

Incidentally.2) represents the equations of motions and continuity having been modified from the basic equations for unsteady flow in a river. When waves with an increased height run up the river channel. (a) Deformation of waves by currents (deepwater waves) As shown in Fig.1. where the phase velocity of waves relative to the river flow is given as g h and it is not affected by the river flow.9.( u /C1) sin a 1 ] C 2 / C 1 = [1 . the wave height should increase in the exactly opposite current. however.5) cannot be applied to waves after breaking. However. Wave direction cre st Wa ve L1 Zone 1: Still water α1 u=0 u C1 α2 c ve Wa t res C2 L2 Zone 2: Flowing water Uniform flow Fig. (b) Deformation of waves by currents (finite water depth) Near a river mouth. and turbulence of currents. and waves breaking theoretically occur when u = -C1/4. and the wave height decreases. If waves can be regarded as deepwater waves (i. the velocity of waves is generally affected by currents and is different from the case of no river flow. According to equation (9.1.1. (2) Waves Entering an Estuary Upon entering a river mouth. the deformation of waves depends on the properties of both waves and river flow.4) The deformation of deepwater waves propagating on exactly opposite currents is given by equation (9. while the subscript 2 denotes zone II (flowing water). 644474448 C 2 / C 1 = ( 1 + m ) /2 L 2 / L 1 = ( 1 + m )2/4 H 2 / H 1 = 1/ 1 + 4 u / C 1 m = 1 + 4u / C1 (9. when waves propagates at an angle a across the straight boundary of discontinuity between the zone I where the water is still and the zone II where the water is flowing with a uniform velocity. changing the wave celerity and wavelength. However.1. These opposing effects are related to the properties of river flow and waves. In addition to refraction due to the water depth. along with the nonlinear interaction between them. while equation (9. Equations (9.1. When the direction of waves is exactly opposite to that of river flow.1. waves are deformed by the currents. T.2 Refraction of Waves Due to River Flow 6447448 sina 2 = sin a 1 /[1 . refraction occurs at the boundary. However.4) was presented by Longuet-Higgins and Stewart 2). Arthur 4) has carried out calculations whereby he specified the sea bottom bathymetry and the flow velocity distribution. it should be noted that equation (9. He assumed the linear long waves. it is not so easy to solve equations (9. simultaneous solutions can be obtained by equations (9.2) numerically.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Equations (9. Equations (9.3) and (9.9.5).1. refraction due to the difference in the directions between waves and currents causes the attenuation of wave height.2. according to Yu’s experiments.. where the flow rate and water level are the variables. the water is sufficiently deep relative to the wavelength in both the zones I and II). for a channel with a variable cross section. and the mechanism of wave height change is very complex.3) was proposed by Johnson 1).5).1.1. wave height may increase through energy exchange through the river flow’s stopping action or radiation stress.( u /C1) sin a 1 ]2 L 2 / L 1 = [1 . It is thus not easy to estimate the wave height.1.1. T.1.1.3) (9. where the water depth is relatively shallow compared with the wavelength of the incoming waves.2) with appropriate boundary conditions. the wave celerity equation C = g L 2 leads to equations (9.5) where a： angle between the boundary line and the wave crest (º) u： uniform flow velocity in zone II (m/s) (positive when the flow is following the direction of propagation of the waves. -149- . negative when it is against) L： wavelength (m) C： wave celerity (m/s) H： wave height (m) Note that the subscript 1 denotes zone I (still water).e.( u /C1) sin a 1 ] H2 / H 1 = sin 2 a 2 / sin 2 a 1 2 1 (9.4).5) is a relationship that was obtained by Yu 3). the wave height gradually decreases due to the effects of internal and external frictions.1. In order to estimate the surface water level and flow rate due to the tidal action and propagation of tsunami into an estuary.1.1. wave partially breaks around u = -C1/7.

Flocculation causes large changes in the settling characteristics of fine sediment. and so it is necessary to monitor the bottom level constantly. and flocculation is promoted in the zone where saltwater and fresh water mix. This is the major difference between siltation and littoral drift. However. (3) Siltation and Channel Maintenance (a) Siltation When constructing a harbor. 5) have proposed a numerical calculation method for obtaining the directional spectrum of irregular waves near a coast where the water depth changes and currents are present. including that of navigation channels. and settling. water content.2 g/cm3 7). it is necessary to continue dredging in order to maintain the functionality of the harbor because siltation occurs. Sakai et al. it is often necessary to carry out dredging. and South America that have similar problems. any quantitative discussion was not made. Venezuela and Indonesia. In Europe. Bathymetry measurement using a sounding lead or echo-sounders has been carried out for a long time for the purpose of managing and maintaining navigation channels. bottom sediment need to be removed immediately. and small craft basins. The siltation phenomenon can be divided into three stages: picking-up and transport of bottom mud by currents. much efforts are being made for the measurement. mooring basins. The sediment in the estuarine part of a bay is often composed of fine particles such as clay and silt (hereafter referred to as mud). They show several cases of calculations. it is necessary to carry out dredging in order to increase the water depth of the navigation channels and mooring basins. In some of the large European ports such as Rotterdam. transported. For places where siltation is particularly pronounced. however. China. since the phase velocity and the group velocity of waves relative to the currents cannot be given in advance. the texture. The sediment on the sea bottom is usually subject to external forces such as currents and waves. accumulation and consolidation. Bordeaux and Nantes. and accumulates at the sea bottom is referred to as “siltation”. the rates of the wave height increase and the wavelength decrease with the river flow were slightly larger for the parabolic velocity distribution than for the uniform distribution. there is much room for further study on the way in which the wave breaking conditions are given. Fine particles of mud that have settled onto the sea bottom experience a process of dewatering and form the bottom sediment. the sea bottom in approach channels is covered with fluid mud with a density of 1. However. In the echo-sounding. it is important to define the water depth which ensure safe navigation. There are also many harbors in Europe. organic matter content. a fluid mud layer can be detected by using different frequencies. depending on the characteristic features of the mud (duration over time after settling (the level of consolidation). whereby the sand is generally treated as individual grain. In estuaries. as well as in estuaries in Brazil.05~1. to excavate the sea bottom to deepen it in order to create navigation channels. Zeebrugge. However. In such a case. when h = 15 cm. have proposed a method for calculating the wave refraction in a current field on uneaven bottom. Iwagaki et al.3 g/cm3. and control of water depth. Consequently. maintenance. The major difference between siltation and littoral drift (mainly sand) comes from different grain sizes. Southeast Asia. that it is not really sufficient to fix the water depth for which navigation is possible simply by using such equipment. The two frequencies commonly used are say 210 kHz (sound waves of this frequency are reflected from the surface of the fluid mud) and 33 kHz (sound waves of this frequency passes through the fluid mud but is reflected from sand or higher-density mud). According to Hamada’s calculations. etc.2 s and u = 20 cm/s. where many navigation channels have the problem of heavy siltation (in particular in the Rotterdam Europort area). mutual interference between waves and the bottom mud layer. there is a tendency that the change in the principal wave directions are affected mainly by the water depth and that wave components with frequency higher than the peak freakency are affected by currents. i. if the coming vessels are going to increase in size. -150- . the resistence characteristic of mud against erosion by external forces such as waves and currents vary. because this definition directly affects the timing and quantity of dredging. If the required water depth is not sufficient for the safe navigation of vessels. In most of the harbors in the world that suffer from heavy siltation. the safe nautical depth is specified as being the depth at which the density of bottom material is no more than 1. and several harbors in the Suo Nada Sea area are faced with the problem of siltation. Dunkirk.e. The mud that leads to siltation has a tendency to flocculate due to the mixing of the river water and the seawater in an estuary. for both the distributions the wave height increases by about 5% in comparison with the case of no river flow. In harbors that suffer from heavy siltation. and then its strength gradually increases over a long period of time through consolidation. Even with an existing harbor. Near to the sea bottom.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN For wave deformation near a river mouth. both waves and currents exist simultaneously.). This means that even after construction of a harbor has been completed. T = 1.. the water depth of navigation channels is quite changeable. Kumamoto Port and Miike Port in the Ariake Sea. Note. it is said that the difference between the surface detected by 210 kHz sound waves and that detected by 33 kHz sound waves can be as much as a few meters 6). For example. the density of the mud generally varies with depth. The phenomenon whereby such fine sediment is picked up. Hamada has determined the changes that steady shallow water waves undergo while running up an estuary for both the cases that the vertical velocity distributions are uniform and parabolic. strictly speaking. In Japan. With regard to the nature of waves immediately after they have entered an estuary and come up against the river flow.

Although it is ultimately desirable to carry out direct evaluation by means of a viscosity meter. The layer contains a very high concentration of mud in fluid condition and easy to move. they have concluded that the density of fluid mud lies in the range 1. T. the rheology characteristic) and the internal waves generated at the mud/water boundary do not cause any change in the water depth.000 mg/l 9). Ishizuka and Nemoto 8) have developed a density measuring device that uses the g rays. T. it is expected that navigation channels and mooring basins will be subject to siltation. there should be no damage to the hull. when there was nothing at all in this sea area.1.. with over 60 cm of siltation occurring in just one day.05~1. it can be considered that at the present technical stage.3 g/cm3. 3. (b) Formation of fluid mud The fluid mud layer is often found in estuaries or on the continental shelf close to the coast. The three trenches were all of the same size. separated from each other by 100m) were located where the water depth is 2m. Fig. 2 and No. During two large storms in 1987. hardly any siltation occurred at all. New measuring equipment for the sediment density in navigation channels using the g rays has been developed in Europe 6). ② The viscous drag induced by the underside of a moving vessel (i.000~300. there was also no trace of any significant mud accumulation along the outsides of the submerged dykes. The locations of the trenches are shown in Fig.1.e.1. ① Even if the draft of a vessel approaches the nautical depth. The criteria mentioned above can be considered that the water depth has been defined from a physical standpoint. in Trench No.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS In addition to this density requirement. which was surrounded by submerged dykes.e.9. Before construction was commenced. 3.3. -151- . Krone1 9) defines a fluid mud layer to have a mud concentration of at least 10.9.2 silted up rapidly. Kirby and Parker1 10) have obtained the vertical distribution of the density within a fluid mud layer using a density measuring device that makes use of the scattering properties of the g rays. However.1 and No.. 3 was made different from the other two in that it was surrounded by 1 m-high submerged dykes. the following two criteria must be satisfied. By comparing with the results of echo sounding measurements. i.3 Locations of Trenches Used in Siltation Experiments Figure T. In Japan. the water depth has been specfied using the density value that is most reliable in terms of measurement technology. and two (Trenches No. (c) Effect of submerged dykes In Kumamoto Port.000 mg/l. and proposals of countermeasure are being investigated. but Trench No. as measured at the center of each of the three trenches.9. The mud concentration in the fluid mud layer is of the order of 10.4 shows the time series of the amount of siltation in each trench. One (Trench No. Trenches No. three test trenches for siltation experiments were constructed. Large-scale field observations are thus being carried out to investigate siltation process in this area. which is currently being constructed on very gentle mud flats of the Ariake Sea. In fact. 1) was located where the water depth is 4m.

9 9409 Area 2 9412 9503 Area 1 Area 1 95.9 9409 9409 9409 9412 9412 9412 4/1 Area 8 5/1 9503 9503 9503 95.5 Time History of Siltation in Various Areas of Kumamoto Port Area 7 -100 -100 -100 -100 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 0 Area 2 Area 2 Area 1 Area 1 .3 (DL-2m) 93.10 94.1. 9209 9210 9211 9212 9301 9302 9303 9303 9303 9303 9302 9302 9302 9301 9301 9301 9212 9212 9212 9211 9211 9211 9210 9210 9210 9209 9209 9209 -152Area 6 2000(m) 8/1 9209 92.1 (DL-4m) Trench No.3 9303 12/1 Area 5 9305 9308 9310 1988 1/1 Area 4 9312 Area 3 Anchorage 93. T.9.4 Time History of Siltation in the Central Parts of Three Test Trenches TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Fig.10 94.2 9405 9405 9405 3/1 1000(m) 94.3 N 9303 9303 9303 9305 9308 9310 9312 9402 9402 9402 9312 9312 9310 9310 9308 9308 9305 9305 -100 100 0 0 0 Area 9 Area 8 Area 7 100 100 100 0 Area 10 9210 1986 12/1 9211 -100 9210 9211 -100 -100 Deposition height 0 1987 1/1 2/1 Area 9 Waterway 93.2 (DL-2m) Trench No. T.6 9506 9506 9506 6/1 Units : cm 7/1 Fig.1.6 9506 -100 -100 -100 -100 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 0 9/1 Area 6 Area 5 Area 4 Area 3 10/1 9209 9209 9209 9210 9210 9210 9211 9211 9211 9212 9212 9212 9301 9301 9301 9302 9302 9302 9303 9303 9303 9305 9305 9305 9308 9308 9308 9310 9310 9310 9312 9312 9312 9402 9402 9402 9405 9405 9405 9409 9409 9409 . .9 9209 9209 100 cm 150 50 9210 9211 9212 9301 9302 9302 9302 9301 9301 9212 9212 93. 3/1 9412 9412 9412 0 50 100 cm 150 9503 9503 9503 9506 9506 9506 .2 9405 9405 9405 9405 9409 9409 9409 9409 9412 9412 9412 9412 9503 9503 9503 9503 9506 9506 9506 9506 9402 2/1 9405 Area 2 94.0 Dredging 9209 Area 10 92. Units : cm .9 9305 9308 9310 9312 9402 9402 9402 9402 9312 9312 9312 9310 9310 9310 9308 9308 9308 9305 9305 9305 9210 9211 9212 9301 11/1 9302 Trench No.9.

28. G.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Figure T. Trans. U. on the other hand. 4. No. 4) Arthur. December 1987.: “Flume studies of the transport of sediment in estuarial shoaling processes”.1. 1983.9. 110 p. pp. 1974.. 33. Vol. It is thought that this was caused by fluid mud flowing in from the lower section of the pier. Trans. V. A. 6) De Vlieger. W. 1950. 423-424. A. R..: “Refraction of shallow water wave . and J. 2-18. Report of Working Group 3-a. S. Brussels.. Rept of PHRI. M.: “Cohesive sediment transport model and its application to approach channels and anchorages in estuarine ports”. G. 1986. Hydraulic Engneering Lab. Springer-Verlag. 7) PIANC: “Navigation in muddy areas”. W. Stewart: “The change in amplitude of short gravity waves on steady non-uniform currents”. 641. [References] 1) J. Vol. 1988. For the mooring basin part (Areas 1’~5). (d) Numerical simulation In order to forecast siltation. hardly any silt accumulation was observed from October 1993 onwards. University of California. The places from where the fluid mud flowed in are currently being plugged up. Vol. and then Tsuruya et al. H. Trans. in J. De Cloedt: “Navitracker: a giant step forward in tactics and economics of maintenance dredging”. Fifth International Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineerring (OMAE) Symposium. Dronkers: “Physical process in estuaries: An introduction”. R. 549-552.. PIANC. 59-65. while others are in a mooring basin. Langkawi. settling. and R. “Physical Processes in Estuaries”. 9) Van Leussen. and continuous observation is being carried out. 1991. 8) Koji ISHIZUKA. R. pp. Yi-Yuan: “Breaking of waves by an opposing current”. 31. 43(1982Å . Johnson: “The refraction of surface waves by current”. pp. 1962. 3) Yu. there was progressive sedimentation. and J. G. Malaysia. pp. Takashi NEMOTO: “Development of mud layer density meter using radio isotope”. No. pp. with the fluid mud model that describes the formation of fluid mud and its flow mechanism. 560 p. 1950. and erosion mechanisms. Submerged dykes of 1 m to 1. 6. pp. A. and develop the computational models that incorporate the above-mentioned flocculation. 39-53. LIV.The combined effect of current and underwater topography -”. 5) Sakai.1983).. Tsuruya 12) has applied a multi-layered level siltation forecasting model to Kumamoto Port. Vol. Terra et Aqua 35. van Leussen (ed). B. J. -153- . 2) Longuet-Higgins. 12) Tsuruya. and Y. it is necessary to predict external forces such as currents and waves. Excerpt from Bulletin No. Vol. 1952. and Sanitary Research Lab. S. The Dock and Harbour Authority. Hirosue. They have shown that this model accurately represents the siltation of Kumamoto Port during a typhoon.5 shows the change over time in siltation for a number of areas of Kumamoto Port after it was partially opened. No. 1947. Seminar Text on Maritime Infrastructure Development. F. 10. Dronkers and W. No. Barkeley. Inagaki: “Wave directional spectra change due to underwater topography and current”. R. U. Proc. Fluid Mech. W. 529-549. have extended it into a new model that includes fluid mud layer mechanism.5 m in height were installed on the both sides of the navigation channel. thus showing the effect of the submerged dykes in effectively preventing siltation. H. 1. pp. 30. 11) Kirby. T.. 1.. Vol. 85-109 (in Japanese). November 1995. Vol. and W. some of the areas are in a navigation channel. Parker: “Seabed density measurements related to echo sounder records”. 10) Krone. For the part of navigation channel (Areas 6 to 10).

(5) When waves approach a coast from offshore. where waves will reach during stormy weather with the rise of water level. or material that is moved by the above process.1. At a certain water depth. and the adjacent coastline. When building structures such as breakwaters. detached breakwaters. [Technical Notes] (1) Coast Topography (a) Terminology for various sections of a beach profile Various sections of a sandy beach are defined with the terminology shown in Fig. by changes in sand supply conditions following construction of coastal structures. The “inshore” (nearshore) refers to the area between the offshore and the low tide shoreline. in the broad definition the littoral drift is also considered to include wind-blown sand at beaches. The sediment is exposed to the action of waves or currents during the supply process or after it has accreted on the beach. It contributes to the advance and retreat of a shoreline. and appropriate coastal protection countermeasures should be taken any time when there are concerns about the possibility for disaster triggered by coastal erosion. This is why the sediment shows characteristics that reflect the characteristics of external forces such as waves and currents. He applied the former term to the situation in which the sand in the surface layer on the sea floor is moved collectively in the direction of wave movement. longshore sediment transport rate. (6) Longshore sediment transport rate refers to the rate of littoral drift in the direction parallel to the coast that is caused by waves obliquely incident to a coast.1. The “offshore” is the area on the ocean side where waves do not break normally. The “foreshore” is the zone from the low tide shoreline to the location where waves will reach normally. it is often accompanied by beach erosion or accretion over a long period of time. The water depth at this boundary where sediment begins to move is called the threshold depth of sediment movement. and in many cases the bottom slope is comparatively gentle.10. Then beach deformation will occur as the beach moves toward new equilibrium conditions. [Commentary] (1) Littoral drift refers to either the phenomenon that the sediment composing a sea coast or lakeshore is moved by the action of some force such as waves or currents. and the “backshore” is the zone from the landward boundary of foreshore to the coastline. (3) Sediment that forms a beach is supplied from nearby rivers. -154- . where waves break and longshore bars or steps are formed. In addition. coastal cliffs. The latter term he applied to the situation that the sand shows striking movement with a distinctly visible change in water depth (see [Technical Notes] (4)). (7) Longshore sediment moves in either the right or left direction along a coast. This is referred to as the sediment sorting action by external forces. however. (8) The littoral drift in the direction parallel to the coastline (shoreline) is designated as the longshore sediment transport. the sediment begins to move. characteristic values of littoral drift shall be established appropriately for sediment grain size. careful attention should be paid to the deformation conditions of the beach both during construction and following completion of any structure. it achieves a relatively balanced topography over a long period. The direction with the larger volume of movement during a year is called the predominant direction. the movement of water particles near the sea floor does not have the force to move the sediment in places where the water depth is sufficiently deep. Sato 1) studied the movement of sediment by placing radioactive glass sand on the sea floor and investigating the distribution of their movement. he defined two conditions that are called the surface layer movement and the total movement. corresponding to the direction of incoming waves. From this study. (2) Although the movement of sand by winds and the sand that is thus moved are referred to as the wind-blown sand. threshold depth of sediment movement. respectively. Topographical changes that might be induced by a construction project should be sufficiently investigated in advance. and by changes in external forces such as waves and currents. This balance may be lost by a reduction in the supply of sand owing to river improvements.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 10 Littoral Drift 10.1 General (Notification Article 9) When port and harbor facilities are to be affected by the littoral drift phenomenon. Because the process is normally nonreversible. careful attention should be paid to the changes that the construction works will bring about in the balance of the beach. (4) As a natural beach is repeatedly subjected to process of erosion when storm waves attack and that of accretion during periods when waves are moderate. and training jetties. groins. T. and predominant direction of longshore transport.

The bedload includes sheet flow.10. called a step type beach and a bar type beach.1.2) 2 ③ Sorting coefficient ④ Skewness parameter (S0): (Sk): S 0 = d 75 ¤ d 25 S k = d 75 ´ d 25 ¤ ( d 50 ) (10. -155- .1. ① Median diameter (d50): diameter corresponding to a cumulative percentage p = 50% on the grain size distribution curve 100 ② Average grain diameter (dm): d m = -------------------100 p=0 p=0 å dDp (10.1 Terminology of Beach Profile (b) Step type beach (ordinary beach) and bar type beach (storm beach) When a model beach is constructed with natural sand in a wave channel and exposed to waves over a long period of time.3) where p： Dp ： d25： d75： cumulative percentage (%) increase in the cumulative percentage grain size corresponding to 25% of the cumulative percentage grain size corresponding to 75% of the cumulative percentage (3) Form of Littoral Drift Movement Littoral drift is classified into two categories of bedload and suspended sediment.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Coast Coastline Shore Backshore Foreshore High tide shoreline Low tide shoreline Inshore Offshore Bluffs Beach scarp Mean high water Mean Low water Fig.2 Step Type Beach and Bar Type Beach (2) Characteristics of Sediment The grain size characteristics of sediment are normally expressed with the indices given below. (a) Bedload: littoral drift that moves by tumbling.10. T. T. (b) Suspended sediment: littoral drift that is suspended in seawater by turbulence of breakers and others and transported by currents.10. respectively. the beach profile will approach an equilibrium condition corresponding to the waves acting upon it. T.2 (a) and (b). This equilibrium condition of beach is broadly classified into two types as shown in Fig.1.1.1. sliding or bouncing along the surface of the sea floor through the direct action of waves and currents.1) å Dp (10.1. Step type beach (Normal beach) Bar type beach (Storm beach) Forebeach Step Forebeach Trough bar (a) Step type beach (b) Bar type beach Fig. according to the modes of sediment movement.

10. the current velocity of the fluid must exceed a certain value. During the time of wave runup sand is put in suspension by the agitation at the front of a wave and transported by running-up water. Wave height 0 Bed surface current speed amplitude Swash zone Breaker zone Offshore zone Movement in the wave runup zone Agitation from breakers Suspension above sand ripples Undertow Nearshore currents Suspension from breakers Sheet flow Suspension above sand ripples Bedload movement Fig.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (c) Sheet flow: littoral drift that moves as a layer of high density flow near the bed surface. depending upon the physical properties of waves that provide the external forces for the littoral drift phenomenon.3. The volume of sand that moves near the bed surface in a bedload state also increases. whereas during the downflow sand is carried in a bedload mode. sand ripples are extinguished. like that for periods of passing storms. regular.1. When the water depth is shallower than the threshold depth of sediment movement.3 Changes in Sediment Movement Modes in Cross-Shore Direction (4) Physical Meaning of and Estimation Formulas for the Threshold Depth of Sediment Movement To determine the extension of breakwater (water depth at the head) and the required threshold depth of sediment movement when seeking the offshore boundary of beach deformation. the time frame for cross-shore sediment transport is relatively short (from a few days to about one week). For littoral drift the threshold of movement is defined with the water depth (threshold depth of sediment movement). and a sheet flow condition occur in which sediment moves in stratified layers extending several layers below the sea bed surface.1. For convenience the sand movement inside the surf zone is divided into a component that moves parallel to the shoreline (coastline) (called the longshore sediment transport) and a component that is perpendicular to the shoreline (called the cross-shore sediment transport). vortices are generated by the fluid motion in the vicinity of the sand ripples and movement of suspended sediment trapped in the vortices occur. T. While the time frame for beach deformation caused by longshore sediment transport is long. T. ① Offshore zone In order for sand to be moved by the action of fluid motion (oscillatory movement). ③ Swash zone The sand movement in a swash zone differs for the times of wave runup and downflow.10. high-density suspension of sediment is formed by the severe agitation and action of large-scale vortices that are generated by breakers. As the water depth becomes shallower. The dominant mode of the littoral drift movement in each region is as follows. ② Surf zone Inside the surf zone. conducted a number of field surveys -156- Threshold depth of sediment movement . When sand ripples form. Shallow water zones can be classified into three regions as shown in Fig. small undulating topographic contours that are called the sand ripples will form on the sea floor surface. This condition is generally called the threshold of movement.

= 1. (c) Threshold depth of surface layer sediment movement 2 phi H0 H0 d ö1 ¤ 3 .1.× ----sinh -------------.10.1. T.1.1.1.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS using radioactive glass sand as a tracer. (5) Longshore Sediment Transport The predominant direction of longshore sediment transport is determined using the following information: (a) (b) (c) (d) Topography of the natural coast and that around coastal structures (see Fig.35 æ ---è ø L H L L0 0 (d) Threshold depth of total sediment movement H0 ----L0 where L0： H0： L： H： d： hi： 2 phi H0 d ö1 ¤ 3 . T.1.4) Repeated calculations are required to estimate the threshold water depths using equations (10. T. Based upon their observed results they defined the littoral drift movement conditions as follows.4 (a). (a) Surface layer movement: As shown in Fig. the elongation of the isocount lines that show the distribution of radioactive glass sand after waves acted upon it on the sea floor demonstrates that all of the sand has moved in the direction of the waves. T. But the location of the highest count remained at the input point of glass sand.× ----= 2.10.1. T. The threshold depth of total sediment movement is often calculated when the threshold depth of sediment movement is investigated for engineering purposes.5). parallel to the wave direction.1.5) (10. indicating no movement.10. By specifing d/L0 and H0/L0. This corresponds to a situation of distinct sand movement with the result of apparent change in water depth. 2) proposed two equations for estimating the threshold depth of surface layer sediment movement and that of total sediment movement.) Direction of movement of fluorescent sand tracers Direction of incident wave energy flux -157- .10.1.10.4) and (10. This corresponds to a situation in which the surface layer sand is moved collectively by traction. this refers to a situation in which both the isocount lines and the portion of the highest count move in the wave direction. Calculation diagrams like those in Fig.40 æ ---sinh ---------è L 0ø L H deepwater wavelength (m) equivalent deepwater wave height (m) wavelength at water depth hi (m) wave height at water depth hi (m) sediment grain size (average grain size or median diameter) (m) threshold depth of sediment movement (m) (10. (b) Total movement: As shown in Fig.5 (a) and (b) have been prepared so that the depths can be easily estimated. etc. mineral composition. it is possible to determine hi/L0.4 (b).4 Spread of Radioactive Glass Sand in Surface Layer Movement and Total Movement Based upon their field data.6) Alongshore distribution of the sediment characteristics (median diameter. Waves Input point Waves Input point Highest count Highest count Isocount line Isocount line (a) Surface layer movement (b) Total movement Fig.

1.10. T.10. the following various data must be prepared and sufficiently investigated: (a) Continuous observation data of the change in sediment volume in the area around a coastal structure (b) Data on the alongshore component of wave energy flex -158- .5 (a) Calculation Diagram for Threshold Depth of Surface Layer Sediment Movement Fig.1. T.5 (b) Calculation Diagram for Threshold Depth of Total Sediment Movement Predominant direction Jetties Predominant direction Harbor interior Eroding coast protected Littoral drift accretion by a coastal revetment Beach is wide Beach is narrow Predominant direction Detached breakwaters Beach is narrow Beach is wide Predominant direction River current Predominant direction Predominant direction Sand spit Fig.6 Typical Coastal Topography Showing the Predominant Direction of Littoral Drift To estimate the longshore sediment transport rate.1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Fig. T.10.

Q x = aE x Ex = where Qx ： Ex： Kr： nA： w 0： r 0： g： HA ： LA： T： a b： 2 S Kr 64748 æ n A w 0 H A L Aö -÷ sin a b × cos a b ç ---------------------------8T è ø 2 (10.1. 5) inside a breaker zone in the field.6).1. Army Corps of Engineers 4) 0.1.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (c) (d) (e) (f) Data concerning the littoral drift rate at the surrounding coast Data on past dredging quantities Continuous observation data on deposition volume at the location of experimental dredging Data on the volume of movement of fluorescent sand tracers placed within the surf zone Various equations can be used to estimate an approximate value of longshore sediment transport rate 3). with the coefficient a for various equations being as given in Table T.6) longshore sediment transport rate (m3/s) alongshore component of wave energy flux (kN･m/m/s) refraction coefficient between the wave observation point and the breaking point ratio of group velocity to wave celerity at the wave observation point = r0g seawater density (t/m3) (1030 kg/m3) gravitational acceleration (m/s2) (9. Longshore sediment estimation equations are normally given in the expression shown in equation (10. by turbulence caused by wave breaking.04 (6) Littoral Drift Phenomenon in the Surf Zone Inside the surf zone. The white arrows in the figure point out the waves that broke on the offshore side of the observation point and the black arrows point out the waves that passed the observation point and broke on the coast side. Figure T. It is clear that the suspended sediment concentration increased rapidly when waves broke on the offshore side. (b) Settling process during which sediment is buffeted by random external forces following breakup of organized vortices into small eddies.1.1 Coefficient a for Longshore Sediment Transport Rate Equation Savage 3) 0.10.81 m/s2) wave height at the wave observation point (m) wavelength at the wave observation point (m) wave period (s) angle of wave incidence at the breaking point (º) Table T. (a) Sediment suspension process caused by systematic vortices formed by wave breaking.7 gives the results of continuous observations of suspended sediment concentration and horizontal current speed that were carried out by Katoh et al.1.10.03 U.S.022 Sato and Tanaka 1) 0.10. The sediment movement when suspended sediment is predominant can be examined by dividing the movement into two types. T. 4).10.1.7 Example of Field Observation of Suspended Sediment Density 10) -159- .1. and by the existence of nearshore currents. Density Current velocity in the direction of the shore Time Fig. large quantities of sand are put in motion by the increase of the water particle velocity near the bottom. This result indicates that sediment suspension is related to the organized vortices (particularly obliquely descending vortices) that occur after waves break.

27 æ d ö 0. Retreat Index based upon experimental results or Retreat Advance Advance Fig. T. H0 0.10 (b).8 Advance and Retreat of Shorelines in Field HoRF 3/12/86 9/11/86 D. T. the groundwater may flow out of the beach surface during the ebb tide. the groundwater level differs from the foreshore tide level during the time of flood tides and that of ebb tides. T.10. On the other hand.1. T. revised equation (10.= C s ( tan b ) è L 0ø L0 where H 0： L0： tanb： d： Cs： deepwater wave height (m) deepwater wavelength (m) average bottom slope from the shoreline to a water depth of 20 m sediment grain size (m) coefficient Based on equation (10.7) using deepwater wave energy flux and presented a model to calculate the change of daily shoreline locations. Figure T. At certain conditions. But because of the delay in response time.10. during the time of ebb tide the groundwater level is high and it is difficult for seawater to run up on the beach and to permeate underground. When the tide level changes.+1. As shown in Fig.7).1.10.10 6).1. (8) Relationship between Foreshore Topographical Changes and Groundwater Level The topographical changes that accompany the change in the foreshore tide level can be explained as follows by using Fig.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (7) Topographical (Shoreline) Deformation in the Swash Zone Horikawa et al. and it is easy for the seawater running up on the beach to permeate underground. During the flood tide the groundwater level is low.1.1.4m Distance in offshore Calculated value Measured values Offshore direction Shore direction Month seaward Fig.7) ----.8).9 is a comparison of the calculated and actually measured results of shoreline location.1.1. the -160- . and proposed equation (10. the beach groundwater level also changes as a response.1. investigated the criteria for shoreline advance and retreat occurring as a result of sand movement in the swash zone based on laboratory experiments. Thus the sediment carried by the seawater when it runs up on the beach will accrete there.1.L.9 Comparison of Calculation and Actual Measurements of Shoreline Location Katoh et al.10.10. a shoreline will retreat when Cs ≧ 18 (see Fig.1.10. T.67 ---(10.7) which is also applicable for the field condition.

For example. Accretion Sand movement towards the coast Permeation Groundwater surface Erosion (a) Flood Tide Groundwater surface Sand movement towards the offshore Water outflow Accretion (b) Ebb Tide Fig. [Technical Notes] (1) Beach Scouring in Front of Coastal Revetment It is well known that beach scouring in front of coastal revetment has a close relationship with wave reflection. a = 90º). In the gravity methods. Some shore protection methods make use of this relationship between the foreshore groundwater level and sand movement. a highly water-permeable layer is installed in the foreshore sand to cause the groundwater flow down offshore and to lower the groundwater level. i.10. slope gradient of coastal revetment a (for a vertical breakwater. these must be considered carefully when choosing countermeasures against scouring. and the condition becomes as shown in Fig. a high groundwater level condition continues throughout the stormy weather period because the run-up seawater permeates into the beach. T. Occurrence of rapid foreshore erosion during such the condition has been confirmed by the field data. Because the mechanism and amount of scouring will also change when the conditions of wave action on a beach vary with construction of structures. With this method it is possible to preserve beach conditions close to those of a natural beach because no structures are visible above the beach floor.1 Threshold Conditions between Scouring and Accretion in Front of Coastal Revetment -161- . The diagram indicates that all other conditions being equal. median sediment diameter d50. T. it is advantageous to make the front surface of revetment inclined against beach scouring in front of revetment. T.1.10 Relationship between Foreshore Topographical Changes and Groundwater Level 10. Fig. T.10 (b).2.2 Scouring around Structures Scouring shall be taken into consideration when there are concerns that scouring around structures such as breakwaters.2. and return to its original location.e. and the distance l from the wave runup point on an equilibrium profile to the location of the coastal revetment. K Scouring Accretion H0 L0 d50 sin α Fig.10.10.1. and training jetties may affect the safety and integrity of structures. lowering the groundwater level by forced means or gravity and thus halting erosion.. Scouring will occur when structures are erected and the equilibrium between external forces and topography will be disturbed locally or over a broad area. [Commentary] Wave characteristics that act on natural beaches can be considered as nearly fixed over a long period of time.1 has been proposed for determining scouring or accretion by means of the reflection coefficient K and the parameter (H0 / L0)(l /d50) sina. groins.10. Topographies that form in response to these characteristics are nearly stable as well. When waves run up to a high level on a beach during storm periods.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS result is that the sediment that accreted during the time of flood tide will be eroded. which is defined with the wave steepness H0 / L0.

Fig. In addition. where the toe of rubble mound is somewhat away from the wave reflection surface of the upright section.10. The scouring depth becomes largest when the water depth at breakwater head is about 3 m to 5 m (breaker zone).2.10.2.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Local Scouring around Breakwaters (a) Scouring in the surf zone ① Local scouring at the breakwater head Figure T.2 Relationship between Scouring Depth at Breakwater Head and Maximum Significant Wave Height during the Prior 15 Days ② Scouring along the face line of breakwaters Scouring depth Water depth around the breakwater head Fig. and decreases as the water depth becomes shallower or deeper than that point. as analyzed by Tanaka. In case of composite type breakwaters.2. Irie et al. which is based on the field data of a large harbor. The location where the scouring depth is largest corresponds to the location where a longshore bar exist.4 shows the relationship between the scouring depth along the face line of a breakwater and the water depth. The alignment of south breakwater changed from perpendiaular to oblique to the coastline at the water depth of about 7 m. We can see that the scouring depth becomes largest at this inflection point and then gradually decreases as one moves offshore. T.3 Relationship between Scouring Depth around Breakwater Head and Water Depth Scouring depth (m) North breakwater and south breakwater vertical sections South breakwater slope section Figure T.2 shows the local scouring conditions around a breakwater head. T.4 Relationship between Scouring Depth and Water Depth (b) Scouring in standing wave regime Scouring depth in front of a vertical wall tends to decrease as the initial water depth in front of the wall increases and the wave condition is shifted into the standing wave regime. West breakwater Inner breakwater East breakwater North breakwater Inner breakwater South breakwater Kashima Niigata New Port Port of Kagoshima West breakwater Port of Kanazawa Inner breakwater New south breakwater Port ofAkita ofAkita Port Breakwater Port of Mikuni Sankoku Legend Water depth Scouring depth Relationship to (H1/3)max during the prior15 days Fig.10.2.2.3 shows the relationship between the water depth around a breakwater head and the scouring depth.10. Water depth (m) Fig. 7) carried out experiments concerning this type of scouring and highlighted the following issues: -162- .2. The closed cirdes in the figure show the scouring depth in the section of the south breakwater which is oriented obliquely to the coastline. The scouring depth along the sections of breakwaters perpendicular to the coastline are shown with open circles. T. scouring at the toe of rubble mound by standing waves sometimes become a problem. The maximum scouring depth is found to be nearly equal to the maximum significant wave height (H1/3)max during the period up to 15 days prior to the time of scouring measurements.10. T10. It reaches a maximum value at the point of water depth about 2 m.

Fig. When Ub /ω > 10. [Commentary] Various methods exist as procedures for predicting beach deformation. the potential for beach deformation to be caused by construction of structures is judged.6 Sketch of Scouring by Standing Waves 15) 10. By judging which pattern in Fig. T10. He classified characteristics of typical topographical changes in numerous examples of beach deformation.1). (2) Hydraulic Model Experiment (particularly. Based upon the similarities. T. the layout and structural characteristics of structures to be built are compared with past examples of similar nature.1 is applicable to the coast under investigation. it will be necessary to verify the model for reproducibility of the topographical changes that occurred in the past in the study area and to confirm the model’s kinematic similarity. cannot exceed the accuracy of the data collected on beach deformations in the past.3. The L-type scouring refers to the phenomenon where accretion occurs at the antinode of standing waves and scouring occurs at the node. including empirical prediction techniques. the opposite phenomenon (N-type scouring) will occur (refer to Fig.3. and by focusing attention on the reproducibility of the area of most concern. on the basis of collection and analysis of past examples of beach deformation. based on the comparison of several formulas on beach deformation simililarity. however.3 Prediction of Beach Deformation All the related factors shall be thoroughly investigated when predicting beach deformation. Because of the similarity problems being unresolved. experiments are carried out with partially distorting model scales.10. whereas the N-type scouring refers to the opposite phenomenon where scouring occurs at the antinode and accretion occurs at the node. particularly movable bed model experiments.10.2. therefore. it is possible to understand the topographical changes in the vicinity of Japan’s ports and harbors in several representative patterns (Fig.6). The degree of kinematic similarity will be judged by the accuracy of reproduction. The reproductive accuracy of the experiment. -163- . As a result of this research. Before predicting future beach deformation. the ratio of the maximum horizonal velocity of water particles at the bottom by incident waves Ub to the settling velocity of sedimentω. Exceptions to these patterns are relatively rare. because a toe of rubble mound is located at the distance of about 1/4 wavelength or so from the upright section. But the advantage of model experiments is such that specific topographical changes can be reproduced in a laboratory basin and the phenomenon to be forecasted can be understood visually. with scouring occurring at the node and accretion taking place at the antinode (L-type scouring). T. estimation based on hydraulic model experiments (especially with movable bed model experiments). and generally scouring at the node of standing waves is predominant. sediment will move from the location of the node of standing waves to the location of the antinode.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS ① The basic parameter is Ub /ω. is limited because the problem of similarity remains unresolved. scouring and subsidence of the rubble mound of breakwater will occur at its toe as the sediment there move toward the location of antinode at one half wavelength from the upright section. Normally. it is inappropriate to rely on any single method. and numerical simulations. Efforts should be made to predict beach deformation by combining two or more procedures and by investigating the local data and information as comprehensively as possible. Tanaka has carried out research on modeling of the complicated topographical changes that occur after construction of structures. [Technical Notes] (1) Empirical Prediction Techniques The empirical method is a procedure that. Movable Bed Model Experiments) The capability of predicting beach deformation based on hydraulic model experiments. T. a qualitative prediction of beach deformation becomes possible.2. When Ub / ω < 10. with consideration given to factors such as the predicted results by an appropriate forecasting method and the data of past beach deformation at the site in question. and a topographic model that is judged most reliable is introduced in a laboratory basin. Because beach deformation is strongly governed by the characteristics of the region in question.10. Breakwater Node Antinode N-type Rubble mound L-type ② There are many instances in the field where Ub /ω > 10.

Updrift accretion and downdrift erosion by obstructing littoral transport Effect of jetty length Accretion in calm zone With lee breakwater Long.1 Classification of Patterns of Topographical Changes after Construction of Structures . T. oblique breakwater Accretion towards the training jetty of a river month at the edge of a beach Short jetty a Long jetty Accretion on both sides of training jetty of the center of a long concave coast Completion stage Changes in beach and water depth inside a harbor Change in salient by breakwater extension Tombolo formation and associated shoreline changes Formation of a tombolo Inithial stage Change in a shoreline accompanying change in the direction and shape of harbor entrance Accretion between a cape and a breakwater built on the downdrift side of the cape TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN -164- Effect of coastline shape Local scouring in the vicinity of a breakwater At the breakwater head Concave coast Formation of a sand bar at the head of a main breakwater and harbor entrance At a bend Formation of one-side salient Without lee breakwater At a narrow mouth At the front of an oblique section At the side surface of a straight section Convex coast Prevention of local erosion and accretion caused by Mach-stem waves Breakwaters extending obliquely from the shoreline Fig.10.3.

Along with these movements the beach profile will also change. the longshore sediment transport rate can be determined using just the wave height and wave direction at the breaker point as the input. when focusing on beach erosion or accretion over a period of several years. An equation based on Ozasa and Brampton 8) that incorporates this kind of effect is frequently used.. one can assume there is no change on the shape of beach profile and that beach erosion and accretion will correspond to the retreat and advance of the shoreline.+ ----ø ¶ t Ds è ¶ y ord inat e (10. HB Cg B ¶ HB 2K2 -ö . When this is expressed in the continuity of sediment flux. numerical simulations are divided into two models: those that predict changes in the shoreline location. Normally when beach deformation is predicted. littoral drift during storm periods will be predominantly towards offshore.1).2 Relationship between Volume of Shoreline Change and Sand Movement where xs ： t： y： Ds ： Q： q： shoreline location (m) time (s) coordinate in longshore direction (m) width of the littoral drift movement zone (m) littoral sediment transport rate (m3/s) cross-shore inflow (q > 0) or outflow (q < 0) of the littoral sediment transport rate across the onshoreoffshore boundary per unit width in the longshore direction (m3/m/s) To find the longshore sediment transport rate Q.3. A prediction of changes in the shoreline location can then be based on the deposititon and removal of sediment volume primarily from longshore transport. That is. the wave height varies alongshore and longshore currents are induced.× cos q B × --------. i. the sediment will be carried towards the shore and the shoreline will advance.3.10. Thus. beach topographical changes. The former model is called the one-line theory. By introducing the assumption that the beach profile remains unchanged over time and any imbalance in the sediment inflow and outflow simply shifts the beach profile offshore or onshore. the beach will have some structures that produce an area sheltered from incoming waves.× æ -----.× æ K sin 2 q B --------Q = ------------------------16 s ( 1 l ) è 1 ¶y ø tan b 2 (10. it is possible to express the advance and retreat of the shoreline as the result of the imbalance. the coastline should be split along the longshore direction of the shoreline into sections having the width Dy. and the coast will be eroded with a retrent of shoreline. however. when the ¶Q ö inflow of sediment volume QDt and the outflow of sediment volume æ Q + -----.3. When the sea becomes calm.10. Beach sediment is transported by waves and currents both in the offshore and onshore directions and in the alongshore direction. use should be made of the littoral sediment transport rate equation related to the component of the incident wave energy flux at the breaker point in the longshore current direction. Figure T. Because of this sheltered area. Because littoral drift is caused mainly from the direct action of waves.1) Lon gsh co ore Offsh ore d Offshore direction coordinate irecti on co ordin ate Model view Longshore coordinate Plan view Fig. ¶ xs 1 ¶Q .PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (3) Prediction Based on Numerical Simulations At the present time.2) -165- .3. T.e. qö = 0 ------. When looked at on the average profile over a long period of time. accretion will occur if the former is larger and erosion will take place if the latter is larger. and those that predict three-dimensional changes in water depth. the changes caused by onshoreoffshore transport can mostly be ignored when compared with those caused by longshore transport.2 sketches the calculation principles of a shoreline change prediction model. and its overview is given below.3. however. however. This topographical change in the shoreline location and beach profiles caused by the onshore-offshore transport is normally a seasonal one. the result is equation (10. and the inflow and outflow of sediment volume between those widths are considered.D y D t during time period Dt are è ¶y ø compared. As shown in the figure. Using this equation.

Prentice-Hall. ASCE.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN where HB ： CgB： q B： tanb： s： r s： r 0： l： K1. Proc. Alan H. 1962. Note of PHRI. and breaker depth at each measuring line must be calculated using a separate wave deformation calculation. 1962.. pp. they must be used properly to fit the mechanism of beach deformation at the site chosen and the scale of time and area... and N. R. Vol.2) cannot be solved analytically except in extremely simple cases. Vol. P. 3-52 (in Japanese).. Because equation (10. Army Corps of Engineers. 1984. PHRI. Tanaka and I. Tanaka: “Field investigation on sand drift at Port Kashima facing the Pacific Ocean”. No. 1984. 77-103 (in Japanese). 4) U. Irie: “Field observation on suspended-load in the surf zone”. 18. 4. Rept. N. an energy-averaged representative wave is estimated and its dimensions are substituted into the equations for the runup height and the threshold depth of sediment movement as a method to conveniently find the distance Ds. Takamichi KONDO. 7) Isao IRIE. 156p. The distance Ds is determined basically by investigating the volume of beach profile area change from the bathymetric data of the coast in question. No. WW2. [References] 1) Shoji SATO: “A study of littoral drift related to harbor construction”. In the numerical computation Q must be evaluated at each measuring line. Inc. No. 1966. pp. 19th Int. Vol. 23. pp. 5. Kenji TERASAKI: “Two dimensional seabed scour in front of breakwaters by standing waves . Kazuo NADAOKA. 10th Int. Proc. 8) Hiroaki OZASA. (in Japanese). S. K2： breaker height (m) group velocity at the breaker point (m/s) angle formed by the wave front when waves break and the shoreline (º) equilibrium beach slope s = ( rs r0 ) ¤ r0 density of sediment (g/cm3) density of seawater (g/cm3) void ratio of sediment coefficients The width of sediment movement zone Ds is the distance perpendicular to the shoreline from the wave runup point on the beach to the offshore boundary where longshore transport activity becomes insignificant. 3) Savage. 5) Katoh. 2) Sato. S. 1846-1862. The results of comparative tests indicate that when applying the various models to a field site. Conf. 1976. BRAMPTOM: “Models for predicting the shoreline evolution of beaches backed by seawalls”. Coastal Engineering Research Center: “Shore Protection Manual”.a study from the standpoint of bedload movement -”. Several representative models have been tested for mutual comparison. Coastal Engrg. -166- .3. For this purpose the breaker height. of ASCE. 6) Komar. Many kinds of models (profile change. Coastal Eng. 1. three-dimensional change) have been proposed in the past for prediction of various topographical changes. shoreline change. Proc.: “Beach Process and Sedimentation”. Conf.. P. When the available data are inadequate. D. 88. a computer is required to perform the numerical computation. PHRI. Rept. K. 1977. 1979. 1. Tech. Vol. No.: “Laboratory determination of littoral-transport rate”. angle of incidence to the shoreline.

Geotechical properties of subsoil drastically change as a result of the passage of consolidation time or the change in load pressure. it is important to confirm that the ground conditions have not changed due to the changes in load pressure or degree of consolidation. For soundings requiring a bore hole. groundwater level (residual water level). In the case of a structure of a relatively small size or a structure other than pile foundation. permeability. Guidelines for the intervals of boring or sounding investigation points are given in Table T. because they depend on construction cost or importance of the structure. values in the columns of “boring” are to be used. and acoustic survey are very useful to verify subsoil uniformity. while some do not.1 Principles Geotechincal parameters shall be determined appropriately through site investigation and soil tests. [Technical Notes] The location. density condition. Subsoil uniformity is the most important factor for determining the number of investigation points. thickness of soft layers. interval. The investigation depth should be sufficiently deep to confirm presence of the strata that has sufficient bearing capacity.1. the investigation is to be completed upon confirmation of several meters of the layer with N ≧ 30. Table T.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Chapter 11 Subsoil 11.1 Method of Determining Geotechnical Conditions 11. and depth of soil investigation should be determined by taking into consideration the size of the structure. Mechanically determining the intervals of investigation points without consideration of local conditions should be avoided. Existing data such as the results of past investigations. etc. When using old information obtained at the reference site.11. and the uniformity of the subsoil conditions. consolidation characteristics. land topography. [Commentary] The geotechnical conditions for construction include the depth of the bearing layer. The values shown for soundings in the table are those not requiring a bore hole. where N refers to the number of blows in the standard penetration test. -167- . and with N ≧ 50 in the case of a large structure where the pile foundation is expected.1 Guidelines for Intervals of Boring and Sounding Points (a) When stratification is relatively uniform both horizontally and vertically (Units: m) Along the face line of structure Intervals Boring Preliminery investigation Largescale area Smallscale area 300 ～ 500 50 ～ 100 50 ～ 100 Sounding 100 ～ 300 50 20 ～ 50 20 ～ 50 20 ～ 30 10 ～ 15 25 50 ～ 100 Boring Perpendicular to the face line of structure Intervals Sounding Maximum distance from the face line of structure Boring Sounding Detailed investigation (b) When stratification is complicated (Units: m) Along the face line of structure Intervals Boring Preliminery investigation Detailed investigation ～ 50 10 ～ 30 Sounding 15 ～ 20 5 ～ 10 Boring 20 ～ 30 10 ～ 20 Perpendicular to the face line of structure Intervals Sounding 10 ～ 15 5 ～ 10 Maximum distance from the face line of structure Boring Sounding 50 ～ 100 Note: Some soundings require boring holes. the stress distribution in subsoil due to the weight of the structure. deformation characteristics.1.1 for reference. shear properties.1.11. It is difficult to determine the number of investigation points or their depths a priori.

1. considering the area and cost of investigations.1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 11. and the importance of the structure. however. cobblestones and coarse gravel.2.2 Soil Investigation Methods and Soil Parameters. [Commentary] Soil investigation methods should be selected most appropriately for their purpose. wP 11.2 Physical Properties of Soils 11. Since there are suitable investigation methods for alluvial clay.2. Clause 5) The N-values of the “standard penetration test” for soils shall be determined following the JIS “Standard Penetration Test Method for Soils”. size. such as laboratory tests with undisturbed sample or vane shear test in situ. while considering the type.1 Unit Weight of Soil The unit weight of soil shall be determined using undisturbed soil samples or shall be measured directly in situ.11. and importance of the structures as well as the soil properties in the neighboring sites. 11. The standard penetration test can be applied to various soils except those such as bedrock.1.11. evaluation of the soil parameters of alluvial clay by means of the N-value should be avoided. for a layer of soft clay or for a layer containing gravel with a grain size of 10 mm or greater. [Commentary] The N-value determined by the “standard penetration test” is extensively used in Japan. The N-value is measured according to the JIS A 1219 “Standard Penetration Test Method for Soils”. Purpose Verification of conditions of stratification Bearing capacity Slope stability Earth pressure Consolidation characteristics Permeability Compaction characteristics Investigation method Boring Sounding Geophysical exploration Undisturbed sampling Sounding Field test Soil parameters Depth of bearing layer Thickness of soft layer Stratification Unconfined compressive strength Shear strength Angle of shear resistance Relative density Undisturbed sampling Undisturbed sampling Field test Disturbed sampling is allowed Field test Coefficient of consolidation Coefficient of volume compressibility Coefficient of permeability Maximum dry density Optimum moisture content CBR Unit weight Moisture content Soil particle density Gradation Consistency qu tf f Dr cv mv k g d max wopt Classification Undisturbed sampling (Disturbed sampling is allowed except for g t ) w gt rs wL. [Technical Notes] The soil investigation methods are classified by the investigation purpose and the soil parameters in question as listed in Table T.3 Standard Penetration Test (Notification Article 10. The test is less precise. -168- . Table T.1.2 Selection of Soil Investigation Methods Soil investigation methods shall be so determined that soil parameters necessary for design and construction plan of the structures can be secured.

T.75mm 19mm Coarse gravel 75mm 300mm (grain size) Large rocks (boulders) Rock Rock materials Coarse sand Fine gravel Medium gravel Gravel Cobblestone (cobble) Fine materials Coarse materials Fig. Such a soil is labeled as “pooly graded”. coarse soil where fine contents are less than 5% of the total mass is further divided into “broadly-distributed soil” and “uniformed soil”. [Commentary] The coefficient of permeability k is calculated by equation (11. The grain size classifications and their names are shown in Fig.2. [Technical Notes] Engineering Classification Method for Subsoil Materials (Japanese Unified Soil Classification System) The classifying method of soil and rock.2. a small value of Uc means that the grain size distribution is narrow or the grain size is uniform.2. The coarse-grained soil refers to soil composed mainly of coarse fraction with a grain size ranging from 75 mm to 75 mm. [Commentary] Mechanical properties of soil such as strength or deformability have a close relationship with the soil gradation for coarse soils. i = h ¤ L h： head loss (cm) L： length of the seepage path (cm) A： cross-sectional area (cm2) (11.1 Grain Size Classification and Nomenclature 1) The uniformity coefficient is an index showing the grain size characteristics of sandy soil and is defined by equation (11. and their nomenclature should be in accordance with the engineering classification method for subsoil material prescribed by the JGS 0051-2000 “Japanese Unified Soil Classification System” of the Japanese Geotechnical Society. and such a soil is labeled as “well graded”.2.2.3 Coefficient of Permeability of Soil When the seepage flow in a completely saturated ground is a steady laminar flow. Broadly-distributed soil: Uc ≧ 10 Uniformed soil: Uc < 10 11. (11.2.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 11.1).2). In contrast. the coefficient of permeability shall be estimated by using Darcy’s law. Soil consisting of components with a grain size less than 75 mm is called the fine-grained soil. or a in-situ permeability test.1) U c = D 60 ¤ D 10 where Uc： uniformity coefficient D60： grain size correrponding to 60 perent passing of mass in grain size distribution curve (mm) D10： grain size corresponding to 10 perent passing of mass in grain size distribution curve (mm) A large uniformity coefficient means that the grain size is broadly distributed.2) The measurement of k can be carried out for sampled soil by a laboratory permeability test.2. Clause 2) Soil classification shall be made by gradation for coarse soils and by consistency for fine soils. T11.2.2 Classification of Soils (Notification Article 10. [Technical Notes] An approximate value for the coefficient of permeability can be obtained as follows. and gave equation (11. q k = --------i×A where k： coefficient of permeability (cm/s) q： volume of water flow in soil in unit time (cm3/s) i： hydraulic gradient.11. 5 mm Clay Silt 75mm 250mm Fine sand 425mm Medium sand Sand 850mm 2mm 4.3) to calculate k of relatively -169- .2. and with the consistency for fine soils. In the “Japanese unified soil classification system”.1 1). Hazen showed that the effective grain size D10 and the permeability of sand k are related.

2.2. Practically. -170- .3) can also be applied to cohesive soils by using C ≒ 2.3 mm. the elastic constants shall be determined with due consideration for the nonlinearity of stress-strain relation of soils.3. the approximate values for the initial tangent modulus Ei.1) is applicable only for highly structured marine clay with high plasticity. This maximum value Emax is called the dynamic elasticity modulus.1 mm to 0. 11.3 Mechanical Properties of Soils 11. and the effective grain size D10 from 0.1 Elastic Constants When analyzing a ground as an elastic body.4 2). and the secant modulus E50 can be determined by using equation (11.3. determined from a conventional unconfined compression test or a triaxial compression test.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN uniform sand with the uniformity coefficient of Uc less than 5. Clause 3) The coefficient of volume compressibility and other parameters that are used for the prediction of consolidation settlement of soft ground based on the theory of consolidation shall be obtained by laboratory consolidation tests of undisturbed samples according to the JIS A1217-193 “Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils”. although a number of methods have been proposed.2) The equation (11. The secant modulus E50. When conducting an elastic analysis of ground.3. it is necessary to determine the elastic constant by considering the strain level of the ground. The approximate values of the coefficient of permeability are listed in Table T.2 ~ 0. the deformation modulus is largest and nearly constant. Table T. [Commentary] When analyzing a ground as an elastic body.3.2 Consolidation Properties (Notification Article 10. there is no established method currently.3) k = CD 10 2 where k： coefficient of permeability (cm/s) C： constant (C = 100 (1/cm/s)) D10： grain size corresponding to 10 percentage passing of mass in grain size distribution curve (called as the effective grain size) (cm) Terzaghi has pointed out that equation (11.4 Approximate Values of Coefficient of Permeability 2) Soil Coefficient of permeability Sand 10-2 cm/s Silt 10-5 cm/s Clay 10-7 cm/s 11.1) (11. and v = 1/3 ~ 1/2 is used for many other situations. the elasticity modulus decreases. v = 1/2 is used for undrained conditions of saturated soil.11.2. (11.3.2. because it has been measured by the dynamic testing methods such as the elastic wave exploration. which can be regarded as the deformation modulus corresponding to a strain level of 0. is the deformation modulus when the strain is of the order of 10-3. As the strain level increases.3. the deformation modulus and Poisson’s ratio are normally used as the elastic constants. the elastic constants in design must be determined by considering the strain level of the ground to be analyzed. When the strain level is within a range of 10-5 or less.2) 3). (2) Relationship between Undrained Shear Strength and Deformation Modulus For cohesive soils. (3) Poisson’s Ratio For determining Poisson’s ratio of soil. Ei E50 where Ei ： E50： cu ： = 210cu = 180cu initial tangent modulus (kN/m2) secant modulus (kN/m2) undrained shear strength (kN/m2) (11.3.11. Because of the strong nonlinearity of stress-strain relation of soil. [Technical Notes] (1) Strain Dependency of Deformation Modulus The stress-strain relation of soil usually shows a strong nonlinearity.5%.1) and equation (11.

In the e-log p curve method.11. the value of m v decreases with the increase of consolidation pressure.6) where S： final consolidation settement (m) mv： coefficient of volume compressibility when the consolidation pressure is (p0+1/2Δp) (m2/kN) e0： void ratio of soil in situ p0： overburden pressure in situ (kN/m2) Δp： increase in consolidation pressure (kN/m2) h： thickness of layer (m) When the soil is normally consolidated. in the case of Pleistocene clay layer.5) S = h ------------1 + e0 In the m v method. the prediction of secondary settlement is necessary. and Cc method.3). The rate of consolidation for an entire clay layer is represented with the parameter U for the average degree of consolidation. The relationship between U and the nondimensional time factor Tv is obtained by the theory of consolidation.3.11. The relationship between the nondimensional time factor Tv and the actual time t is shown by the following equation: -171- .3. In the Cc method. T.3.3. However. the determination of m v value should be carried out carefully. the final consolidation settlement can be calculated using three methods: e-log p curve method.3.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [Commentary] The standard laboratory consolidation test is prescribed by the JIS A 1217-1993 “Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils.1 and the pressure p is expressed by equation (11. The primary consolidation settlement is determined by the calculation of final settlement and the settlement rate. When port and harbor structures are constructed on normally-consolidated marine deposits. because the determination of m v is easy when the subsoil is normally-consolidated clay.4).4) Fig.11. is given by equation (11. [Technical Notes] The consolidation settlement consists of the primary consolidation and the secondary (delayed) consolidation. S is calculated by the following equation.log10 -----------------S = h ------------p0 1 + e0 where Cc： compression index (11.3. the decrease in void ratio Δe.3). p2 (11. (1) Calculation of Final Settlement by Consolidation By plotting the consolidation pressure p and the void ratio e after the consolidation is completed on semi-logarithmic coordinates. S is calculated by the following equation: S = mv・D p ・ h (11.7) (2) Rate of Settlement The consolidation is the time-dependent settlement phenomenon.3.1 e-log p Relationship of Soil D e = e 1 e 2 = C c log 10 ---p1 When the consolidation pressure is applied to soft ground. because the subsoil is usually at the boundary between the over-consolidated stage and the normally consolidated stage. T.3.3. In some cases. T.3. The relationship between the void ratio e for the segment abc in Fig.4) and the settlement S is calculated by the following equation: De (11.3. p2 (11.3) e 2 = e 1 C c log 10 ---p1 where Cc is the degree of inclination of the segment abc and is called the compression index. the most of the settlement is due to the primary consolidation and the effect of secondary consolidation is negligible. The latter is the settlement that continues after the dissipation of the excess pore water pressure. a socalled “e-log p curve” is obtained as shown in Fig. showing an almost straight line when plotted on logarithmic coordinates.3. The m v method has been commonly used in practice. The former is the settlement that accompanies the dissipation of excess pore water pressure generated due to the increase of overburden pressure. m v (coefficient of volume compressibility) method. Using equation (11. when consolidation pressure increases from p1 to p2. Δe is determined from equation (11.1. Cc p0 + D p . however.

3.11. However.4..3.3. the maximum drainage distance H* is the same as H (half of the thickness of the layer). (b) The consolidation pressure exceeds the consolidation yield stress of the soil layer but not by a large margin.g.3. when the permeable layer only exists in one side.2 Consolidation Isochrones Average degree of consolidation 7 (%) Time factor Tv Fig.11.3 Theoretical Relationship between Average Degree of Consolidation and Time Factor When the permeable layer exist at both sides of the clay layer. T. (3) Secondary Consolidation The progress of consolidation with the lapse of time is exemplified in Fig.2.11. (a) The ground settlement may give an serious influence on structures in the long term after the primary consolidation is completed. H* is equal to 2H.8) Degree of consolidation Fig. -172- . in the case of the settlement of Pleistocene clay in deep layers). T. T. (e. The degree of consolidation at each depth is shown by the consolidation isochrones in Fig. Fig.3.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN cv · • t T v = ----------H* 2 where Tv： time factor cv： coefficient of consolidation (cm2/d) t ： time after the consolidation starts (d) H*： maximum drainage distance (cm) (11. T. In the following cases.11. secondary consolidation must be taken into consideration at design stage.3. T-11. and the contribution of secondary consolidation is not negligible.3 shows the theoretical relationship between the average degree of consolidation and the time factor. Furthermore.

because the theory takes into account the effect of deadweight of clay layer and the changes in layer thickness that are ignored in the conventional theory of consolidation 4). -173- . For cohesive soil layer. Clause 4) To determine the shear strength parameters of soil. 11. The shear strength tf at this time is the shear strength cu that is determined from unconsolidated undrained (UU) tests using the sample before loading.3 Shear Properties (Notification Article 10. the shear strength of the layer undergoes almost no change between before and after construction. Thus in many cases for sandy soil layer the shear strength is evaluated using the frictional angle in drained condition fd and the cohesion in drained condition cd. the excess water in pores is considered to be completely drained during construction. landfill. while the shear strength for cohesive soil shall be determined under undrained conditions. In the case of saturated cohesive soil layer.3. the time-settlement relationship must be calculated with the finite difference method. The drainage condition is classified into the following three categories and the different strength parameters are used for each case: ① Unconsolidated. suction or drainage of pore water) takes place during the shear or not. For sandy soil layer. the coefficient of permeability of sandy soil is 103 ~ 105 times that of cohesive soil. as the drainage cannot take place during construction. The undrained shear strength before construction is therefore used as the strength parameter. almost no drainage is expected during construction because the soil permeability is low. and embankments on soft cohesive soil ground are in this category. the most dangerous time is immediately after the loading when almost no drainage has occurred (this is called the short-term stability problem). the constant strain rate consolidation test can be utilized 5). The shear strength of sandy soil shall be determined under drained conditions.3. The shear strength is then determined using an appropriate testing procedure. Because the value of cd is usually very small. [Technical Notes] (1) Shear Strength Shear strength of soil is greatly dependent upon whether a volume change of soil (in the case of saturated soil. and the analysis using ?u is also called the “f = 0 method”. soil shall be classified into sandy soil and cohesive soil. The drainage condition and shear strength are then as in the following: (a) When loading takes place rapidly on the cohesive soil ground: Because consolidation progresses and shear strength increases with the passage of time. [Commentary] In general. undrained condition (CU condition) ③ Consolidated. Constructions of seawalls or breakwaters (without excavation). To use Mikasa’s consolidation theory. on the other hand. the soil should be viewed as sandy soil or cohesive soil based on the coefficient of permeability and construction conditions.11. For intermediate soil that has the permeability somewhere between those of sandy soil and cohesive soil. it is necessary to predict the consolidation settlement of extremely soft deposits.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Average degree of consolidation 7 (%) Primary consolidation Theoretical curve Actual curve Secondary consolidation J 100 Fig. Mikasa’s consolidation theory can be applied to this problem. The parameter cu is also called the apparent cohesion. T.4 Primary Consolidation and Secondary Consolidation (4) Consolidation Settlement in Very Soft Clay When the landfill is carried out with dredging or disposed sludge. undrained condition (UU condition) ② Consolidated. To obtain the consolidation parameters for extremely soft deposits correctly. drained condition (CD condition) The shear strength used for ground design should be that for the most dangerous drainage conditions expected under the given load. practically cd is ignored and only fd is used as the strength parameter.

subsoil characteristics. Although the fd values of sand with the same density will vary a little with the shear conditions. Among the three categories the consolidated. in the case of bearing cabacity problem for foundation.9) (11.11) cu = qu ¤ 2 -174- . drained) test. the cu value should be used with consideration of soil expansion. 11. the importance of the structures. the value of fd determined by a triaxial CD test. The following equations show the strength calculation methods respectively: For cohesive soil (the sand content is less than 50%) t = cu where t： shear strength (kN/m2) cu： undrained shear strength (kN/m2) For sandy soil (the sand content is higher than 80%) t = ( s u ) tan f d where t： shear strength (kN/m2) s： normal stress to shear plane (kN/m2) u： steady water pressure at the site (kN/m2) fd： angle of shear resistance for drained conditions (º) (11. and loses its shear strength (this is called the long-term stability problem). sampling of undisturbed sand samples is technically difficult and also very expensive.4 Angle of Internal Friction by N-value is referred to. However.3. In almost all cases for normal construction conditions of port and harbor structures.3. (a) qu method This method uses the average value of unconfined compressive strength qu determined from undisturbed samples. Therefore. Because the value of fd becomes large when sand’s void ratio becomes small and its density becomes high. (3) Shear Strength of Cohesive Soil Soil in which the clay and silt fraction by percentage is greater than 50% is regarded as cohesive soil. drained (CD) conditions. design of structures should be carried out using cd and fd determined under consolidated.3. The evaluation of shear strength of intermediate soil is difficult compared with that of sandy soil or cohesive soil. the shear strength of sand is represented by equation (11. it is called the intermediate soil. the shear strength for such soil should be evaluated carefully by referring to the most recent research results. Compared with the case of cohesive soil. Constructions of seawalls or breakwaters (when there is no excavation). Hence. On the other hand. in the case of heavily overconsolidated ground where s is very small compared to pc. For the equation to determine fd from N-values. The undrained shear strength cu used for design is given by the following equation: (11. expands. to determine the undrained shear strength cu of cohesive soil.10) Furthermore. as presented below. which is conducted with the confining pressure corresponding to design conditions with undisturbed sample. This is the reason that the shear strength for sandy soil is frequently determined from the Nvalue of “Standard Penetration Test” rather than from a laboratory soil test.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (b) When ground permeability is large or when drainage from consolidated layer is almost completed during construction period because the loading is carried out very slowly: Because drainage from the layer occurs simultaneously with loading and an increase in strength of the layer is expected along with the loading.10). the undrained strength in UU conditions of (a) is used in design for cohesive soils and the strength parameter in the CD conditions of (b) is used for sandy soils. The angle of shear resistance fd for drained conditions can be determined using a triaxial CD (consolidated. which is much influenced by progressive failure. (2) Shear Strength of Sand Because sandy soil has high permeability and is regarded in completely drained condition. it is best to take and test an undisturbed sample. drained condition is the smallest. There are several methods. the void ratio e0 in situ must be accurately determined. therefore. the parameters cd and fd are used for design because the shear strength under consolidated. the bearing capacity is overestimated in some cases if the value of fd determined by a triaxial CD test is directly used as the design parameter. because soil with a sand fraction ranging from 50% ~ 80% displays intermediate characteristics between sandy soil and cohesive soil. the most dangerous situation is after a long time is elapsed. (c) When ground permeability is poor and the load is removed to decrease the stress s normal to the shear plane: In this case. In this situation. when the soil absorbs water. undrained shear strength becomes lowest after water absorption and soil expansion when the overconsolidation ratio is small (s is a little less than pc).3. etc. landfill and embankments on sandy soil belong to this category. Earth retaining and excavation in clayey ground or removal of preloading on cohesive soil ground belongs to this category. can be used as the design parameter for stability analysis. An appropriate method should be chosen in consideration of such factors as past experiences.

When the coefficient of permeability determined by this kind of procedures is greater than 10-4 cm/s. the shear strength determined by qu method is underestimated. (d) Method determing undrained shear strength from an in-situ vane shear test Vane shear test is described in 11. The test can determine the shear strength for very soft clay for which an unconfined compression test cannot be performed due to the difficuly in making a specimen freestanding. c : : : triaxial compression direct shear triaxial extension Plasticity index 1F c u ¤ p = 0. T.3. (4) Increase in Cohesive Soil Strength due to Consolidation The undrained strength of cohesive soil will increase with the progress of consolidation. For soil improvement methods such as the vertical drain method or sand compaction pile method. the intermediate soil should be regarded as a cohesive soil.5 Application of Soundings Other Than SPT. To resolve this problem. a combination method can be used to determine the strength by comparing the qu of undisturbed samples with the strength from a triaxial CU test and evaluating the quality of the sample. Clause 6) The angle of internal friction for sandy soils shall be calculated using the following equation from a standard penetration test value. The average value of the obtained shear strength cu (v) can be used in design as the undrained shear strength cu 9). 11.85 t DS In this equation. The undrained shear strength cu used for design is given by the following equation: (11. after undisturbed sample is consolidated one-dimensionally under in-situ effective overburden pressure. it is desirable that the combined method with unconfined compression test and triaxial compression test or the box shear test be used as the method for evaluating the strength of intermediate soil 16). for example. It is desirable not only to improve the test procedure. the coefficient of permeability determined from a standard consolidation test generally gives an underestimated value.4 Angle of Internal Friction by N-value (Notification Article 10. regarding cd = 0. to site management where soil is being improved using vertical drains. reclaimed ground.28 ~ 0. T.11. Hence. When the coefficient of permeability is less than 10-4 cm/s. (c) Method using strength from a box shear test This method uses the strength tDS (units in kN/m2) determined by a box shear test. the value of fd determined from an electrical cone penetration resistance or a triaxial CD test can be used as design parameters. It can thus be applied. regardless of plasticity (refer to Fig. The larger the value of cu /p. For more details see the references 6) and 7). 0. Then the shear strength is determined accordingly. This method is used for natural soil ground and cannot be applied to unconsolidated.3. the larger the increase rate of the strength and the more effective soil improvement are expected.85 is a correction factor related to shear rate effect.3. A correction method is used for the strength of such intermadiate soil with a large sand fraction by means of clay fraction and plasticity index 15). but also to conduct an in-situ permeability test or an electrical cone test to determine the coefficient of permeability 11).5) 9). the value of cu /p lies in a range shown by the following equation. According to the experience on investigating the properties of intermediate soils in Japan. because the test is subject to the influence of disturbance during sampling.3. -175- . because of the limitations of test conditions. the coefficient of permeability and design conditions are taken into consideration to determine whether the soil is sandy soil or cohesive soil. However. The box shear test is conducted according to the JGS T 560-1997 of the Japanese Geotechnical Society 8). the value of fd is greater than 30º in many cases 12) ~ 14).5 Relationship between Plasticity Index and cu/p (5) Strength of Intermediate Soil Soil with a sand content in the range of 50% ~ 80% is intermediate soil between sandy soil and cohesive soil 10).12) c u = 0. the rate of strength increase cu/p by consolidation is an important parameter because the strength is increased by the drainage of pore water by consolidation. q u is the average value of unconfined compressive strength (kN/m2). From the past experiences in the field and research results for marine clay in Japan. An in-situ vane shear test can be carried out rather easily with mobility at a field site. For intermediate soil with a large sand fraction or with coral gravel.30 (11. (b) Methods combining unconfined compressive strength and strength from triaxial compression tests One problem with the qu method is that the test’s reliability depends on the skill of the technician.11.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS In this equation. Because the influence of stress release during sampling in intermediate soil is much greater than that in cohesive soil. For this type of soil.13) Fig. the ground is regarded permeable.

C.1 Influence of Effective Overburden Pressure and Relative Density on N-Values (Meyerhof) 17) 11. Clause 7) When conducting soundings other than the “Standard Penetration Test”. the required soil parameters. (3) Electrical Static Cone Penetration Test The notable characteristic of this test is its function to measure soil parameters almost continuously in the vertical direction. This is the method of ground investigation most applicable for the case when sandy layers and cohesive soil layers are intricately mixed. Because the relative density Dr varies with pvo¢ as seen in Fig. it is necessary to consider the background of their derivation and the ground conditions of the data and to confirm the range of their applicability. C.2 --------------------70 + p n o ¢ (11.1.5. pvo¢ must be taken into consideration to determine f from an N-value.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 100 N f = 25 + 3. (2) Vane Shear Test A vane shear test is a test in which a cross-shaped vane is pushed into the ground and the undrained shear strength of the subsoil is determined from the vane’s torque for rotation. there are many different types of soundings 18). and the level of precision. In the “Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities in Japan” (1989). wet sand) Yanase (wet fine sand) Yanase (saturated fine sand) Overburden pressure N-Value Relative density Dr Fig. the value of f was determined directly from the N-values without considering the effective overburden pressure pvo¢.11.1.1) where f： angle of internal friction of sand (º) N： standard penetration test value pvo¢： effective overburden pressure at the time the standard penetration test value is obtained (kN/m2) [Commentary] Relationships between the N-value and many soil parameters have been established by the data at various sites. however. a combination of the laboratory tests and the soundings should be appropriatelly studied considering the characteristics of the subsoil of ground.4. the required soil constants. a method shall be appropriately selected considering the subsoil properties. such as soft cohesive soil.11. and thus the subsoil conditions can be estimated more precisely. Terzaghi Gibbs. and the level of precision required for design or construction. -176- .4. This test is suitable to determine the strength of subsoil in case the specimens are incapable of freestanding. as can be seen in Danham’s equation. When using these relationships. [Technical Notes] (1) Types of Soundings As listed in Table T.5 Application of Soundings Other Than SPT (Notification Article 10. Holtz (dry sand.4.11. When preparing a ground investigation plan.

and consolidation properties 5 m level Simple test. initial pressure.2 19). Creep Cohesive soils or sandy soils Depends upon the capacity of Data reliability the penetration is high apparatus or fixing apparatus Specifically for soft cohesive soil. clay cohesion. It is well understood from past testings that the value of Nkt varies depending upon many factors. therefore. yield stress.11.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Equation (11. (11. Table T. soil classfication. When determining cu from a cone test. strength. and or humic soils cohesion of clay Shear strength.5.1) c u = ( q t s v 0 ) ¤ N kt where cu： undrained shear strength (kN/m2) qt： cone penetration resistance (kN/m2) s v 0： overburden pressure in terms of total stress (kN/m2) Nkt： cone parameter From investigations conducted on marine clay in Japan. Hole wall displacement. the value of Nkt extends over a range from 8 to 15.5. shear modulus. and undrained shear strength Sand density. bearing capacity.1 Characteristics and Applicable Subsoils for Sounding Methods Measured parameters Settlement by each load (Wsw) Number of onehalf revolution per 1 m penetration (Nsw) Penetration resistance Estimated values from measured parameters Converted Nvalue or unconfined compressive strength qu value Applicable subsoils Applicable depth (m) Method Designation Continuity Characteristics Weight penetration test (Swedish sounding) Continuous All subsoils except 15 m level cobblestone and gravel Operation is simple compared to the Standard Penetration Test Portable cone penetration test Continuous Unconfined compressive Cohesive soils strength. very quick Static Double tube electrical static Continuous cone penetration test Point resistance qc.5.5. a laboratory test and an electrical static cone penetration test for at least one location should be conducted to determine the value of Nkt. direct measurement of cu Mechanical meaning of the estimated value is very clear In situ vane shear test Discontinuous Undrained Soft cohesive shear strength soils of cohesive soil Deformation modulus.1) is used to determine the undrained shear strength cu of clay from a cone penetration test. unconfined compressive strength Nd = (1 ~ 2) N (regarded as equivalent to the N-value) 15 m level Borehole horizontal loading test Discontinuous All subsoils and bedrocks where the borehole Basically no wall surface is limits smooth and freestanding Discontinuous N-value Standard Minimum (number of Penetration Test interval is 50 cm hammering) Dynamic All subsoils except cobblestone or boulder stone Basically no limits Widely employed and can be used for almost all subsurface investigations Operation is simple compared to the Standard Penetration Test Simple dynamic cone penetration Continuous test Nd (number of hammering) Same as above 15 m level (lod friction becomes larger as depth increases) -177- . as shown in Fig. Pore water pressure u Maximum resisting moment for rotation Pressure.11. friction angle. T.

2) as shown in Fig. Clause 8) For seismic response analysis. and stability is investigated from the equilibrium of forces. the relationship between the shear stress and shear strain of the soils is required. In this method the seismic force is assumed to act on the ground or structures in the form of a static inertia force.1. such as the equivalent linear model. [Technical Notes] (1) Relationship between Dynamic Shear Stress and Shear Strain of Soil.6. on the other hand. both the time domain analysis and the frequency domain analysis are used.5. speed. One example of static design methods is the seismic coefficient method. and deformation of subsoils or structures against basement rock are calculated to examine the stability of ground or structures.6. Normally the relationship between the shear stress and shear strain in ground subjected to dynamic loading is described by a skeleton curve and a hysteresis curve. A skeleton curve will display remarkable nonlinearity as the shear strain amplitude becomes larger. as shown in Fig.2. an appropriate dynamic modulus of deformation of soils shall be determined to prescribe the relationship between the shear stress and shear strain of soil. The shear modulus G and the damping constant h are defined with the shear strain amplitude by equation (11.2 Cone Parameters of Marine Clay in Japan (Undrained shear strength was determined from unconfined compression tests) 19) 11. When the strain level exceeds 10-3.11.1 Dynamic Modulus of Deformation (Notification Article 10. T. Since the dynamic modulus of deformation prescribes this relationship between the shear stress and shear strain. As for the seismic response analysis method. is up to a strain level of 10-3. [Commentary] Seismic design methods can be broadly classified into the static design methods and the dynamic design methods. it must be appropriately determined when conducting a seismic response analysis. The applicable range of the equivalent linear model.6.1) and equation (11. T. There are many models to apply the shear stress and shear strain curves of soil into analysis. -178- . T. and the RambergOsgood model 20).11. the hyperbolic model (Hardin-Dornevich model).TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Kurihama Hachirogata Tamano Izumo Kuwana Ogi-shima Shinonome Nkt Ip Fig. (2) Modeling of Deformation Properties in the Equivalent Linear Model To estimate the behavior of ground during an earthquake. however. the nonlinearity of the relationship between the dynamic stress and strain of soil for a wide range of the shear strain amplitude must be appropriately assessed and modeled. For either method. dynamic magnification factors or amplification values of acceleration.6 Dynamic Properties of Soils 11.6. Of these models the equivalent linear calculation method is frequently used for seismic response analyses from the standpoint of calculation time and solution stability. In dynamic design methods.6. the bilinear model.11. The relationship of the dynamic stress and strain of soil is expressed with two parameters: the shear modulus and the damping constant in the equivalent linner model. the results must be carefully examined.

6.3) with Poisson’s ratio v.11.6. or by the in-situ tests using elastic waves such as the PS logging method or the cross hole method. the shear modulus is determined from equation (11.3. the value of 0.6.2 Shear Modulus and Damping Constant // // / / Shear strain amplitude γ Fig.11.2) Since the values of shear modulus G and damping constant h vary nonlinearly depending on the value of g. T. a G/G0 ~ g curve and a h ~ g curve are normally drawn as shown in Fig T.11. T.6.6.6.6. T.45 is used for an undrained condition.strain curve such as shown in Fig.6. where G0 is the shear modulus at g ≒ 10-6. -179- .1) (11. With the cyclic triaxial test.3 Shear Modulus. T.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Shear stren τ Skeleton curve / is the shear modulus h is the damping constant Shear stress τ Shear strain γ Shear strain γ Hysteresis curve Fig. The laboratory tests can be used to measure the shear modulus and damping constant for a wide range of shear strain amplitudes from 10-6 to 10-2 although undisturbed samples from the field must be obtained.11.6.11. Damping Constant and Shear Strain Amplitude t G = g DW h = --------------2p × W where G： shear modulus (kN/m2) t： shear stress amplitude (kN/m2) g： shear strain amplitude h： damping constant W： strain energy (kN/m2) D W： damping energy (kN/m2) (11.3) 2 ea ( 1 + v ) where s a： axial stress amplitude (kN/m2) e a： axial strain amplitude For v.1 Stress Strain Curve Fig.2.2) with W and D W obained from the stress .33 is normally used for a drainage condition and 0. (3) Measurement of the Shear Modulus and the Damping Constant The shear modulus and the damping constant must be determined by laboratory tests such as the resonance test or cyclic triaxial test. The tests can also be used to evaluate the change in the modulus of dynamic deformation due to construction of structures. The damping constant is calculated from equation (11. sa G = -----------------------(11.6.

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN In-situ tests are limited to measurements of the shear modulus that only corresponds to 10-6 level of shear strain amplitude. No.6. refer to the “Prediction and Determination of Liquefaction” in the “Handbook on Liquefaction Remediation of Reclaimed Land” (Revised Edition) 22). When doing so. Tech. however. Such tests have not been put to practical application to measure the shear modulus and damping constant for the large shear strain amplitude. But the tests do possess the advantage of being able to measure the values in situ directly. Note of PHRI. 33. Masanori TANAKA: “Detemination of undrained shear strength of clayey ground measured by vane shear tests”. 11. 81-145 (in Japanese). No. pp. 1991 (in Japanese). 36 p. Vol. Akio KANECHIKA: “Undrained shear strength and deformation modulus of clays”. The elastic constant of subsoil is obtained by equations (11. Masaki KOBAYASHI. 5) Yasufumi UMEHARA: “Study on the consolidation characteristics of soils and consolidation test methods”. in which it is necessary to handle them as dynamic loads like in liquefaction analysis or in strength decrease analysis of cohesive soil beneath structures exposed to waves.6. Vol. of PHRI. 4. 23. 1948. p.2 Dynamic Strength Properties Soil strength against dynamic external forces shall be determined through laboratory tests. No. 3. -180- .V s g E0 = 2 ( 1 + v ) G0 Vp 2 æ -----ö 2 è Vsø v = -------------------------------ì æ V pö 2 ü . When applying the results of cyclic triaxial tests to the liquefaction analysis of ground during an earthquake.. 1-17 (in Japanese). Terzaghi.6. 1ý 2 í ----è ø î Vs þ where V p： longitudinal wave velocity (m/s) V s： transverse wave velocity (m/s) G0： shear modulus (kN/m2) E0： Young’s modulus (kN/m2) v： Poisson’s ratio r： density (t/m3) g t： wet unit weight (kN/m3) g： gravitational acceleration (m/s2) (11. while wave forces are characterized by a long period and many cyclic repetitions. (in Japanese). There are situations. 8) Japanese Geotechnical Society: “Method for Consolidated Undrained Box Shear Test of Soil” in “Newly Established Standard of Japanese Geotechnical Society and Commentary Ⅳ (1997 version)”. 44. 1972. 2. Rept. 4) Masato MIKASA: “Consolidation of Soft Clay”. 1996 (in Japanese).6. When conducting cyclic triaxial tests.6. pp. gt 2 2 (11. Seismic forces are characterized by a short period and few cyclic repetitions. Tech.. New York. 3) Akio NAKASE. pp.6. No. 7) Takashi TSUCHIDA: “Study on determination of underained strength of clayey ground by mean of triaxial tests”.6) from the data of elastic wave velocity measurements by a seismic exploration using bore holes. [Commentary] The typical dynamic external forces encountered in ports and harbors are seismic force and wave force. 11. 9. 688. Vol. Rept. and P.15-58 (in Japanese). [References] 1) Japanese Geotechnical Society: “Revised Standard of Japanese Geotechnical Society and Commentary. 10) Susumu KURATA and Toshio FUJISHITA: Studies on the engineering properties of sand-clay mixture. Under present circumstance these dynamic external forces are normally converted into static loads like in the seismic coefficient method. of Transportation Technical Research Institute.6) 11. 1961. 1983 (in Japanese). Vol. No. 9) Hiroyuki TANAKA.4) to (11. Ken OIKAWA. In such cases the dynamic strength of soils are normally obtained by cyclic triaxial tests. 1994. Peck: “Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice”. of PHRI. Note of PHRI. No. Rept. 1989. 2) K. Nov.4) G 0 = r V s = --. the cyclic undrained triaxial test method explained in the “Soil Testing Methods and Commentary” of the Japanese Geotechnical Society should be used 21). Jun-ichi MIZUKAMI. 1996 (in Japanese). 6) Takashi TSUCHIDA. Rept. 469. 243-259 (in Japanese). B.5) (11. They are also used to calibrate the shear modulus taken from laboratory tests. John Wiley and Sons Inc. of PHRI. the properties of the external forces and the subsoil conditions shall be appropriately set in. pp. Yoshio MORI: “New method for determining undrained strength of clayey ground by means of unconfined compression test and triaxial test”. Kajima Publisher. Engineering Classification Method for Subsoil Material (Japanese Unified Soil Classification System)”.

837. Takeshi FUKAZAWA: “Properties of Japanese normally consolidated marine clays obtained from static piezocone penetration test”. pp. Masaki KOBAYASHI: “Unconfined compression strength of soils of intermediate grading between sand and clay”. Masanori TANAKA: “A site investigation method using cone penetration and dilatometer tests”. 421-450. Geotech. Shusuke IFUKU and Isao FUKUDA: “Engineering properties of coral soils in Japanese South Western Islands”. on Calcarious Soils. Takashi TSUCHIDA and Takeshi KAMEI: “Intermediate soil-sand or clay?-”. -181- . Discussion2. Proc. 16) Hiroyuki TANAKA. 17) G. Rept. (in Japanese). Kajima Publishers. Masanori TANAKA and Takashi TSUCHIDA: “Strength characteristics of naturally deposited intermediate soil”. Conf. 22) Coastal Development Institute of Technology: “Handbook on Liquefaction Remediation of Reclaimed Land (Revised Edition)”. 18) Japanese Geotechnical Society: “Method of Ground Investigation”. 4. 21) Japanese Geotechnical Society: “Method of Soil Testing and Commentary”. No. 1988. G. 19) Hiroyuki TANAKA. 7-34. 15) Akio NAKASE. 589/ Ⅲ-42. 1972 (in Japanese). 4. 7. 1997. 12) Masaki KOBAYASHI. of PHRI. 14) Takashi TSUCHIDA: “Consolidation. 31. No. Masaru KATSUNO. 1992. pp. 114-136. 11. Kouji SUZUKI. 1976 (in Japanese). Kenji GOTO. Note 2. 110. (in Japanese). 1995. 1996 (in Japanese). Rept. 1957. (in Japanese). Vol. No. of PHRI. Jour. 1992 (in Japanese). Int. No. 20) Kenji ISHIHARA: “Fundamentels of Geodynamics”. 191 p. JSCE.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 11) Hiroyuki TANAKA. 13) Takashi TSUCHIDA. Vol. 1998 (in Japanese). No. 1990. 1993 (in Japanese). Masaki KOBAYASHI. Soils and Foundations. p. pp. of the 4th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. pp. Meyerhof: “Discussion on soil properties and their measurement”. Motoo SAKAKIBARA. Note of PHRI. Japanese Geotechnical Society. 41. Vol. compression and permeability characteristics of intermediate soil and mixture”. Tech. Vol. 3. 61-92 (in Japanese).

most of the quaywalls were suffered identical damage because almost all of the quaywalls were built in an identical structural type. but which is very large when it occurs) and whose functions can be quickly -182- . the effect of earthquakes shall be carefully examined so that the facilities retain appropriate seismic resistance. 12. or combinations of the methods. such as immersed tunnels. For very important structures or structures for which past examples of damage are rare. pipelines and other pipe-type structures that are buried in the earth. the seismic resistance should be examined in accordance with 12. their seismic response characteristics would have differed. earthquake ground motion. or for structures having a comparatively long natural period. the relative displacement of the various parts of a structure or that between adjacent structures or subsoil (2) Investigation items related to analysis of seismic resistance are as follows: (3) When the Port of Kobe was hit by the “Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake”. or seismic deformation method.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 12 Earthquakes and Seismic Force 12. ground or earthquakes should be examined.5 Seismic Response Analysis.6 Seismic Deformation Method. and the extent of damage to structures would have been diverse. For structures having a natural period close to the predominant period of seismic motion and a small damping characteristics. 12. in addition to an investigation based on the seismic coefficient method.6 Seismic Deformation Method. [Commentary] (1) The following matters should be taken into consideration when investigating the seismic resistance of structures: (a) (b) (c) (d) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Level of seismicity in the region.3 Seismic Coefficient Method in consideration of the dynamic response characteristics of structures.2 Earthquake Resistance of Port and Harbor Facilities in Design (Notification Article 13 and Article16) (1) Earthquake Resistance of Port and Harbor Facilities (a) Port and harbor facilities shall be capable of retaining their required structural stability without losing their function when subjected to the “Level 1” earthquake motion (earthquake motion with a high probability of occurrence during the lifetime of facilities).3 Seismic Coefficient Method.1 General In the design of port and harbor facilities. For structures such as gravity type quaywalls that are comparatively rigid and their amplitudes of vibration is small compared with the ground motion during an earthquake. modified seismic coefficient method. If structural types were different. This experience during the “Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake” strongly suggests that structured types should be diversified to ensure different seismic response characteristics in the facilities when selecting the structural types of port and harbor facilities. 12. the seismic resistance using seismic response analysis after appropriately modeling related conditions such as the structure.4 Design Seismic Coefficient and the method shown in 12. [Technical Notes] The seismic resistance of port and harbor facility must be examined with consideration of the dynamic characteristics of the structures using the methods shown in 12.6 Examination of Earthquake-Resistance Performance.3 Seismic Coefficient Method. the seismic resistance should be examined using the modified seismic coefficient method shown in 12. For structures whose stability is subject to the deformation of the surrounding earth. the seismic resistance should be examined using the seismic coefficient from 12. etc. earthquakes to be examined in the analysis. 9. Ground conditions at the construction site Importance of the facilities (based on a comprehensive evaluation of social and economic importance) Earthquake resistance of the facilities Stability of the entire structure Stability against subsoil sliding Influence of liquefaction on the subsoil stability and structures Stress within structural elements From the standpoint of serviceability. The seismic design method for open-type wharves on with vertical piles using the modified seismic coefficient method is described in Part Ⅷ . (b) High seismic resistant structures (particularly important facilities whose seismic resistance is to be reinforced) shall be the structures that will sustain only slight damage during the “Level 2” earthquake motion (earthquake motion that has a vety low probability of occurrence during the lifetime of facilities.

2. (b) For examination of the earthquake resistance. port and harbor facilities such as bridges and immersed tunnels that must take the Level 2 earthquake motion into consideration in design.12. This is because an analysis of stability of structures or subsoil using just the seismic coefficient method is not sufficient in many cases when the earthquake motion such as the Level 2 earthquake exercises immense forces. “High seismic resistant structures” refers to facilities such as high seismic resistant quaywalls whose seismic resistance has been reinforced to ensure the shipment of emergency supplies immediately after an earthquake in order to maintain social and economic activities. In addition. Among the gravity type quaywalls that were damaged by the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. of which the return period will be several hundred years or more. based upon the provisions in 12. the subsoils and the structures shall be appropriately modeled corresponding to the earthquake motion indicated in (2)(a) above and the resistance should be examined using an appropriate method considering the structural characteristics.). but its precise determination is difficult at the current state of knowledge.1 and Table T. [Commentary] For the seismic design of port and harbor facilities.2.2. (2) Examination of Earthquake Resistance of High Seismic Resistant Structure (a) In any investigation of the structural stability of high seismic resistant structures. another study must be conducted for such cases. It also refers to high seismic resistant revetments designed for the area designated for refuge of people and rescue operation after an earthquake. Earthquake motion from an inter-plate earthquake or a plate earthquake near the coast should be used as “Level 2” earthquake motion. The earthquake motion used for such examination shall be the Level 2 earthquake motion defined in (1)(b) above. “To retain their expected function” means that even if damage occurs to the facility it is minor and the facility’s function can quickly be restored after the earthquake.2 are used as reference to estimate deformation of quaywalls which allows the temporary use immediately after an earthquake. The deformation values listed in Table T.12. etc. however. high seismic resistant revetments for refuge and rescure centers.1 Earthquake Motion and Earthquake Resistance of Port and Harbor Facilities To Be Considered for Design Ground motion level Level 1 Ground motion considered for seismic design Ground motion with a 75-year return period Ground motion from intra-plate earthquake or ground motion from inter-plate earthquake. some quaywalls that sustained a deformation ratio (swelling of the quaywall divided by the height) of 10% to 20% were quickly restored and put back into service 1). In order to make this judgment it is necessary to determine the allowable amount of deformation of a quaywall or the like. earthquake motion with a 75-year return period should be used as the “Level 1” earthquake motion.1.12. Earthquake resistance Do not lose their function Retain their expected function Level 2 [Technical Notes] (1) The capability of high seismic resistant structures to retain their expected function against the Level 2 earthquake motion is assured by examining structural deformation and other changes through an appropriate seismic response analysis.12. Because the values in the tables do not take into consideration the structural stability and function of cranes built on the quays. “Without losing their function” means that the facility preserves its initial structural stability.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS restored after a Level 2 earthquake and are able to retain their expected function througout the rest of its lifetime. -183- .2.4 Design Seismic Coefficient. function and the ease or difficulty of the quick restoration. Table C. the earthquake resistance shall be examined to ensure required earthquake resistance against seismic load. (2) The judgment whether high seismic resistant structures can retain their expected function is made by a comprehensive consideration of structural stability. The return period is anticipated to be several hundred years or more Applicable facilities All facilities (except facilities that are regulated according to other standards) High seismic resistant structures (high seismic resistant quaywalls. (c) The earthquake motion used for examination of earthquake resistance shall be determined based on a dynamic analysis of the ground. These specifications are summarized in Table C.

4. however.2 Quaywall Deformation Rough Standards from the Viewpoint of Functionality Structure body itself Settlement of the entire apron: Inclination: Deviation of the swelling: 20 ~ 30 cm 3o ~ 5o 20 ~ 30 cm 3 ~ 10 cm 30 ~ 70 cm Apron Settlement. and the importance factor shall be the values listed in Table 12. the vertical component is not so large compared with the horizontal component. Based upon past studies and experience.5 m 0 ～ 20 cm 20 ～ 30 cm Table T.5 m or greater 0 ～ 30 cm 30 ～ 100 cm Less than -7. 3).4 Design Seismic Coefficient (Notification Article 15 and Article 16) (1) The seismic coefficient shall be the horizontal seismic coefficient determined by the equation below. the regional seismic coefficient shall be the values listed in Table 12. the seismic load shall be determined using the seismic coefficient prescribed in 12. 12. Seismic coefficient = regional seismic coefficient × subsoil condition factor × importance factor In this case. because it has been shown from the results of observations that. reverse 0% 12. In this case. the horizontal seismic coefficient in 12. intertwining with both the structural type and the horizontal component.12. differences in height of apron surface: difference in height between apron and yard: Inclination. the seismic load shall be determined appropriately considering characteristics of the respective structures.4 Design Seismic Coefficient.4. -184- . It is therefore sufficient to use the horizontal seismic coefficient in order to dertermine seismic load in design of ordinary port and harbor structures 2).TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T. the vertical seismic coefficient is not taken into account in order to avoid the computational complexity.3 Seismic Coefficient Method (Notification Article 14) (1) It shall be standard to use the seismic coefficient method for determining the seismic load for structures having a comparatively short natural period and large damping factor.4. and either one calculated by (a) or (b) below that is most damaging to port and harbor facilities shall be applied to the centers of gravity of facilities. The coefficient value shall be expressed in two-digit figures by rounding up if the third digit is five or larger or dropping the third digit when it is less than five.1 corresponding to the region where the port and harbor facilities are located.2. except for the region near seismic center.2.5 m or greater 0 ～ 30 cm 30 ～ 50 cm Less than -7.2 corresponding to the type of subsoil given in Table 12.5 m 0 ～ 20 cm 20 ～ 50 cm Sheet pile type quaywall -7.3. The factor for subsoil condition shall be the values listed in Table 12. [Commentary] The influence of the vertical component of earthquake motion on structural stability is complex.4 corresponding to the characteristics of structures.1 Quaywall Deformation Rough Standards from the Viewpoint of Temporaly Service Suffered deformation: maximum swelling or maximum apron settlement Structural type Quaywall depth Normal use Restricted use Gravity type quaywall -7.4 Design Seismic Coefficient is considered to be determined taking into account the effect of vertical earthquake motion. For practical seismic design. (a) Seismic load = seismic coefficient × deadweight (b) Seismic load = seismic coefficient × (deadweight + surcharge) (2) For structures such as immersed tunnels for which the seismic coefficient method is not applicable. normal slope 3% ~ 5%.12.4. moreover. Thus it is a more rigorous examination procedure to use a vertical seismic coefficient to introduce seismic load in a vertical direction.

13 Region C 0. Akita Prefecture. Niigata Prefecture. Kumamoto Prefecture. When the subsoil is composed of two or more soil layers. Tochigi Prefecture. Ishikawa Prefecture.15 Region B 0. Yamagata Prefecture. Kagoshima Prefecture except for Amami Islands. Gunma Prefecture. Oshima and Hiyama in Hokkaido Prefecture. Ishikari. Tottori Prefecture. Iki-no-shima and Tsushima. Tokushima Prefecture Counties of Iburi. Goto Retto. Osaka Prefecture. Shiga Prefecture. Amami Islands in Kagoshima Prefecture Counties of Abashiri. “soft subsoil” refers to sandy soil subsoil with the N-value of SPT test being less than 4 or cohesive soil with the unconfined compressive strength being less than 20 kN/m2.2 Table 12. Fukushima Prefecture. Rumoi and Kamikawa in Hokkaido Prefecture. Nagano Prefecture. Tokachi and Hidaka in Hokkaido Prefecture. Shimane Prefecture. Hyogo Prefecture Pacific Ocean coast south of Shiriya-zaki of Aomori Prefecture. Shizuoka Prefecture. Hiroshima Prefecture. -185- . Yamaguchi Prefecture.08 Table 12. If the subsoil is composed of two or more layer with the almost equal thickness. Nara Prefecture.4. Miyagi Prefecture. Iki-no-shima and Tsushima in Nagasaki Prefecture. Kanagawa Prefecture. Okinawa Prefecture except for Daito Islands Counties of Soya in Hokkaido Prefecture. Fukuoka Prefecture.4. Iwate Prefecture. Appendix Table 2) Type of subsoil Factor for subsoil conditions Class Ⅰ 0. Chiba Prefecture. Appendix Table 1) Regional classification Counties of Nemuro. Kagawa Prefecture. Daito Islands in Okinawa Prefecture Regional seismic coefficient Region A 0.8 Class Ⅱ 1.11 Region E 0. Yamanashi Prefecture.0 Class Ⅲ 1. Kochi Prefecture. Ibaraki Prefecture. Hachijo-jima and Ogasawara Islands in Tokyo. Ehime Prefecture. Toyama Prefecture. Shiribeshi. the type of soil should be set by the layer with predominant thickness. Gifu Prefecture.3 Classification by Type of Subsoil (Notification Article 15 Appendix Table 3) Type of subsoil Thickness of quaternary strata 5 meters or less More than 5 meters and less than 25 meters 25 meters or greater Gravel stratum Class Ⅰ Class Ⅰ Class Ⅱ Ordinary sandy soil and cohesive soil Class Ⅰ Class Ⅱ Class Ⅲ Soft subsoil Class Ⅱ Class Ⅲ Class Ⅲ Notes: In these tables.12 Region D 0. Mie Prefecture. the type of soil should be set by the layer having the largest value of the subsoil condition factor among all the layers. Aomori Prefecture except for the Pacific Ocean coast south of Shiriya-zaki.4. Miyazaki Prefecture. Kyoto Prefecture. except for Hachijo-jima and Ogasawara Islands. Kushiro.1 Regional Seismic Coefficient (Notification Article 15. Saga Prefecture. Fukui Prefecture. Aichi Prefecture. Oita Prefecture.2 Subsoil Condition Factor (Notification Article 15. Saitama Prefecture. Tokyo.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Table 12. Sorachi. Nagasaki Prefecture except for Goto Islands. Okayama Prefecture. Wakayama Prefecture.

the dynamic response of the structure needs not be taken into consideration in design. Item 10 of the “Fundamental Law for Countermeasures against Natural Disaster” (Law No. For the latter calculation. etc.4 Importance Factor (Notification Article 15. and the importance of the structures. (3) The design seismic coefficient to high seismic resistant structures in the seismic coefficient method shall be determined after comprehensive judgment of the result calculated by the equation in (1) and the horizontal seismic coefficient calculated by the equations listed below. the value may be used as a design seismic coefficient. or those having a particular importance in the item 3 1 Having high level of risk to cause large loss of human lives and property if the structure is damaged by an earthquake 2 Having serious economic and social consequences if the structure is damaged by an earthquake 3 Having an important role in restoration works after earthquake disaster 4 Having threat of huge loss of human lives and property. the importance factor shall be set to 1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table 12. 1961). Class A or Class C Slight economic and social consequences if the structure is damaged by an earthquake.3 Seismic Coefficient Method. if the structure is damaged by an earthquake (ie. In general.5 Class A 1. the subsoil conditions. Appendix Table 4) Type of structure Special class Structure characteristics Among structures in the category of Class A. For example.( a ¤ g )1 / 3 k h = -3 where kh： horizontal seismic coefficient a： peak ground acceleration at the surface (Gal) g： gravitational acceleration (Gal) [Commentary] (1) General Cases of Port and Harbor Facilities (a) Factors to determine the design seismic coefficients of structures include the regional seismicity. subsoil properties..1) . those having a remarkable risk specified in the item 1.5. (a) When a is 200 Gal or less kh = a /g (b) When a is larger than 200 Gal 1 .4. or a serious threat in the item 4. the peak ground acceleration shall be estimated by the dynamic analysis against the Level 2 ground motion of the potential earthquake stipulated in the “Regional Disaster Prevention Plan” specified by the Article 2. the vertical seismic coefficient shall be determined appropriately by considering the structural characteristics. ground motion characteristics. However. structures handling toxic or hazardous substances) 5 Having difficulty in restoration if the structure is damaged by an earthquake Structures other than those classified as Special. using the design seismic coefficient stipulated above.0 0.8 (2) When the examination using the vertical seismic coefficient is required in the seismic coefficient method. when a dynamic response -186- 644474448 (12. (b) In cases where it is possible to accurately determine the seismic coefficient by investigating the factors such as the regional seismicity.4. In the former calculation. the dynamic response of structures is ignored and seismic design is conducted based on the procedure given in 12. or easy restoration among structures other than those classified as Special or Class A Importance factor 1.223. the dynamic properties of the structures. a grave consequence in the item 2. because the majority of port and harbors structures have comparatively short natural periods as well as large damping factors.2 Class B Class C 1. and the amplification of ground motion due to subsoil response.

5 Seismic Response Analysis [Technical Notes] (2). because the submerged unit weight that takes buoyancy into account is used in this case. (d) When calculating the seismic load in 12. difficulty in restoration of the damaged facility. the earthquake by an “Active Fault with High Probability Level 1” or the earthquake by an “Active Fault under Special Attention”.1. (2) “Level 2” Earthquake Motion for High Seismic Resistant Facilities (a) When a potential earthquake has not been stipulated in “Regional Disaster Prevention Plan”. however. (b) The expected peak acceleration of bedrock with a 75-year return period is listed in Table T. “Bedrock” as used here means soil type of Class Ⅰ . the return period of the design earthquake becomes shorter than 75 years if the encounter probability is made equally to around 0. type or size of the facilities. “Complete Listing of Damaging Earthquakes in Japan (New Edition)” and the “Japan Earthquake Fault Parameter Handbook” are available as references. the apparent seismic coefficient should be used. the probability that a structure with a 50-year lifetime will encounter an earthquake motion with a 75-year return period or greater during the lifetime is quite high. When researching such earthquakes the “Japan’s Active Fault Distribution Maps and Materials (New Edition)”. Information regarding the relationship between the lifetime and the encounter probability is given in Chapter 1 General. In the calculation of earth pressure. The regional seismic coefficients in Table 12. (c) The importance factor of structures is not a value that could be applied uniformly depending upon the use. another earthquake motion of the same magnitude will not occur during the following 75 years. (b) The peak ground acceleration to calculate the design seismic coefficient of high seismic resistant structures can be determined by the multiple reflection model given in 12. For example. In those cases.3 Seismic Coefficient Method.25 when high seismic resistant structures be constructed in locations near an active fault plane (when the site is supposed to be in an epicentral area).4.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS analysis of the ground is conducted with an input earthquake ground motion based on earthquake data or strong-motion records at the construction site. T.4.1 by regional classification.1 were set forth using the distribution of expected peak acceleration 8) corresponding to a 75-year return period for coastal regions.4. and the input earthquake ground motion at the construction site should be determined based on this potential earthquake. the facilities must secure a certain level of safety factor that is required to ensure the soundness of the facility against the Level 1 ground motion. (d) Based upon the experience with the serious damage suffered by the Port of Kobe during the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake.5. (2) High Seismic Resistant Structures (a) The target earthquake for the seismic design of high seismic resistant structures should be the potential earthquake preseribed in the “Regional Disester Prevention Plan”. The expression “75-year return period” is based on the theory of probability. ground motion and subsoil properties. but must be determined by giving due consideration to the social and economic characteristics of the facilities along with consideration of the following items: ① Earthquake resistance required for the respective function of facilites ② Magnitude of damage when the facility is struck by an earthquake. The magnitude of an earthquake on an active fault can be estimated from the following equation: -187- . should an earthquake motion equivalent to the 75-year return period have occurred. (e) The seismic response analysis as well as the seismic coefficient method should be used as the design methods for the Level 2 earthquake motion. the earthquake that will create the most hazardous ground motion at the construction site among the potential earthquakes should be selected as the target earthquake. with a value near 0.4) have given a detailed explanation of equation (12. the design seismic coefficient must be multiplied by the net deadweight without deducting buoyancy.12. It does not mean that.1) for calculating the design seismic coefficient of high seismic resistant structures from earthquake motion.12. it is possible to determine the design seismic coefficient based on the results of those analyses. [Technical Notes] (1) “Level 1” Earthquake Motion for All Port and Harbor Facilities (a) The regional seismic coefficients listed in Table 12.4. The earthquakes to be considered are such as the largest past earthquake. (c) Noda et al. ③ Cargo handling capacity of the facility after damage.5. and residual structural strength of the facility after damage. based on a comprehensive evaluation of structural type. or when conducting a seismic response analysis of structures in order to consider their dynamic response to earthquake ground motion.4.1 are stipulated from the expected peak acceleration using the average relationship in Fig. In the case of a facility whose lifetime can be set shorter than 50 years. or when it is appropriate to determine specially an earthquake to be used in the design. the design seismic coefficient should be at least 0.

2) Table T.1 Relationship between Seismic Coefficient and Peak Ground Acceleration ASMAC (Gal) M = 6.13 0.08 Peak bedrock acceleration with 75-year return period (Gal) 350 250 200 150 100 1 kh = 3 ( Asmac g ) 1 3 Seismic coefficient kh Kh = ( Asmac g ) Upper and lower limits of the seismic coefficient estimated for each quaywall Upper and lower limits of the seismic coefficient estimated for each port (Lines connecting the upper and lower limits determine the range of the seismic coefficient) SMAC peak acceleration (Gal) Fig.12.12 0.1 Regional Seismic Coefficient and Peak Bedrock Acceleration with 75-Year Return Period by Regional Classification Regional classification A B C D E Regional seismic coefficient 0.0 M = 6.2 Relationship between SMAC Peak Accelerations and Fault Distance by Magnitude ) -188- .6 M 2. T.5 M = 7.12.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN log 10 L = 0.0 8.11 0.15 0.4.4. T.0 SMAC peak acceleration O data of M 6.4.0 M = 7.5 M = 8.0 Fault distance X (km) Fig.9 where L： length of the earthquake fault (km) M： magnitude of earthquake (12.12.4.

Figure T.4. 0.3 Incident Waves for Bedrock -189- .PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (b) The bedrock acceleration to be used for the analysis of ground seismic response to determine the design seismic coefficient of high seismic resistant facilities is calculated using the following equation: (12.12. When an intra-plate earthquake is assumed.5. however.12.2.4.3) log 10 A SMAC = 0. clay layer with the unconfined compressive strength qu of 650 kN/m2 or greater. If the construction site is in the zone A on the chart. even if the one being considered is an inter-plate earthquake.12.4. (d) The judgment whether the construction site is near the earthquake fault or not should be made according to Fig. the Port Island bedrock incident waves computed from the records at the Port Island of Kobe Port during the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake should be used as the input earthquake waves for the ground seismic response analysis.4.3) are shown in Fig. T. waves such as the Hachinohe bedrock incident waves (S252NS Base) computed from records at the Port of Hachinohe during the 1968 Tokachi-Oki Earthquake or the Ofunato bedrock incident waves (S-1210 E41S) at the Port of Ofunato during the 1978 Miyagi-Ken-Oki Earthquake should be used for the input earthquake waves. When assuming an inter-plate earthquake. When a high seismic resistant facility is to be constructed within a hypocenter area and the earthquake is supposed to be large one occurring in that area. When the fault plane is not known.4.12. T.4.3 shows these three wave profiles. the minimum distance from the surface fault should be used as the fault distance. then the site should be considered as being near to the fault plane (located within the hypocenter area).0062 ´ 10 ) 0.00169 X + 0.4. The Fourier spectra of these wawes are shown in Fig.53 M log 10 ( X + 0. The term “bedrock” means rock mass. The results of calculation by equation (12. sandy soil layer with the N-value of 50 or greater. T. T. (c) Potential earthquakes are divided into two classes called intra-plate earthquakes and inter-plate earthquakes.524 where ASMAC： peak bedrock acceleration measured by a SMAC-type strong motion seismograph (Gal) M： magnitude of earthquake X： fault distance (km) The term “fault distance” refers to the minimum distance from the fault plane to the site of interest.12.4. or subsoil with a shear wave velocity of 300m/s or higher. the Port Island bedrock incident waves (PI-79NS Base) should be used as the input ground motion.53 M Acceleration Hachinohe bedrock incident waves Time Acceleration Ofunato bedrock incident waves Time Acceleration Port Island bedrock incident waves Time Fig. depending upon the mechanism of their occurrence.

T. Moreover. seismic response analysis should be carried out to examine the deformation of structure by the Level 2 earthquake motion. [Commentary] (1) General Many types of structures that are different from or are much larger than those of structures built in the past have been designed and built as port and harbor facilities in recent years. it is now necessary to study structural deformation to examine the function of high seismic resistant facilities even when subjected to the ground motion near the fault plane.4.5 Classification of Earthquakes by Active Faults Note: Sites falling in zone A are regarded as being within hypocenter areas Frequency (Hz) (c) Pl-79 NS Base Fourier spectrum (Gal s) Parzen window Band = 0. the details of the modeling. first a suitable analytical method is selected and the structure is modeled according the analytical procedure. and reliability of the material constants.12. wave profiles) is selected and computation of the earthquake response is carried out. such as the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake that heavily damaged the Port of Kobe. The validity of the calculated results must be evaluated based upon an adequate examination of the applicable range and limiting conditions of the analytical procedure. specifying the materials constants for the model.8 Hz Frequency (Hz) (b) S-1210 E 41 S Fourier spectrum (Gal s) Distance to fault plane x (km) Parzen window Band = 0.6 Seismic Deformation Method. Then the input earthquake ground motion (peak amplitude. -190- .4 Fourier Spectra of Incident Waves for Bedrock 12. When the type of structure was rare in the past or when the importance for the target structure is extremely high. There are also many cases that structures must be built in locations where ground conditions are extremely poor. T.5 Seismic Response Analysis The seismic resistance of port and harbor facilities that are particularly important or that are of structural types having few past precedents shall be examined based on a seismic response analysis in addition to the methods in 12.12. (2) Seismic Response Analysis To conduct a seismic response analysis.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (a) S-252 NS Base Fourier spectrum (Gal s) Parzen window Band = 0.8 Hz Magnitude M Fig.8 Hz Frequency (Hz) Fig. in which the behavior of structure during an earthquake can be fully studied.3 Seismic Coefficient Method or 12.4.

however. Frequency-domain analysis (2) Seismic Response Analysis Methods Seismic response analysis methods are broadly classified into two types: procedures based on numerical calculations using computers.324 ) 0.00060 X 0. The important records have been published annually since 1963 5). Equivalent-linear. and the application of this method is limited to a strain level of 1% or less. The records of strong earthquake motions of the port and harbor regions in Japan are continuously collected by a nationwide observation network.00122 X + 0. Two-dimensional.1. and the seismic response characteristics of ground should be considered in order to select the input ground motion. Three-dimensional Multiple reflection model. Then the bedrock incident waves are inputted to the bedrock of the design site and the surface ground motion can be calculated. Nonlinear Time-domain analysis.55 M ) 0. these situations can be analyzed and the excess pore water pressure that occurs in the ground can be determined directly from calculations.886 log 10 D = 0.00169 X + 0.014 ´ 10 where ACOR： ASMAC： V： D： M： X： 0. the excess pore water pressure is induced and the effective stress declines. (c) When the ground conditions of the design site differ from those at which the strong-motion records to be used for the seismic response analysis were obtained 9). (d) The items indicated in (b) above must be taken into consideration when specifying the peak amplitude of design ground motion.1) (12.0050 ´ 10 0.0062 ´ 10 log 10 V = 0.5.4) log 10 A SMAC = 0. (b) The magnitude of the earthquake.524 (12. the total stress analysis is unable to calculate the excess pore water pressure from the calculation process. As a result.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [Technical Notes] (1) Input Earthquake Ground Motion (a) The ground motion used for seismic design should basically be determined from the results of past observations or from computations of ground seismic response. and the following equations have been proposed: log 10 A COR = 0. Generally the peak amplitude of ground motion is a function of magnitude and distance. When used for seismic response analysis for strong ground motion such as the Level 2 earthquake motion. (a) Seismic response analysis based on numerical calculations Seismic response analyses based on numerical calculations can be classified as listed in Table T. The ground seismic response analysis method based on the multiple reflection theory can be used to calculate the surface ground motion from the incident waves of the bedrock and vise versa. For situations where the excessive pore water pressure above a certain -191- .43 M 0. On the other hand.1 Numerical Methods of Seismic Response Analyses Analysis method (for saturated ground) Dimensions Models for analysis Materials characteristics Domains for computation Effective stress analysis (solid and liquid phases). Those methods are briefly explained below.43 M 0. the multiple reflection theory is based on the equivalent-linear method. the observed records of the surface ground motion are first converted to the bedrock incident wave profiles.5.12.5. With the effective stress analysis method.12. Total stress analysis (solid phase) One-dimensional. Spring-mass model.018 ´ 10 corrected peak bedrock acceleration (Gal) peak bedrock acceleration for SMSC-type strong motion seismograph (Gal) peak bedrock velocity (cm/s) peak bedrock displacement (cm) magnitude of earthquake distance from fault plane (km) Table T.3) (12. ① Effective stress analysis and total stress analysis Seismic response analyses can be divided into the methods based on the effective stress and those based on the total stress. the distance from the fault plane. careful attention should be paid to the limitations of this method.00067 X 1.62 M log 10 ( X + 0. So the change in seismic response due to the change in the effective stress cannot be taken into consideration.53 M log 10 ( X + 0.5.5.53 M ) 0.48 M log 10 ( X + 0. the fault mechanism. In many cases. When the ground liquefies.502 ) 0. the restoring force or damping property of soils will change and the response properties of ground will also change.55 M log 10 ( X + 0. and vibration experiments using apparatus such as a shaking table.2) (12. therefore. Finite element model Linear.5.

17). The relative displacement that will occur in the subsoil around tubular structures will vary depending on the nature of earthquake as well as other factors such as the ground conditions. and “FLIP” 16). With this method the calculation procedure is comparatively simple and it is possible to introduce a nonlinear relationship between displacement and restoring force. “FLAC” is used as a finite difference analysis program using the explicit solution method. (b) Vibration experiments using a shaking table This method takes the dynamic similitude into consideration and applies vibrations to a model of structure. With this method the relationship between the soil stress and strain is treated as being linear. a model is prepared that will satisfy the similitudes of the geometrics and dynamic properties of the target structure and the ground. Nevertheless. -192- . The assumed earthquake motion is then applied to the model with a shaking table. a fairly high level of experimental technique is required in making a model that adequately reproduces the dynamic characteristics of the prototype. Examples of practical application programs include “FLUSH” 14). The finite element models are characterized by their capability to analyze and display with ease the two-dimensional changes of layer thickness and ground conditions. In addition. (iv) Continuum model This model regards a structure (or ground) as a cantilever beam possessing uniform characteristics or properties that vary in a uniform manner. (ii) Spring-mass model In this model the ground is replaced with a combination of multiple masses.6 Seismic Deformation Method The displacements and stresses of tubular structures buried in the ground during an earthquake shall be investigated using the seismic deformation method. springs. therefore.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN level will occur (where the excessive pore water pressure ratio is generally 0. and dampers. a centrifuge is used to reproduce stress conditions in the model that are identical to actual stress. The computer program “SHAKE” 13) based on this model is often used. it is repeatedly transmitted and reflected at the boundaries between soil layers. the total stress analysis is simple and is often used for design purposes. In this regard. The ground is divided into a number of finite elements. it is very important to investigate the relative displacement of subsoil around the structure controlled by the ground deformation during an earthquake. “FLIP” is being used for verification of the deformation level of high seismic resistant facilities and other purposes. Multiple reflection models using equivalent linearization that makes it possible to deal with quasi-nonlinearity have been widely used in recent years. [Commentary] For an investigation of the seismic resistance of tubular structures buried in the ground such as immersed tunnels or oil pipelines that are very long compared to their cross-sectional area. Based on the experience of analyses of damaged quaywalls at the Port of Kobe during the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. and the damping constant. It is an effective means for understanding the overall behavior of a structure and the ground. Therefore. the unit weight of each part. When shear waves propagate perpendicularly from the bedrock. ② Model vibration experiments using a centrifuge For these experiments. The assumed earthquake motion is then applied with a vibration test device loaded on the centrifuge to satisfy the similitude. because the displacements of these types of structures are controlled by the deformation of the surrounding earth. It is well understood that in general the response values calculated by the effective stress analysis (shear stress or acceleration) are smaller than those by total stress analysis. ② Models for analysis (i) Multiple reflection model This calculation model regards the ground as a stack of horizontal soil layers. ① Model vibration experiments using a shaking table For these experiments.5 or greater). (iii) Finite element models These models are not restricted to just ground motion analysis but are used widely in many fields. The shear beam model is normally selected for modeling. 12. The methods by vibration experiments with apparatus such as a shaking table include the following methods. Constants required for calculations are the dimensions of structure. the shear modulus and its depth-wise rate of variation. it is much likely that the calculation results based on the total stress method will differ greatly from the actual seismic response. it is considered that total stress analysis will give safer results in design. “BEAD” 15).

-193- . 1978. 4) Setuo NODA. H.: “Comparison of dynamic analyses for saturated sands”. 6) Hajime TSUCHIDA. Vol. Proc. EERC72-12. 1. 20. Toshikazu MORITA: “ Effective stress analysis on a caisson type quaywall . Note of PHRI. EERC 75-30. 17) Susumu IAI. No. Rept of PHRI. 1979 (in Japanese). 1978 (in Japanese). No. 1973 (in Japanese). and TSUJINO. 9) Eiichi KURATA. Ikuo YAMASHITA: “Studies on the vibration characteristics of fill-type embankments”. 1976 (in Japanese). 1981 (in Japanese).: “SHAKE . F. 6. 1969 (in Japanese). Note of PHRI. Lysmer. 22) Susumu IAI. No. H. Tomohiro KAMEOKA: “Parameter identification for a cyclic mobility model”. Note of PHRI. M. 4. 5) Masafumi MIYATA. No. Hajime TSUCHIDA: “Observations of dynamic response of Kinuura submerged tunnel during an earthquakes and dynamic response analysis”. 1. 1984 (in Japanese).. Tech. 5. 1990 (in Japanese). Vol. Vol. of PHRI. Vol. 1969 (in Japanese). Eiichi KURATA: “Coupled hydrodynamic response analysis based on strong motion earthquake records of fill type breakwater in deep sea”. Setsuo NODA. Tech. 1997 (in Japanese). 1983 (in Japanese). 2. and Kurata. Vol. 10) Hajime TSUCHIDA. 13) Schnabel.. 1977 -”. 3) Atsushi NOZU. Tatsuo UWABE: “Analysis on seismic damage in anchored sheet-piling bulkheads”.. of PHRI. Rept. Koji ICHII.. of PHRI. Yasuo MATSUNAGA.: “FLUSH . 18) Takamasa INATOMI. No. Proc. 26) Takamasa INATOMI. 156.strain relations of soils in cyclic loading”. Tsai. 22. Tech. 21) HOUSNER. Vol. 29) Motoki KAZAMA. B. Tokuzo ISHIZAKA.: “Modelling of stress . 1. E. Takamasa INATOMI. 840. 1959. 2. Norihiro HIGAKI: “Expected values of maximum base rock accelerations along coasts of Japan”. Tsuchid. 27) Susumi IAI. Report No. K. 1975 (in Japanese). and Seed. 1991 (in Japanese). 32) Hideo ARAI. Report No. No. Yukihiro SATO. Yasuo MATSUNAGA.. Eiichi KURATA: “Analysis of earthquake ground motions observed with two dimensional seismometer array (First Report) . No. Hajime TSUCHIDA: “Earthquake response analysis of floating type structures”. YOSHIDA. N. pp. 15) Tatsuo UWABE. Hajime TSUCHIDA: “Site characteristics of strong-motion earthquake stations in ports and harbours in Japan (Part Ⅲ )”. G. No. Vol. 412.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [Technical Notes] The “Immersed Tunnel Technology Manual” is refered to design immersed tunnels. Note of PHRI. Shigeo NAKAYAMA. Vol.: “Dynamic tests of soil embankments”. EM4. 5. 1997 (in Japanese). Rept.. 85. Eiichi KURATA. pp. 29. Tech. Tatsuo UWABE. 1982 (in Japanese). 23) Susumu IAI. 472-491. of ASCE. No. Vol. 1983 (in Japanese). Rept. W. Ikuhiko YAMASHITA: “Vibration characteristics of the open type steel piled wharf with container crane”. 286. Rept. 14) Lysmer.mechanism of damage to port facilities during 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake (Part Ⅶ )”. 16) Susumu IAI. University of California at Berkeley. No. No. Takumi SHINOZAWA: “Relation between seismic coefficient and peak ground acceleration estimated from attenuation relations”. 2. 1985. No. Nobuo MIYAJIMA. 22. 1973 (in Japanese). 1996 (in Japanese). Tadaki CHIBA: “Relation between seismic coefficient and ground acceleration for gravity quaywall”. No. 5th WCEE. B. College of Engineering. 30) Hiromasa FUKUUCHI. and Seed. 861. S. 8. No. 2. of PHRI. K. No. Rept of PHRI. 1990 (in Japanese). H. 4. on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics. Note of PHRI. Tech. Tomohiro KAMEOKA: “Strain space plasticity model for cyclic mobility”. 28) Tatsuo UWABE. J. Note of PHRI. Rept of PHRI. of PHRI. 3. 1966 (in Japanese). [References] 1) Hironao TAKAHASHI. Eiichi KURATA. Satoshi HAYASHI. 14. 1983 (in Japanese). 561. Yukihiro SATO. Tech. Tech. 29. 18. 486. 8) Sosuke KITAZAWA. No. Note of PHRI. 1975 (in Japanese). 337. Yasuhumi UMEHARA: “Vibration of dry sand layers”. 2. 12. 1973. 1972. Note of PHRI. Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics. Berkeley. W. L. Yasuhumi UMEHARA: “Vibration of saturated sand layers”. Vol. Note of PHRI. Tech. University of California. Vol.A computer program for earthquake response analysis of horizontally layered site”. S. Toshikazu MORITA. 4. Vol. Rept. and Lee. No. Rept of PHRI. 31) Hideo ARAI. No.. 4. 19) ISHIHARA. 4. 15. No. of 5th Conf. of PHRI. Rept. 2) Tatsuo UWABE. Rept of PHRI. W. Tech. of PHRI.. Vol. Toshihiro IMAMURA: “Observation and analysis of seismic response grid type improved ground by deep mixing method”. No. Satoshi HAYASHI: “Average response spectra for various site conditions”.A computer program of approximate 3-D analysis of soil structure interaction problems”. Eiichi KURATA: “Characteristics of vertical components of strong-motion accelerograms and effects of vertical ground motion on stability of gravity type quaywalls”. Tomohiro KAMEOKA: “Analysis of deformation in sheet pile quaywall due to liquefaction”. pp. 25) Osamu KIYOMIYA. 1973 (in Japanese). No. R. B. T. D. 22. Vol. Martin. G. Vol. 1986 (in Japanese). Nagoya. No.: “Behavior of structures during an earthquake”. Susumu IAI: “Annual report on strong-motion earthquake records in Japanese ports (1994)”. ASCE. Tech. 893. Note of PHRI. 1. 1980 (in Japanese). Vol. Vol. Tech.North Tokyu Bay Earthquake of June 4. Susumu IAI. C. Rept. Norihiro HAGAKI: “Coupled hydrodynamic response characteristics and water pressures of large composite breakwaters”. No. No. 1975. 253-280 (in Japanese) 24) Noda. Koji ICHII. J. Setsuo NODA.Design earthquake ground motion of Kamaishi breakwater”. 221. Rept. No. Tatsuo UWABE. 4. Hajime TSUCHIDA: “Digitization and corrections of strong-motion accelerograms”. Hisanori YOSHIMURA: “Analysis of maritime transportation in KOBE Port after the 1995 HYOGOKEN-NANBU Earthquake”. Tadaki CHIBA. Takashi NAKAMOTO. Rept of PHRI. No. 813. 11) Susumu IAI. 20) Finn. Motoki KANAZAWA: “One-dimensional nonlinear dynamic ground response analyses”. Rept of PHRI. of PHRI. No. Udaka. Tatsuo UWABE. P. 373-380. 7) Shoichi KITAJIMA. 12. Ikuki YOKOHAMA. 30. Proc. Tokuzo ISHIZAKA. Hajime TSUCHIDA. Vol. Note of PHRI. 12) Tatsuo UWABE: “Base rock motion around the pacific coasts in Tohoku district .

Note of PHRI. 4. Ken-ichiro MINAMI. 205. 37) Setsuo NODA. 1983 (in Japanese). No. 1975 (in Japanese). Vol.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 33) Hideo ARAI. 23. 43) Hajime TSUCHIDA. 172. 21. Rept. 1983 (in Japanese). of PHRI. No. Tech. 42) Newmark. Vol.experimental study on the behavior of caisson type quay wall during an earthquake using underwater shaking table”. of PHRI. 3. of PHRI. 22. Nobuo MORI. No. 2. Tech. Norihiro HIGAKI: “Shaking table tests and circular arc analysis for large models of embankment on saturated sand layers”. 22. Vol. Vol. 1965 (in Japanese) 34) Tatsuo UWABE. Vol. 4. Vol. Vol. 40) Setsuo NODA. Eiichi KURATA. 1965. Tech. Toshiyuki YOKOI: “On the earthquake resistance of anchored sheet-pile walls (1st Report) - Model vibration tests of anchored sheet-pile walls in dry sand”. No. Tatsuo UWABE: “Microtremor measurement on sea banks”. Vol. Takeshi IIDA. No. 24. Vol. 813. 3. Ken OIKAWA: “Mechanism of damage to port facilities during 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake (Part Ⅵ ) . No. 1995 (in Japanese). No. 3. Toshihiro IMAMURA: “An experimental study on the earthquake resistance of wall type improved ground by deep mixing method”. Osamu KIYOMIYA. Rept of PHRI. Hideo NISHIZAWA. Rept. 1981 (in Japanese). Rept of PHRI. Rept. M. Hiroshi TABUCHI: “An experimental study on the earthquake of steel plate cellular-bulkheads with embedment”. Hideo NISHIZAWA: “Stress of buried pipe during an earthquake based on two dimensional seismometer array observation”. 9.: “Effects of earthquakes on dams and embankments”. No. Toshihiro IMAMURA: “An experimental study on the earthquake resistance of wall type improved ground by deep mixing method”. Note of PHRI. 1982 (in Japanese). 3. Motoki KAZAMA. 41) Takamasa INATOMI. 39) Osamu KIYOMIYA. Kenji MORI: “Earthquake-resistant calculation and dynamic model test on trench type tunnel”. 1983 (in Japanese). No. Masaaki MITOH. of PHRI. 2. 44) Tatsuo UWABE. Sosuke KITAZAWA. No. 1985 (in Japanese) 35) Takuji NAKANO. Sosuke KITAZAWA. Rept of PHRI. -194- . 22. Norihiro HIGAKI: “An experimental study on sliding block in water during an earthquake”. 38) Takashi SUGANO. 1973 (in Japanese) 36) Takamasa INATOMI. 20. 1984 (in Japanese). Geotechnique. Rept of PHRI. No. No. N. 15. 3. Rept. Note of PHRI. Hiroshi YOKOTA: “Field observation and response analysis at Kawasaki Port submerged tunnel”. Motoki KAZAMA.

a prediction and judgment of liquefaction occurrence of the subsoil shall be made. (2) Depth of Investigation The subsoils subject to liquefaction prediction are those down to a depth of 20 m below the ground surface (or below the seabed for structures in the sea). which is divided into two sub-figures according to the value of the uniformity coefficient. -195- . [Technical Notes] The “Handbook on Liquefaction Remediation of Reclaimed Land” (Revised Edition) can be referred to examine liquefaction of the subsoils.1 General Saturated loose sandy subsoils tend to liquefy during an earthquake. respectively.5. The latter method using cyclic triaxial test results is a detailed procedure and is used in the situations where prediction according to the method based on the gradation and N-values is difficult. When designing structures. liquefaction predictions should include these layers as well.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Chapter 13 Liquefaction 13. For the soil with grain size distribution of large fine portion a cyclic triaxial test should be carried out. where Uc is the uniformity coefficient.1. predictions of subsoil liquefaction shall be carried out according to the following: (1) When the subsoil is composed of soils such as saturated loose sandy soil.2 Prediction of Liquefaction (Notification Article 17) In principle.13. by referring to Fig.2. T. [Commentary] (1) Types of Liquefaction Prediction and Judgment There are two types of the methods for prediction of liquefaction occurrence. 13. [Technical Notes] (1) Prediction of Liquefaction Using Gradation and N-values 1) (a) Judgment based on gradation The subsoils should be classified according to gradation. For that of large gravel portion. when it is predicted that structures will suffer serious damage if liquefaction occur in a layer at a depth of more than 20 m. and D60 and D10 denote the grain sizes corresponding to 60% and 10% passing. The former method based on the gradation and N-values is the simplest method and can be applied in general. When the grain size distribution curve spans the “possibility of liquefaction” range. When there are subsoils with poor permeability such as clay or silt on top of the target subsoil in this case. or when the soil layer continues below the depth of 20m. However. the soil is determined not to liquefy when the coefficient of permeability is 3 cm/s or greater. The threshold value of the uniformity coefficient (Uc= D60 /D10) is 3. a suitable approach is required to examine the possibility of liquefaction. (2) Predictions and judgment of liquefaction occurrence of subsoil shall be carried out by choosing an appropriate method that uses the gradation and Standard Penetration Test results or the cyclic triaxial test results. Soil is judged not to liquefy when the grain size distribution curve is not included in the range “possibility of liquefaction”. One method is based on the gradation and N-values. causing damage to structures. however. it should be treated as soil that falls within the range of “possibility of liquefaction”. and another uses the results of a cyclic triaxial test. the effects of liquefaction shall be taken into consideration to the extent as necessary.

T13.2.1(a) Range of Possible Liquefaction (Uc ≧ 3.2).TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN For soil with large uniformity coefficient 7 Percentage passing by mass Very large possibility of liquefaction Possibility of liquefaction Clay Silt Grain size Sand Gravel Fig.2.5) For soil with small uniformity ecefficient 7 Percentage passing by mass Very large possibility of liquefaction Possibility of liquefaction Clay Silt Grain size Sand Gravel Fig.3) in (c) below is used.0041 (s v ¢ 65 ) + 1. The input motion to the bedrock in the seismic response analysis is determined by consulting with the reference 5).1(b) Range of Possible Liquefaction (Uc < 3.1.13.019 (s v ¢ 65 ) ( N ) 65 = -----------------------------------------------------0. N 0.2) a eq = 0.13.2. the equivalent N-value should be the same as the N-value of the layer without correction. ② Equivalent acceleration The equivalent acceleration should be calculated using equation (13.0 (13. ① Equivalent N-value The equivalent N-value should be calculated from equation (13. T.2. In cases where equation (13. The maximum shear stress determined from the seismic response analysis is used to determine the equivalent acceleration for each soil layer.7 ´ --------sv ¢ -196- .1).2.2. further investigations should be carried by the descriptions below.) The equivalent N-value refers to the N-value corrected for the effective overburden pressure of 65 kN/m2. T.1) where (N)65： equivalent N-value N： N-value of the subsoil s v ¢： effective overburden pressure of the subsoil (kN/m2) (the effective overburden pressure used here should be calculated with respect to the ground elevation at the time of the Standard Penetration Test. t max -g (13.2.5) (b) Prediction of liquefaction using equivalent N-values and equivalent acceleration For the subsoil with a gradation that falls within the range “possibility of liquefaction” shown in Fig. This conversion reflects the practice that liquefaction prediction was previously made on the basis of the N-value of a soil layer near a groundwater surface (see the “Technical Standards and Commentaries for Port and Harbour Facilities in Japan” (1979)).2. however.

II or III.13.5 and N + DN. T.2. Equivalent N-value Equivalent acceleration (Gal) Fig.2.13.13. The equivalent N-value (after correction) and the equivalent acceleration are used to determine the range in Fig. T. When the fines content (grain size is 75 mm or less) is 5% or greater. Compensation factor for equivalent -value N cN Fines content FC Fig.2. use range II. The meaning of the ranges I ~ IV is explained in Table T-13. use range I. and the fines content is 15% or higher The equivalent N-value (after correction) should be set as both (N)65/0. iii) When N + DN falls within the range III or IV and (N)65/0.1 to appear later.2.2. Corrections of the equivalent N-value are divided into the following three cases.13. The compensation factor cN is given in Fig.2. -197- .3. ① Case 1: when the plasticity index is less than 10 or cannot be determined.13.5 is within range I. T.2.2 Classification of Soil Layer with Equivalent N-Value and Equivalent Acceleration (c) Correction of N-values and predictions when the fraction of fines content is relatively large.4 ´ ( I p 10 ) i ) When N + DN falls within the range I.2. using the equivalent N-value and the equivalent acceleration of the soil layer. or when the fines content is less than 15% The equivalent N-value (after correction) should be set as (N)65/cN. where the value for DN is given by the following equation: (13.2. T.13.3 Compensation Factor of Equivalent N-Value Corresponding to Fine Contents ② Case 2: when the plasticity index is greater than 10 but less than 20. use range III. and the range should be determined according to the following situations.3) D N = 8 + 0. T.) g： gravitational acceleration (980 Gal) ③ Predictions using the equivalent N-value and equivalent acceleration The soil layer should be classified according to the ranges labeled I ~ IV in Fig. ii ) When N + DN falls within the range II.2. the equivalent N-value should be corrected before applying Fig.2. T.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS where a eq： equivalent acceleration (Gal) t max： maximum shear stress (kN/m2) s v ¢： effective overburden pressure (kN/m2) (the effective overburden pressure should be determined based on the ground elevation during an earthquake.

5 is in the range I or II. T. The rule of judgment of liquefaction occurrence for the results of prediction that is considered as standard are listed in Table T. In contrast.13.13. Either to judge that liquefaction will not occur or to conduct further evaluation based on cyclic triaxial tests. No corrections Correction with c N in Fig. T.2.3) c N in Fig.2.2.5 is within range IV.3 N in Equation (13. -198- . For a very important structure. In this table the term “prediction of liquefaction” refers to the high or low possibility of liquefaction as a physical phenomenon. ③ Case 3: when the plasticity index is 20 or greater. The reason that the range IV is not used for the case iii) even when range IV is given by a correction N + DN is that the reliability of the plasticity index in the equation is low when the value is 10 ~ 20.2.1 Predictions and Judgments of Liquefaction for Soil Layer According to Ranges Ⅰ to Ⅳ Range shown in Fig.2.13.13. In such cases a prediction and judgment for subsoil liquefaction should be made with the results of a seismic response analysis and cyclic triaxial tests conducted on undisturbed samples.2. Figure T-13.13. Here.4 N-Value Correction Methods by Fine Contents and Plasticity Index (d) Liquefaction predictions Since liquefaction predictions must also consider the factors other than physical phenomena such as what degree of safety should be maintained in the structures. The range should be determined according to the equivalent N-value (after correction) and the equivalent acceleration.3) Fine contents Fc (%) Fig. T. Therefore.3 Ⅰ Prediction of liquefaction Possibility of liquefaction occurrence is very high Possibility of liquefaction occurrence is high Judgment of liquefaction Liquefaction will occur Either to judge that liquefaction will occur or to conduct further evaluation based on cyclic triaxial tests. and the fines content is 15% or higher The equivalent N-value (after correction) should be set as N + DN.3 and ∆N Correction with ∆ Plasticity index Ip Correction with by equation (13.2. the term “judgment of liquefaction” refers to the consideration of the high or low possibility of liquefaction and judgment of whether or not the ground will liquefy.2. Table T. the range III is used for the case iii) even when the equivalent N-value (after correction) with (N)65/0. T. it is not possible to unconditionally establish any criteron for judgments regarding various prediction results.1.4 illustrates the ranges of applications of the cases ① to ③ . Liquefaction will not occur Ⅱ Ⅲ Possibility of liquefaction is low Ⅳ Possibility of liquefaction is very low (2) Prediction and Judgment Based on the Results of Cyclic Triaxial Tests In some cases it may be difficult to predict or judge the possibility of subsoil liquefaction from the results of gradation and N-values. either to judge that liquefaction will occur or to conduct further evaluation based upon cyclic triaxial tests.2. use range IV. judging the subsoil as the range IV “possibility of liquefaction is very low” is considered as risky. because the results from the fines content correction are too conservative.13.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN iv) When N + DN falls within range III or IV and (N)65/0.

etc.2 Prediction of Liquefaction). appropriate countermeasure works shall be selected to maintain the functions of structures after an earthquake. Kouki ZEN. When the subsoil that will liquefy is located adjacent to the improved subsoil.) (c) Combinations of (a) and (b) ① Simple combinations of measures in (a) and (b) ② Combinations of measures in (a) and (b) after giving consideration to their relationship with surrounding structures (3) The dimensions of soil improvements to be used as liquefaction countermeasures should be determined to the extent to maintain the functions of structures. No. (a) To prevent the occurrence of excessive pore water pressure ① Compaction ② Solidification ③ Replacement (replacement with easily compacted sand) (b) To dissipate excessive pore water pressure ① Drain placement ② Replacement (replacement with coarse sand. -199- . 914. 13. (4) When using compaction as a liquefaction countermeasure. 1998 (in Japanese). Note of PHRI. Tech. the subsoil should be compacted so that the N-value after compaction reaches a value at which liquefaction will be judged not to occur (see 13.3 Countermeasures against Liquefaction When implementing liquefaction countermeasures. (5) Liquefaction countermeasure works should be carried out by taking due consideration to the design targets of subsoil improvement. The equivalent N-value for the reserved area should be 16 or greater.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS (3) Judgmant of Overall Liquefaction In the judgment of overall subsoil liquefaction for a site consisting of soil layers. appropriate decisions regarding the following items must be made: (a) Construction methods of countermeasure works (b) Dimensions of countermeasure works (area and depth) (c) Specific design of the countermeasure works (2) Items (a) to (c) below are considered to be liquefaction countermeasure works. Fumikatsu KOIKE: “Study of the liquefaction prediction based on the grain distribution and the SPT N-value”. an area under the influence of the liquefaction should be reserved in the improved subsoil area. and the influence on existing structures and on the surrounding area. [Reference] 1) Hiroyuki YAMAZAKI. [Commentary] (1) When designing liquefaction countermeasure works. gravel. the decision should be made based on a judgement for each layer of subsoil.

1 Earth Pressure The earth pressure acting on the structure shall be calculated in correspondence to various conditions such as sandy soil and cohesive soil properties. or reinforced soil is not discussed in this chapter.1) cot( z . for instance.b ) sin(f .b ) cos( E E (14.3) cot( z .d .b ) + sec(f + d + y .d ) cos(y .2. The hydrostatic pressure and dynamic water pressure acting on a structure should be evaluated separately. and stress path. the situation in ordinary condition or earthquake condition. in the i-th soil layer y： angle of batter of backface wall from vertical line (°) b： angle of backfill ground surface from horizontal line (°) -200- é y cos(d + y ) ê1 ê ë . w cosy ù cosy p ai = K ai é ê Sg i hi + ú ë cos( y .2. quaywall. Number 1) The earth pressure of sandy soil acting on the backface wall of structure and the angle of sliding surface shall be calculated by the following equations: (1) Active Earth Pressure and the Angle of Failure Surface.2) K ai = cos 2 cos ( 2 fi .4) K pi = cos 2 cos ( 2 fi + y ) fi . active and passive states of earth pressure due to the displacement mode of structure.d .2 Earth Pressure under Ordinary Conditions 14. é y cos(d + y ) ê1 + ê ë w cosy ù cosy p pi = Kpi é ê Sg i hi + ú ë cos( y . However. ppi： active and passive earth pressure. structure and water. The earth pressure discussed in this chapter is the pressure acting on a structure by ordinary soil.b ) ú û sin( 2 with pai .y ) fi + d ) sin(fi . acting on the bottom level of the i-th soil layer (kN/m2) fi： angle of internal friction of the i-th soil layer (°) gi： unit weight of the i-th soil layer (kN/m3) hi： thickness of the i-th soil layer (m) Kai .b)û (14.b ) = .b ) ú û sin( 2 (2) Passive Earth Pressure and the Angle of Failure Surface.tan(f + d + y .b ) = tan(f .y + b ) E E E where y + d ) sin(f . respectively. water content. which is different from the earth pressure discussed in this chapter.2.1 Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil under Ordinary Conditions (Notification Article 11. improved soil.2.d ) sin(fii + b ) ù ú cos(d + y ) cos(y . respectively.2. void ratio.b ) ù ú cos(d + y ) cos(y .b ) sin(f + b ) cos( E E (14. Kpi： coefficients of active and passive earth pressures.b)û (14. The actual phenomenon of the earth pressure during an earthquake is caused by dynamic interaction between backfill soil.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 14 Earth Pressure and Water Pressure 14. [Commentary] The earth pressure is the force that is exerted by the soil mass and acts on a structure.y + b ) + sec(f . many analyses of past damage due to earth pressures during earthquakes have enabled to formulate the practical calculation method of earth pressure during an earthquake for designs.b ) E E E where y + d ) sin(f + d ) cos(y . 14. The earth pressure caused by liquefied soil. Clause 1. The magnitude of the earth pressure is known to vary considerably with the displacement of structure and with the nature of the soil such as gradation.

If a negative earth pressure is obtained by calculation. 14.5) (14. The wet unit weight gt should be used for soils above the residual water level. The unit weight of soil normally has a value of 18 kN/m3 as unsaturated soil such as a soil above the residual water level.5). it can be set as large as 40°. and the submerged unit weight g ¢ be used for soils below the residual water level. (3) In case of cohesive soil. -201- .1 Schematic Diagram of Earth Pressure Acting on Retaining Wall [Commentary] (1) Angle of Internal Friction of Soil The angle of internal friction of backfill soil normally has a value of 30°. In case of especially good backfilling material.2. (4) The unit weight of cohesive soil should be estimated by soil test. the cohesion between backfill and backface wall should be ignored.2.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS d： angle of friction between backfilling material and backface wall (°) zi： angle of failure surface of the i-th soil layer (°) w： uniformly distributed surcharge (kN/m2) w b z1 z2 y y d zi y+d Fig.? (2) Passive Earth Pressure where pa： pp： gi： hi： w： c： FF (14. and 10 kN/m3 as saturated soil below it.2.2. 14. (3) Unit Weight of Soil. (2) Angle of Friction between Backfilling Material and Backface Wall The angle of friction between backfilling material and backface wall normally has a value of ± 15° ~ 20°.2 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil under Ordinary Conditions (Notification Article 11.3. It may be estimated as one-half of the angle of internal friction of backfilling material. then the pressure should be set as zero.6) = Sg E DE + M + ? active earth pressure acting on the bottom level of the i-th soil layer (kN/m2) passive earth pressure acts on the bottom level of the i-th soil layer (kN/m2) unit weight of the i-th soil layer (kN/m3) thickness of the i-th soil layer (m) uniformly distributed surcharge (kN/m2) cohesion of soil in the i-th layer (kN/m2) [Commentary] (1) Active earth pressure is calculated using equation (14. Number 2) The earth pressure of cohesive soil acting on the backface wall of structure and the angle of failure surface shall be calculated by following equations: (1) Active Earth Pressure F= = Sg E DE + M . Clause 1.3 Shear Properties). (2) Cohesion of soil should be determined using an appropriate method (refer to 11.2.

d ) sin(fi + b .b ) û w cos (14.1 Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil during Earthquake (Notification Article 18.y .d .q ) é sin(fi + d ) sin(fi .3. It may be estimated as one-half of the angle of internal friction of backfilling material.q ) ù y cos(d + y + q ) ê1 + ú cos(d + y + q ) cos(y . pai = K ai é ê Sgi hi + ë cot( E y ù ú cosy cos(y .1) z .q ) é sin(fi . and k¢ is used below it.q ) sin(f .b .q ) ê1 ú cos(d + y .3. C.y + b ) + sec(f . (2) Angle of friction between backfilling material and backface wall normally has a value of ± 15° ~ 20°. (3) The composite seismic angle k is used for soils above the residual water level.14.q ) cos( E E (14.1 Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil under Ordinary Conditions.4) where K pi = cos q cos 2 where q： composite seismic angle (°) given by the following equations: q = tan-1k (above water level) q = tan-1k¢ (below water level) k： seismic coefficient k¢ ： apparent seismic coefficient fi + y . ppi = K pi é ê Sg i hi + ë cot( E y ù ú cosy cos(y .b .b ) = .b ) sin(f .d ) y . Clause 1.b ) û w cos E E (14. (4) The coefficient of earth pressure and angle of failure surface as illustrated can be obtained from the diagrams in Fig.3.tan(f + d + y .b ) cos ( 2 y + d + q ) sin(f + d ) cos(y .y + b ) E y + d .2) where K ai = cos q cos 2 fi .q ) ù y cos(d + y .3 Apparent Seismic Coefficient. Thus the equations mentioned above cannot be applied to liquefied soil.b ) sin(f + b .3.b ) + sec(f + d + y .3.b ) = tan(f .3 Earth Pressure during Earthquake 14.2. [Commentary] (1) Earth pressure during an earthquake is based on the theories proposed by Mononobe (1917) and Okabe (1924). and k¢ are the same as those defined in 14.3) cos( cos( E z .3.1. The apparent seismic coefficient k¢ is described in 14.b ) ú ê ë û cos ( 2 2 The notations other than q. -202- .q ) cos(y . Number 1) The earth pressure of sandy soil acting on a backface wall of structure during an earthquake and the angle of failure surface shall be calculated by following equations: (1) Active Earth Pressure and the Angle of Failure Surface.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 14.b ) ú ê ë û 2 (2) Passive Earth Pressure and the Angle of Failure Surface.d . It is necessary for liquefied soil to treat carefully with dynamic effective stress analysis or model tests. k. (5) The earth pressure theory assumes that the soil and the pore water behave as contained in one unit.q ) E E (14.3.

5 10.2 k 0.0 φ=3 0° φ=2 φ = 40° 5° 10 ° K p sin δ 2.4 K acos δ ° 30 ζa 0° 30 ° = 30 ° φ φ= ° 35 25 ° 4 φ= 20 ° 0.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 70 ° 1.0 δ = 15° 40 ° φ= 25° φ=3 0° φ = 35 ° φ = 40° φ = 40° K p cos δ 2.3 0.14.0 δ = 15° δ = 15° 60 ° 0.1 Coefficient of Earth Pressure and Failure Angle -203- .5 Fig.1 0.4 0.5 0 0.0 φ = 40° K p sin δ φ = 35° φ = 25° 0 0 0.2 k 0.4 0.2 k 0 0.0 25 ° φ= K p cos δ 40° 20 ° 6.3 0.3 0.2 k 0 0.8 50 ° φ= 0.1 0.1 0.0 δ = –15 ° 30 ° δ = –15 ° 8. C.4 0.2 k 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.5 60 ° δ = 15° 50 ° 3.1 0.2 K asin δ φ=2 5° 30° φ= 35° φ= 10 ° 0° φ=4 0 0 0.2 k φ = 30° 0 –10 ° 0.5 0 0.3 0.5 0 0.1 0.4 0.6 φ= 40 ° φ= ° 25 40 ° 35 ° = φ φ= 0.0 φ= 35° ζp 15 ° φ = 25 ° φ = 30 ° φ = 35° φ = 40° 4.0 φ = 35° 30 ° ζp 20 ° φ = 30° φ = 25° 10 ° 1.3.4 0.3 0.0 φ = 35° φ = 30° 5° φ = 25° 0 0 0.

the latter should be applied down to the depth of 10 m.3.7) where k¢： gt： g： w： hi： hj： h： k： apparent seismic coefficient unit weight of soil layer above the residual water level (kN/m3) unit weight (in the air) of saturated soil layer below the residual water level (kN/m3) uniform external load at the ground surface (kN/m2) thickness of the i-th soil layer above the residual water level (m) thickness of the j-th soil layer below the residual water level (m) thickness of soil layer to calculate earth pressure below the residual watere level (m) seismic coefficient -204- . acting on the bottom level of the i-th soil layer (kN/m2) unit weight of the i-th soil layer (kN/m3) thickness of the i-th soil layer (m) angle of failure surface of the i-th soil layer (°) uniformly distributed surcharge (kN/m2) cohesion of the soil (kN/m2) 1 1 composite seismic angle (°) ( q = tan k or q = tan k ¢ ) seismic coefficient apparent seismic coefficient (2) There are many unknown items concerning the method for determining the passive earth pressure of cohesive soil during an earthquake.3. If the earth pressure at the depth of 10 m below the sea bottom becomes less than the earth pressure at the sea bottom. Number 2) The earth pressure of cohesive soil acting on a backface wall of structure during an earthquake shall be calculated by the following: (1) Active Earth Pressure Active earth pressure shall be calculated using an appropriate earth pressure equation which takes the seismic coefficient into account so that the structural stability will be secured during an earthquake.ç E E ÷ tan q 2? è ø active earth pressure. [Commentary] (1) The active earth pressure acting on a backface wall of structure during an earthquake and the angle of sliding surface should be calculated by following equations: F= = (SgE DE + w) sin (z = +q ) cos q sin z = - ? cos z = sin z = (14.7). The earth pressure between these two depths is determined assuming that the earth pressure is linearly distributed between them.3.3.1 Earth Pressure of Sandy Soil during Earthquake and 14. Clause 1.6) where p a： gi： hi： z a： w： c： q： k： k¢ ： æ Sg D + 2w ö z = = tan -1 1 .2 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil during Earthquake (Notification Article 18. ) h k (14. The apparent seismic coefficient may be set as zero when calculating the earth pressure at the depth of 10 m from the sea bottom or deeper.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 14. by using the apparent seismic coefficient that is determined by equation (14. the passive earth pressure in ordinary condition discribed in 14.5) (14. From the practical point of view.3.3. (2) Passive Earth Pressure Passive earth pressure shall be calculated using an appropriate earth pressure equation so that the structural stability will be secured during an earthquake.3 Apparent Seismic Coefficient (Notification Article 19) It shall be standard to calculate the earth pressure acting below the residual water level during an earthquake according to the procedures given in 14.3.2 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil during Earthquake. 14. (3) The apparent seismic coefficient should be used to calculate the earth pressure of cohesive soil down to the sea bottom during an earthquake. ) h j +M ] + ( g .3. k ¢ = ( Sg t hi + Sg hj +M) +g h [ Sg t hi + S (g .2 Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil under Ordinary Conditions can be used as passive earth pressure during an earthquake.2.

3.14. (2) The concept of the apparent seismic coefficient k¢ is expressed by the following equation: g t ´ k = ( g 10 ) ´ k ¢ (3) A product of unit weight of a soil layer (in the air) and seismic coefficient becomes equal to the product of submerged unit weight of a soil layer and the apparent coefficient for the soil below the water level. First stratum Second stratum First j stratum Stratum for which earth pressure will be calculated 14. and tidal range. The residual water level is affected by various conditions such as permeability of backfill soil. First stratum First i stratum Residual water level R.L. the dynamic water pressure during an earthquake should be applied to the wall in the seaward direction. Normally the height hw will be 1/3 ~ 2/3 of the tidal range.4. C-14.1) or (14. the residual water pressure calculated by equation (14. 14.7).4.4) hdw = ! H # .3) dynamic water pressure (kN/m2) seismic coefficient unit weight of water (kN/m3) height of structure below the still water level (m) depth from the still water level (m) (2) The resultant force of dynamic water pressure and its acting depth shall be calculated by the following equation: pdw = ± % kg w H æ H% ç = ò & kg w è Hydy ö ÷ ø -205- (14.4.2 Dynamic Water Pressure during Earthquake (Notification Article 20) (1) The dynamic water pressure during an earthquake shall be calculated using the following equation: pdw = ± % kg w Hy where p dw： k： gw： H： y： Residual Water Press & (14. C.1 Schematic Diagram of the Residual Water Pressure [Commentary] For practical design.4.W.4.4.4.4.3. C-14.1 Residual Water Pressure (Notification Article 12) The residual water pressure caused by the time delay of water level changes between the sea level and the residual water level shall be calculated using the following equation: (1) When y is less than hw FM = g M O (2) When y is equal to or greater than hw FM = gM DM where p w： gw： y： h w： residual water pressure (kN/m2) unit weight of water (kN/m3) depth from the residual water level (m) water level difference (m) (14. Residual Water Level Fig.2 Cross Section of Soil Layers and Symbols.4 Water Pressure 14.1).2) Fig.2) should be used as a water pressure acting on the backface wall (see Fig.4.1) (14.4.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS [Commentary] (1) In case of stability analysis of quaywall with use of equation (14.

In case of a structure that have the free water surface in both sides such as a breakwater. Transactions of ASCE. Westergaard: “Water pressures on dams during earthquakes”. pp. [Reference] 1) H.3) has been derived for the dynamic water pressures induced by stationary oscillations of water 1). the magnitude of dynamic water pressure should be two times that calculated above. 418-472 -206- . 1835. 1933. M.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN where p dw： resultant force of dynamic water pressure (kN/m) hdw： depth of the acting point of the resultant force from the still water level (m) [Commentary] Equation (14.4. No.

snow load. [Technical Notes] For port and harbor facilities design.2 Deadweight and Surcharge (Notification Article 24) (1) The unit weights of materials in design of port and harbor facilities shall be the values given in Table 15.0 71. gravel.2. except for those cases where another unit weight can be specified by means of advance surveys and others. the snow load also is a kind of static load.6 26.0 25.3 Static Load 15.1. loads are divided into deadweight and surcharge. (2) The surcharge acting on port and harbor facilities shall be appropriately determined with due consideration for the service conditions of the port and harbor facilities such as the type and volume of cargo handled and the handling conditions.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS Chapter 15 Loads 15. and rubble (wet) Sand. and rubble (saturated) Unit weight (kN/m3) 77. Table 15. sidewalk live load.0 20. are included in static load.0 22.0 27. loads shall be taken into consideration as necessary. -207- . shape and volume of cargo handled. vehicle load. train load. (1) Deadweight: the weight of the structure itself (2) Surcharge: the weight loaded on top of the structure. and the loading period. ① Train load ② Vehicle load ③ Cargo handling equipment load ④ Sidewalk live load 15. and it is divided into static load and live load.0 16.6 7.3. (a) Static load The load such as bulk cargo loaded onto aprons.0 15.1 Unit Weights of Materials (Notification Article 24. Clause 5) Material Steel and casting steel Casting iron Aluminum Reinforced concrete Plain concrete Timber Asphalt concrete Stone (granite) Stone (sandstone) Sand.2. cargo handling equipment load. (b) Live load The following must be considered as live load. The types of surcharge to be taken into consideration include static load.8 22. cargo in transit sheds and warehouses. when designing port and harbor facilities. the handling method.5 24.0 18. and rubble (dry) Sand. In regions with heavy snowfall. etc.1 Static Load under Ordinary Conditions Static load under ordinary conditions shall be determined based on adequate consideration of the factors such as the type. gravel. gravel.1 General When designing port and harbor facilities. and any other loads that will have an effect on the design of the port and harbor facilities.

the snow load should be determined according to the regional conditions.2.3 . [Technical Notes] The conditions of static load during an earthquake should be examined separately for the respective types of facilities such as transit sheds.3.15. the unevenly distributed load may be converted to an uniform load in an area of an apron. On the other hand. for example. where a large concentrated load is likely to act on the structure. In this case the snow load should be determined by taking into consideration the trend in snowfall.8 9. [Technical Notes] (1) For quaywalls where snow removal operations will be carried out. open storage yards and aprons.3.0 19. 15.1. Table T. However.1 Unit Weights of Bulk Cargo (Units: kN/m3) Commodity Coke Coal (bulk) Coal (dust) Iron ore Cement Sand. snow quality and snow removal operation.2 1. (3) The relationship between normal snow conditions and snow unit weight.0 15. (2) In most cases the snow load is set as 1 kN/m2.0 ～ 29.2 Static Load during Earthquake Static load during an earthquake shall be determined by considering the condition of the static load at the time when the earthquake considered in the design should occur.8 ～ 9. described in the “Railway Structure Design Standards and Commentary”. Table T.3.0 15.3 Unevenly Distributed Load When calculating the stability of a structure as a whole.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Technical Notes] (1) The static load of apron is 10 ~ 30 kN/m2 in many cases. is shown in Table T. warehouses.2 Normal Snow Conditions and Unit Weight of Snow (Units: kN/m3) Normal snow conditions Dry powder snow Dry powder snow accumulated by winds Snow with medium water content Snow with high water content -208Unit weight 1.3.3. for facilities such as aprons used as cargo handling facilities where cargo is only placed temporarily. this concentrated load shall be taken into consideration without converting to an uniform load. 15.15.3. based on thorough consideration of past snowfall records.15. gravel and rubble Unit weight 4.4 Snow Load For regions where snowfall is large. the value of the static load should be determined after investigating the cargo handing condition.0 20.7 4. (2) The unit weights for bulk cargo have been obtained based on surveys of past actual conditions. approximately 70 ~ 100 cm thickness of dry. Static load to be used in design during an earthquake should be determined according to their conditions of usage. it is often sufficient to determine the snow load with the accumulated weight of snow over one night. new powder snow.4 8.3.15.8 ～ 11. the static load will vary tremendously whether cargo loading operations are underway or not. transit shed or warehouse.9 8. This is equivalent to. For this reason in design of quaywall the static load on an apron during an earthquake is normally assumed to be 1/2 of that under service conditions. which are listed in Table T. For aprons that handle cargo of large weight such as steel materials.

by taking into consideration the net car weight.1 Standard Demension of Containers Designation Length (L) mm Tolerance ft mm in Tolerance in mm Width (W) Tolerance mm ft Tolerance in mm 2.400 56. this value can be reduced in consideration of the service conditions of the facilities.591 2. and axle arrangement of wheels.438 <2.991 1 DX 0 -10 40 0 -3/8 2.4.4.896² 2. For special facilities.438 <2. however.591² 2.480 67.438 <2.438 2. 15. (2) The load of cargo handling equipment travelling on rail shall be the total deadweight or the maximum wheel load considering the wheel interval and number of wheels.15.4 Live Load 15.192 1A 1 AX 1 BBB 1 BB 9.4.438 2.125 1B 1 BX 1 CC 1C 1 CX 1D 2.3 Cargo Handling Equipment Load The load of cargo handling equipment shall be as follows: (1) The load of mobile cargo handling equipment shall be the total deadweight.PART II DESIGN CONDITIONS 15. 15. the maximum load of the outrigger operation.1. Table T.438 2.438 0 -5 8 0 -3/16 10. (3) The load of fixed cargo handling equipment shall be the maximum hoisting load.200² 0 -10 29 11 1/4 0 -3/16 2. 15.000² 0 -5 9 9 3/2 0 -3/16 2.591 6.438 0 -5 8 0 -3/16 30. or the maximum contact load of crawler of the mobile cargo handling equipment that is expected to be used.900² 6² 6² 0 -3/16 0 -3/16 0 -3/16 in 6² 6² Tolerance in 0 -3/16 0 -3/16 0 -3/16 Maximum gross mass kg lb 1 AAA 1 AA 12.1 Train Load Train load shall be applied in such a way to induce the maximum effect on the structures or their members.896 2.4.160 22.438 <2.2 Vehicle Load Vehicle load shall be determined according to the “Highway Bridge Specification and Commentary”. the maximum wheel load.438 0 -5 0 -5 0 -5 0 -5 0 -5 0 -5 Height (H) Tolerance mm 0 -5 0 -5 0 -5 ft 9 8 8 <8 9 8 8 <8 8 8 <8 8 <8 0 -3/16 6² 0 -3/16 0 -3/16 24. [Technical Notes] The regulations concerning the dimensions and maximum gross mass of containers used for marine transport have been set by the “International Organization for Standardization (ISO)” as listed in Table T.4.438 0 -5 8 0 -3/16 2.15.4.438 0 -5 8 0 -3/16 25.000 52. loaded weight.4 Sidewalk Live Load The sidewalk live load shall be 5 kN/m2. -209- .400² *Some countries regulate the total height of the vehicle and container. Train load shall be applied in principle as the full set of multiple loads in succession without dividing it into two or more separate sets.058 0 -6 19 10 1/2 0 -1/4 2.

16. 4.6 0.8 for the friction between underwater concrete and bedrock under ordinary condition.1 can be used.7 depending on the condition. However.1. Part Ⅷ .7 ～ 0.81) 0.1 Static Friction Coefficient Concrete against concrete Concrete against bedrock Underwater concrete against bedrock Concrete against rubble Rubble against rubble Timber against timber Friction increasing mat and rubble 0.4 Cellular Blocks shoud be referred to.7 ～ 0.8 0. when the bedrock is brittle or includes cracks. 2) When calculating the stability of cellular concrete blocks.2 (wet) ～ 0.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 16 Coefficient of Friction 16.16. normally the values listed in Table T. -210- . the value of coefficient is to be reduced to down to 0.1. The friction coefficient shall be appropriately determined after taking into consideration the characteristics of the structure and the characteristics of the materials.5 (dry) 0.8 Notes: 1) The value should be 0. Table T.5 0.1 General (Notification Article 25) The friction coefficient for materials used in calculations of the frictional resistance force shall be the static friction coefficient as the standard. [Technical Notes] For the static friction coefficient to be used in stability calculations. or when the sand movement over the bedrock is intensive.5 0.

Part III Materials .

.

materials. cost. lifetime of structures.2 Safety of Structural Elements (Notification Article 34. and other matters. 1. -211- .PART III MATERIALS Part III Materials Chapter 1 General 1. workability. However. impact on the environment. it shall be standard to examine the safety of members of reinforced concrete structures with the limit state design method. shape of structures. and load characteristics. deterioration with time.1 Selection of Materials Materials to be used in structures and foundation works shall be selected after giving due consideration to the external forces acting on them. Clause 1) Examination of the safety of structural members against external forces shall be made in accordance with either the allowable stress method or the limit state design method. depending on the characteristics of structures.

2 Steel Meterial Constants Used in Design Calculation Material constants to be used in design for steel and cast steel shall be set as appropriate in view of strength characteristics and other properties. [Technical Notes] Table T.1 Materials (Notification Article 35.1 General It shall be standard to set the allowable streses in accordance with 2. 2.0 ´ 105 N/mm2 7.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 2 Steel 2. Clause 1) Steel materials shall be of a quality complying with the “Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS)”.3.3 Allowable Stresses (Notification Article 35.2. Table 2.3.3.2.2 Structural Steel The standard allowable stresses for structural steel shall be as listeted in Table 2. 2.2.1 Allowable Stresses for Structural Steel (Notification Article 35.3. and 2. [Commentary] Foreign products may be used if they are of a quality equivalent to that complying with JIS. 2. depending on the type of steel material.2.3. or if they are of a quality equal to or better than that specificied by JIS even though not yet standardized as JIS.1 lists the reference values of the material constants for ordinary steel and cast steel.1 Steel Material Constants Modulus of elasticty Shear modulus Poisson’s ratio Coefficient of linear thermal elongation E G v a 2.3.7 ´ 104 N/mm2 0. or shall be of a quality equal to or better than that specificied by JIS.1. Clause 2) 2.4 Steelsheet Piles.2 Structural Steel.3. Annexed Table 7) Type of steel Type of stress Axial tensile stress (per net cross-sectional area) Axial compressive stress (per gross cross-sectional area) Bending tensile stress (per net cross-sectional area) Bending compressive stress (per gross cross-sectional area) Shearing stress (per gross cross-sectional area) between steel plates Bearing stress when calculated using Hertz’s equation (Units : N/mm2) SS400 SM400 SMA400 140 140 140 140 80 210 600 SM490 185 185 185 185 105 280 700 SM490Y SM520 SMA490 210 210 210 210 120 315 － SM570 SMA570 255 255 255 255 145 380 － -212- . Table T. depending on the quality of steel and the type of stresses.30 12 ´ 10-6 1/ ℃ 2.3 Steel Piles and Steel Pipe Sheet Piles.

≦ 79 16 ＜ ----r -------------------------------------. sc： tensile stress due to axial tensile force and compressive stress due to axial compressive force acting on the section. (3) Since structural steel is almost invariably used in locations where there is little danger of buckling.1 are the allowable stresses for structural steel with a thickness of 40 mm or less. 16ö .2. depending on the quality of steel and the type of stresses. 200. 700 + è ----rø Bending tensile stress (per net cross-sectional area) Bending compressive stress (per gross cross-sectional area) 140 140 (1) In case of the axial tensile stress s t + s bt ≦ s ta and s t + sbc ≦ s ba (2) In case of the axial compressive stress 1. The allowable stresses for structural steel with a thickness in excess of 40 mm may follow the provisions in the “Highway Bridge Specifications and the Commentary”. (2) The allowable limits for tensile and compressive stresses for the various steel materials have been set at around 60% of the yield strengths prescribed in JIS. the values for allowable stresses listed in Table 2. ----r ili .≦ 92 18 ＜ ----r -------------------------------------..3. 2.3.2 Allowable Stresses for Steel Piles and Steel Pipe Sheet Piles (Notification Article 35.92 ＜ ----r i l iö 2 æ 6.PART III MATERIALS [Technical Notes] (1) The values listed in Table 2.≦ 1. sca： allowable tensile stress and allowable axial compressive stress relating to smallest moment of inertia.3.≦ 16 185 .3..+ ------. è r ø ili .0 s ca s ba 80 150 Shearing stress (per gross cross-sectional area) where l： effective buckling length of member (cm) r： radius of gyration of area for the gross cross-sectional area of the member (cm) st . sbc： maximum tensile stress and maximum compressive stress due to bending moment acting on the section.1 have been determined for the cases in which there are no danger of buckling taking place. respectively (N/mm2) sta . Annexed Table 8) (Units : N/mm2) Type of steel Type of stress Axial tensile stress (per net cross-sectional area) SKK400 SHK400 SHK400M SKY400 140 ili . respectively (N/mm2) sba： allowable bending compressive stress (N/mm2) -213- .82 æ ----. 185 1. ----r ili 140 0.≦ 18 140. 18ö .3. 000 SKK490 SHK490M SKY490 185 ili . 200. 000 ili 1.2 æ ----è r ø ili . 79 ＜ ----r i l iö 2 æ 5.3 Steel Piles and Steel Pipe Sheet Piles The standard allowable stresses for steel piles and steel pipe sheet piles shall be as listed in Table 2. 000 + è ----rø 185 185 ili Axial compressive stress (per gross cross-sectional area) Examination of members simultaneously subject to axial force and bending moment s c sbc ------.a Table 2. respectively (N/mm2) sbt .

1 lists the reference values of the allowable stresses for cast steel and forged steel.3.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 2.4 Steel Sheet Piles The standard allowable stresses for steel sheet pile shall be as listed in Table 2. depending on the quality of steel and the type of stresses. Annexed Table 9) (Units : N/mm2) Type of steel SY295 Type of stress Bending tensile stress (per net cross-sectional area) Bending compressive stress (per gross cross-sectional area) Shearing stress (per gross cross-sectional area) 180 180 100 235 235 125 SY390 2. [Technical Notes] Table T.3. When steel materials of different strengths are sliced. -214- . [Technical Notes] (1) Table T.3.2.3.3.3.3.2.3.2.5 Cast Steel and Forged Steel The standard allowable stresses for cast steel and forged steel shall be set as appropriate in accordance with the quality of steel and the type of stress. Table 2. Table T.3 Allowable Stresses for Steel Sheet Piles (Notification Article 35.3.6 Allowable Stresses for Steel at Welded Zones and Spliced Sections The allowable stresses for steel at welded zones and spliced sections shall be set as appropriate in accordance with the quality of steel and the type of welding.1 Allowable Stresses for Cast Steel and Forged Steel Cast steel SC450 140 140 140 140 80 600 Steels for machine structural use S30CN 170 170 170 170 100 670 S35CN 190 190 190 190 110 720 (Units : N/mm2) Cast iron FC150 40 80 40 80 30 450 FC250 60 120 60 120 50 650 Type of steel Type of stress Axial tensile stress (per net cross-sectional area) Axial compressive stress (per gross cross-sectional area) Bending tensile stress (per net cross-sectional area) Bending compressive stress (per gross cross-sectional area) Shearing stress (per gross cross-sectional area) Bearing stress (when calculated using Hertz’s equation) Forged steel SF490A 140 140 140 140 80 600 SF540A 170 170 170 170 100 700 2.2 lists the reference values of the allowable stress for welded zones. the values of the steel materials with the lower strength shall be applied.

4 can be applied. -215- . the value should be the same as that of shop welding. the allowable stresses in 2.2. Table T. Clause 3) When considering a combination of several kinds of external forces.50 [Technical Notes] When assuming a special external force. 2) For steel pipe piles and steel pipe sheet piles.3.3 lists the reference values of the allowable stresses for anchor bolts and pins.3.4 lists the reference values of the allowable stresses for finished bolts.2 Allowable Stresses for Steel at Welded Zones Type of steel Type of welding Full penetration groove welding Fillet welding and partial penetration groove welding Field welding Type of stress Compressive Tensile Shearing Shearing Shop welding SM490Y SM520 SMA490 210 210 120 120 (Units : N/mm2) SM570 SMA570 255 255 145 145 SM400 SMA400 140 140 80 80 SM490 185 185 105 105 1) In principle.3. Table 2.4 Allowable Stresses for Finished Bolts Strength categories according to JIS B 1051 Type of stress Tensile Shearing Bearing 140 90 210 360 200 540 470 270 700 (Units : N/mm2) 10.9 4.3 Allowable Stressess for Anchor Bolts and Pins (Units : N/mm2) Type Anchor bolts Pins Type of steel Type of stress Shearing Bending Shearing Bearing SS400 60 190 100 210 S35CN 80 260 140 280 (3) The allowable stress for anchor bolts prescribed here is based on the assumption that they are embedded in concrete.2.3.3.6 8.4.3.2.3.15 1.6 Allowable Stress for Welded Zones and Spliced Sections can be increased by the rate listed in Table 2.3. Table T.3.4 Increase Rates of Allowable Stresses (Notification Article 35.2.2.3.3.2 Structural Steel to 2. the value should be set at 90% of that of shop welding (2) Table T. an increase rate greater than those in Table 2. Annexed Table 10) Combination of external forces and loads When considering the influence of temperature variation When considering the influence of earthquakes Increase rate 1.7 Increase of Allowable Stresses (Notification Article 35.PART III MATERIALS Table T.8 2. (4) Table T.

4. In cases of concentrated corrosion. the rate of corrosion is highest in the section immediately above the mean high water level (MHWL).4. as they are placed under harsh corrosive environmental conditions.2.4. However. the existence of river water inflow. Therefore. in particular.4.1 are the average ones.4.1.2.1. where the structure is exposed to sea water splashes and there is an adequate supply of oxygen. and in some cases may even exceed the value in the splash zone. the rate of corrosion in the section directly below MLWL may be much larger than that in midsea sections.4. and the actual corrosion rate may exceed them depending on the enviromental conditions of the steel material. Generally.1 are listed as references with a range of variation.1 refer to the corrosion rate immediately above HWL.2 Corrosion Rates of Steel Materials The corrosion rate of steel materials shall be determined as appropriate in view of the environmental conditions of the site where structures are built. For the sections immediately below the mean low water level. Marine atmosphere Splash zone Mean high water level Mean low water level Seabed Rate of corrosion Fig. However.4. the rate should be determined by referring to past cases in the vicinity and survey results under similar conditions. The appropriate boundary between them is around 1.2. the corrosion in the tidal zone should be dealt with separately from that in the midsea sections because of the differences in the environmental conditions. the corrosion rate in this section differs greatly depending on the environmental conditions and the cross-sectional shape of the structure. The corrosion rate between the HWL and midsea sections should be determined by referring to actual corrosion rates in the properties of sea water around the structures. which include the weather conditions. the sum of the corrosion rates of the both sides estimated on the basis of the values in Table T. C. It should also be noted that the values in Table T.1.1 should be employed. the rate of corrosion greatly exceeds the values listed in Table T. C. etc.1 Distribution of Steel Material Corrosion Rates Tidal zone Underwater Sea mud 2. In steel sheet piles and steel pipe pile structures submerged in clean sea water. which has been compiled on the basis of survey results on existing steel structures.2. This is because past corrosion surveys have shown that the corrosion rate varies depending on the properties of sea water and the depth of water. when the both sides of steel materials are subject to corrosion. the salinity and pollution level of the sea water. This marked localized corrosion is called the concentrated corrosion.2. Therefore.4 Corrosion Control 2. But depending on the environmental conditions of the structure.2. because the corrosion rate depends on the corrosive environmental conditions. Thus.1. [Commentary] The distribution of corrosion rate with respect to the depth of steel materials driven into the sea generally becomes as shown in Fig.4. the rate of corrosion is highest in the section immediately below the tidal zone.4. corrosion is particularly heavy in the splash zone.4. In particular. (2) The values for “HWL or higher” in Table T.4. suitable countermeasures shall be undertaken because heavy localized corrosion may occur there.2. That is. [Commentary] The corrosion rate of steel materials used in port and harbor facilities is influenced by the environmental conditions. -216- .0 m below the depth LWL. when determining the rate of corrosion of steel materials. Among the submerged sections in Fig.1 General Corrosion control shall be investigated in design of facilities involving use of steel materials. and thus these values are not applicable to such cases.2. [Technical Notes] For all aspects of corrosion control. the values in Table T. C. the results of corrosion surveys under similar conditions should be referred to.1 refer to the corrosion rate for only one side of the steel material.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 2.4. The values in Table T2.2. [Technical Notes] (1) The corrosion rate of steel materials should generally be determined by referring to the standard values listed in Table T. reference may be made to “Corrosion Control and Repair Manual for Port and Harbor Steel Structures (Revised Edition)” published by the Coastal Development Institute of Technology. the rate of corrosion in the section directly below the mean low water level (MLWL) is often not much different from that in midsea sections.

3 0. 2. it is acceptable to apply the method of corrosion control using thickness allowance for corrosion. as the sections immediately below MLWL are easily susceptible to corrosion. and caution should be taken to prevent damage on coating during installation or by collisions from driftwood. depending on the environmental conditions in which the steel material exists.PART III MATERIALS (3) In sealed spaces such as the inside of steel pipe piles.2). in principle.2 0.4. the coating materials should be selected in view of their durability in particular. [Technical Notes] (1) As listed in Table T. (2) In the tidal zone and submerged zone. in the case of temporary structures. -217- . Table T.2.4.4 Cathodic Protection Method [1] Range of Application The range of application of the cathodic protection method shall in principle be at or below the mean low water level (MLWL).1) and equation (2.4. the effect of the cathodic protection method (corrosion control rate) increases when the period of immersion of the steel material subject to corrosion in sea water is longer and decreases when it is shorter.3 0. there is a risk of intensive corrosion due to concentrated corrosion. and thus no corrosion control is required in particular.1 ～ 0. the cathodic protection method shall be implemented as the standard corrosion control method. For the sections above the depth 1 m below the mean monthly-lowest water level (LWL).4. and their reliability has been confirmed.4.3 Corrosion Control Methods (Notification Article 38) Corrosion control methods for steel material shall be taken as appropriate by employing the cathodic protection method. Also. the coating method shall be implemented as the standard method. it may be assumed that corrosion cannot occur because there is no supply of oxygen. or other corrosion control method. corrosion control by means of the thickness allowance should not be undertaken as a corrosion control method.1 ～ 0. However.2. But in cases where a strongly corrosive environment is conjectured due to the influence of waste material in the backfill.03 0. corrosion control must be carried out by coating.02 Land side 2. the coating should extend to a certain depth below MLWL and should be combined with the cathodic protection method. For the sections below the mean low water level (MLWL). the coating method. and thus the corrosion control efficiency of the cathodic protection is slightly inferior. The seawater immersion ratio and corrosion control rate are expressed in equation (2. surveys should be conducted in advance and appropriate measures should be taken. [Commentary] Above the MLWL.1 0.2. depending on the corrosive environmental conditions. Therefore.03 0. [Commentary] (1) Corrosion control methods to be applied to port and harbor steel structures consist of the cathodic protection method and the coating method. respectively.4. The zone between MLWL and the LWL is submerged for a shorter time than that below LWL. (4) The best results have been achieved by using the coating method above the tidal zone and the cathodic protection method in the midsea and seabed sections. When using the coating method in the midsea sections. (3) The ground embedded side of steel sheet pile have a slower rate of corrosion than that of the seaward side.1 Standard Values of Corrosion Rates for Steel Material Corrosive environment Seaside HWL or higher HWL ～ LWL -1 m LWL -1 m ～ seabed Under seabed Above ground and exposed to air Underground (above residual water level) Underground (below residual water level) Corrosion rate (mm/year) 0.

a lead-silver alloy is often used as the current circuit. Zn alloy 7. Under the method of cathodic protection by power impression. [2] Protective Potential The protective potential of port and harbor steel structures shall be -780 mV with a seawater-silver chloride electrode as the reference.4. The electrode that provides the standard value is known as the reference electrode. aluminum (Al).3.53 Pure Mg. Since the output voltage can be freely adjusted with this method.08 0.4.11 65* 1. In seawater. and are suited to both the midsea and seabed environments.30 3.21 55 1.2 Corrosion Control Ratio of the Cathodic Protection Method Seawater immersion ratio below 40 % equal to 40 % or over but below 80 % equal to 80 % or over but below 100 % 100 % Corrosion control rate below 40 % equal to 40 % or over but below 60 % equal to 60 % or over but below 90 % equal to 90 % or over Seawater immersion ratio time ＝ Immersion period of test piece ´ 100 (%) Total test period ´ 100 (%) (2. The value -218- .78 11. an electrode that indicates stable reference values even in the different environmental conditions should be used as the reference.0 40 0. and the places where a fine potential control is required. Then a protective current flow is applied towards the steel structure from the current circuit.3 Comparison of Characteristics of Galvanic Anode Materials Characteristics Specific gravity Open circuit anode voltage (V) (SCE) Effective voltage to iron (V) Theoretical generated electricity flux (A ・h/g) In seawater with 1 mA/cm2 In soil with 0.8 90 2. (3) Cathodic protection is divided into the method of cathodic protection by galvanic anodes and that of cathodic protection by power impression. it can be applied to the environments featuring pronounced fluctuations such as strong currents or the inflow of river water. Mg-Mn 1. This potential is known as the protective potential.60 3. magnesium (Mg).75 2.20 50 1.74 1.14 1. in addition to the seawater silver chloride electrode. This method is applied almost universally in cathodic protection of port and harbor steel structures in Japan. the saturated mercurous chloride electrode and the saturated copper sulfate electrode are sometimes used.4. are outstandingly economical.48 0. corrosion is controlled.65 2.22 7.77 1.10 8.56 0.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T. a current circuit is connected to the positive pole of an external DC power source and the steel structure to the negative pole.6 ～ 2. aluminum alloy anodes are most commonly used for port and harbor steel structures.86* Note: * Fluctuates depending on material composition.8 65 0.82 95 0.03 0.2 50 1.8 1. zinc (Zn) and other anodes are connected to the steel structure and the electric current generated by the difference in potential between the two metals is used as a corrosion control current. the potential of the steel structure gradually shifts to a base direction (becomes lower). Therefore.2) (2) The standard corrosion control rate for the area below the mean low water level is 90 %. In seawater.4.2.88 Mg6 Al3 Zn 1.4. [Commentary] When applying a protective current through a steel structure by the cathodic protection method. When it reaches a certain potential. Aluminum alloy anodes (AI-Zn-In) offer the highest flux of current generated per unit of mass.87 80 2. Table T.2.25 2.03 mA/cm2 Current efficiency (%) Generated electricity flux (A ・h/g) Dissipation volume (kg/A)/year Current efficiency (%) Generated electricity flux (A ・h/g) Al-Zn-In 2. [Technical Notes] (1) To meassure the potential of steel structures. Under the galvanic anodes method.2.4 Pure Zn.20 0. The characteristics of the galvanic anode materials are listed in Table T. mainly because of ease of maintenance.1) Corrosion control rate ＝ (Weight loss of test piece without electric current － Weight loss of test piece with electric current) Weight loss of test piece without electric current (2.

the design value of the protective current density should be set in reference to actual performance in existing structures in the area. [Commentary] (1) When applying cathodic protection.50 ´ initial generated current density If the protection is intended to last for more than 15 years.55 ´ initial generated current density When protected for 10 years.4. [Technical Notes] (1) The protective current density at the start of cathodic protection should be based on the standard values listed in Table T.4. Saturated mercurous chloride electrode. 20 +100 S (mA/m2) 10 +100 S (mA/m2) 100 S (mA/m2) In the above. where the water current is swift. Saturated copper sulfate electrode.2. However.4 Protective Current Density at Start of Cathodic Protection (mA/m2) Clean sea areas In seawater In rubble mourd In soil (below seabed) In soil (above seabed) 100 50 20 10 Polluted sea areas 130 ～ 150 65 ～ 75 30 10 (2) As the duration of protection goes on. and water quality. the generated current weakens. waves. Where there is an inflow of river water or diverse effluence. as in the following: Seawater-silver chloride electrode. depending on the duration of protection: When protected for 5 years.2. 0. care should be taken not to let the coating film deteriorate due to excessive current.4 for the steel material in normal sea conditions. [3] Protective Current Density Protective current density shall be set to an appropriate value because it varies greatly depending on the marine environments.52 ´ initial generated current density When protected for 15 years. (2) The protective current density varies with water temperature. the average generated current density for calculating the life span of the anode is often taken as the following. S is the rate of damage defined as the ratio of assumed damaged coated area to total coated area. the latter should be applied. The constant value is around 40% ～ 50% of the initial value. Table T. 0. the required protective current increases.4. The potential in this case should ideally be -800 ～ -1. 0. Also. Organic lining. Concrete. and finally reaches a constant value. a certain current density per unit surface area of the steel material is needed in order to polarize the potential of the steel material to a more base value than the protective potential. This density is known as the protective current density. -780 mV -770 mV -850 mV (2) When combining the coating and cathodic protection methods (particularly the method of cathodic protection by power impression). currents.4. Therefore. or where there is a high concentration of sulfides. The value of this protective current density decreases with the passage of time from the initial value at the start of cathodic protection. In seawater the following values may be set: Paint. if the protective current density obtained from the above equation exceeds the values in Table T2.PART III MATERIALS of the protective potential differs depending on the reference electrode used for measurement.100 mV (using a saturated mercurous chloride electrode as the reference). -219- . When designing facilities. the required protective current generally increases. (3) If a section coated with a coating material exists within the range of application of cathodic protection. the value of the protective current density should be set by assuming a certain rate of damage to the coating. the value for 15 years should be applied.

the life of the galvanic anode may be extended. the coating method is sometimes applied to the whole length of the structure depthwise.4. the range of application of the cathodic protection method is designated as below the mean low water level. But concentrated corrosion is liable to occur in the vicinity of the mean low water. while the duration of immersion in seawater is shortened by the effects of waves and seasonal fluctuations in tide levels. the characteristics of each method shall be examined and the following items shall be surveyed and reviewed: (1) Environmental conditions (2) Range of corrosion control (3) Lifetime (4) Maintenance (5) Conditions of construction work (6) Others For existing structures. [Technical Notes] In steel sheet pile revetments in shallow sea areas. because the cathodic protection cannot be applied to sections where the duration of seawater immersion is short. the coating method should be applied in combination with cathodic protection to the sections above the depth 1 m below LWL. [Commentary] The coating method is used in port and harbor structures. the following items shall also be surveyed: (7) Degree of corrosion and the deterioration condition of the existing paint coat or lining. [2] Applicable Methods The coating method applied to port and harbor steel structures shall be one of the following four methods: (1) Painting (2) Organic lining (3) Petrolatum lining (4) Inorganic lining [3] Selection of Method In selecting the method and determining the specifications.5 Coating Method [1] Extent of Application The coating method shall be applied to the sections above the depth 1 m below the mean monthly-lowest water level (LWL) for corrosion control.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 2. (8) Initial design conditions -220- . Therefore.4. As described in the 2.4 Cathodic Protection Method. By combining the cathodic protection and coating methods in sea water sections.

1 may be taken as the partial safety factors to be used in design. [Commentary] Limit states are classified as follows: ① the ultimate limit state which corresponds to the devastating failure occurring due to the maximum load in the lifetime. However. ② the serviceability limit state which corresponds to the state of slight inconvenience such as excessive cracking and other relatively minor faults due to the effect of a load occurring often in the lifetime. It includes the earthquake load. 2). except where otherwise stated in this document. (b) As for the load factor. the load factor shall be set as appropriate by categorizing it into three types of loads. the former method has been adopted in principle for the design of breakwaters and mooring facilities. (2) Suitable values shall be adopted for the five types of partial safety factors (namely the material factor. ③ fatigue limit state which corresponds to such the failure same as in the ultimate limit state that occurs due to the effects of repeated load. in accordance with the type of the load and the frequency of loading. and the accidental load. It includes the active load (e. vessel berthing and pulling force should be regarded as a variable load if necessary. and uplift pressure. and the safety against the serviceability limit state should be confirmed. [Technical Notes] (1) The values listed in Table T. the types of load and the frequency of loading have been categorized and the values have been determined for respective categories. and the accidental load. Other partial safety factors are determined on the basis of case analyses. the structural analysis factor. and the fatigue limit state. the load factor. member factor (except for caisson type quaywalls during an earthquake). and earth pressure of the filling. The loads are categorized into three types. comparative studies on safety with the allowable stress method. Permanent load is a type of load that acts continuously without any variation or with a variation of negligible amplitude compared with the average value. considering the characteristics of the structures.1 General (1) The design of concrete structures such as breakwaters and mooring facilities shall follow the limit state design method as standard. The fatigue limit state could include that caused by the repeated effect of wave forces on breakwaters.3. wave force. For prestressed concrete. Clauses 2 and 3) (1) Examination of the safety of structures using the limit state design method shall be conducted as standard on the ultimate limit state. the member factor. and comparisons with other structures. vessel pulling force.. the variable load.2. 3. Since the limit state design method is more rational than the allowable stress design method.g. in accordance with the type of the limit states. In this case. the serviceability limit state. However. residual water pressure. It includes the deadweight of the structure or member. vessel berthing force. the fatigue limit state must be examined. -221- . and structural analysis factor are in harmony with the principles stated in the “Standard Specifications of Concrete”. and collision load. Ministry of Transport. and the structure factor). if the impact of moving loads cannot be ignored.1). the fatigue failure may be omitted because the repeated effects of moving loads is not plausible to cause a fatigue failure. In the case of gravity type quaywalls. uplift pressure (when acting on the superstructure of open-type wharf). namely the permanent load. the variable load.PART III MATERIALS Chapter 3 Concrete 3. Variable load is a load in which a variation arises frequently or continuously and the amplitude of variation is not negligible compared with the average value. or that caused by the repeated effect of moving loads on the superstructures. [Commentary] The limit state design method has been applied in the “Standard Specifications of Concrete: 1986 Edition” (Japan Society of Civil Engineers). namely the permanent load. load from cargo handling machinery). 1987) should be followed. the material factor. Accidental load is a load that has an extremely small frequency of action during the lifetime but that has a very large impact when it does act. internal water pressure. (2) The selection of materials for concrete structures shall follow the “Standard Specifications of Concrete [Construction]” (Japan Society of Civil Engineers). wind pressure. hydrostatic pressure. the materials. the “Prestressed Concrete for Ports and Harbors Structure Design Manual” (Ports and Harbours Bureau.2 Basics of Design Based on the Limit State Design Method (Notification Article 34. and the loads. 3) (a) Of the partial safety factors.

8 ～ 1......2 (0. Also. ・When calculating bending and axial strength ...2. the seabed gradient.... it will suffice to take the value 1. The probability such waves will differ from region to region.1 (0. (2) Characteristic values used in design may be calculated in accordance with the methods given in the respective sections of this document...0 1.............05 1..0 ～ 1.... that of 2 to 3 months in the Pacific region of Kanto and the northward....0 1...0 1........1 The load factor of breakwaters against wave force can vary depending on the type of the breakwater.9 ～ 1...3 1.15 (1.. 1. the lower limit values of JIS may be taken as the tensile yield strength and tensile strength of steel materials.... The values in the parentheses are applicable when verifying the safety of the bottom slab of gravity type quaywalls during an earthquake..15) ・When calculating shear capacity borne by shear reinforcement.0 1...TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T.9).2 ・Breakwaters:.......3 ・When calculating shear capacity borne by concrete .... of structures with special shapes such as curved slit caisson breakwaters. (b) In other cases..0 1.0 － 1.... 1.... and other cases should be 1..... Sk = kp Sp + kr Sr where Sk ： characteristic value of load for examination of the serviceability limit state -222- (3..... 1.0 ～ 1.0 1....0 1. But for the present.1)..05 1. 1. 1.. The permanent load factor should be 1...0) 1........3 1...0 ～ 1...0) Serviceability limit 1.....2 1....0 － 1.0 1...0) ・When calculating upper limit of axial compressive strength .. the load factor is thought to be even greater and it therefore needs to be determined as appropriate by conducting model experiments..0 for accidental load.......0 for the case in which the earthquake resistance of bottom slab of gravity type quaywall is examined.. otherwise 1....0 1..15 (1..... If they can be determined more appropriately using a different method........ the installation depth... 1.1 for wave force..3 1......0 － 1.... However.....2. Note 2: The values below may be used for the member factor when examining the ultimate limit state....0 1....3 1.... otherwise 1.0 Fatigue limit 1.0 1. and the functional shape of the distribution of extreme wave heights.... and that of 4 to 6 months in the Pacific region of Tokai and the southward (the wave height refers to that of highest waves)...1 (0..0 － 1.......0 1....05 1... the characteristic values should be calculated according to equation (3.....0 Note 1: Values in the parentheses are applied in the case that the safety of structures is lowered when the loads take smaller values.0 Ultimate limit 1..0) Note 3: The values below may be used for the structure factor relating to the ultimate limit state.0 for earthquake load.1 Partial Safety Factors Type of limit state Partial safety factor Concrete Material factor (gm) Steel reinforcement and prestressing steel Other types of steel Permanent load Variable load Load factor (g f ) Wave force Variable load at time of construction Other types of load Accidental load Structural analysis factor (ga) Member factor (gb) Structure factor (gi) 1.3 at the ultimate limit state as standard for caisson type and other ordinary breakwaters..... those values may be used...... otherwise 1......3 (1..... (c) The partial safety factors shown here are only meant to be standard values.. The compression strength of concrete may be taken as the nominal strength. ・Superstructure of pier:.. but it roughly corresponds to the waves with the return period of one-month in the Japan Sea region.2.3..0 ～ 1.... 1.. The values of load when examining the serviceability limit state should be as follows: (a) The wave height to calculate wave pressure on breakwaters should be that of waves with the occurrence frequency in the order of 104 during the design lifetime (for example 50 years)...0 ・Quaywalls: ...1) .

Moreover. When doing so.. the method shown in reference 2) may be used to estimate the characteristic value of load.PART III MATERIALS Sp： characteristic value of permanent load Sr： characteristic value of variable load kp.2) generally gives results on the safe side. when using special materials or members of special shape. Cracks that appear in structures due to factors other than the effect of load (e.1 Increase Factor for Allowable Stresses of Plain and Reinforced Concrete Type Plain concrete Reinforced concrete Combination of external forces and loads When considering the impact of earthquakes When considering the influence of temperature variation and drying shrinkage When considering the impact of earthquakes -223Increase factor 1. or experimental studies may be conducted for estimating crack width.2. the allowable stresses of concrete and steel reinforcements shall be set at the value appropriate to the material used. Impact caused by the load with a rank corresponding to the level with the fatigue life of 2 million times or more may be disregarded 1). initial defect) and fail to close even in an unloaded state need to be studied separately. Other equations may be referred to. Since the fatigue safety is greatly affected not only by the magnitude of the load but also by the frequency of their actions.g. If a combination of more than one kind of external forces or loads is taken into account. (3) When examining the serviceability limit state. kr： constants to represent the effects on crack widths and the corrosion of steel by the permanent load and variable load.2) where w： flexural crack width (cm) k： constant indicating the effect of the bonding properties of the steel material. Then the total degree of impact by all load ranks should be calculated and the degree of safety against fatigue failure be judged. Table 3.5 during the construction.3.0 and kr is 0.0040c for other sections. respectively. Equation (3. which may usually be taken as 1. the safety against the occurrence of deflection as a serviceability limit state should be confirmed as necessary.5. Since flexural crack width is affected not only by the stress on the reinforcement but also by the diameter and pitch of the reinforcement.2. 3.2) in “Standard Specifications of Concrete” may be used to calculate the width of flexural cracks. caution is required when designing the reinforcing bar arrangement. loads of repeated actions should be ranked as appropriate and their respective degree of impact on fatigue failure be calculated. those washed by seawater. Equation (3.0035c for the sections directly in contact with seawater.3 in the case of plain bars and prestressing steel. (4) When the load acting on the superstructure of open-type wharf due to cargo handling machinery is comparatively large and a deflection is expected to exceed the extent that the cargo handling is not hindered.2. (5) When examining the fatigue limit state.+ e cs ¢ö s se è Es ø (3.2. Reference 4) may be consulted with when examining the fatigue limit state for superstructures of open-type wharves.2) is smaller than the allowable flexural crack width ω a.0 in the case of deformed bars and 1.7 ( c s f ) ] æ ------. For examination of the fatigue limit state of breakwaters. it is standard to check the safety against the occurrence of excessive cracking.1) (N/mm2) Es： Young’s modulus of reinforcement (N/mm2) ecs ¢： constant introduced to represent the increase of crack width caused by creep and drying shrinkage of concrete (this can be 0 under seawater. the limit value of the deflection may be determined by referring to the “Highway Bridge Specifications and the Commentary” (Japan Road Association).50 1. It may be taken that kp is 1.50 . calculated using the characteristic load by equation (3.1. w = k [ 4 c + 0. They may both be taken as 0.15 1. the allowable stresses may be increased by the factor listed in Table 3. c： covering (cm) cs： distance between centers of steel materials (cm) f： diameter of steel material (cm) sse： increased stress on reinforcement. the reinforcement or prestressing steel materials subject to examination of flexural cracks shall in principle be tensile steel materials in positions closest to the surface of the concrete. and 0. and these subject to strong sea breeze. because they do not fall within the scope of the present method of examination.3.3 Design Based on Allowable Stress Method (Notification Article 36) When examining the safety of structural members based on the allowable stresses method. the rank classification and frequencies of actions need to be determined appropriately. and elsewhere 150 ´ 10-6) The allowable crack width ω a (cm) is 0. It should then be confirmed that the flexural crack width ω calculated by equation (3.2. 2).

45 0.9 1.0 2.2.3.3 that have been determined by referring to the provisions of Chapter 13 of the “Standard Specifications of Concrete [Design]”. the allowable stress of plain and reinforced concrete should on determined as given in Table T-3. concrete materials shall comply with JIS.3 fck' (Units : N/mm2) 5.2 0.6 0.4 0. [Technical Notes] (1) Chloride Ion Content In order to reduce the risk of corrosion of steel material inside the concrete.2 Allowable Stresses of Reinforced Concrete (Units : N/mm2) 30 11 0.4 N/mm2. 24 9 0. Table T.3.8 1. the amount of chloride ion contained in concrete should be no more than 0.3.1 Allowable Stresses of Plain Concrete Type of stress Allowable compressive stress Allowable bending tensile stress Allowable bearing stress Notes: Allowable stress No more than fck' /4 No more than ftk /7 No more than 0. (2) Measures against Alkali-Aggregate Reaction In order to suppress alkali-aggregate reaction. the value may also increase.4 0.3.7 1.3.9 Upper limit of allowable stress fck': standard concrete strength ftk: standard tensile strength (calculated by the JIS A 1113 “Tensile Strength Test Method”) Table T.9 2. When using a standard concrete strength not shown in these tables or in the case of lightweight aggregate concrete.3fck' Notes: 1) The value corresponds to the standard concrete strength of 40 When the standard concrete strength increases.3.3. the allowable stress should be determined by referring to Chapter 13 of the “Standard Specification of Concrete [Design]”. or shall be of a quality equal to or better than that specified by JIS.9 1.8 1. (2) The allowable stresses of steel reinforcements shall not exceed the values listed in Table T.3.29 5. 3.3.B 176 157 176 (Units : N/mm2) SD345 196 176 196 SD390 206 176 216 Notes: *1) Values in the parentheses are for lightweight aggregate concrete.1 and Table T-3. *2) (c) is used to calculate overlapping length or fixing length when considering the inpact of earthquake.8 0.30 kg/m3. one of the following four measures should be adopted: -224- .3 Allowable Tensile Stresses of Steel Reinforcements Type of steel reinforcement (a) Allowable stress in normal cases (b)Allowable stress determined by fatigue strength (c) Allowable stress determined by yield strength *2) SR235 137 137 137 SR295 157 (147) *1) 157 (147) 176 SD295A.6 0.4 Concrete Materials (Notification Article 37) In principle.0 2. 2) Values for punching shear 3) These values may be increased when taking the effect of torsion into consideration.7 0.0 0.8 0.8 40 or over 14 *1) 0.1 2.4 0. Table T.55 1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Technical Notes] (1) When designing with the allowable stress method.3.5 1.0 Type of stress Allowable bending compressive stress (sca) Allowable shearing stress When not calculating diagonal reinforcement (tal) When calculating diagonal reinforcement (ta2) Shape steel Allowable bond stress Plain bars Deformed bars Allowable bearing stress (sca) For beams For slabs *2) When shearing force only *3) Standard concrete strength 18 7 0.

greatly promote long-term strength. In principle. bearing in mind the points in (1) above. durability. Supervising engineers should refer to this table to determine appropriate proportioning and strength. corrosion of reinforcement. Seawater may be used in plain concrete only when it is difficult to obtain clean freshwater. [Commentary] (1) Concrete should have the required quality and performance according to the type of structure. Its characteristics have been materialized through its high fluidity and outstanding resistance to material separation by use of appropriate admixtures. AE (air entrained) concrete should be used and the air content should be 4. (4) Recently. alkaliaggregate reaction.5. [Technical Notes] (1) The water-cement ratio should be determined in view of the required strength and durability of the concrete. concrete made with the type B portland blast-furnace slag cement yields an excellent anticorrosive performance of steel reinforcements 5). (3) Table T. But in this case.1 lists the general concrete mix proportioning and characteristic values for concrete strength. and the harmful effects of freezing and thawing.PART III MATERIALS (a) Use an aggregate that has been confirmed as harmless by alkali silica reactivity tests (chemical method or mortar bar method) as prescribed in the Appendix to JIS A 5308 “Ready Mixed Concrete”. providing this has no adverse effect on the arrangement of steel bars and concrete placement in cross sections of members. In particular. (2) Concrete should be resistant to the effects of weather. (4) Seawater must not be used as mixing water for steel reinforced concrete. and cross-sectional shapes of structural members. Thus when using these types of cement. In general. a portland fly ash cement of type B or C that complies with JIS R 5213 “Portland Fly Ash Cement”. In particular. (d) Use a portland cement with a clear listing of alkali content and ensure that the total alkali content in 1 m3 of concrete is no more than 3. 3. and from that point of view this type of cement should preferably be used. environmental conditions. the chemical and physical effects of seawater. -225- . all due care needs to be given to initial curing. ready-mixed concrete should be used as standard. It shall also have the required strength.5 Concrete Quality and Performance Concrete shall be of uniform quality and shall have good workability. the mechanical effects of impact and abrasion by waves and drifting solids. a highly flowable concrete with self-compacting characteristics has been developed 6). and portland fly ash cement. those having good seawater resistance characteristics are said to be the moderate heat portland cement.3. The advantages of these types of cement are that they excel in durability against seawater.5% as standard. (b) Use a cement that complies with low-alkali type cement as prescribed in JIS R 5210 “Portland Cement”. The use of this high-fluidity concrete makes it possible to place concrete into sections in which concrete placing have been impossible by using ordinary concrete (such as in densely reinforced sections or spaces enclosed by steel shells). But they also have the disadvantage that their initial strength is low. it is preferable to decrease the maximum water-cement ratio in the regions with pronounced freezing and thawing. the slump should be as small as possible within a workable range. it is extremely important that adequate curing is carried out. The air content may be increased in cold regions or areas where there is a risk of frost damage. and have low hydration heat.0 kg in Na2O conversion. (3) Of the various types of cement. (c) Use a portland blast-furnace slag cement that complies with JIS R 5211 “Portland Blast-Furnace Slag Cement” [type B (preferably with a slag substitution ratio of 50% or more) or type C]. portland blast-furnace slag cement. or a cement mixed with mineral admixture that has proven effective in suppressing alkali-aggregate reaction. The maximum size of coarse aggregate should be as large as possible. and steel protecting performance. crack resistance. (2) As for the consistency of the concrete. impermeability.

40 25(20) *4). 15 8. precast armor block (for wave dissipating. 12. caisson concrete lid *1) Block for main body of structures. epoxy resin coated reinforcements may be used. (b) The mix proportioning should be such that it guarantees the required durability. *2) With large-size precast armor blocks. 12. *3) Except superstructure of open-type wharf. 15 8.5 20. 12. the characteristic value may be increased. or determined as appropriate for blocks larger than this. it may be 21N/mm2 for blocks between 35 and 50 tons. or the surface should be protected with a suitable material. 25. For reinforced concrete. (g) Bending cracks in concrete should be reduced to the minimum (see 3. 40 20. 40 24 24 24 24 Bending 4.5. In addition to the above. wave dissipating block Anchor wall. the following should be investigated. quay superstructure *3) Reinforced concrete Pier superstructure Caisson. L-shape block. covering) Foot protection block. cellular. (6) Construction Joints Damage often arises from joints in the concrete 8). Therefore. *4) 25mm for gravel and 20mm for crushed stone.5 Note: *1) The characteristic value may be set at 24N/mm2. well. 15 2. mooring post foundation (gravity type) Mooring post foundation (pile type). 25. 12. the surface of the concrete may be covered with organic or inorganic materials 7).4 Concrete Materials). For example. 25.3. packed concrete Quay superstructure.1 Concrete Mix Proportioning and Characteristic Values for Concrete Strength According to Structural Members Mixing conditions Maximum water-cement ratio (%) Type Examples of structural members Regions with repeated freezing and thawing 65 65 65 60 Regions where the temperature rarely falls below zero degree 65 65 65 65 Slump (cm) Maximum size of coarse aggregate (mm) Characteristic values of concrete strength (N/mm2) Breakwater superstructure. 40 20. 12 8. When joints are inevitable in view of shrinkage of the concrete or the conditions of -226- . For plain concrete: (a) The concrete materials should have outstanding resistance to seawater and not cause a harmful aggregate reaction (see 3. their quality. provision of construction joints should be avoided as much as possible. and design details with regard to enhancement of the durability. anchor pile superstructure Apron pavement 8. (d) The cross-sectional area of member should be increased in readiness for surface abrasion during the required lifetime.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T.2 Basics of Design Based on the Limit State Design Method). if there is a risk of wave action or submersion during the initial age of the concrete. 12 8. 15 8. 25. or if built in a cold season. (5) The matters listed below should be fully investigated in advance concerning the materials used in plain and reinforced concrete. 40 20. 12 8. parapet wall. parapet wall. as well as (a)-(d) above: (e) The use of materials that could have a harmful effect on corrosion of steel reinforcements should be avoided (see 3.4 Concrete Materials). (f) The covering of reinforcements should be increased. or the cathodic protection method may be used on steel reinforcement embedded in the concrete as auxiliary measures to enhance durability of concrete.5. 12 40 40 40 40 18 18 (21) *2) 18 18 Plain concrete 60 55 55 60 - 65 55 55 60 - 8. (c) Provision of construction joints should be avoided as much as possible [see (6)]. 6.

PART III MATERIALS execution. No. 1991 (in Japanese). Hidenori HAMADA: “Study on the durability of concrete mixed with sea water”. 142. Tsutomu FUKUTE. 2. Note of PHRI. Kunio YAMAMOTO. Hiroshi YOKOTA. Hidenori HAMADA. their use requires caution because they sometime do not have enough durability. 1998 (in Japanese). 9) Nobuaki OTSUKI. No.5. Takashi NAGAO: “Design of reinforced maritime structures by the limit state design method”. (7) Covering The minimum covering of steel reinforcements in reinforced concrete members should be equal to or larger than the values listed in Table T. Vol. No. necessary measures should be taken on the joints. Note of PHRI. 1994 (in Japanese). 1994 (in Japanese). Kouji MIURA. of PHRI. Rept. Vol. 29. 7) Hidenori HAMADA. Kiyoshi SATO. Tech. 33. 867. 33. 4) Takashi NAGAO. 2) Takashi NAGAO: “Studies on the application of the limit state design method to reinforced concrete port structures”. Susumu KAWASAKI. 2. 3) Takashi NAGAO: “Case studies on safety factors about seismic stability for the slab of caisson type quaywalls”. No. of PHRI. Katsutoshi HAMAZAKI: “Applicability of super-workable concrete using viscous agent to densely reinforced concrete members”.3. 1997 (in Japanese). No. Vol. -227- . Gihodo. Noboru OKUBO: “Fatigue limit state design method for superstructures of open type wharves in view of cargo handling machine loads”. Rept. Hidenori HAMADA: “Test on the effects of joints on the durability of concrete in marine environment (after 10 years’ exposure)”. Masami ABE. 3. or subject to strong sea winds (b) Other sections 7 cm 5 cm 3. Hiroshi MARUYAMA: “Deterioration of plain concrete for coastal structures under maritime environments”. 1990 (in Japanese). Atsurou MORIWAKE. washed by seawater. No. Note of PHRI. 1999 (in Japanese). 1972 (in Japanese). No. [References] 1) Osamu KIYOMIYA. However. Tech. [Technical Notes] (1) Construction joints should be avoided in principle. 4. 5) Tsutomu FUKUTE. Epoxy or other resins may be used because of their strength. of PHRI. Kunio YAMAMOTO: “Effect and evaluation of concrete surface coatings for the prevention of salt attack”. Yoshitaka NAKAJIMA. Tech.2 Standard Values of Covering for Steel Reinforcement (a) Sections in direct contact with seawater. Koichiro TAKECHI. Rept. No. 8) Hiroshi SEKI. Masamitsu HARAMO. (2) The covering for reinforced concrete executed underwater should be equal to or larger than 10 cm. Note of PHRI. 606 (in Japanese). even though their performance is adequate in terms of strength 9). Rept. 6) Tsutomu FUKUTE.2. Table T.6 Underwater Concrete Underwater concrete shall be designed and executed according to “Standard Specifications of Concrete” or “Port and Harbor Construction Work Common Specifications”.5. Tech. 37. of PHRI. Vol. 706. Hiroshi YOKOTA. Sachio ONODERA.3.

The type and mix proportioning of asphalt depend on its use. organic matter. durability. (3) Filler A material in conformity with JIS A5008 “Limestone Filler for Bituminous Paving Mixtures” should be used. cohesion. and local marine conditions. impermeability. Asphalt. Annealed steel wire Steel bands Reinforcement core material Anti-slip bracket Wire rope Asphalt compound material Steel reinforcement Fig. They are then formed into a mat-shape (see Fig. asphalt mats.2 Asphalt Mat 4. limestone filler. and asphalt stabilization. and workability according to the purpose of use. Most of the asphalt in use today is of the latter type. (2) Bituminous materials are rarely used in isolation. it is important to select a material that will meet the required objective.. C4. C. waterproofness. pitch.1 Example of Structure of Friction Increasing Asphalt Mat 4. [Commentary] The following materials are used in asphalt mats: (1) Asphalt Asphalt used for asphalt mat should be straight or blown asphalt or both that complies with the regulations JIS K 2207 “Petroleum Asphalt”. These shall include elasticity. and other harmful substances with a maximum grain size of 2. Other bituminous materials besides asphalt include tar. [Commentary] Asphalt mats are made by embedding reinforcement material and wire rope for suspension into a compound material mixed from asphalt.1). [Commentary] (1) The bituminous material most commonly used in port and harbor facilities today is asphalt. sand mastic asphalt. in this document.2.e. sand and crushed stone. is usually mixed with aggregate and used as an asphalt mixture in asphalt concrete for pavement.2. for example. and asphalt emulsion. and weatherproofness. (2) Sand Clean sand that is free of dirt. natural and petroleum-based. i. “asphalt” means petroleum-based asphalt unless otherwise specified.5 mm should be used. construction location. Therefore.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 4 Bituminous Materials 4.1 General Asphalt mats shall be given an appropriate structure in consideration of the required strength. 4.4. Therefore.2. There are two types of asphalt. durability.1 General Bituminous materials used in port and harbor facilities shall satisfy the required quality and performance. -228- .2. mud.2 Materials Asphalt mat materials shall be selected as appropriate to yield the required strength and durability.

in view of work execution. They have caused no particular problem to date. Therefore. 4. except for special use conditions. Parts of these paved areas are also used for placing cargoes. [Commentary] Aprons are an example of the “areas subject to special load conditions”. They should therefore be determined through mixing tests. asphalt mats require reinforcement materials and wire rope for suspension.4. (3) Apart from the above materials. it should be of sufficiently good quality. care should be taken to the fact that bituminous materials are susceptible to static loading (see Part Ⅷ . The reinforcement materials are usually glass cloth or glass fiber tape net. Therefore. almost invariably involves heavy vehicles.4 Sand Mastic Asphalt 4. (2) Crushed stone is a coarse aggregate used in asphalt mats and has a major effect on the strength of the mat. Table T. straight asphalt with the penetration of 40 to 60 and blown asphalt with the penetration of 10 to 40 should be used. 4.074 mm. This type of load rarely travels at high speed and is almost always stationary or moving at low speeds. unlike that on roads in city areas. 4. This includes heavy machinery with large contact pressure.074 ～ 2. [Technical Notes] The mix proportioning used for asphalt mixture has a great effect on strength and flexibility. it could be larger than this.2. or filler with a grain size of 0.1 Standard Mix Proportioning for Asphalt Mixture Materials Asphalt Dust Fine aggregate Coarse aggregate Material proportion of mass (%) Friction increasing mats 10 ～ 14 14 ～ 25 20 ～ 50 30 ～ 50 Scouring prevention mats 10 ～ 14 14 ～ 25 30 ～ 50 25 ～ 40 Notes: Dust is sand or filler with a grain size of less than 0.1 General [Technical Notes] (1) Sand mastic asphalt is made of asphalt heat-mixed with an ore-based filler or additive and sand. Friction increasing mats and scouring prevention mats have a relatively long history and a considerable track record of use. Fine aggregate is crushed stone.4. Traffic on pavements (and particularly apron paving) in port and harbor areas. the two are normally mixed to obtain the required properties.PART III MATERIALS (4) Crushed Stone A material in conformity with JIS A 5001 “Crushed Stone for Roads” with a grain size 2.5 mm or larger. Therefore. and it is difficult to obtain the required strength and ease of handling for mats with one of them alone. except in the areas subject to special load conditions. The sand mastic -229- . The plastic flow and other properties of these two differ greatly. when considering the paving materials to be applied to such areas. the values given in Table T. sand.3 Paving Materials Paving materials shall in principle comply with “Asphalt Paving Guidelines”.2. Thus. The maximum grain size of crushed stone should be no more than one-sixth of the mat thickness.2. Chapter 20 Aprons). [Technical Notes] (1) Straight or blown asphalt that complies with the regulations of JIS K 2207 “Petroleum Asphalt” is specified for use.5 ～ 20 mm should be used.3 Mix Proportioning It shall be standard to determine the mix proportioning of asphalt mixture based on mixing tests to obtain the required strength and flexibility.4.1 may be used. In cases of friction increasing mats under large pressure. Coarse aggregate is crushed stone with a grain size of 2.5 mm. In this case.

In the table. (d) Suitable reinforcement should be made on the slope top. (e) The relationship between the lifetime of structure and the durability of the sand mastic asphalt should be fully taken into account. with a maximum grain size of 2.2 Materials Materials for sand mastic asphalt shall be selected as appropriate to meet the required strength and durability. 4.4. (2) Sand Clean sand that is free of dirt.4. The grouted sand mastic asphalt wraps itself around the rubble to form a single unit. or filler remaining on a 0.4.3 Mix Proportioning The mix proportioning shall be determined through mixing tests to obtain the required fluidity and strength in view of the work execution and natural conditions. (c) The gradient of the rubble surface should be not steeper than 1:1.4.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN asphalt is an asphalt mixture virtually free of voids and does not require rolling compaction after grouting. (2) Sand mastic asphalt at a certain high temperature is grouted into gaps between rubbles by pouring it onto the rubble mound.1) is used to calculate the quantity of sand mastic asphalt applied to the rubble mound. 60 ～ 80.4. (3) When designing sand mastic asphalt. [Commentary] (1) Asphalt Asphalt used for sand mastic asphalt applied underwater should be straight asphalt with penetration range of either one of 40 ～ 60.074 mm sieve. (b) It should not be used in locations where sudden settlement is anticipated. sand.1) (3) Notes in Design The design of sand mastic asphalt is affected by the following items: (a) It should not be used in locations directly affected by powerful impact wave pressure or drifting objects. and other harmful substances. V = a A (hv ＋ d) where V： A： h： v： d： a： required quantity of sand mastic asphalt (m3) surface area of rubble mound grouted by sand mastic asphalt (m2) thickness of rubble layer grouted by sand mastic asphalt (m) void ratio of rubble mound cover thickness of sand mastic asphalt on rubble mound (m) increment ratio taking account of grouting into the lower layer of rubbles (4. thus preventing the stone from breaking off or being washed away. and the edges of the execution area.1 are commonly used as mix proportioning for sand mastic asphalt applied underwater. [Technical Notes] (1) General The values listed in Table T.4.4. all due attention should be paid to the plastic flow due to the material properties of asphalt so that stability problem will not arise.3. “Fine aggregate” is crushed stone. 4.5 mm should be used. organic matter.1 Standard Mix Proportioning for Sand Mastic Asphalt Material Asphalt Dust Fine aggregate Proportion of weight (%) 16 ～ 20 18 ～ 25 55 ～ 66 (2) Method of Calculating Required Quantity of Sand Mastic Asphalt Equation (4. slope toe. Table T. or 80 ～ 100 that complies with JIS K 2207 “Petroleum Asphalt”. -230- . It does not separate under water. “dust” refers to sand or filler passed through a 0. mud.074 mm sieve.4. (3) Filler A material in conformity with JIS A 5008 “Limestone Filler for Bituminous Paving Mixtures” should be used. It is sometimes used when it is not possible or uneconomical to obtain rubbles of the size required in design calculation.

78 2.64 0. (2) The types of stone mainly used in construction and their physical properties are given in Table T. -231- . Selection of stone materials has a major impact on the stability of the structure as well as the duration and cost of construction.78 ～ 2.16 0.64 2. stone is used in large quantities for breakwaters.1.2 Rubble for Foundation Rubble for foundation mounds shall be hard. [Technical Notes] (1) The shear properties of rubble stones have been studied by using various large-scale triaxial compression tests 1). tests should first be conducted and the material properties be fully ascertained.71 2.85 0.29 ～ 2.3 Backfilling Materials Backfilling materials shall be selected in view of their angle of internal friction.03 0.37 0. [Commentary] When determining which type of stone to use.02 N/mm2 and an internal friction angle of 35º can be expected if the unconfined compressive strength is 30 N/mm2 or more 2). (2) As a guideline for determining the strength constant without conducting large-scale triaxial compression tests.59 0. The shape of rubbles shall not be flat or oblong.27 ～ 1. [Technical Notes] (1) Generally.68 Water absorption rate (%) 0. Table T.PART III MATERIALS Chapter 5 Stone 5.5.1 General Stone shall be selected in view of the required quality and performance to suit its purpose and its cost.60 ～ 2. transportability.04 ～ 3.36 ～ 2.1. The ease of procurement.18 2.08 ～ 1.72 2. 5. and price should also be taken into account. This study is based on the state of rubble actually used in port and harbor construction works. specific weight.18 ～ 2. a shear strength of 0.57 ～ 2.65 ～ 2.76 2.74 2.1. It should be borne in mind that the physical properties of stone of the same classification may differ depending on the region and site of quarries. and other properties.16 0.5.91 (absolute) 3.008 ～ 0.14 0. and other port and harbor structures. and free from the possibility of breaking due to weathering and freezing. quays.12 1. dense and durable.64 2.65 0.68 (absolute) 2.07 ～ 0.85 2.22 Compressive strength (N/mm2) 85 ～ 190 78 ～ 269 85 177 187 123 ～ 182 377 59 ～ 185 48 ～ 196 17 ～ 76 119 191 5.1 Physical Properties of Stones Rock classification Subclassification Granite Andesite Basalt Igneous rock Gabbro Peridotite Diabase Tuff Slate Sedimentary rock Sandstone Limestone Chert Metamorphic rock Hornfels Specific gravity (apparent) 2.21 0.

[Technical Notes] The base course serves to disperse the surcharge transmitted from above and to tranfer it to the course bed.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Commentary] Rubble.2 1:1. 1983 (in Japanese). These may be used on their own or mixed with other granular materials. cement stabilized soil. (3) “Unscreened gravel” consists approximately half and half of sand and gravel. Generally. Note of PHRI. steel slag. and steel slag are generally used as backfilling materials.5. Tech. of PHRI. No. The upper base course requires materials of good quality with large bearing capacity. 20 p. and a lower value when waves are large.3. (5) For steel slag. Granular materials include crushed stone. Vol. -232- . unscreened gravel. it is divided into a lower base course and an upper base course. pit gravel. unscreened gravel. sandstone. 5. see 8. No. 22. [Technical Notes] (1) The values listed in Table T. 4. unscreened crushed stone. Masaki KOBAYASHI: “Strength characteristics of rubble by large-scale triaxial compression test”. [References] 1) Yoshihiro SHOJI: “Study on shearing properties of rubbles with large-scale triaxial compression test”. 699. crushed stone dust. 1991. or bituminous stabilized soil is used as a base course material.2 Slag. 2) Junichi MIZUKAMI. granular material.2 1:2 ～ 1:3 1:2 ～ 1:3 (2) “Rubble” used in ports and harbors is almost the same as that prescribed by JIS A 5006. (in Japanese).1 are often used as design values for backfilling materials.4 Base Course Materials of Pavement Base course materials of pavement shall be selected so as to have the required bearing capacity and high durability and to allow easy compaction. and steel slag vary greatly. cobblestone. and sand.5. a larger value is adopted when waves are small at the time of backfilling execution. Table T.1 Design Values for Backfilling Materials Angle of internal friction (°) Rubble Ordinary type Brittle type Unscreened gravel Cobblestone Specific weight Above residual water level (kN/m3) 18 16 18 18 Below residual water level (kN/m3) 10 9 10 10 Slope gradient 40 35 30 35 1:1. and therefore these should be examined carefully before use. Rept. Materials used for the lower base course are cheaper and have relatively small bearing capacity. (4) The slope gradient is the standard value of the natural gradient of backfilling materials executed in the sea. [Commentary] Normally. Normally.3. The material properties of mudstone.

2 Allowable Stresses of Timber 6.2 Allowable Stresses of Structural Timber The allowable stresses for structural timber shall be determined appropriately under the consideration of the strength reduction by water saturation or the allowance for strength increase for the extraordinary load by an earthquake. 6.1 Quality of Timber 6.3 Quality of Glued Laminated Timber The laminated timber used as structural timber shall be of quality complying with the “Japanese Agricultural Standards” (JAS). or shall be of quality equal to or better than that specified by JAS. or shall be of quality equal to or better than that specified by JAS. countermeasures shall be taken to prevent it. unseasoned wood of pines (Japanese red pines and Japanese black pines) are the most suitable in terms of wood properties such as durability and strength.4 Joining of Timber The method of joining timber structures shall be selected by considering the required performance of the structure or structural members. 6. -233- . 6.1 Structural Timber The timber used as ordinary structural member shall be of quality complying with the “Japanese Agricultural Standards (JAS)”.1 General The design strength of timber shall be determined by comprehensively evaluating the increase and decrease of strength due to various causes.PART III MATERIALS Chapter 6 Timber 6. 6.3.2 Timber Piles For timber piles. [Technical Notes] The allowable stresses along the fibers of the timber and allowable compressive stresses across the fibers should comply with the “Wooden Structure Design Standard” (the Architectural Institute of Japan).1. 6. 6.2. taking into consideration the limits in deflections tolerable for the structure under design. 6.1.5 Maintenance of Timber If timber is used in places where much vermin damage or rot is anticipated.1 Allowable Stress for Glued Laminated Timber The allowable stress for glued laminated timber shall be determined appropriately according to the purpose of use.2.

It is also used as a measure to scour prevention. [Technical Notes] (1) The uses of plastic and rubber products in port and harbor construction works include the following: (a) Geosynthetics The use of geosynthetics in port and harbor construction works includes the following: ① Reinforcing embankment When laying good-quality soils over a land reclaimed with dredged clay. or under the part of the sea side of the mound. Ladders. (f) Seal materials These include seals for dredging pipe joints. ② Preventing infiltration and scouring When used as a filter material with the aim of preventing sand infiltration. and to form the foundations of temporary roads. joining precast concrete slabs. (b) Joint sealing materials These include seal plates. durability. (i) Drain materials (j) Joints and bearing Rubber expansion joints and bearings with the single-layer or multi-layer pad method are used on bridges. EPS blocks are used to reduce earth pressure. Generally. Its purpose is to ensure the passage of heavy machinery. (h) Lining materials These are used for corrosion control in steel and reinforcements as well as for protection against collision etc. (c) Fenders (d) Grouting materials for foundation See 7. (l) Expanded polystyrene This is used for buoys. and cost. pontoon floats. a filter sheet is often laid out on the surface of backfill stone or on the back of rubble mound of the quaywall. and cost. material shall be selected as most appropriate in view of the location and purpose of use. and under the entire bottom of the rubble mound. etc.3 Coating Materials. (g) Adhesives Various adhesives formed from synthetic resins are used for joining steel bridge elements. titanium. while preventing subsidence of good-quality soils. durability. -234- . and other floating bodies are made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). and repairing cracks in concrete. and other civil engineering structures. etc. material shall be selected appropriately in view of the location and purpose of use.1 Metals Other Than Steel When using metals other than steel. (k) Ancillary facilities Some buoys. a sheet or net of geosynthetics is spreaded directly over the surface. in order to reduce settlement and earth pressure.2 Plastics and Rubbers When using plastics and rubbers. environmental conditions. (e) Coating materials See 7. and other ancillary facilities may also be made of rubber or FRP. environmental conditions.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 7 Other Materials 7. EPS beads are mixed with cement or another cementing material together with soils and used as a lightweight material in backfilling. and grouting materials used in / on the joint sections of concrete structures. seal rubber gaskets for immersed tunnel units. aluminum. on account of its lightness. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) blocks and EPS beads are used as civil engineering materials. to counter settlement in embankments on soft ground. handrails. joint boards. pontoons. 7.4 Grouting Materials. The net method has often been used in recent reclamation works with soft ground. buffer stops. [Technical Notes] Metals other than steel used in port and harbor facilities include stainless steel.

2. tidal current. seal plates. 1 type dumbbell JIS K 6773 JIS K 6773 JIS K 7112 JIS K 6256 Width 25 ´ 250mm Strip-shaped sample Tensile direction Lateral Longitudinal Lateral Lateral Lateral Longitudinal Standard values 14.05 30 N/cm or greater Table T. etc.7 MPa or greater 49 N/mm or greater 180% or greater 90% or greater 90% or greater 1.2.2 Standards for Seal Plates (Soft Vinyl Chloride) Test item Tensile strength Tear strength Elongation Seawater resistance Tensile strength residual ratio Seawater resistance Elongation residual ratio Specific gravity Stripping strength Particulars Method JIS K 6723 Test sample No. piping or infiltation in port and harbor facilities are as follows: (a) Filter sheets Filter sheets used to prevent infiltration of sediment into the backfill will normally be determined in view of the constructions conditions such as the placing method of backfilling.2.2 mm or greater is applied for the sheet under loading of 2 kN/m2 according to JIS L 1908.7. to prevent piping of backfilling is 5 mm.4 and T. In this case.5.7.2. The seal plates should meet the standards listed in Table T.7. the leveling precision of backfilling.7.080 N/5cm or greater Elongation 15% or greater Remarks JIS L 1908 (b) Seal plates The standard thickness of seal plates used for the vertical joints of caisson etc.35 ± 0.2. Table T. 1 type dumbbell JIS K 6252 Test sample uncut angle shape JIS K 6723 Test sample No. the values listed in Table T. With no loading. Tables T.2. etc.1 (a) Minimum Standards for Filter Sheets (Nonwoven) Type Nonwoven cloth Thickness 4.7. the thickness should be 5 mm or greater.7. Table T.1 (b) Standards for Filter Sheets (Woven) Type Woven cloth Thickness 0. rubber plates are sometimes used.3 should be satisfied.2. In cold regions.2. Table T.7. and rubber mats normally used to prevent scouring.400 N/3cm or greater (c) Rubber mats Rubber mats used for increasing friction may be made of new or recycled rubber.2.7.3 Standards for Seal Plates (Rubber) Test item Tensile strength Particulars Method JIS K 6328 Tensile direction Standard value 4.PART III MATERIALS (2) The standards for filter sheets.2.7. The quality is commonly as listed in Tables T. rubble size.47 mm or greater Tensile strength 4. -235- .1 (a) and (b) list the minimum standards for woven and nonwoven sheets under favorable execution conditions.2 mm or greater Tensile strength 880 N/5cm or greater Elongation 60% or greater Mass 500 g/m2 or greater Remarks JIS L 1908 Note: The thickness of 4. Filter sheets that are laid out under the bottom of rubble mounds to prevent leakage of the subsoil will normally be determined in view of the natural and construction conditions such as the wave height. the residual water level.

and cost.8 MPa or greater 25 N/mm or greater 70 ± 5 graduations 250% or greater 9.3.4 Quality of Recycled Rubber Test item Before aging Physical tests After aging Tensile strength Tear strength Hardness Elongation Tensile strength Tear strength Hardness Elongation Performance 4.3 Coating Materials When selecting coating materials. while the figue 5 is for the highest price.5 Quality of New Rubber Test item Before aging Tensile strength Tear strength Hardness Elongation Tensile strength Tear strength Hardness Elongation Performance 9.7. -236- . ○ : satisfactory. Table T.7. Normally.1 lists the characteristics of the six color groups (polyurethane resin-based paints) most commonly used for aesthetic purposes 1). ◎ : excellent.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T.2.3.7.9 MPa or greater Within ± 8 of pre-aging value 140% or greater Test conditions/method JIS K 6251 JIS K 6252 JIS K 6253 JIS K 6251 JIS K 6251 JIS K 6253 JIS K 6251 (Aging tests are according to JIS K 6257) Aging temperature 70°± 1° 0 Aging time 96 2 hours Table T. △ : caution required. the color is determined in consideration of its purpose.3 MPa and above Within ± 8 of pre-aging value 200% or greater Test conditions/method JIS K 6251 JIS K 6252 JIS K 6253 JIS K 6251 JIS K 6251 JIS K 6253 JIS K 6251 (Aging tests are according to JIS K 6257) Aging temperature 70°± 1° Aging time 96 0 2 hours JIS K 6262 Aging temperature 70°± 1° Aging time 24 0 2 hours Physical tests After aging Compressive plastic strain 45% or less 7.2. the following shall be taken into account: (1) Purpose of coating (2) Material and characteristics of surface to be coated (3) Performance and composition of coating material (4) Cost (5) Maintenance [Technical Notes] The color tones of coating materials are versatile. Table T.1 Characteristics of Color Groups Grays (pale) Color retention Unmarkedness of discoloring or fading (by eye) Cost Hiding power Resistance to chemicals ◎～○ ◎ 1 ◎ ◎ Blues ○ ○ 2 ○ ◎ Yellows ○ ○ 3 △ ○ Oranges ○ ○ 4 ○～△ ○ Reds ○ △ 5 ○～△ ○ Greens ○ ○ 2 ○ ◎ Note: The figure 1 in “Cost” indicates the lowest price. appearance.9 MPa or greater 18 N/mm or greater 55 ～ 70 graduations 160% or greater 3.7.

-237- . Tech. Gravel Sand Coarse Large Medium Fine Ultra-fine Special silicate gel Silt Clay Limits according to Karon Clay.PART III MATERIALS 7. cement Clay Silicate gel Resin Fig.1 shows the seepage limits of various grouting materials for subsoils.4 Grouting Materials 7. Suitability with the grouting object is particularly affected by the seepage efficiency of the material.1 General The grouting methods shall be selected by examining the site conditions with consideration to the influence on the surrounding environment.4. 1989 (in Japanese). Various grouting materials are used according to the characteristics of the ground to be grouted. or voids of coarse aggregate with grouting materials.1 Seepage Limits of Grouting Materials for Subsoils [Reference] 1) Kiyoshi TERAUCHI: “Study on deterioration and painting specification of bridges located in port area”. 7. No. [Commentary] The grouting methods are employed to strengthen the ground or to cut off the ground water flow by filling crevices in rocks or subsoils. vacant spaces in or around structures. Figure C. C. 651. filling and setting.4. the strength and impermeability of the stabilized body. [Commentary] The basic properties required of grouting materials are the efficiency of seepage.2 Properties of Grouting Materials Grouting materials shall be selected in view of the required performance for the subsoils to be grouted.4.7. Note of PHRI.7.4.

environmental pollution must not be caused in any way. it has been experimentally used in the sand compaction pile (SCP) method. Recyclable resources (materials) in port and harbor construction include slag. and construction contractors to reduce the generation of waste. -238- .2 Slag [Technical Notes] Here. (3) The properties of recyclable materials are quite variable. high water permeability and its large specific weight 1).8. Ferronickel granulated blast furnace slag is obtained during the manufacturing of ferronickel that is a raw material for stainless steel. In the past. Air-cooled blast furnace slag is a granular material conventionally known as slag or dross and mainly used as a material for roads. it is also increasingly used as a backfilling material for ports and harbors in view of its lightness. concrete. Table T. and asphalt concrete as recyclable materials must comply with the “Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Law” and the “Marine Pollution Prevention Law”. their physical and dynamic properties and the volume to be supplied should be fully examined in advance to ensure the purpose of use.8. copper granulated blast furnace slag. This too is used almost 100%. As well as being used as a raw material for blast furnace cement.1 General (Notification Article 39) Recyclable resources shall be used as appropriate in accordance with the characteristics of the resources and the structures under design. otherwise known as the “Recycling Act”) was enacted.2. Granulated blast furnace slag is a lightweight sand-like material. It is broadly divided into blast furnace slag and steel manufacture slag. it set out to promote measures by the national government. subbase course materials.1 lists a comparison of chemical compositions of slag and soil. 8.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 8 Recyclable Resources 8. steel slag. It has a higher particle density than sand. its angle of internal friction and water permeability are about the same as those of sea sand. Therefore. and its characteristic of expansion rupture. Table T. Therefore. Port and harbor construction works use large quantities of soil materials. and asphalt concrete. It is virtually 100% effectively used. It is effectively used however. Steel slag is industrial waste generated in large quantities by the steel industry. Its specific weigh is larger than that of sand.2 lists the physical and dynamic properties of steel manufacture slag and blast-furnace slag. As well as being used for sand mat and as a filling material. it is very important that we protect the environment by reducing the use of natural resources and positively create added value by taking advantage of the properties of recyclable resources. Thus. As well as aiming for the effective utilization of limited resources. Although it is susceptible to particle crushing. local authorities. This was because of its heaviness due to iron content. and concrete aggregate. and has been used as a caisson filling material. [Commentary] (1) In 1991. 48 of 1991.2. by taking advantage of its large angle of internal friction. (2) The use of slag. dredged soil. a major precondition is that full checks are made in advance to ensure that no environmental problems are created. concrete. [Technical Notes] Effective use of recyclable resources is extremely important for the sustainable development of society. the “Law for the Promotion of Utilization of Recyclable Resources” (Law No. steel manufacture slag was used only for a material of roads. Most of these can be used in landfill materials. Copper granulated blast furnace slag is a sandy material obtained through high-speed cooling with water in the copper refining process. and ferronickel granulated slag will be discussed. coal ash. soil improvement materials. On the other hand. coal ash.

0 0.0 ± 2.5 7.4 2.0 64.8.3.8 0.8 ± 2.0 51.2 5.2).84 0.8 0.5 17.3 Clinker ash 61 ± 5 21 ± 5 5.1 ± 5. or other pozzolan substances has a particularly high pozzolan activity.40 1.3.3 1.6 3. *** as SO3 Table T.8.71 78 ~ 135 10-2 ~ 10-3 40 ~ 50 8.4 0. which makes it harden by mixing with water.1 Chemical Compositions of Slag and Other Materials (Units in percent) Type Compornent SiO2 CaO Al2O3 T-Fe MgO S MnO TiO2 Blast furnace slag 33.09 7.0 9.18 ~ 2.69 ~ 8.7 1.7 ~ 22.0 2.6 0.4 22.8.1 Chemical Composition of Coal Ash (Units in percent) Component SiO2 Al2O3 FeO3 CaO MgO Unburned contents Fly ash 63 ± 6 24 ± 4 4.3 Coal Ash [Technical Notes] Coal ash is classified into fly ash and clinker ash.24 2.2.3 1.1* 2.77 ~ 3.2 21. Coal ash has pozzolan activity.8 Note: Figures show the mean value ± standard deviation.8.2 0.6 5.34 ~ 2.0 0.8 ~ 9.9 5. while clinker ash has the grain size distributions similar with that of sand 1) (see Tables T.13 ~ 2.0*** - Note: * as FeO.07 5.5 Electric furnace slag Oxide slag 17.02 19. The grain size distribution of fly ash is similar with that of silt.3.1 and T.17 152 ~ 186 - 3.8 17.2 12.6 2.7 26.4 0.2 8.3 3.7 0.5 3.6 ± 2.5 5.9 0.2 ~ 17.8 Normal Portland cement 22.5 6.8 42.0 1.8.4 ~ 9.1 ± 2.0 0.0 1.19 ~ 3.2 5.7 Pit sand 59.50 1.3* 6.0** 1.0 ± 0. -239- .7 Reduced slag 27.PART III MATERIALS Table T. ** as Fe2O2.8 44.1 Andesite 59.3 1.3 2. Table T.5 2.2 ± 2.3 0. aluminum. The specific weight is lighter than that of sand.7 ~ 17.2.0 14. Ash with a high content of silica.0 ± 0.2 Physical and Dynamic Properties of Steel Slag Steel manufacture slag Absolute dry density (g/cm Water absorbency (%) Specific weight (kN/m3) (g/cm3) Optimum moisture content (%) Maximum dry density Modified CBR (%) Coefficienst of permeability (cm/s) Angle of internal friction (º) 3) Blast furnace slag MS-25 17.8 8.0 Converter slag 13.21 170 ~ 204 10-2 ~ 10-3 CS-40 16.01 0.

906.8.26 ± 0.3.8 8±5 58 ± 13 0. Thus. Hiroyuki YOSHINO: “Characteristics of concrete debris as rubble in marine construction”. 2) Jun-ichi MIZUKAMI. Tech.1 73 ± 11 13 ± 11 1. the properties of crushed concrete can be determined by referring to it.13 Note: Figures show the mean value ± standard deviation.78 ± 0. No.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T.19 ± 0. the properties such as the angle of internal friction vary depending on mother concrete.4 Crashed Concrete [Technical Notes] When using crushed concrete as a stone material. Tech.83 ± 0. 8.13 ± 0.67 ± 0. [References] 1) Kunio TAKAHASHI: “Utilization of fly ash and steel slug”. If the properties of the concrete before crushing are similar to those presented in reference 2). 1997 (in Japanese). 886.1 ± 7.2 Physical and Dynamic Properties of Coal Ash Fly ash Particle density Silt content (%) Sand content (%) Maximum density Minimum density (g/cm3) (g/cm3) (g/cm3) 2. under present circumstances it is difficult to give the standard values of their propeties.17 0.18 0. 1998 (in Japanese). -240- . No.9 ± 3.14 Uniformity coefficient Clinker ash 2.12 14.11 5. Note of PHRI. Note of PHRI. Yoshiaki KIKUCHI.

Part IV Precast Concrete Units .

.

partition walls. winch foundation. [3] fatigue limit state [1] ultimate limit state. [Technical Notes] (1) The design of caissons can be made according to the sequence depicted in Fig. Assumption of dimensions of caisson Calculation of stability while afloat Determination of design external forces While afloat : outer walls (front. T.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS Part IV Precast Concrete Units Chapter 1 Caissons 1. built-in hook for working net . bottom slab. [3] fatigue limit state [1] ultimate limit state. bottom slab During installation: partition walls After construction : outer walls.1.1 General (1) The provisions in this chapter shall be applied to the design of ordinary reinforced concrete caissons used on port and harbor facilities. [2] serviceability limit state.1. (2) Design shall follow the limit state design method. side).1. rear. [3] fatigue limit state [1] ultimate limit state [2] serviceability limit state [1] ultimate limit state { { [1] ultimate limit state. built-in hook for towing. footing Design of members (Design of outer walls) Set design conditions Calculate section force Examine bending strength Calculate section force Examine bending strength Calculate section force Examine bending strength (Design of footing) Examine dislodging Calculate section force Examine bending strength Examine shear strength (Study of bottom slab) (Design of partition walls) { { { [1] ultimate limit state. temporary cover. mounting on the launching truck After fabrication: uneven settlement Design of ancillary provisions Water supply cocks. suspension hook. Fig. [2] serviceability limit state. T. [2] serviceability limit state.1 Sequence of Caisson Design -241- . [3] fatigue limit state Other examinations During fabrication: jacking.1. [2] serviceability limit state.1.

The thickness of the outer wall is usually 30 ～ 60 cm (with the spacing between partition walls less than 5 m). the floating stability of the caisson shall be examined to ensure that capsiging or tilting will not occur. Outer wall Outer wall Partition wall Vertical haunch Vertical haunch Vertical haunch Partition wall Haunch joints Horizontal haunch Longitudinal sectional view (B-B) Bottom slab Horizontal haunch Transverse sectional view (C-C) Outer wall (rear) Outer wall Outer wall Partition wall Partition wall Horizontal haunch Horizontal haunch Outer wall (front) Plan view (A-A) Fig.1. T. waves. the bottom slab is 40 ～ 80 cm thick. T. (6) Differential settlement of mound (7) Bending and torsion acting on caisson [Technical Notes] The terminology of caisson members is shown in Fig. waves. (3) Examination of the fatigue limit state may be omitted in the case of quaywall caissons. placing upper concrete.2. 1. wind. 3.1. etc.1 Names of Caisson Members 1. and the partition walls are 20 ～ 30 cm thick. (5) Working conditions after installation of caisson: filling. -242- Outer wall (front) Outer wall (rear) . tidal currents.2 Basics of Design Based on the Limit State Design Method can be referred to. PartⅢ.2.3 Floating Stability If a caisson is to be floated toward the place of installation.1. etc.2 Determination of Dimensions The dimensions of caisson members shall be determined in view of the following factors: (1) Capacity of caisson fabrication facilities (2) Draft of a caisson and the water depth at the place of installation (depth above the crown of foundation mound) (3) Floating stability (4) Working conditions during towing and installation: tidal currents.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) For explanations of the limit states. wind.

(3) Equation (1.(I S i ) C ¢ G ¢ > 0 V¢ (b) When using sand.3.3. T. equation (1.1) applies when the cross section of caisson is symmetrical and no significant tilt is expected. C ¢ G ¢> 0 V¢ where (1. I ¢. C¢. T. G¢： displacement.3) i： moment of inertia of the water surfaces of inside chambers about the centerline parallel to the rotating axis of the caisson (m4) V ¢. or fresh concrete as the counterballast: (1. respectively: (1) Breakwater ① under no waves ② under waves ③ during execution (2) Quaywall ① under ordinary conditions ② during an earthquake ③ during execution [Technical Notes] (1) Table T.3.3. 3. of caisson with a counterballast respectively 1.2 Basics of Design Based on the Limit State Design Method) to be multiplied to the load characteristics for various combinations of loads to be considered in design.1 Stability of Caisson I ¢ ---.4.3. -243- .1) where V： displacement (m3) I： moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area at the still water level about the long axis (m4) C： center of buoyancy G： center of gravity M： metacenter For safety the distance GM should be 5% of the draft or greater.3) applies when a counterballast is used.3. (2) Equation (1. and center of gravity.1 lists the ultimate limit state safety factors and the serviceability limit state influence coefficients on crack width (see Part Ⅲ. stone.2) I¢ ---.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS [Technical Notes] (1) To guarantee the stability of a caisson in water.1. moment of inertia.3.1. CG = GM > 0 V (1. Footings may be treated in the same way as bottom slabs.1.4.1). (a) When using water as the counterballast: Fig.3.1 Combination of Loads and Load Factors The combination of loads and the load factors shall be appropriately considered under the following conditions.1) must be satisfied (see Fig. center of buoyarcy.2) or (1.4 Design External Forces 1.3. I -.

1 (0.1 (0.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T. the characteristic loads are calculated according to Part Ⅱ. -244- .0) 1.1 (1.9] (1.1 (1.5) Bottom slab (bottom slab reaction considering surcharge during no earthquake) 1. Chapter 12 Earthquakes and Seismic Force.1 (1.1 (1.0) 1.5) 1.0) 1.9 (1.0 (-) 1.0) 1.9] (1.0) 1.2 (1.1 (1.0) 1.5) 1.0) Bottom slab Under waves 0.0) 1.5) (b) Quaywalls Conditions Deadweight Hydrostatic pressure Internal water pressure Internal earth pressure Bottom slab plate reaction under permanent load Surcharge Bottom slab reaction during an earthquake Hydrostatic pressure during installation Load during execution Hydrostatic pressure in still water Remarks Under ordinary conditions 0.0 (-) 1.0) 1.0 (-) 1.5) During execution 1.1 (1.9] (1.1 (1.3 (1.9 (0.1 (1.1.5) 1.1 [0.0) 1.9 (0.0 (-) Bottom slab (bottom slab reaction considering surcharge during an earthquake) 0.0) Bottom slab 1.0) Under no waves 1.3 [0.5) Partition wall (during installation) Note: When considering seismic force.1 [0.7] (1.4.0) 1.0) outer wall During an earthquake 1.5) outer wall (while afloat) 1.0) Bottom slab (while afloat) outer wall (while afloat) Partition wall (during installation) 0.1 (0.1) 1.1 (0.2 [0.8 (0.0) 1.1 Loads and Load Factors (a) Breakwaters Conditions Deadweight Hydrostatic pressure Internal earth pressure Bottom slab reaction Internal water pressure Uplift pressure Variable bottom slab reaction Variable internal water pressure Wave force Hydrostatic head between chambers Remarks 0.9 (1.8] (1.1 [0.0) 0.5) Bottom Slab (while afloat) During execution 1.0) outer wall 1.0) outer wall 1.1 (0.1 (1.9 (1.1 (1.1 (0.

9D 1.1 Design Loads for Front Wall (Breakwater) (b) Rear wall (parallel to center line: land side) Table T.1S Serviceability limit state 0.5Sf 1.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS (2) The values in the upper rows of the respective boxes in Table T-1.4.T-1.2 D S 1.1.4.2 ~ 1.4.0H . 2) For the symbols in the table.1 S + 1.0D ＋ 1.5.4.0S Note: For the symbols in the table. -245- .1. see Fig.0. the influence coefficient on crack width (kp.4.1.4.1.1Sf 1. Therefore.0D 0.1 D + 1.0 D + 1.3. Fig.2.1Sf Serviceability limit state 1.4. T.4.1 are the load factors to be used when studying the ultimate limit state. The values in the parentheses ( ) in the lower rows show the influence coefficient on crack width in the serviceability limit state.4. (4) The design loads for outer walls of breakwater caissons are shown in Figs.1D ＋ 1. The load factors and the influence coefficients on crack width are listed in Tables T. T-1.1. and only occur during execution.4. see Fig .5Sf 1. T. kr) in the serviceability limit state can be set at 0.1.1 ~ 1. (3) Loads during execution have a shorter duration of action than other conditions. (a) Front wall (parallel to centerline: seaside) Table T.4.1.2 Load Factors and Influence Coefficient on the Crack Width for Front Wall (Breakwater) Direction of load Load from outside Load from inside Design conditions Under wave crest While afloat Under wave trough Ultimate limit state 1.3 Load Factors and Influence Coefficient on Crack Width for Rear Wall (Breakwater) Direction of load Load from outside Load from inside Design conditions While afloat In the lowest water level under no wave Ultimate limit state 1. The values in the brackets [ ] are the load factors to be used when a smaller load yields the larger design load of the members.0 D S Note: 1) The load from outside is chosen as the larger one of the above two load conditions.0 S + 1.3H .

T-1.0D ＋ 1.1D ＋ 1.4.1.0S ＋ 1.4.0DS Note: For the symbols in the table.1. T.5.2DS Serviceability limit state 0.1. T.5 Load Factors and Influence Coefficient on Crack Width for Outer Wall (Quaywall) Direction of load Load from inside Load from outside Design conditions In the lowest water level Wile afloat Ultimate limit state 1.3 Design Loads for Sidewall (Breakwater) (5) The design loads for the sidewalls of quaywall caissons are shown in Fig.1. see Fig.4. Table T. see Fig.4.5Sf Note: For the symbols in the table.1. T. T-1.1S ＋ 1.4.1. Under waves (trough) During exception (while afloat) Hydrostatic pressure Internal earth pressure Internal water pressure in the lowest water level Variable internal water pressure caused by the fluctuation of water surface Fig.4.3.1D ＋ 1.4.1Sf 1.0D ＋ 1.5Sf 1.2 Design Loads for Rear Wall (Breakwater) (c) Sidewall (perpendicular to levee normal) Table T.1S 1.4.1Sf Serviceability limit state 1. The load factors are listed in Table T.4.4.0S 0.4 Load Factors and Influence Coefficient on Crack Width for Sidewall (Breakwater) Direction of load Load from outside Load from inside Design conditions While afloat Under wave trough Ultimate limit state 1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Under no waves During execution (while afloat) Hydrostatic pressure Internal earth pressure Internal water pressure in the lowest water level under no wave Fig. -246- .

4 (b) Design Loads for Sidewalls (Quaywall) (6) The loads for the bottom slabs of breakwater caissons while Table T. The load can be calculated by using the equations listed in Table T.4. Under no waves Under waves Weight of filling Weight of concrete lid Weight of bottom slab Hydrostatic pressure Weight of filling Weight of concrete lid Weight of bottom slab Hydrostatic pressure Bottom slab reaction under wave force Bottom slab reaction under no waves Composite load under no wave forces Variation bottom slab reaction Uplift pressure Fig. T.1. T. The loads acting on the bottom slabs of breakwater Composite load under no Permanent caissons after construction are shown in Fig.1.5.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS (a) Under ordinary conditions (loads from inside) Internal earth pressure Internal water pressure Fig.4.1.4.1.4.6.1.5. T.4. The waves (D0) composite load under no waves (D0) is treated as a Variable bottom slab reaction Variable permanent load. The composite load under waves consists (ΔR). uplift pressure (U) of the composite load under no waves (D0).1.4.1.5 Design Load of Bottom Slab (Breakwater) -247- .4 (a) Design Loads for Sidewalls (Quaywall) (b) While afloat (loads from outside) Hydrostatic pressure Draft + 1.4.1.0m Fig.4.7 in accordance with the classification in Table T. and the uplift pressure (U) as shown in Fig.1. the variable bottom slab reaction (ΔR ). T. T.4.6 Load Categories under afloat are calculated by multiplying the load characteristic Wave Force (Breakwater) by the load factors and the influence coefficient on the crack Load category Load width given in Table T.1.

1.1D0 + 0.2ΔR + 0. The design values are as follows: Ultimate limit state: Serviceability limit state: 1. the combination of loads is replaced by the equation 0.0D0 + 1.0R + 1. (During earthquake) Weight of concrete lid Weight of filling Weight of bottom slab Hydrostatic pressure Hydrostatic pressure Weight of bottom slab (While afloat) (Under ordinary conditions) Surcharge in normal condition Surcharge during an earthquake Bottom slab reaction during an earthquake R Bottom slab reaction under ordinary condition Fig.1S 0.3U 0.6 Design Loads of Bottom Slabs (Quaywall) (8) For examination of the bending moment for partition walls.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Table T. The resultant force that is composed of the weight of filling and concrete lid.7U 0.5Sf Note: For the symbols in the table.7U 1.2 |ΔR | cannot exceed that of 1.1.1.9D + 1.7U 0. T.9D0 + 1. Loads acting on the bottom slab are shown in Fig. The design loads can be calculated by the equation listed in Table T. hydrostatic pressure and bottom slab reaction is treated as the permanent load.1| R |+0.9Df + 1.0F + 1.8ΔR + 1. Surcharge is treated as the variable load and the bottom slab reaction in an earthquake is also treated as the variable load.8 Load Combinations (Quaywall) Ultimate limit state Under ordinary conditions During an earthquake While afloat 0. -248- . Therefore.4.3U 1.1F + 0.1R + 1.2|ΔR |>1.9D + 1.7 (1.4.1D0 + 0. ΔR and U should be done by considering the direction of each load.0D + 1.9D0+1.2ΔR + 1.1.5W Study not required 0. the value of 1.1.4.4. the design load is the hydrostatic head between chambers during installation.5S (1.1D0 + 1.8ΔR + 0. The summation of the loads D0.6.8W 0.5Df + 0.1 for load factor: gf ) (0.4.5 for influence coefficient on crack width: kp) The symbol S represents the load characteristic.2ΔR + 1.3U 1.1Sf Serviceability limit state (*) 1.1D0 + 1.3) U. 2) (*) When variable bottom slab reaction (ΔR) acts downwards.9D0 + 0.1.2ΔR + 0. the design load should be determined in the condition where the dislodging load is largest among the design loads indicated for the bottom slab and sidewall.1| R |. Table T.6.1 | R |.8.0R¢ + 1. T.0ΔR + 1.0W ¢ 0. T-1.7 Combination of Load with Load Factors or Influence Coefficient on Crack Width (Breakwater) Limit state Condition Wave crest Ultimate limit state Wave trough Direction of ΔR and W Load factors and combination of load 1.4.4. see Fig.s (7) The design loads of bottom slabs of quaywall caissons while afloat are calculated by multiplying the load characteristic by the load factors given in Table T. For examination of dislodging.8ΔR + 1.0F + 0.1. if 1.0U (*) (*) ΔR ↑ ΔR ↓ ΔR ↑ ΔR ↓ Serviceability limit state All － W↑ W↑ W↓ W↑ W↓ W↑ W↓ Note: 1) W = D0 + ΔR + U.3U 1.9D0 + 1.

If the hydrostatic pressure more than this might act on a caisson temporarily during launching.4. T.4.0 m added to the design draft of caisson (kN/m2) w： characteristic deadweight of the bottom slab (including the weight of filling material as counterballast.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS 1.4.4. However.1.3 External Forces during Launching and Floating When launching and floating a caisson fabricated on a dry dock. it shall be considered separately. (see Fig.w Draft Allowance 1. [Technical Notes] The whole caisson should be regarded as a simple beam to examine the section force during fabrication.1. when the caisson is raised by a jack or is placed on a launch truck to be moved to a slipway or caisson platform.8 External Force Acting on the Bottom Slab Fig.1. T. T.w = w0H0 . [Technical Notes] (1) Outer Wall The design water pressure distribution on the outer wall should be considered as follows (see Fig. (2) Bottom Slab The external load acting on the bottom slab should be the value obtained by subtracting the deadweight of the bottom slab from the hydrostatic pressure at the bottom slab. or ordinary slipway.0m M Fig.4. T. ③ The water pressure distribution is taken as a triangle shape with the bottom value calculated above and extending to the crest of outer wall. without subtracting buoyancy (kN/m2) w0： characteristic specific weight of sea water (kN/m3) H0： water depth with an allowance of about 1. external forces during fabrication may not be considered.1) where p2： characteristic pressure acting on the bottom slab (kN/m2) pw： characteristic hydrostatic pressure acting on the bottom slab with an allowance of about 1.4.0 m.1.1.0 m added to the design draft of caisson.11 Hydrostatic Head across Chambers -249- . ② The water pressure on bottom is calculated with the draft mentioned above.7 Water Pressure Acting on Outer Wall (1.7): ① The draft of caisson is increased by 1. 1. concentrated loads of selfweight shall be applied on the caisson as design loads. the hydrostatic pressure at the design draft shall be increased by an allowance as a safety factor to determine the external force. Hydrostatic head Fig. if any).2 External Forces during Fabrication When a caisson is being fabricated on a dry dock or floating dock.4.4. T.8) p2 = pw . floating dock.

T-1.4.11). The symbols in Fig. and by sea water freezing. b = H (d) When a concrete lid or crown is placed so tightly above the caisson. however.4. (2) Internal Water Pressure The internal water pressure should be the head difference between the water levels in the caisson and the lowest water level (LWL) outside the caisson.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 1. (see Fig. The wave forces acting on the front wall shall also be considered in the design of the caissons for breakwaters. T. (3) Wave Force For the front walls of caissons parallel to the centerline of the breakwater.12). T. (4) Distribution of Internal Earth and Water Pressures The distributions of internal earth and water pressures for the walls of several caissons are shown in Fig.12 Earth Pressure of Filling -250- . the upper sections of the walls should be reinforced as a precautionary measure.6 b： width of chamber (m) . (2) The hydrostatic head between chambers should be applied to the partition walls as the external forces.4. beyond which it remains at a constant value.4. wave force should be taken into account when wave crests act on the walls. [Technical Notes] (1) Earth Pressure of Filling (a) The distribution of the composite load often takes an irregular shape. the irregular distribution can be modified as an equivalent uniform or triangular distribution.4 External Forces during Installation [Technical Notes] (1) Hydrostatic pressures acting on the sidewalls and bottom slab are not considered as the external force during installation. Fig. generally g '=10 kN/m3 can be used. it is also affected by collisions of drifting ice or driftwoods. the earth pressure is disregarded when the filling consists of concrete blocks or fresh concrete.4.4. 1.1.5 External Forces after Construction [1] Outer Walls The earth pressure of filling and the internal water pressure shall be considered as the external forces on the outer walls.1. Depending on the locality. K = 0. (see Fig. (c) It should be assumed that the earth pressure increases to the depth equal to the width of the chamber. in case of wave troughs acting on the front walls parallel to the centerline of breakwater or the sidewalls perpendicular to the centerline. T. A breakwater caisson covered with a mound of wave-dissipating concrete blocks is also subject to impacts of wave-dissipating blocks to the front walls. The effects of these are not known. However. T1.12 are defined as follows: q ： characteristic surcharge on top of filling (kN/m2) g '： characteristic submerged specific weight of filling material (kN/m3).6. However. the effect of surcharge on the concrete lid or crown can be neglected.4. Therefore. For design purposes. (b) The coefficient of earth pressure is set at be 0. K： coefficient of earth pressure of filling.13.1. the external water level should be taken at the depth (H1/3)/2 below LWL.

the -251- . uplift. weight of bottom slab. the bottom reactions. For design purposes. weight of filling. T.13 Internal Earth and Water Pressures Acting on Caisson Walls [2] Bottom Slab (1) For the bottom slab fixed with the outer walls and partition walls.1. and surcharge on the footing shall be considered as the external forces acting on the footing. and surcharge shall be considered as the external forces. (2) Footings The bottom reaction. [Technical Notes] (1) Bottom slab (a) The distribution of the composite load often takes an irregular shape. weight of footing with buoyancy considered. however. weight of concrete lid.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS (a) Breakwaters (front walls) Internal earth pressure Internal water pressure Composite load (b) Breakwaters (rear walls parallel to the centerline or sidewalls perpendicular to the centerline) Internal earth Internal water Composite load pressure pressure Internal earth pressure Internal water Composite load pressure (c) Quays (outer walls parallel or perpendicular to the centerline) Wave pressure (d) Wave forces Internal earth pressure Composite load Fig. hydrostatic pressure.4.

14 Bottom Reaction (f) Weight of concrete lid The weight of the concrete lid should be the dry weight without influence of buoyancy.b (m) b¢： distribution width of bottom reactions in case of e > -6 Mw： characteristic moment for point A by the vertical resultant force (kN•m/m) Mh： characteristic moment for point A by the horizontal resultant force (kN•m/m) 1B (c) Hydrostatic pressure The hydrostatic pressure acting on the bottom slab should be considered at the design tide level.6 kN/m3 for plain concrete and 24.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN irregular distribution can be modified as an equivalent uniform or triangular distribution. Chapter 5 Wave Force should be referred to.4. However.4. The value e is calculated using equation (1.1. the characteristic specific weight can be set as 24.3) b -x e = -2 Mw M h x = -------------------V (1.4.14).4.0 kN/m3 (h) Surcharge The weight of soil on top of the caisson and superimposed load should be considered for the surcharge acting on the bottom slab. when the concrete lid or concrete crown is placed so tightly above the caisson.4. T1.4) (see Fig. For design calculations. the effect of the surcharge on top of the concrete lid or concrete crown upon the bottom slab through the filling can be neglected. 1B Fig.5) 644474448 2 V .-p 2 = æ 1 ----è bøb 1 -b ②If e > -6 (1.4. For calculating the uplift.4.5) 1 -b ①If e ≦ -6 6447448 6447448 6 eö V . T.-p 1 = æ 1 + ----è bøb 6 eö V . (g) Weight of bottom slab The weight of the bottom slab should be the dry weight without influence of buoyancy. the uplift pressure should be considered. (d) Uplift pressure When wave forces act on the caisson.0 kN/m3 for reinforced concrete. (b) Bottom reaction The characteristic bottom reaction should be calculated according to equations (1. For design calculations.4) characteristic reaction at the front toe (kN/m2) characteristic reaction at the rear toe (kN/m2) characteristic vertical resultant force per unit length (kN/m) H： characteristic horizontal resultant force per unit length (kN/m) e： eccentricity of resultant force of V and H (m) b： width of bottom (m) 1 .---------------p 1 = -3æb ö --e è2 ø b ö -e b ¢ = 3 æ -è2 ø where p1： p2： V： (1. the characteristic secific weight can be set as 22. (e) Weight of filling The specific weight of the filling material is normally determined by the tests of the material to be used.4. -252- .3) and (1.

T. T. (b) In the examination of dislodging of the bottom slab from the partition walls. Converted design load Composite load Internal earth pressure + internal water pressure (kN/ m2) Internal earth pressure + internal water pressure between partition wall and outer wall.1.4.4. the following loads shall be considered: ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ ⑥ ⑦ weight of filling surcharge weight of bottom slab weight of concrete lid bottom slab reaction uplift pressure hydrostatic pressure (2) When a load is possibly generated due to the unevenness of the ground bearing capacity. T.1. T. Fig. (2) The design load to examine dislodging of the bottom slab from the partition walls should be determined with respect to the load distribution shown in Fig.4.15 (b) Bottom reaction The bottom reactions acting on the footing should be the values calculated according to equations (1.1. (c) Weight of footing The weight of footing is the submerged weight with buoyancy considered. (d) Surcharge The weight of wave-dissipating concrete blocks of breakwaters. The characteristic value of the specific weight of footing in air can be set as 24.4.4).1.16.0 kN/m3.15 Design Load of Footing [3] Partition Walls and Others (1) Partition Walls (a) In the examination of dislodging of an outer wall from the partition walls due to tensile failure. the weight of overburden soil and/or surcharge of quaywalls should be considered for the surcharge acting on the footing. -253- . assuming that they act in the joint between the partition walls and the outer wall.4.1.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS (2) Footing (a) The design loads acting on the footing should be determined with respect to the load distributions as shown in Fig.4. it shall be examined. [Technical Notes] (1) The design load to examine dislodging of an outer wall from the partition walls should be determined with respect to the load distribution shown in Fig. p : Bottom reaction (kN/m2) w : Weight of footing (with buoyancy considered) (kN/m3) w1: Surcharge on the footing (kN/m2) p1: Composite load (kN/m2) Fig. the earth pressure of filling and the internal water pressure acting on the outer wall shall be considered.16 Design Load to Examine Dislodging of Outer Wall from Partition Walls.4. T.17 (3) Partition Wall The load sharing divisions are based on those for ordinary slab supported by beams.3) or (1.

1. 1. (2) The span used in calculations is the central interval.18 Examination on the Unevenness of Ground Bearing Capacity 1.5. T. T-1. (3) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than the following values in principle: Outer side: 7 cm Inner side: 5 cm Fig.18). the caisson can be assumed as a cantilever beam with the span equivalent to 1/3 of the length or width of the caisson (see Fig. (4) The covering of reinforcements should not be less than 5 cm.2 Partition Wall [Technical Notes] (1) The partition wall should be designed as a slab fixed on three sides and free on one side. T.5.1.4.1 Outer Wall [Technical Notes] (1) An outer wall should be designed as a slab fixed on three sides and free on one side.17 Design Load to Examine Dislodging of Bottom Slab from Partition Walls (4) Examination of External Load by Unevenness of Ground Bearing Capacity When examining the external load by the unevenness of ground bearing capactiy.3 Bottom Slab [Technical Notes] (1) The bottom slab surrounded by outer walls and partition walls should be designed as a slab fixed on four sides.4. (2) After installation. 1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN M : Design load acting on bottom slab (kN/m2) 2 : Load acting in joint between partition wall and bottom slab (kN/m) 2@: Converted design load (kN/m) Fig. safety in the ultimate limit state should be verified for dislodging failure of outer walls or bottom slab from partition walls. (3) The span used in calculations is the central interval.5 Design of Members 1.5.4. (2) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than the following values in principle: Outer side: 7 cm Inner side: 5 cm -254- .

(4) The span of bottom slab used in calculation should be set on the central interval (see Fig.2 Span Used to Design Bottom Slab and Footing 1.1. To calculate the height of footing.5. (5) The cross section used to examine bending of footing should be the front surface of the outer wall (see Section A-A of Fig. a part of the haunch with the gradient steeper than 1:3 should be disregarded. -255- .1. T. T.5.1.6 Design of Hooks for Suspension by Crane The load acting on the hooks shall appropriately be calculated by considering the weight of the caisson and the bonding of the bottom slab to the floor of caisson fabrication yard.5.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS (3) Footing should be calculated as a cantilever slab.5. The cross section for examining shear of footing should be located at the distance equivalent to 1/2 of the footing height from the front of the caisson.2). T.2). 1.4 Others [Technical Notes] The whole caisson should be examined as a simple beam when lifted with jacks for transportation or when making analysis for differential settlement after installation. Footing Portion fixed on four sides Fig.

T-2. respectively. The design seismic coefficient in (a) and (b) is taken as 0.10.2.2.2 Determination of Dimensions The dimensions of the members L-shaped block shall be determined by considering the following: (1) Capacity of the facilities for fabricating L-shaped blocks (2) Hoisting capabilities of the crane (3) Water depth in which L-shaped blocks are installed to form a quaywall (4) Tidal range (5) Elevation of coping [Commentary] The crown height of an L-shaped block is determined for ease of execution of the superstructure.1 General (1) The provisions in this chapter shall be applied to the design of ordinary L-shaped blocks.1 shows the relationship between the block width and the wall height as well as the L-shaped block height.05 and 0. [Technical Notes] Figure T.1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 2 L-Shaped Blocks 2. based on the past examples of construction.1. considering the water depth and tidal range. (2) Design shall follow the limit state design method. T.1. [Technical Notes] (1) The design of L-shaped blocks can be made according to the sequence depicted in Fig. Assumption of dimensions of L-shaped block members ↓ Determination of design external forces During suspension After construction ↓ Design of members (Design of bottom slab) Design conditions ↓ Calculate section force ↓ Examine bending (Design of front wall) ↓ Calculate section force ↓ Examine bending (Design of buttress) ↓ Calculate section force ↓ Examine bending ↓ Examine dislodging (Design of footing) ↓ Calculate section force ↓ Examine bending ↓ Examine shear ultimate limit state and { [1] [2] serviceability limit state ultimate limit state and { [1] [2] serviceability limit state ultimate limit state and { [1] [2] serviceability limit state [1] ultimate limit state ultimate limit state and { [1] [2] serviceability limit state ultimate limit state and { [1] [2] serviceability limit state Fig. the width increases compared with the height.2. -256- .1 Sequence of Design of L-Shaped Block 2. As the design seismic coefficient increases.

1 Relationship between Height and Width of L-Shaped Blocks 2.1 General The following shall be considered as the loads acting on the structural members of L-shaped blocks:.4. (5) There are vertical and horizontal methods for placing concrete when manufacturing L-shaped blocks.1 Combination of Loads and Load Factors.5 External Forces after Construction. The latter involves setting-up of the block before the installation work.36 > 0.02 > 2. (4) The calculation methods of bottom reaction are described in 1.2.1.10 Fig. (1) Front Wall (a) Surcharge and earth pressure by backfilling stones or soil (b) Residual water pressure (2) Footing (a) Bottom reaction (b) Deadweight of footing (3) Bottom Slab (a) Surcharge (b) Weight of backfill (c) Deadweight of bottom slab (d) Bottom reaction (4) Buttress (a) Reaction from the front wall (b) Reaction from the bottom slab (c) Earth pressure and residual water pressure acting on the rear of buttress. (d) Load during suspension of the L-shaped block (e) Load while setting up the L-shaped block [Technical Notes] (1) Load combinations and load factors are the same as described in 1.4.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS 15 D 1 1.75 > 1 1. the following loads shall be considered during execution.3 Loads Acting on Members 2.3. T. T. Therefore. (2) Loads acting on the structural members of L-shaped blocks are illustrated in Fig. Chapter 14 Earth Pressure and Water Pressure. In addition.97 9 9 2 D D D Height Height 8 8 D 2 7 7 6 6 5 D 1 5 D h1 2 h2 4 4 3 > 3 > 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Width > m Width > m (a) Design seismic coefficient kh = 0.53 13 D 2 1.54 > 0. the load at setting up the block examined be examined in the design.05 (b) Design seismic coefficient kh = 0. (3) The calculation methods of earth pressure acting on L-shaped block members are described in Part Ⅱ.2. The angle of friction of the wall should be taken as δ= 15º.3. -257- .26 15 14 14 D 1 1.75 13 12 12 11 11 m 10 1 m D D 10 D 2 0.2.

2 shows examples of converting loads. [Technical Notes] Normally.2. Converted load distribution for member design Converted load distribution for member design Footing Load distribution Bottom slab (i) Load distribution ( ii ) (a) Earth pressure (b) External loads on footing and bottom slab Fig.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN q h! K q Dead weight Bottom reaction (a) Load acting on front wall and buttresses (b) Load acting on footings (c) Load acting on bottom slab Notation q: surcharge (kN/m2) g1: specific weight of soil above residual water level (kN/m3) g2: specific weight of soil below residual water level (kN/m3) gw: specific weight of water (kN/m3) h1: thickness of soil layer above residual water level (m) h2: thickness of soil layer below residual water level (m) h3: tidal range (m) h4: thickness of bottom slab (m) K1: coefficient of earth pressure of soil above residual water level K2: coefficient of earth pressure of soil below residual water level w: deadweight of bottom slab (kN/m2) Fig.2. When converting loads.3. When doing so. care should be taken not to produce weak points in the strength of members. This is inconvenient when designing the members. Therefore.3 Converted Loads for Design Calculation The loads acting on an L-shaped block can be converted to multiple loads of uniform distribution for the convenience of calculation.2 Converting Methods of Load Distribution -258- .1 Loads Acting on L-Shaped Blocks 2.2 Earth Pressure The earth pressure to be used for design of the structural members of L-shaped blocks shall be the earth pressure used for stability calculation of the quaywall.3.3. the loads acting on L-shaped blocks are not uniform loads. the structural safety of members in design shall be taken into account.3. T. 2. Fig. T. the loads may be converted into multiple uniform loads. T.3.2.

T. T. the front wall of L-shaped blocks with large heights are not greatly affected by support of the bottom slab.1. T. the descriptions in this document are not necessarily applied. Fig.2.1 Assumption of Span of Member and Load 2.4. the front wall can be designed as a cantilever slab or a continuous slab supported by buttresses. (3) The loads should be assumed to act on the whole span of the front wall. Therefore.4. Generally.2.3 Bottom Slab [Technical Notes] = : length of footing = (1) The bottom slab should be designed as a slab fixed on one or more butp tresses. it should be designed as a continuous slab. in principle.2. (4) The covering of main reinforcements of a front wall should not be less than the following values in principle: Sea side: Land side: 7 cm 5 cm (5) The span of the front wall and the loads acting on it can be taken as shown in Fig. (2) The length and load of footing should be as shown in Fig.2 Length and Load of Footing -259- . If one buttress is considered as a support.4. the front wall is supported by the bottom slab as well as by buttresses. however. the front wall may be regarded as being supported on two or three sides.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS 2. When it is advantageous in design to treat the front wall as a slab supported on two or three sides. the bottom slab should = be designed as a cantilever slab supported by the buttress. and if two or p = (Bottom reaction) . T. the front wall should be designed as a cantilever slab supported by a buttress. If two or more buttresses are considered as supports.2. while the arrangement of reinforcing at the bottom slab attachment becomes complicated.4. (3) The covering of reinforcements should not be less than 7 cm in principle.4 Design of Members 2.2.1 Front Wall [Technical Notes] (1) Front wall should be designed as a slab supported by buttresses.4. = Footing 2. Thus. 2 span of member Support Buttress Front wall span of member 2 Buttress Front wall Buttress 1 Support (a) For one buttress (b) For two or more buttresses Fig. (2) The span of a front wall should be measured between the centers of the buttresses. If one buttress is considered as a support.2 Footing [Technical Notes] Front wall (1) Footing should be designed as a cantilever slab supported by the front wall.(Weight of footing) more buttresses are considered as supports.4.4. F earth pressure + residual water pressure 1 F earth pressure + residual water pressure 1 . (6) Structurally. the front wall should be designed as a continuous slab.

2. The load acting on the buttress includes that of the superstructure. the descriptions in (1) is not necessarily applied. (7) If the front wall and bottom slab are designed as specified in this chapter. the load behind the buttress can be ignored. However. -260- . (6) Of the loads acting on the bottom slab. it should be designed as a cantilever slab or a continuous slab supported by buttresses as standard.3 Length and Load of Buttress 2. The loads of backfill and surcharge act only on the clear span of the bottom slab. (5) Buttress. T.4. (3) Buttress should be designed as a cantilever beam supported at the bottom slab against the reaction from the front wall. The amount of reinforcement for the connection should be calculated independently from that of stirrups against shear stresses. (4) The covering of main reinforcements of the bottom slab should not be less than the following values in principle: Bottom side: 7 cm Upper side: 5 cm (5) Structurally. when advantageous in design to treat the bottom slab as a slab with supports on two or three sides. front wall.4. the bottom reaction acts on the whole span. as shown in Fig. Therefore. the bottom slab may be designed as a slab with supports on two or three sides.2. (4) Buttress should be designed in the cross sections parallel to the bottom slab. (8) The element length of buttress should be the total height of block including the bottom slab. (6) The covering of reinforcements of buttress should be 5 cm or larger.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) The span of a bottom slab should be measured between the centers of the buttresses. and bottom slab should be tightly connected. since it is troublesome to consider it precisely in design and it does not greatly affect the design of bottom slab.1 Front Wall [Technical Notes] (6). For the same reason as stated in 2.4.4.4 Buttress [Technical Notes] (1) Buttress should be designed against the reaction from the bottom slab and front wall. the bottom slab may be regarded as supported by the front wall as well as by buttresses.6 Design of Hooks for Suspension by Crane.5 Design of Hooks for Suspension by Crane Hooks for suspension shall be designed in accordance with 1. However. (2) Buttress should be designed as a T-beam combined with the front wall. T2. (3) The load should be assumed to act on the whole span of the bottom slab. crown Superstructure p H Notation p： lh： b： H： sum of earth pressure and residual water pressure element length of buttress width of block height of block b Fig.3. the loads of backfill and surcharge may be taken as acting on the whole span.

PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS Chapter 3 Cellular Blocks 3. 3. an appropriate design method has to be adopted after fully ascertaining the characteristics of the block shape. the design methods in Chapter 1 Caissons or Chapter 2 L-Shaped Blocks can be used according to respective types. When using cellular blocks for breakwaters or revetments subject to actions of for wave forces. Some special types have bottom slabs such as those placed on the lowest level. (2) Design shall follow the limit state design method.1. T-3.1 General (1) The provisions in this chapter shall be applied to the design of ordinary cellular blocks.2.3. the fatigue limit state should be examined separately.2 Determination of Dimensions 3. They can be used as a wall by piling up several blocks. [Commentary] “Cellular blocks” generally refer to blocks consisting of sidewalls without bottom slabs such. [Technical Notes] (1) Cellular blocks using the limit state design method should generally be designed in the sequence depicted in Fig. Determination design external forces During suspension During execution After construction ↓ Design of members Design conditions ↓ Front wall ↓ Rear wall ↓ Sidewall ↓ Partition wall ↓ Bottom slab ↓ Footing ↓ Hooks for suspension [1] ultimate limit state [2] serviceability limit state Fig.1.2 Determination of Dimensions The dimensions of cellular blocks shall be determined by considering the following items: (1) Capability of the facility for fabricating cellular blocks (2) Hoisting capability of the crane (3) Water depth in which cellular blocks are piled up to form a wall (4) Tidal range -261- . (2) For the design of individual members for various types of cellular blocks. When designing cellular blocks.1.2.1 Sequence of Design of Cellular Blocks 3. T.1 Shape of Cellular Blocks The shape of cellular blocks shall be determined to insure the stability of the entire structure.

4. T3. rear wall and sidewalls. and Sidewalls The earth pressure of filling and residual water pressure shall be considered when designing the front wall.2 Earth Pressure of Filling and Residual Water Pressure (1) Front Wall. and therefore such loads need not be examined. the descriptions in 1. (4) The loads in Chapter 2 L-Shaped Blocks can be used for the loads during execution. (5) For the combinations of loads and the load factors to be taken into account in design. -262- .1.3.1 General Loads acting on cellular blocks are as follows: (1) Earth pressure of filling (2) Residual water pressure (3) Deadweight of blocks (4) Weight of coping (5) Surcharge (6) Bottom reaction (7) Loads during execution (8) Wave force [Technical Notes] (1) The rear wall is subject to backfill earth pressure and residual water pressure. (2) The earth pressure of the filling and the residual water pressure acting on cellular blocks are shown in Fig.3.1. the effect of surcharge on top of the concrete lid or crown can be neglected. T.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (5) Elevation of coping (6) Solidification of whole blocks when piled up in stages 3. (2) Partition Wall The partition wall shall be designed against dislodging failure of the sidewalls from the partition wall due to the earth pressure of filling and residual water pressure. When fully backfilled as a wall.1 Loads Acting on Cellular Blocks (3) Wave pressure is only taken into consideration when an impulsive wave pressure acts on the blocks. If concrete is placed so tightly above the cellular block. Combination of Loads and Load Factors can be referred to. Therefore.3. But these are mutually cancelled out by the earth pressure of the inner filling. Rear Wall. sidewalls should be designed for the condition during the execution process when the inner filling alone is executed before start of backfill. 3.3.3 Loads Acting on Cellular Blocks 3. the stress of sidewalls by the inner filling is considerably reduced by the active earth pressure and residual water pressure in the backfill.3. Sidewall (front wall) Earth pressure of filling + residual water pressure Sidewall Sidewall Sidewall (rear wall) Fig.

2 are as follows: q： characteristic value of surcharge (kN/m2) g1： specific weight of filling material above the residual water level (kN/m3) g2： specific weight of filling material below the residual water level (kN/m3) in general. g1=18 kN/m3 and g2 =10 kN/m3 can be used.2 Calculating Earth Pressure of Filling (c) Residual water pressure ① For quaywalls Residual water pressure is calculated from the head difference between the residual water level and LWL.6 b1： inner width of block chamber (m) . and Sidewalls (a) Earth pressure of filling ① The coefficient of earth pressure should be set as 0.3.4. T3.5 [1] Outer Walls.3. when the inner width of the lower cellular block is less than that of the upper block (in case of cellular block partitioned by walls). the earth pressure of the filling should not be considered ② The earth pressure should be assumed to increase from the crown of block to a height equal to the inner width b1 of the cellular block. T. the increase of the residual water level difference should be examined. ③ The earth pressure acting on cellular blocks piled up in stages is calculated in a manner as shown in Fig. (2) Partition Wall The characteristic values of loads against dislodging failure of partition walls and sidewalls should be those of the earth pressure acting on the shaded parts in Fig.3. T. The symbols in Fig.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS [Technical Notes] (1) Front Wall.3.2. Part Ⅱ.3.3. if the filling is blocks or fresh concrete.3. b1 = H1 (b) The earth pressure of the filling of cellular block should be in accordance with that of caissons (see 1. ②For breakwaters When used as breakwaters or revetments and the wave trough acts on the front of the block. and it should be constant beyond it.3. K = 0. -263- .6.2 Wave Force Acting on Upright Wall can be referred to for a calculation of water pressure in this case. However. the earth pressure obtained for the upper block can be extended to the lower block. Rear Wall. T. K： coefficient of earth pressure of filling. However.) Residual water level Fig. 5.

(d) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than 5 cm in principle.3. (c) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than 7 cm in principle.3 Load for Examination of Dislodging Failure of Sidewalls from Partition Wall 3.3. -264- . (b) The span of footing is the distance from the front of the sidewall to the tip of the footing. [Technical Notes] (1) Sidewalls (a) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than the following values in principle: Outer side: 7 cm Inner side: 5 cm (b) The section force generated in a rectangular cellular block is solved by assuming the block as a rigid box frame for each unit height against the equivalent uniform load converted from the actual load distribution. (2) Partition Wall (a) The section forces acting on partition walls are calculated in the same way as that of sidewalls.3 Converted Loads for Design Calculation The load acting on a cellular block can be converted to multiple loads of uniform distribution for the convenience of calculation in accordance with 2.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Sidewall (front wall) Partitition Sidewall (rear wall) Load bearing area Earth pressure of filling + residual water pressure per 1 m of width Earth pressure of filling + residual water pressure per lm Fig.3. 3.3. (b) When any difference of filling height between neighboring chambers may occur during execution. (c) The span used for calculations is measured between the centers of the connected walls.4 Design of Members 3.1 Rectangular Cellular Blocks The members of rectangular cellular blocks shall be designed as appropriate in view of their structural types. the partition wall should be designed against the earth pressure caused by the difference. (3) Footings (a) Footings may be designed as cantilever slabs supported by the sidewalls. T. (c) The span used for calculations is measured between the centers of the connected walls.3 Converted Loads for Design Calculation.4.

T.4. T.).4 Load on Cantilever Portion of Front Wall (d) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than the following values in principle: Sea side: 7 cm Land side: 5 cm -265- .3. (units: m) Caisson type with bottom slab Rectangular type with flange I-shaped type with bottom slab I-shaped type Fig.4.3.4.3. Sidewall Front wall member span load strength Fig.3. T.2 Other Types of Cellular Blocks The members of other types of cellular blocks shall be designed as appropriate for their structural shapes. [Commentary] Examples of other types of cellular blocks are shown in Fig.4.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS 3. (c) The load from the back of a front wall should act in the whole span of the front wall (see Fig.3 Examples of Other Types of Cellular Blocks [Technical Notes] (1) Front Wall (a) The front wall should be designed as a slab supported by the sidewalls. T. When the front wall protrudes beyond the both sides of the frame.4. the unbalanced moment at the supports is regarded to be transferred to the sidewalls.4.3. (b) The span of the front wall should be measured between the centers of sidewalls connected to it.

it may be designed against the following loads: ① Loads on the bottom such as the weight of filling material and surcharge ② Deadweight of the bottom slab ③ Bottom reaction -266- . the rear wall may be designed in the same way as for the front wall. PF： characteristic value of reaction from the front wall (kN) MF： characteristic value of moment transmitted from the front wall (kN•m) PB： characteristic value of reaction from the rear wall (kN) MB： characteristic value of moment transmitted from the rear wall (kN•m) l： distance between supports (m) (b) The span of the sidewalls is the distance between the centers of the front and rear walls. Fig. T.5 are as follows. (c) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less then 5 cm. The active earth pressure behind the wall is not considered in principle.4.4. T3. When using cellular blocks for breakwaters. and the design conditions of rear walls are the same as for the front wall. the wall come into direct contact with seawater.4. (b) The load to the rear wall should be the earth pressure of filling. T. the strength of the sidewalls should be examined for the earth pressure due to the height difference. (3) Sidewalls (a) Sidewalls are in principle designed against the reactions and transferred moments from the front and rear walls (see Fig. The symbols used in Fig.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Rear Wall (a) Filling is often done first during the execution. (d) When the height difference of the filling is expected during execution. the covering of main reinforcements on the outside should preferably be 7cm or larger.3.3.5 Forces and Moments on Sidewall of the Cellular Black Front wall Rear wall Side wall (4) Bottom Slab When a bottom slab is used for a cellular block. (c) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than 5 cm in principle.5). In these cases therefore. Therefore.

but they can be roughly divided into permeable and impermeable types. [Commentary] Upright wave-absorbing caissons having slits in the front wall and internal water retaining chambers with wave dissipating function are now being used for constructing quays and breakwaters. The general design method for these upright wave-absorbing caissons has not been fully established. hydraulic model experiments suited to the conditions should be performed.1 Names of Vertical Slit Caisson Members 4.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS Chapter 4 Upright Wave-Absorbing Caissons 4.C) .1 General The provisions in this chapter shall be applied to the design of upright wave-absorbing caissons used for quaywalls.1. T. T. there are the horizontal slit and perforated wall types.4. the characteristics of various structures should be fully surveyed.1 General [Technical Notes] (1).B) Base plate Water chamber Partition Plan view (A . Various shapes and types of construction are now available for wave-absorbing caissons. breakwaters. Upper beam Ceiling slab Front wall Back wall Upper beam Side wall slit column Ordinary caisson part Slit column Partition slit column Lower beam Lower wall Lower wall Base plate Side wall Partition Slit column Lower beam Lower wall Bottom slab Sectios (B .1.11. The limit state design method shall be used. and revetments. and then appropriate design should be carried out. In addition. the vertical slit type is the most widely used.A) Fig. (1) Earth pressure (2) Earth pressure of filling (3) Residual water pressure (4) Wave force (5) Uplift pressure -267- Ordinary caisson part Side wall slit column Slit column Slit column Partition slit column Sidewall Front view (C . (2) The names of members of the relatively common vertical slit caisson are shown in Fig. As to the slit shape. In designing the structural members.4. [Technical Notes] (1) Upright wave-absorbing caissons can be designed in the sequence given in 1.2 External Forces Acting on Members The following external forces acting on the members of wave-absorbing caissons shall be taken into consideration for each limit state as necessary.

the wave surface collides directly with the ceiling slab. 3). an impulsive pressure may be generated by the compression of the air trapped woth the top at the instant when the front of incoming wave shuts off the slits or perforations. uplift pressure. and external forces during execution. Normally.1 lists the external forces taken into account when designing the members of the water chamber of wave-absorbing caisson. (2) Part Ⅱ .2.5% to 1.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (6) Collision force from drifting objects (7) Weight of caisson and filling (8) Weight of superstructure (9) Surcharge (10) Reaction from fender (11) Bottom reaction (12) Loads during execution Of these.2. depending on the structure of the water chamber and whether or not it has a ceiling slab 1). [Commentary] Wave forces acting on the members of slit caissons vary significantly. The opening ratio of these holes should be carefully designed.4.0%. Symbol Ventilation opening ratio Uplift pressure when 1 = 0 Uplift pressure corresponding to 1 1 Fig.2. and this could produce a greater impulsive uplift pressure than that of no ventilation 2). reaction from fender.4. T. 5.4. (4) Figure T. [Technical Notes] (1) Load combinations and load factors are the same as described in 1.4. If too great.2. Provision of ventilation holes with a suitable opening ratio in the ceiling slab can reduce impulsive pressure due to air compression.2 3) shows an example of changes in the uplift pressure intensity pe1 when the opening ratio of ventilation holes ε 1 is changed in a model experiment. Therefore.8 Wave Force on Upright Wave-Absorbing Caisson should be referred to for external forces acting on structural members. wave force.2 Experimental Results on Changes in Uplift Pressure due to Opening Ratio of Ventilation Holes (5) Table T.1 Combination of Loads and Load Factors. the air pressure acting on the ceiling slab can be reduced by 30% to 50% compared with that on an unventilated slab by providing ventilation holes with the opening ratio of around 0. -268- . as well as referring to past cases of implementation. appropriate hydraulic model experiments are recommended in accordance with the individual conditions prior to design. seismic effects may be ignored when calculating the earth pressure of filling. (3) If the top of the water chamber is completely sealed by the ceiling slab.

bottom slab weight. Rept of PHRI.3 Design of Members [Technical Notes] (1) The span used in calculations is the distance between the centers of support members. (2) The covering of main reinforcements should not be less than the following values in principle: Parts washed by seawater: 7 cm Other parts: 5 cm [References] 1) Shigeo TAKAHASHI. Hitoshi SASAKI: “Experimental study on wave forces acting on perforated wall caisson breakwaters”. Wave pressure (upwards. 1980. Tsutomu MURANAGA: “Uplift forces on a ceiling slab of wave dissipating caisson with a permeable front wall .4. Vol. pp. Rept of PHRI. 23.1 External Forces for Design of Members of Water Chamber of Wave-absorbing Caisson Member Member number Design load Water pressure while afloat Wave pressure (parallel/perpendicular to centerline) Impact force from driftwood and other drifting objects Axial force transmitted from upper beam Wave pressure (including wave force transmitted from partition wall) Water pressure while afloat (including wave force transmitted from sidewalls) Wave pressure ( ditto ) Vertical loads from above and below Water pressure while afloat (reaction transmitted from slit column) Wave pressure (wave force acting on the beam itself and slit column reaction) Water pressure while afloat (reaction from slit column and lower wall. load acting on the beam itself) Wave pressure (ditto) Water pressure while afloat Wave pressure Water pressure while afloat Wave pressure Design wave pressure acts on both sides separately in the direction parallel to centerline Fender reaction Wave pressure Earth pressure. No. downwards) Surcharge Deadweight Slit column Partition slit column Sidewall slit column ① ② ③ Front wall Upper beam ④ Lower beam Lower wall Sidewall Partition Rear wall Bottom slab ⑤ ⑥ ⑦ ⑧ ⑨ ⑩ Ceiling slab ⑪ Note: Member numbers are those shown in Fig. No. Ken-ichirou SHIMOSAKO. Rept of PHRI. Vol.19.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS Table T. 1991 (in Japanese). 4. 1.1. T.Field data analysis -”. Katsutoshi TANIMOTO: “Uplift forces on a ceiling slab of wave dissipating caisson with a permeable front wall . 1984 (in Japanese). residual water pressure Bottom reaction. 3-31 (in Japanese). 30.1 4..2.4.Analytical model for compression of an enclosed air layer -”. 3) Katsutoshi TANIMOTO. No. Vol. water head difference. 2) Sigeo TAKAHASHI. and water pressure while afloat in various cases of loads. -269- . Shigeo TAKAHASHI. 2.

Hybrid caissons.2 Determination of Dimensions. quays.5.2 Example of a Hybrid Caisson Structure 5.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 5 Hybrid Caissons 5.5.1 General The provisions in this chapter shall be applied to the design of a hybrid caisson that is a composite structure of steel plates and concrete.2 shows an example of a hybrid caisson structure. the member sections consist of a combination of different materials to achieve the functions of the structure. caissons with a composite structural type of steel plates and concrete are defined as hybrid caissons.5. C. By combining several different materials.2 Determination of Dimensions Dimensions of hybrid caissons shall be determined in accordance with 1. Partition (steel stiffened plate) Steel Steel plate Studs reinforcement Side wall (composite slab) Footing (SRC slab) Concrete Base plate (SRC slab) Base steel frame Fig.1 Hybrid Structure Members [Technical Notes] (1) The “Hybrid Caisson Design Manual” 1) and others may be used as reference for the design of hybrid caissons. like conventional steel reinforced concrete caissons. -270- . One is a composite member structure with steel plates arranged on one side only.1. The limit state design method shall be used. The other is an SRC structure with H-shaped steel embedded inside it. composite structures achieve superior structural strength properties that are not possible using a single material alone.1.1. (2) Figure T. Figure C.5.1 shows two types of structure members of hybrid caissons commonly used in the port and harbor structures. are used in breakwaters. In this chapter the term “hybrid caisson” is used as general term for caissons using these two structural types. and coastal revetments. [Commentary] In this chapter. Concrete Concrete Shear connectors (example of headed studs) Steel reinforcement Steel plate Steel reinforcements Steel frame Fig. In “composite structures”.1. T.

5 Design of Corners and Joints Corners and joints shall be designed to smoothly and firmly transmit section forces. 5. [Technical Notes] (1) SRC members can normally be classified as follows.4 Design of Partitions Partitions of hybrid caissons shall be designed to be sufficiently safe against external forces acting on them and to function as supporting members for sidewalls and base plates.4.PART IV PRECAST CONCRETE UNITS 5. -271- . The required quantity and arrangement of shear connectors should be designed in consideration of preventing the steel plate separating from the concrete (especially when compressive stress is active) and securing the transmission of horizontal shear force occurring on the interface between steel plate and concrete. When the fixing of steel frame ends with concrete is insufficient in full-web type.3 Design of SRC Members The steel and reinforced concrete (SRC) members shall be designed against the bending moment and shearing force. (3) For shearing force. by taking full account of the structural characteristics due to differences in the structural type of the steel frame. In composite slabs. if the web is of truss type.4 Design of Members 5. headed studs and shape steel are most commonly used as the shear connectors. steel frames themselves can resist against the shearing force. depending on the structural type of steel frames: (a) Full-web type (b) Truss web type (2) For the bending moment. 5.4. the section stress can be calculated as a reinforced concrete member by converting steel frames to equivalent reinforcements. it should be calculated as a composite of the independent steel frame member and the reinforced concrete member. the section stress of composite slabs can be calculated as a double reinforced concrete member by converting the steel plates to equivalent reinforcements. (3) Integration of Steel and Concrete Shear connectors are particularly important structural elements for the integration of materials in a hybrid structure.4. the shear stress can be calculated as a reinforced concrete by converting steel frames to equivalent reinforcements.2 Design of Composite Slabs Composite slabs shall be designed in consideration of the following: (1) Bending moment (2) Shearing force (3) Integration of steel and concrete [Technical Notes] (1) Bending Moment For the bending moment.4.3 Design External Forces Design external forces shall be the same as described in 1.5 Design of Members. 5. 5.4. (2) Shearing Force The shearing force of composite slabs can be analyzed in the same manner as that of reinforced concrete slabs.4 Design External Forces. If it is of full-web type. and to be easily fabricated and executed. and they can be duly considered in design.1 Section Force The section force to be examined in the design of members shall be the same as described in 1. 5.

4. and attaching shear connectors and shear resistance steel. however. No. If steel plates are in direct contact with seawater. 5. 1993 (in Japanese). the fatigue strength in welded parts should be examined. Thus. [Technical Notes] Hybrid caissons use a large number of welded joints for connecting steel plates. the safety of the hybrid caisson against fatigue strength should be examined. [Technical Notes] Steel materials used on the outside of hybrid caissons are generally covered with concrete or asphalt mats. [References] 1) Coastal Development Institute of Technology (CDIT): “Design Manual for Hybrid Caissons”. Therefore. It is also desirable to provide shear reinforced steel materials (haunches) against concrete tensile stress of the inside of joints. For corrosion control. it is usual to set steel plate on the inside and concrete on the outside so to avoid direct contact of steel plate to fresh seawater.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Technical Notes] To secure sufficient strength at corners and joints.6 Safety against Fatigue Failure Hybrid caissons shall be sufficiently safe against fatigue failure.750. where the members are frequently subject to repeated load. it is desirable to firmly connect the steel materials on the tensile side to those of the compressive side.5 Corrosion Control Corrosion control in hybrid caissons shall be employed as appropriate in consideration of their structures and the design and execution conditions. corrosion control should be applied such as coating methods to splash zone or tidal zone and cathodic protection methods in seawater. The inside is isolated from the external atmosphere by means of concrete lids. Note of PHRI. When designing breakwaters. Tech. It is also in contact with filling sand in a static state and with residual seawater. 2) Hiroshi YOKOTA: “Study on mechanical properties of steel-concrete composite structures and their applicability to marine structures”. -272- . the influence from such repeated load is small. direct contact between the steel plates of members and the marine environment is generally avoided. 1999. 5. For coastal revetments and quaywalls. when designing hybrid caissons. ISBN-4-900302-44 (in Japanese).

Part V Foundations .

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(3) When the bearing capacity of foundation ground is not large enough for supporting the structures. the stability and the settlement of foundation shall be carefully examined. see Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Pile Foundations. Chapter 3 Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundations. liquefaction due to an earthquake can make the structure collapse or significantly damage its functions. excessive settlement or deformation may arise owing to the lack of the bearing capacity. For the design of pile foundations. the effect of liquefaction due to an earthquake shall be also studied. countermeasures such as pile foundation and soil improvement shall be applied as necessary.PART V FOUNDATIONS Part V Foundations Chapter 1 General (1) In the design of ports and harbor facilities. see Chapter 2 Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations. see Part II. (2) For stability of foundations. In such cases. When the foundation ground consists of loose sandy soil. see Chapter 5 Settlement of Foundations. Chapter 13 Liquefaction. see Chapter 7 Soil Improvement Methods -273- . or Chapter 6 Stability of Slopes. appropriate types of foundations shall be selected by taking account of the importance of structures and soil conditions of the ground. For settlement of foundations. (2) When the foundation ground consists of soft clayey soil. [Commentary] (1) When structures are constructed on the soft foundation ground. (3) For soil improvement methods. the weight of the structures should be reduced or the foundation ground should be improved. When the foundation ground consists of loose sandy soil. For liquefaction due to an earthquake.

The allowable bearing capacity of a foundation is calculated by dividing the ultimate bearing capacity by a safety factor. The intensity of load required for this shear failure is called the ultimate bearing capacity. the bearing capacity of a foundation is the sum of bottom bearing capacity and side resistance. long side length -274- . Clause 2 ) The following equation shall be used to calculate the allowable bearing capacity of foundation on sandy ground.2. [Technical Notes] (1) The shape factor β is given in Table T-2.1 Shape Factors Shape of foundations β Continuous 0.1 for several shapes of foundations.5 ~ 0.1) Fs where qa： Fs： b： g1： B： Nr . Clause 1 ) When the embedded length of a foundation is less than the smallest width of the foundation. In comparison with studies on the bottom bearing capacity of foundations.2.5 Bearing Capacity for Eccentric and Inclined Loads.5 Square 0. L.2. settlement suddenly increases and shear failure of the ground occurs. Bottom bearing capacity is evaluated with the intensity of the pressure to make the foundation bottom pushed into the ground and to cause plastic flow of soil. there are not many on the side resistance. (2) When an eccentric or inclined load acts on a foundation. The bearing capacity factors Nr and Nq are determined by the internal friction angle fd as shown in Fig. If the embedded length of a shallow foundation is less than the smallest width of the foundation.4 Circular 0.1B/L B . 2. T-2. see 2. the safety factor shall be given an appropriate value after due consideration of the characteristics of the structure.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 2 Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations 2. When the load becomes sufficiently great and reaches a certain value. Nq： g 2： D： allowable bearing capacity of foundation considering the buoyancy of underwater part (kN/m2) safety factor for the bearing capacity of sandy ground shape factor of foundation unit weight of soil below the level of foundation bottom (or submerged unit weight if submerged) (kN/m3) smallest width of foundation (m) bearing capacity factors unit weight of soil above the level of foundation bottom (or submerged unit weight if submerged) (kN/m3) embedded length of foundation (m) [Commentary] When loads on foundations increase.1. 1 .3 Rectangular 0.1 General (Notification Article 41. The side resistance of a foundation is the friction or the adhesion resistance between the sides of the foundation and the soil.2 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Sandy Ground (Notification Article 41.( bg 1 BN r + g 2 DN q ) + g 2 D q a = ---(2.2. short side length. [Commentary] (1) Generally. the side resistance is much smaller than the bottom bearing capacity and may be ignored in the design. In this case. the foundation shall be analyzed in principle as a shallow foundation.2. Table T. settlement of foundations occurs in proportion to the loads.

it shall be standard to calculate the allowable bearing capacity of a foundation on clayey ground with equation (2.3 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Clayey Ground (Notification Article 41.3.3. Clause 3) When the undrained shear strength of clayey ground increases in proportion to the depth of subsoil. the safety factor should not be less than 2. T. 2.1 Relationship between Bearing Capacity Factors Nr and Nq and Internal Friction Angle φd (2) Allowable Bearing Capacity on Sandy Ground When equation (2.2.1) q a = N c 0 æ 1 + n -è Lø F s 2 where qa： Nc0： n： B： L： c0： F s： g 2： allowable bearing capacity of foundation considering the buoyancy of underwater part (kN/m2) bearing capacity factor for foundation shape factor of foundation smallest width of foundation (m) length of foundation (m) undrained shear strength of cohesive soil at the foundation bottom (kN/m2) safety factor for the bearing capacity of clayey ground unit weight of soil above the level of foundation bottom (submerged unit weight if submerged) (kN/m3) D： embedded length of the foundation (m) [Commentary] As the undrained shear strength of clayey ground in coastal areas usually increases linearly with depth.5 as a general rule. -275- .2.1). Bö c 0 .PART V FOUNDATIONS Bearing capacity factor Internal friction angle Fig. the bearing capacity of foundation should be calculated by the equation that takes account of the effect of shear strength increase.1) is used to calculate the allowable bearing capacity of foundation on sandy ground. An appropriate value of safety factor shall be selected in consideration of the characteristics of the structure.----+ g D (2.2.

where k is the undrained shear strength increment per unit depth. The safety factor should not be less than1.4. with the condition that the overburden pressure above the level of foundation bottom is taken as surcharge load as shown in Fig.1 Circular Arc Analysis to Calculate the Bearing Capacity of Multilayered Ground -276- . The bearing capacity against this kind of squeezed-out failure can be calculated by the following equation 1): * Fig.14 c 0 ) + g 2 D (2. the safety factor of the bearing capacity needs to be 2.5 in such cases as crane foundations. an appropriate value of safety factor shall be used for the design in consideration of the characteristics of the ground and structure. Clause4) When a foundation ground consists of multiple soil layers. The safety factor of bearing bearing capacity should not be less than1. Load intensity 0 0 0 Fig. in which the clayey layer is squeezed out between the surcharge plane and the bottom of clayey layer. The safety factor should be increased to 2.1). T.2. [Technical Notes] The bearing capacity of the ground consisting of multiple soil layers is generally calculated by the circular arc analysis. In this case.e.1. on the basis of the data of bearing capacity factors shown in Fig.3.2) can be used to calculate the allowable bearing capacity of clayey ground within a range of kB/c0 ≦ 4 in the case of continuous foundations. T.3.018 kB + 5. the bearing capacity shall be examined by the circular arc analysis. 2.3.2) (kB/c0 ≦ 4) q a = -F where the symbols are the same as those in equation (2. where excessive settlement could significantly damage the functions of the superstructures. If the clayey layer thickness H is significantly less than the smallest width of the foundation B (i. T.5 as a general rule. is liable to occur.2. a punching shear failure. H < 0. When a slightest settlement or deformation of ground significantly impairs the functions of superstructures such as bridge cranes.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Technical Notes] (1) Safety Factor for Bearing Capacity of Clayey Ground Whose Strength Increases with Depth. 1 .2.4.4 Bearing Capacity of Multilayered Ground (Notification Article 41.5 as a general rule.1 Bearing Capacity Factor Nco and Shape Factor n of Clayey Ground Having Strength Increase with Depth (2) Practical Equation for Calculating Allowable Bearing Capacity Equation (2. T2.5B).1. The safety factor for the circular arc passing through the bottom edge of the foundation is calculated with the circular arc analysis of the modified Fellenius method.3.( 1.5 or greater.3..

Therefore.0 + 0. this method is applied under the condition that eccentric and inclined loads act. The eccentric and inclined loads mean that the load inclination ratio is equal to or greater than 0. As shown in Fig. In this case.4. the vertical load acting on the rubble mound is converted into a uniformly distributed load acting on the width 2b¢ as specified in Fig. This has been proved by a series of researches including laboratory model experiments. The circular arc analysis based on the simplified Bishop method shall be used in this case.PART V FOUNDATIONS cu B . seismic force is assumed not to act on the rubble mound and the ground. earth pressure.1 (b) and (c). and case studies on existing breakwaters and quaywalls 2).1) F s = ----------------------------------------------1 + ( tan a tan f ) ¤ F s 1ö æ .5. Therefore. and wave force. T.5. except when a vertical load acts on horizontally layered sandy ground.2.2. seismic force. Clause 5) The circular arc analysis is used as a standard method when examining the bearing capacity for eccentric and inclined loads acting on a foundation of gravity type structures.5 Bearing Capacity for Eccentric and Inclined Loads (Notification Article 41.1. When calculating the bearing capacity during an earthquake.1) qa = (4. 1 ( cb + W ¢ tan f ) sec a . or apparent cohesion under drained condition in sandy ground (kN/m2) b： width of a slice element W¢： effective weight of a slice element per unit length (sum of soil weight and surcharge) (the submerged unit weight when submerged) (kN/m) f： internal friction angle under drained condition for sandy ground (º).S --------------------------------------------(2.1 (a). the start point of the slip surface is set symmetrical about the acting point of resultant load to one of the foundation edges that is closer to the load acting point. It is known that the circular arc calculation based on the simplified Bishop method can well evaluate the bearing capacity of this type of foundation. the value is 0º for clayey ground [Commentary] Gravity type quaywalls and breakwaters are subject to external forces such as the deadweight.+g2D (2. for calculating the bearing capacity of foundations. -277- .) ---. The strength constants of the ground as well as action formats of external forces and loads shall be determined as appropriate in view of the structural characteristics of facilities. T.5 --H F where qa： allowable bearing capacity of foundation considering the buoyancy of the underwater part (kN/m2) B： smallest width of foundation (m) H： thickness of clay layer (m) cu： mean undrained shear strength in layer of thickness H (kN/m2) g 2： unit weight of soil above the level of foundation bottom (or submerged unit weight if submerged) (kN/m3) F： safety factor D： embedded length of foundation (m) 2.5. in situ prototype experiments. the effects of eccentric and inclined loads should also be taken into consideration. The combined result of these forces usually yields an eccentric and inclined load. [Technical Notes] (1) Analysis of Bearing Capacity by Circular Arc Calculation Based on the Simplified Bishop Method Analysis through circular arc calculation based on Bishop method is more precise than the analysis based on the modified Fellenius method. The horizontal force is assumed to act at the bottom of structure. The safety factor calculated by the following equation shall have an appropriate value in view of the characteristics of the structure. Normal gravity type structures are supported with a two-layered system such that a rubble mound layer is set on the foundation ground.S Ha S W sin a + è -Rø where Fs： safety factor against circular failure according to the simplified Bishop method W： total weight of slice element per unit length (kN/m) a： angle at which the bottom of a slice element intersects the horizontal plane (º) R： radius of circular arc slip circle (m) H： horizontal external force acting on soil inside the circular slip surface (kN/m) a： arm length from the center of circular slip surface to the acting position of horizontal external force H (m) c： undrained shear strength in clayey ground. Thus the method of calculating the bearing capacity should fully reflect the characteristics of two-layer system.

2 shows the result of triaxial compression tests on various types of crushed stones and rubbles 2). applying the strength parameters obtained by triaxial compression tests 2). Large-scale triaxial compression test results of crushed stone have confirmed that the strength parameters of large diameter particles are approximately equal to those @0 obtained from similar gradation materials with the same coefficient of uniformity 3). fd0 decreases due to particle crushing. See [Technical Note] (2) in 6.0 or greater When subgrade reaction has a trapezoidal distribution When subgrade reaction has a triangular distribution Combined force of load Rubble mound Subsoil Fig. taking account of changes of the internal friction angle fd of crushed stones due to the confining pressure.1 Table T. It should be noted that the strength parameter for cohesion cd = 20 kN/m2 is the apparent cohesion.5. the dependency of fd0 on the confining pressure @ -278- .2. T. triaxial compression tests using samples with similar gradation should be conducted in order to estimate the strength parameters of rubbles accurately.5.1 Stability Analysis Using Circular Slip Surface Method. Figure T.2. as in the other cases of circular arc analyses. If strength tests are not conducted. the values of apparant cohesion cd = 20 kN/m2 and internal friction angle fd = 35º are applied as the standard strength parameters for rubbles generally used in port construction Lateral pressure (kN/m2) works.2.5. T. Here.2 Relationship between fd0 and Lateral on the safe side consideration based on the results of Confining Pressure s3 large-scale triaxial compression tests of crushed stones and the bearing capacity analysis of existing breakwaters and quaywalls.5.5.2. The above standard values have been obtained Fig. The continuous solid line in the figure represents the value under the assumption that the apparent cohesion is cd = 20 kN/m2 and the internal friction angle is fd = 35º.1 Analysis of Bearing Capacity for Eccentric and Inclined Loads (3) Strength Parameters for Mound Materials and Foundation Ground (a) Mound materials Model and field experiments on bearing capacity Experimental values subject to eccentric and inclined loads have verified ? 20 that high precision results can be obtained by conducting circular arc analyses based on the simplified Bishop method. Therefore.2.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Safety Factor The safety factor is expressed as the ratio of the resisting moment due to shear resistance to the sliding moment due to external forces and soil weight. Standard values of the safety factor are listed in Table T.1 Safety Factors for Bearing Capacity for Eccentric and Inclined Loads (Simplified Bishop’s Circular Arc Method) Quaywalls Ordinary condition During an earthquake Under storm waves 1.0 or greater Breakwaters 1.2. It shows that as the confining pressure increases.2 or greater 1.

In these cases. 11. internal friction angles of around 40º have been obtained. Even the N-values are less than 10. Rept. Kenjirou NAKASHIMA. Rept.3 collates the results of triaxial compression tests on undisturbed sand in Japan (dotted points) and presents a comparative study of the formulas proposed in the past. 2. This is because no correction has been made regarding the effective surcharge pressure in situ. No. 1991 (in Japanese).3 Shear Properties. Masaki KOBAYASHI. No.3. pp. (b) Foundation ground Foundations subject to eccentric and inclined loads often cause shallow surface slip failure. the strength parameters will be around cd = 20 kN/m2 and fd = 30º 4). 22. No. If weak stones with a compressive strength of less than 30 MN/m2 are used as a part of the mound. 1983 (in Japanese). the values given below are applied as the standard values of fd in foundation ground. T.5. 699. the friction angle fd is usually estimated from the N-value. In many cases. Kunio TAKAHASHI. GIHOUDOU. Chapter 9 Bearing Capacity. 1985. 26. Range according to Meyerhof Triaxial test results φ = 20N + 15 according to Osaki N-value Fig. -279- . 2) Masaki KOBAYASHI. If the foundation ground is sandy. Hiraku ODANI: “A new method for calculating the bearing capacity of rubble mounds”. Sandy ground with N-value of less than 10: Sandy ground with N-value of 10 or more: fd = 40º fd = 45º If the ground consists of cohesive soil.3 Relationship between N-value and φd Obtained by Triaxial Tests on Undisturbed Sand Samples [References] 1) Hakujyu YAMAGUCHI: “Soil Merchanics (New Editon)”. of PHRI. Tech.4. Note of PHRI.5. Figure T. Vol. the strength may be determined by the method indicated in Part Ⅱ. according to the past studies.PART V FOUNDATIONS is well described by taking the apparent cohesion into account. of PHRI.2. 273-274 (in Japanese). 1987 (in Japanese). 4) Jun-ichi MIZUKAMI. “Strength characteristics of rubble by large scale triaxial compressin test”.2. The estimation formulas employed up to now have tended to underestimate fd in case of shallow sandy grounds. the bearing capacity for eccentric and inclined loads is problematic for design not under normal conditions but under dynamic external forces such as wave pressure and seismic force. 3) Yoshihiro SHOJI: “Study on shearing properties of rubble with large scale triaxial compression test”. it is important to evaluate the strength near the surface of foundation ground. Masaaki TERASHI. Based on the results of bearing capacity analysis of the structures damaged in the past. Vol. These standard values can be applied only to the stone material with an unconfined compressive strength in the parent rock of 30 MN/m2 or more.

2. Chapter 14 Earth Pressure and Water Pressure) g 2 : unit weight of soil above the level of foundation bottom (or submerged unit weight if submerged) (kN/ m3) D: embedded length of foundation (m) m: coefficient of friction between foundation sides and sandy soil.2.4) may be used to calculate the increment of allowable bearing capacity due to the cohesive resistance at foundation sides in clayey ground.1 + -(3. the allowable vertical bearing capacity of a deep foundations is calculated as the sum of the allowable bearing capacity due to the side resistance of foundation and the allowable bearing capacity of foundation bottom.2. 1 1 D . 3. the increment of allowable bearing capacity Dqa is obtained by dividing the total friction resistance by the bottom area of foundation and the safety factor. and ground conditions.2 Vertical Bearing Capacity The allowable vertical bearing capacity of a deep foundation shall be determined as appropriate in view of the structural type.2. 2.g zK a m dz = -(3.2) D q a = -.2) is used to calculate the increment of allowable bearing capacity due to the frictional resistance at foundation sides in sandy ground.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 3 Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundations 3. In such a case.K gDm . [Technical Notes] (1) Frictional Resistance at the Sides of Foundations in Sandy Ground Equation (3.2. as expressed by equation (3. depending on structural type and method of construction.2. (2) Cohesive Resistance of Foundation Sides in Clayey Ground Equation (3. However.2.K g m Fè Lø B a 2 where F: safety factor (the same value as used for qa1) Ka: coefficient of active earth pressure (d = 0º) (see Part Ⅱ.3) f = --2 a D ò0 The friction angle between the foundation sides and sandy soil should not be greater than the internal friction angle of soil f.2 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Sandy Ground.1). m = tan(2/3)f B: width of foundation (m) L: length of foundation (m) In equation (3. if the amount of structural deformation is to be examined.2). methods of construction. the surrounding ground may be disturbed during construction and the adequate amount of bearing capacity due to side resistance may not always be obtained. the bearing capacity of the deep foundation shall be calculated by an appropriate method in view of the characteristics of both the ground and the structure. -280- . [Commentary] (1) Allowable Vertical Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundations Generally. the deformation of deep foundation should be estimated by assuming the ground having characteristics of spring. the foundation shall be examined in principle as a deep foundation.1) qa = qa 1 + D qa where qa: allowable bearing capacity of deep foundation (kN/m2) qa1: allowable bearing capacity of foundation bottom (kN/m2) (see 2.3 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Clayey Ground) Dqa: increment of allowable bearing capacity due to resistance of foundation sides (kN/m2) (2) Side Resistance of Deep Foundations Caution is required concerning evaluation of the side resistance of deep foundations.1 General (Notification Article 42) When the embedded length of a foundation is larger than the smallest width of the foundation.-----. This is because.2.3) is generally used to calculate the mean side friction strength f corresponding to the embedded length D. The total friction resistance is calculated as the product of the mean side friction strength f multiplying with the embedded length D and the total contact surface area between the sandy soil and foundation sides. Equation (3. and it may be taken as (2/3)f for the case between concrete and sandy soil. 1æ Bö D 2 . (3.

1 Mean Adhesion Types of ground Soft cohesive soil Medium cohesive soil Hard cohesive soil Very hard cohesive soil Compacted cohesive soil qu 25 ~ 50 50 ~ 100 100 ~ 200 200 ~ 400 400 or greater (Units: kN/m2) ca * 6 ~ 12 12 ~ 25 25 ~ 30 30 or greater * : With soft cohesive soil. (3. [Technical Notes] (1) When a resultant force at a bottom of fandation acts inside the core (when the eccentricity of total resultant force acting at the bottom of foundation is within one-sixth of the foundation width from the central axis of the foundation) and the distributions of horizontal and vertical subgrade reaction are assumed as in Fig.2. T.1 When Resultant Force Is inside the Core A linear distribution has been assumed for vertical subgrade reaction.2.1. the distribution becomes trapezoidal as shown in Fig.3.3. T.4) In case of deep foundations in clayey ground. and the method of construction. This assumption is equivalent to the relationship between the displacement y and the subgrade reaction p of equation (3. the mean adhesion c a in equation (3. the soil above the groundwater level is subject to dry shrinkage in summer. Therefore.PART V FOUNDATIONS 2æ Bö D c .----è F Lø B a where c a : mean adhesion (mean value in embedded part below the ground water level) (kN/m2) Dc: embedded length of foundation below the groundwater level (m) (3.1 may be assumed as being a quadratic parabola with 0 at the ground surface.5 or greater for others. T.3.3.3. Therefore.2. This means that the soil is unsuitable to be regarded as effective contact surface. [Commentary] The lateral bearing capacity of a deep foundation is governed by the horizontal subgrade reaction of the foundation sides and the vertical subgrade reaction at the the bottom of foundation. the maximum horizontal subgrade reaction p1 and maximum vertical subgrade reaction q1 can be estimated by assigning an adequate value of safety factor against the passive earth pressure and the ultimate bearing capacity in their respective positions.1 + --c D q a = -. (3) Safety Factor The safety factor to be applied in using equations (3.4) refers to the mean value in the embedded part below the ground water level. See Table T. -281- .3. when a resultant force acting at the bottom of foundation is inside the core.3.1 for the practical values of mean adhesion in clayey soil.3.1) p = Kxy where p： subgrade reaction (kN/m2) K： rate of increase in coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction with depth (kN/m4) x： depth (m) y： horizontal displacement at depth x (m) N P h p M kW l W q q 2a Fig.2) and (3. 3.2.1) when the foundation rotates as a rigid body.4) should be 2.3. (2) Assumption on the Distribution of Subgrade Reaction The distribution of horizontal subgrade reaction shown in Fig. Table T.3.3.3 Lateral Bearing Capacity The lateral bearing capacity of a deep foundation shall be determined as appropriate in view of ground conditions. structural characteristics. side resistance should not be taken into account.2. T.3.5 or greater for important structures and 1.1.2.

8) 3 ( kW l + 4 M 0 4 N 0 e 4 We + 3 P 0 l ) 2 (3.5) and (3. respectively.3.3.7)) qa： vertical bearing capacity at bottom level (kN/m2) (see equation (3.6).3.3.3.9) h = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 ( kW l + 6 M 0 6 N 0 e 6 We + 4 P 0 l ) where h： depth at which horizontal subgrade reaction becomes maximum (m) (see Fig. h is obtained by equation (3.3.3.3) and (3. respectively.3.3.9).3.2) A b ( l 3 + 24 a K ¢ a 3 ) The maximum horizontal subgrade reaction p1 (kN/m2) and the maximum vertical subgrade reaction q1 (kN/m2) in this case are obtained by equations (3.2.3. h： depth at which horizontal subgrade reaction becomes maximum (m) (see equation (3.≧ -------------------------------------------------------------------(3. T. In this case.3.3. T.+ -------------------------------------------------------------------q 1 = --------------------A b ( l 3 + 24 a K ¢ a 3 ) When examining the lateral bearing capacity of deep foundations.3) p 1 = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 b l 3 ( l 3 + 24 a K ¢ a 3 ) ( kw 1 l 2 + 4 P 0 l + 6 M 0 ) N 0 + w 1 l 3 aK ¢ ( kw 1 l 2 + 4 P 0 l + 6 M 0 ) (3. -282Fig. K¢= K2 /K1 rate of increase in the coefficient of vertical subgrade reaction (kN/m4) rate of increase by depth in the confficient of horizontal subgrade reaction (kN/m4 ) (see equation (3.2) W： deadweight of foundation (kN) e： eccentric distance (m) The distance e is defined as shown in Fig. T.3. the values of p1 and q1 obtained by equations (3. N 0 + w 1 l 3 aK ¢ ( kw 1 l 2 + 4 P 0 l + 6 M 0 ) --------------------.4) must satisfy equations (3.1)) w1： deadweight of deep foundation per unit depth (kN/m) a： coefficient determined by bottom shape (a = 1.3.3. a triangular distribution of vertical subgrade reaction is assumed as shown in Fig. the value of e is calculated by equation (3.5) p 1 ≦ -F p q1 ≦ q a (3.1)) F： safety factor for horizontal bearing capacity kw 1 l 4 + 3 P 0 l 3 + 4 M 0 l 2 + 8 a K ¢ a 3 ( kw 1 l + P 0 ) h = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(3.2.2 1). It is because the tensile resistance cannot take place between the of foundation bottom and the ground. the maximum subgrade reaction p1 (kN/m2) in the frontal side is obtained from equation (3.3.3.3.2). 1 -p (3.7) 2 l ( kw 1 l 2 + 4 P 0 l + 6 M 0 ) · (4) When Resulant Force at the Bottom Is outside the Core When the resultant force acting at the base of foundation is not inside the core. In this case.3.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (3) When Resultant Force at the Bottom Is inside the Core The condition under which the resultant force at the bottom is inside the core is expressed as in equation (3. When the foundation bottom is rectangular with the length of 2a (m) and the width of 2b (m).3.3. 3 [ kw 1 l 4 + 3 P 0 l 3 + 4 M 0 l 2 + 8 a K ¢ a 3 ( kw 1 l + P 0 ) ] 2 (3.3. T.2 When Resultant Force Is Not inside the Core .4).3.3. Cahpter 14 Earth Pressure and pp： maximum passive earth pressure at the depth h (kN/m2) (see Part Ⅱ Water Pressure).4) .588 for circular shape) .3) and (3.5).8) should satisfy equation (3.3.6) where l： 2b： 2a： A： P 0： M 0： N 0： k： K¢： K 1： K 2： embedded length (m) maximum width (perpendicular to horizontal force) (m) maximum length (m) bottom area (m2) horizontal force acting on the structure above ground level (kN) moment due to P0 at ground level (kN m) vertical force acting at ground level (kN) horizontal seismic coefficient coefficient ratio. l ( kW l + 4 M 0 4 N 0 e 4 We + 3 P 0 l ) (3.10).8) p 1 = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 b l 2 ( kW l + 6 M 0 6 N 0 e 6 We + 4 P 0 l ) The value of p1 calculated by equation (3.3.0 for rectangular shape and a = 0.3.3.3.

11) 3 -D 2 b = -4 where D: diameter of circle (m) In this way. this substitution should be applied on the basis of the appropriate judgement.PART V FOUNDATIONS W + N0 (3. [Reference] 1) Kunio TAKAHASHI.3. However. 64748 -283- .3-34 (in Japanese). 16. by referring to reference 1). Masatoshi SAWAGUCHI: “Experimental study on the lateral resistance of a well” Rept.5 or greater for important structures and 1. Vol. (5) Safety Factor When applying the above caluculation methods.3. of PHRI.11).10) e = a ----------------4 bq a In the case of a circular foundation bottom. the calculation may be made by replacing it with a rectangular foundation bottom having length 2a and width 2b defined by equation (3. 4. the safety factor should generally be 1. the horizontal bearing capacity can be estimated at a safer side by approximately 10%. pp. No.1 for others. p -D 2 a = -3 (3.3. 1977.

The final result is the allowable axial bearing capacity of piles to be used in the design of pile foundations.1 lists the guideline for the minimum values of safety factors. and this greatly reduced the bearing capacity of piles. (2) Further examinations would be required if permanent deformation of the ground is expected to remain after an earthquake. 4. pile conditions. First. The safety factor should have the value that guarantees the safety of piles against ground failure. The safety factor against the ground yield phenomena will be 1. This is because the duration of earthquakes is comparatively short and the strength of soil against impact load increases generally. The values are based on the following principles: (a) The minimum value of 2.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN Chapter 4 Bearing Capacity of Pile Foundations 4. the factors (1) to (6) listed above are examined and the standard allowable axial bearing capacity should be lowered if necessary. many unknown matters remain. loading conditions.1.0.1. sensitive clay may lose its strength due to violent shaking. (3) Piles group means the group of piles in which the bearing capacity and deformation of each pile are reciprocally affected by others. test piles should be driven and the design should be confirmed through various studies.4.2 Standard Allowable Axial Bearing Capacity The standard allowable axial bearing capacity shall be calculated by dividing the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles by an appropriate value of safety factor. For example. When calculating the ultimate axial bearing load of single piles by loading tests and static bearing capacity formulas. and then it is divided by the safety factor to obtain the standard allowable axial bearing capacity. Regarding the dynamic properties of soil. the standard allowable axial bearing capacity should be the value obtained from the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles being divided by the safety factor. The pile length and construction method should be modified to reflect the test results. Clause 1) The allowable axial bearing capacity of piles shall be determined on the basis of the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles divided by the safety factor as the standard value. The safety factor shall be determined as appropriate in view of the characteristics of the structures and the ground.1. Furthermore it shall be appropriately determined by taking the following factors into consideration to the extent as necessary. (b) The minimum safety factor during an earthquake may be set lower than that under ordinary conditions. (1) Allowable compressive stress of pile material (2) Decrease of allowable stress at pile joints (3) Decrease of allowable stress due to slenderness ratio of piles (4) Effect of piles group (5) Negative skin friction of piles (6) Settlement of piles [Commentary] (1) The above provision presents a guideline for judging the axial bearing capacity of piles in pile foundations. the safety factor of friction piles during an earthquake should be given a greater value than that of bearing piles. [Commentary] The safety factor used when calculating the standard allowable axial bearing capacity from the ultimate axial bearing capacity takes account of deviations in ground conditions. (2) The bearing capacity of piles is greatly affected by the methods and execution of construction. Therefore. Next.5 against the phenomena of ultimate ground failure.1 General (Notification Article 43. Therefore.5 to 2. before the start of construction execution. Friction piles are easily affected by such phenomena. In the past cases of earthquake damage. etc.1 Allowable Axial Bearing Capacity of Piles 4.5 for the safety factor under ordinary conditions means that the safety factor is 2. it is known that liquefaction had occurred in loose sand strata. [Technical Notes] (1) Table T. -284- . the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles is determined. it may be doubtful if a high strength of soil during an earthquake can be employed for foundation design. Therefore.

settlement curve.settlement curve becomes vertical. larger values of the safety factor may have to be applied. Total settlement Load Fig. the yield load shall be confirmed and the ultimate load may be estimated from the yield load.PART V FOUNDATIONS (3) If the values of safety factor in Table T. 4. [Technical Notes] (1) Yield Load and Ultimate Load Relationship between the load and the total settlement by a static loading test is indicated schematically in Fig. The ultimate load is indicated by P2 at the point where the load . In such cases. provided that the judgement by experts in the field of geotechnical engineering supports it. the value shall be taken as the ultimate axial bearing capacity. Piles embedded in the sandlayer do not usually reach such the load.4. in loading tests. For the structures that are particularly important or are critical in terms of human life. An example is the case that detailed soil surveys and loading tests are conducted. [Commentary] Pile loading tests are a kind of full scale experiments that can obtain the ultimate bearing capacity directly.5 2.1. the load settlement curve suddenly turns downward and a small increase of load produces a large amount of settlement. and the pile behavior estimated on this basis is consistent with detailed observation results on actual structures of the same type in the vicinity. a lower value of safety factor is permissible. the loading conditions are different from the actual conditions in respect of the number of piles and the duration of the loading. In such cases. The yield load is indicated by P1 at the point A. estimation by static bearing capacity formulas is permissible. 4. This is the most rational method to estimate the allowable bearing capacity in the design.1. Table T. loading tests should be conducted at an early stage of construction and the appropriateness of the allowable bearing capacity adopted in the design should be confirmed.0 4.settlement curve. the ultimate load may be taken as P3 at the point B.4. ordinary port and harbor structures under ordinary design conditions should be safe. [Commentary] Estimating methods of the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles are as follows: (1) Estimation by loading tests (2) Estimation by static bearing capacity formulas (3) Estimation by existing data It is desirable to estimate the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles by conducting axial loading tests in situ. Here.1 Guidelines for Minimum Values of Safety Factor Ordinary condition During an earthquake Bearing piles Friction piles 2. On the other hand.4 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Loading Tests When the ultimate load can be confirmed by the load . Even when estimating the ultimate axial bearing capacity by the methods other than loading tests and deciding the allowable bearing capacity on this basis. However.1.4.1. however.3 Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity of Single Piles It is desirable to obtain the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles by conducting loading tests in situ.5 1.1 Yield Load and Ultimate Load -285- .1.1.1. Sometimes it may be difficult to conduct loading tests prior to design. If it is difficult to conduct the loading tests. the ultimate axial bearing capacity of single piles may be estimated by static bearing capacity formulas. In such cases. When the ultimate load cannot be confirmed from the load . where the initial gentle inclination becomes clearly steeper and the curve shows the maximum curvature. T.1 are applied. it may be possible to apply the value of safety factor lower than the minimum values on the basis of adequate research and prudent judgement. due to limit of construction period and/or economical constraint.

1. This judgement is based on the results of research by Yamakata and Nagai on steel pipe piles and statistical studies by Kitajima et al.1. due attention should be paid to the ground characteristics and the pile conditions. The adhesion value may be calculated as follows: : c £ 100 kN ¤ m 2 ca = c 678 -286- .2) (4.5 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Static Bearing Capacity Formulas When estimating the ultimate axial bearing capacity by static bearing capacity formulas. In such cases the ultimate load is calculated as 1.1. it remains to be confirmed whether the first term in the right-hand side of equation (4. construction methods. (b) The vibratory pile driving method (vibrohammer method) is increasingly being used for driving piles because of the capacity increase of pile-driving machinery in recent years. the ground should be compacted by the method of hammer pile driving instead of vibratory pile driving in the course of final driving. ② Equation (4. When using this method.2 times the yield load obtained from loading tests. or vertical loading tests should be conducted to confirm the characteristics of bearing capacity of the ground in question.1.1. 1) When yielding does not occur during loading tests. R u = 300 NA p + 2 NAs where Ru： ultimate bearing capacity of pile (kN) Ap： toe area of pile (m2) As： total circumferential area of pile (m2) N： N-value of the ground around pile toe N： mean N-value for total penetration length of pile The N-value is calculated by equation (4. and the application limitation of formulas.1. the bearing capacity should be carefully estimated. 4.1.1. and the value of obtainable adhesion should be examined. attention shall be paid to the ground and pile conditions.1. Furthermore.3) (4. (a) Pile driven by hammer ① Equation (4. [Technical Notes] (1) When using bearing capacity formulas.3) may be used when estimating the ultimate bearing capacity of piles driven into clayey ground by hammer.4) c a = 100 kN ¤ m 2 : c > 100 kN ¤ m 2 Here.2 times the maximum test load.1) can be applied directly to this kind of hard ground.1) Caution is required here for estimating the ultimate bearing capacity of piles supported by the ground with an N-value of 50 or more.1) may be used when estimating the ultimate bearing capacity of the piles driven into sandy ground by hammer. This is because there are theoretical problems2) in calculating pile adhesion from the ground cohesion c or the unconfined compressive strength. As the principles of this method differ from those of pile driving by hammer. In either case. R u = 8 c p A p + ca A s where cp： ca： cohesion at pile toe (kN/m2) mean adhesion for total embedded length of pile (kN/m2) (4. particular attention should be paid to differences in the construction methods. it is necessary to have a reasonable assurance that the actual ultimate load will be larger than the ultimate load estimated in this way.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Ultimate Load It is not always possible to confirm the ultimate load by loading tests due to the constraint of capacity of test equipment.2) N 1 + N2 N = -----------------2 where N1： N-value at the toe of pile N2： mean N-value in the range from the toe of pile to the level 4B above B： diameter or width of pile (m) (4. the ultimate load is taken as 1. since the N-values larger than 50 may not be reliable.

until the internal friction between the soil and the surface of steel pile becomes equal to the end resistance of pile. T.1). The Steel Pipe Pile Association collated measured examples of the closed area ratio.5) may alternatively be used. This is based on the following principle. Here.1. For piles with a larger diameter or width. the end bearing area of steel piles can be considered closed. Fig. the use of pile installation method not involving pile driving by hammer has been increasing in port and harbor construction projects. T. In any event. In recent years.1. This balance prevents soil from entering and has the same effect as the case when the open end section is closed. (4. the value of qu should not exceed 2´10 4 kN/m2.1.3 Plug Effect of Open-ended Pile -287- . The closed area ratio varies greatly depending on the properties of the ground and the method of pile installation. properties of the ground.4.2. as shown in Fig. steel pipe piles of 1. If unconfined compressive strength qu (kN/m2) has been measured by undisturbed samples. Soil enters the interior of steel pipes or the space between the flanges of H-shaped steel during the pile driving. the outer edge alone of the closed area is taken as the perimeter. It is thus difficult to obtain the ratio by theoretical calculation.1. however.1. However.1. equation (4.2 End Bearing Area of Steel Piles (3) Closed Area Ratio The closed area ratio is not determined simply by the diameter or the width of piles. the value of qu should be reduced to 1/2 or 1/3 of the measurement depending on the progress of cracking in natural ground. The state of plugging of actual piles depends on the penetration depth and associated ground stress.100 mm diameter or more have been commonly used. Ratio of pile end load in loading tests to 300·N·Ap Outer diameter 700 mm or more Outer diameter 650 mm or less Ratio of embedded length to bearing stratum to inner diameter of pile Fig.4.1.3.5) Ru = 5 qu Ap Further. or the soil classification of the bearing stratum. (4) Bearing Capacity of Soft Rock When piles are supported on soft rock or hard clay. In such cases. (2) Even if there is no shoe on the pile toe. It also depends on the penetration length of piles. an example is pile installation by inner excavation.4. any data for the closed area ratio of these pipes have not been reported and therefore the closed area ratio for the pipe piles mentioned above are unknown.1. Past data suggest the closed area ratio of 100% when the diameter of steel pipe piles is less than 60 cm or the short side of H-shaped steel piles is less than 40 cm. In such cases the closed area ratio should be examined. But complete closure cannot be expected in the case of large-diameter piles. This means that the ratio cannot be judged only by the diameter of steel pipes or the embedded length ratio to the bearing stratum. Since the closed area ratio is affected by the installation and ground conditions in actual sites. and the method of installation. the closed area ratio ranges from 30% to 140%. as shown by the shaded areas in Fig. there have been several theoretical calculation methods and laboratory experiment results. According to this figure. T.1) indicates the end bearing capacity in the case of complete plugging. T. piles with a diameter of 1117. the characteristics of the bearing capacity of piles in question should be confirmed by vertical loading tests. it should first be ascertained through loading tests.6 mm or less are shown and the closed area ratio is estimated by assuming that the first term of equation (4.4.PART V FOUNDATIONS (c) In recent years. the bearing capacity may be calculated by equation (4. In this case.

1 General.> 120 .1. it may not be necessary to decrease the axial allowable bearing capacity due to existence of joints. the splicing work shall be executed under appropriate supervision and reliability of joints of spliced pile shall be confirmed by appropriate inspection. which is mentioned in 4. (2) If joints are sufficiently reliable. 4. 60 : -ï 2d d î where a： rate of reduction (%) l： pile length (m) d： pile diameter (m) (4. [Technical Notes] (1) When spliced piles are used. (2) When decreasing the bearing capacity due to the slenderness of piles.3 Joints.7) 4. the allowable axial bearing capacity of piles shall be decreased in consideration of the accuracy of installation.9 Bearing Capacity of Pile Group When a group of piles are examined as a pile group.£ 120 : -ï d a = í l l ï ----. If loading tests are conducted on foundation piles. Therefore.8 Decrease of Bearing Capacity Due to Slenderness Ratio For piles with a very large ratio of length to diameter. When such highly reliable jointing methods are applied under appropriate supervision and the reliability of the joints has been confirmed by inspection.6 Examination of Compressive Stress of Pile Materials (Notification Article 43. the joints are the weak points of the piles. the ultimate bearing capacity can be determined. (2) On-site circular welding by semi-automatic methods is generally employed for the splicing of steel pipe piles used in the field of port and harbor construction works.1.5.7 Decrease of Bearing Capacity Due to Joints (1) If it is necessary to splice piles.1. -288- .1. it is not necessary to decrease the allowable axial bearing capacity.£ 60 d l -. in this case the decrease due to the slenderness ratio may not necessarily be taken into account. including the necessity of decrease of bearing capacity due to installation accuracy. [Technical Notes] (1) This provision takes account of the fact that the inclination of piles during installation reduces their bearing capacity.1. the following values may be used as references: (a) For non-steel piles ì ï ï a = í ï ï î 0 : l -.> 60 d (4. Clause 2) The allowable axial bearing capacity of piles shall not exceed the value obtained by multiplying the effective section area of piles by the allowable compressive stress of pile materials.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4. (3) Provisions for the joints can be found in 4. 4. 60 : d l -. unless the safety of bearing capacity confirmed by loading tests. deep foundation formed with the envelope surface surrounding the outermost piles in the group of piles.1.1. the allowable axial bearing capacity should be decreased in consideration of the effect of the joints against the overall bearing capacity of the pile foundation. the bearing capacity of pile group may be studied as a single. Therefore.6) (b) For steel piles ì l ï 0 .

1.1. 2. T.+ cUL g 2 A gL ý R a = -----è ø B nF í 1 î þ where B： short side length of pile group block (m) B1： long side length of pile group block (m) (4.8). ü Bö 1 ì . C.9) R a = í -g ý -F î þn where Ra： allowable bearing capacity per pile against failure as a block (kN) g2'： mean unit weight of the whole block including piles and soil (kN/m3) (mean unit weight is calculated using submerged unit weight below the groundwater level (taking account of buoyancy) and using the wet unit weight above ground water level.1.10).2 Standard Allowable Axial Bearing Capacity) In the case of cohesive soil.2 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Sandy Ground. ì1 ¢ A L ) ü1 .3 ----.1. The ultimate bearing capacity of pile group in this case is expressed by equation (4. This is because it varies depending on the properties of the ground and the arrangement of piles.9).) n： number of piles in pile group F： safety factor (see 4.1.10) The allowable bearing capacity of each pile when used in a pile group is the smaller of the allowable bearing capacity of single piles or the allowable bearing capacity against block failure given by equation (4.4 Pile Group Foundation (a) Fig.10).1. where c is cohesion and g2' ≒ g2 (g2： mean unit weight of soil above the pile tip level).1. The upper limit of the interval between rows of piles to which the above assumptions apply cannot be uniformly defined. This is based on the principle that the soil and piles inside the shaded area in Fig.1 Negative Skin Friction -289- . equation (4.1.PART V FOUNDATIONS [Technical Notes] Terzaghi and Peck state that a failure of a pile group foundation does not mean the failure of individual piles but the failure as a single block 3).1.9) is replaced by equation (4.1.1.3 Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Clayey Ground) Ag： bottom area of pile group block (m2) U： perimeter of pile group block (m2) L： embedded length of piles (m) s： mean shear strength of soil contiguous with piles (kN/m2) The allowable bearing capacity per pile is expressed by equation (4. 4).1.1.4.7 cA g æ 1 + 0.4 work as a single unit when the intervals between the piles are small.( Rgu g2 (4. T4.8) R g u = q d A g + sUL where Rgu： bearing capacity of pile group as a single block (kN) qd： ultimate bearing capacity at the block bottom (kN/m2) (see 2.4.5. (4.9) or (4. Consolidation settlement Positive skin friction Negative skin friction (b) Perimeter U Weak layer L Bearing stratum Fig.

there is some uncertainty in evaluating the influence of negative skin friction.1.11). -290- Consolidated layer .1.1. by denoting the allowable axial bearing capacity under normal conditions as Ra . the negative skin friction may be calculated by assuming the piles group as a single. That is. the pile itself is supported by the bearing stratum and hardly settles.5 Skin Friction of Pile Group Equations (4. it should satisfy equations (4. T. T. The skin friction in the sand layer is sometimes taken into account for f s . max： maximum negative skin friction per pile (for piles group) (kN) U： perimeter of pile group (m) H： depth from the ground level to the bottom of consolidating layer (m) s ： mean shear strength of soil in the range of H (kN/m2) Ag： bottom area of pile group (m2) g： mean unit weight of soil in the range of L2 (kN/m3) n： number of piles in pile group (4.1. the creep characteristics of the soft clayey layer. deep foundation. negative skin friction shall be taken into account when calculating the allowable axial bearing capacity of piles. or if a sand layer lies on top of consolidating layer.5).1. C. the influence of negative skin friction is examined by checking whether the force transmitted to the tip of the pile exceeds both the yield load value of the ground at the tip of the pile and the yield compressive strength of cross section of the pile. max = -------------------------------n where Rnf.11) to (4.11) (2) In the above.14) and (4.1. The actual values will be affected by the amount of consolidation settlement and the speed of consolidation.12). the friction force from the soft layer acts upwards initially and bears a part of the load acting on the pile head.1.4. max： j： L2： f s： = j L2 f s maximum negative skin friction (for single pile) (kN) circumference of piles (perimeter of closed area in the case of H-shaped steel piles) (m) length of piles in the consolidating layer (m) mean skin friction intensity in the consolidating layer (kN/m2) (4.1.1. the direction of the friction force is reversed.1. and the deformation characteristics of the bearing stratum. In one method. R nf. The maximum value of negative skin friction in such cases is expressed by equation (4.13) give the maximum value for negative skin friction.15) as well as guaranteeing the required safety factor for ordinary loads. [Technical Notes] (1) Although the actual value of negative skin friction is not well known yet. The negative skin friction per pile is then calculated by dividing it by the number of piles (see Fig.1.4. [Commentary] When a pile penetrates through a clayey soft layer to reach a bearing stratum. the thickness of the sand layer should be included in L2.1. as shown in Fig. max where Rnf. the maximum value may be obtained from equation (4. The friction force on the pile circumference now ceases to resist the load acting on the pile head. (4) When calculating the allowable axial bearing capacity of piles. but instead turns into a load downwards and places a large burden on the toe of the pile. When the clayey soft layer is consolidated.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4. sUH + A g g L 2 (4.10 Examination of Negative Skin Friction If bearing piles penetrate through a soil layer that is susceptible to consolidation. This friction force acting downwards on the pile circumference is called the negative skin friction or negative friction. qu Lc -ö j R nf.4. If a sand layer is located between consolidating layers.13) R nf.1. f s in clayey ground is sometimes taken at qu/2.1.12) Fig. max = æ 2 N s 2 L s 2 + ---------è 2 ø where Ls2： thickness of sand layer included in L2 (m) Lc： thickness of clay layer included in L2 (m) L s 2 + Lc = L 2 N s 2： mean N-value of the sand layer of thickness Ls2 q u： mean unconfined compressive strength of clayey layer of thickness Lc (kN/m2) (3) In case of pile group.

Displacement Deadweight Maximum pulling resistance Pulling resistance Fig.6). Then.15) where Ra： allowable axial bearing capacity (ordinary) (kN) Rp： end bearing capacity of pile (ultimate value) (kN) Rnf.4.1.1.1 General (Notification Article 43.2.1.2. Here.16) R p = 300 NA p + 2 N s 1 L s 1 j where Rp： end bearing capacity of pile (ultimate value) (kN) N： N-value of ground at pile tip Bearing straum Ap： area of pile tip (m2) L s 1 = L 1： length of pile inside the bearing straum (sandy ground) (m) N s 1： mean N-value for the zone of Ls1 j： circumference of pile (m) Fig. and finally only the deadweight of the pile remains.4. max (4. max (4. In such cases.R R nf.1. T.4. If the pile has penetrated into the bearing stratum. The factors listed below shall be taken into consideration to the extent as necessary.4. the load decreases once the upward displacement has exceeded a certain limit.1 Maximum Pulling Resistance -291- . In a pulling test of piles. (1) Allowable tensile stress of pile material (2) Effect of pile joints (3) Action of pile group (4) Upward displacement of piles by pulling [Commentary] The standard allowable pulling resistance of piles is first obtained by dividing the maximum pulling resistance of single piles by an appropriate value of safety factor. and the upward displacement. “maximum pulling resistance” means the maximum value of the pulling load shown in Fig. C. the influence of joints.2 Allowable Pulling Resistance of Piles 4.14) R a ≦ -----1.2 p R a ≦ s f A e R nf.1. 4. the actions of pile group.1.1). the allowable pulling resistance of piles is evaluated on the basis of it by taking account of the stress of pile materials. (4.1. the safety factor shall take an appropriate value in view of the characteristics of structure and the strength of ground. C.2. Clause 3) The standard allowable pulling resistance of piles shall be calculated by estimating the maximum pulling resistance by an appropriate method and dividing it by the safety factor.max： maximum negative skin friction (kN) (the smaller of the values for single pile or pile group) sf： compressive stress of pile at yield point (kN/m2) Ae： effective section area of pile (m2) The value for end bearing capacity Rp may be taken at 300NAp in equation (4. T.1.11 Examination of Settlement of Piles The allowable axial bearing capacity of pile shall be determined in such a way that an estimated settlement of pile head does not exceed the allowable settlement determined for superstructures.PART V FOUNDATIONS 1 . Caution should be paid to the difference in magnitude between the maximum load and the ultimate load.6 End Bearing Capacity 4. the skin friction in the bearing stratum may be included in the end bearing capacity (see Fig.

1. This has been set lower than the value for ordinary conditions because the duration of seismic load is short. Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Static Bearing Capacity Formulas. the value of safety factor may be lowered.5 (3) The deadweight of pile acts always as a pulling resistance together with the weight of soil packed inside it.2. Thus. Table T.4.2. the end bearing capacity in the first term of equations (4. 4.5. the maximum pulling resistance may be estimated from the results of loading tests (pushing direction) and static bearing capacity equations.1) (4) Lowering of Safety Factor If the ground consists of well compacted high quality sandy soil and the bearing capacity can be estimated with sufficient accuracy on the basis of reliable data such as the results of accurate soil investigations and pulling tests as well as the predictions by reliable analysis methods. If the diameter of pile is too large. however. (2) The minimum value of safety factor during an earthquake has been established at 2. the soil packed into the pile is not always lifted up together with the pile but may be expected to slip-down from the pile. (a) When the maximum pulling resistance is calculated by pulling tests R ut 1 W p R at = W p + ----------------------F (b) When the maximum pulling resistance is calculated by a static bearing capacity equation R ut 2 R at = W p + --------F where Rat： allowable pulling resistance of piles (kN) Wp： deadweight of piles (with buoyancy subtracted) (kN) Rut1： maximum pulling resistance of pile (from pulling tests) (kN) Rut2： maximum pulling resistance of pile (from static bearing capacity formulas) (kN) F： safety factor (4.1. When the deadweight of pile is relatively small.2.1.2. However.1 gives guidelines for the minimum values of safety factor when calculating the standard allowable pulling resistance from the maximum pulling resistance of a single pile.0 2.4. and it is reasonable to calculate the standard allowable pulling resistance from the maximum pulling resistance by the equations below. the pile deadweight needs not be divided by the safety factor.2.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN 4. Therefore. [Technical Notes] (1) Estimation of maximum pulling resistance by static bearing capacity formulas may follow the explanation given in 4.3) should be ignored. When there is a risk of liquefaction of the sand layer during an earthquake. In this case.1) and (4. [Technical Notes] (1) Table T.2. the allowable pulling resistance shall be determined by taking the liquefaction into consideration. Therefore. -292- .5. Thus pulling tests should be conducted to calculate the maximum pulling resistance of a single pile.3 Maximum Pulling Resistance of Single Pile The maximum pulling resistance of a single pile shall be obtained on the basis of the results of pulling tests.1 Guidelines for Minimum Values of Safety Factor Ordinary condition During an earthquake 3. [Commentary] Unlike axial bearing capacity. for piles driven by hammer. and indirect estimations may entail some risk. this process of adding the pile deadweight is generally be omitted. the following equations may be used.2) (4.2 Standard Allowable Pulling Resistance The standard allowable pulling resistance shall be calculated by dividing the maximum pulling resistance of a single pile by an appropriate value of safety factor. skin friction during driving of a pile is considered to be virtually the same as that during pulling of piles. there are few comparative data for pulling resistance. in the case of relatively soft cohesive soil.

2.2.2. the values calculated by equations (4. after confirming the reliability of the joint. pulling resistance of piles below joints shall be ignored. see 4. When high-quality joints are installed in steel piles.4) are to be compared with the value that calculated by using Terzaghi’s equation to obtain the most appropriate value.2. -293- .4) (4.PART V FOUNDATIONS (a) Sandy ground R ut = 2 NA s (b) Clayey ground R ut where Rut： N： As： c a： = ca As (4. the following shall be taken into account: (1) In case of spliced piles.7 (close to the coefficient of earth pressure at rest) is generally used. In this case.1.2.2. (3) When determining the allowable pulling resistance of piles.2.5 Matters to Be Considered for Obtaining Allowable Pulling Resistance of Piles When calculating the allowable pulling resistance of piles. however. 4. the amount of allowable upward displacement of pile heads imposed by the superstructures shall be taken into account.2.1 General The allowable lateral bearing capacity of a single pile shall be determined as appropriate on the basis of the behavior of the pile when it is subject to lateral forces. R ut = R f = j Lf s S ( c ai + K s q i m ) l i f s = ---------------------------------------L where Rut： maximum pulling resistance of pile (kN) Rf： skin friction of pile (kN) j： circumference of pile (m) L： embedded length of pile (m) f s： mean skin friction intensity (kN/m2) cai： adhesion between soil and pile in the i-th layer (kN/m2) Ks： coefficient of horizontal earth pressure acting on pile qi： mean effective overburden pressure in the i-th layer (kN/m2) m： coefficient of friction between pile and soil li： thickness of the i-th layer (m) (4.3 and 0.5 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Static Bearing Capacity Formulas.5) (4.3.2.3) maximum pulling resistance of pile (kN) mean N-value for total embedded length of pile total circumference area of pile (m2) mean adhesion for total embedded length of pile (kN/m2) (see 4. The value of the coefficient of horizontal earth pressure Ks in the case of pulling is considered to be smaller than the value in the case of bearing.1. 4. 4.6) For ca and m. as shown in equation (4. A value between 0.5).5 Estimation of Ultimate Axial Bearing Capacity by Static Bearing Capacity Formulas) (2) Terzaghi’s equation is sometimes used as a static bearing capacity formula to estimate the maximum pulling resistance of piles. (2) In case of pile group. Clause 4) The allowable pulling resistance of pile shall not exceed the value calculated by multiplying the allowable tensile stress of pile materials by the effective cross-sectional area of pile.3) and (4.3 Allowable Lateral Bearing Capacity of Piles 4. pulling resistance shall be calculated as that of a single block surrounded with the envelope surface of outermost piles in the group of piles.4 Examination of Tensile Stress of Pile Materials (Notification Article 43. pulling resistance of lower piles may be taken into account within the allowable tensile strength of the joints.

most of the external force is supported by the axial resistance of coupled batter piles.4.1 Piles Subject to Lateral Force -294- . But for the lateral bearing capacity. since the displacement of coupled piles is far smaller than that of single piles. the bearing capacity may be divided into the lateral and axial resistances and examined separately. In this case. T. However.6 Lateral Bearing Capacity of Coupled Piles [Technical Notes]). its allowable value is calculated directly from the behavior of the piles without referring to the ultimate bearing capacity. T. only the lateral resistance occurs and axial resistance is not involved.1 (c). (c) When coupled piles are subject to horizontal force Coupled piles are those in which two or more piles with differing axial directions are combined.3. (2) The allowable lateral bearing capacity of a pile should be determined to satisfy the following two conditions: (a) The bending stress arising in a pile should not exceed the allowable bending stress of pile material. [Technical Notes] (1) Embedded Length of Piles The length of embedded part of pile that yields effective resistance against external forces is called the effective length. some part of external force is supported by the axial resistance. Therefore. (2) Piles Subject to Lateral Force The resistance when a pile is subject to lateral forces (horizontal or nearly horizontal external forces) is called the lateral resistance. the axial bearing capacity alone is considered. (a) When one vertical pile is subject to horizontal force (b) When one batter pile is subject to horizontal force (c) When coupled piles are subject to horizontal force Fig.4.3. displacement rarely becomes a problem. This is the simplest form of lateral resistance and called the lateral resistance of pile in a narrow sense.3. The simplest form of coupled piles is shown in Fig. The burden ratio between the lateral and axial resistances is almost wholly determined by the inclination angle of the piles. T. It is categorized into the three basic forms shown in Fig. the standard value for allowable bearing capacity is calculated by dividing the ultimate bearing capacity by the safety factor. Piles are called the long pile when the embedded length is longer than their effective length.1 5).TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN [Commentary] (1) For the axial bearing capacity. A number of methods have been proposed to date. (a) When one vertical pile is subject to horizontal force When a horizontal external force acts on a vertical pile. With coupled piles. (b) The displacement of pile head (horizontal displacement) should not exceed the allowable displacement imposed by the superstructure. Therefore.3. the lateral resistance is usually ignored in estimating the bearing capacity.4. (b) When one batter pile is subject to horizontal force In this case. it is quite difficult to calculate the pile head displacement. Instead. Piles are called the short pile when the embedded length is shorter than their effective length. when the free length of the piles is long. but none of them is sufficient to apply to the calculation of pile head displacement (see 4.

To calculate the allowable lateral bearing capacity of short piles. (4.3.4 Allowable Stress for Pile Materials). the load and pile head displacement curve is not used to obtain the yield load or the ultimate load but to confirm the pile head displacement itself. When the overturning load cannot be ascertained. 4. and Hayashi proposed the PHRI method as an analytical method considering the nonlinear elastic behavior of the ground 6). the bending stress corresponding to this allowable bearing capacity also needs to be accounted for.2) to describe the relationship between the subgrade reaction and the pile displacement. That is. the maximum test load may be used instead of the overturning load. once the allowable pile head displacement is determined.3. in addition to the pile head displacement and bending stress mentioned already. The load and pile head displacement curve in lateral loading tests generally takes a curved form from the beginning. the load corresponding to this displacement on the load and pile head displacement curve defines the allowable lateral bearing capacity.3 Estimation of Pile Behavior Using Loading Tests When loading tests are conducted to estimate behavior of a single pile subject to lateral force. [Technical Notes] (1) Basic Equation for Beam on Elastic Foundation Equation (4. or estimation methods by combining these results. Therefore. Therefore. p = -B B： pile width (m) Shinohara. the allowable bearing capacity may be obtained from the loading test results by the following method. Furthermore. it shall be standard to analyze the pile as a beam rested on an elastic foundation. overturning of piles must be considered. The latter is preferred as the method of analysis. This method has a significant merit that it can describe the behavior of actual piles more faithfully than other methods. Chang’s method may be used when no significant difference is expected between the two methods.3.2) p = kx m y 0. d4y .2 Estimation of Allowable Lateral Bearing Capacity of Piles (Notification Article 43. However.4 Estimation of Pile Behavior Using Analytical Methods When estimating behavior of a single pile subject to lateral force by using analytical methods.4.3. It is because a pile with long embedded length is only subject to small-scale and progressive ground failure phenomena but not to overall failure. when a load equal to the allowable bearing capacity is applied.= P = pB (4. 4. Kubo. In other words.3.3. [Technical Notes] When loading tests have been conducted under the conditions same as those in actual structures. Clause 5) The allowable lateral bearing capacity of piles shall be determined at an appropriate value on the basis of loading tests or analytical methods.3. it is difficult to read clearly the yield load or the ultimate load on the load and pile head displacement curve (except for short piles).1) EI ------dx 4 where EI： flexural rigidity of pile (kN·m2) x： depth from ground level (m) y： displacement of pile at depth x (m) P： subgrade reaction per unit length of pile at depth x (kN/m) P p： subgrade reaction per unit area of pile at depth x (kN/m2).5) m： index 1 or 0 -295- . because it can accurately express the actual behavior of single piles.5 where k： constant of lateral resistance of ground (kN/m3.PART V FOUNDATIONS 4. the maximum bending stress arising in the pile must not exceed the allowable bending stress of the pile material (see 4. all the due considerations shall be given to the differences in the pile and load conditions in between those of actual structures and loading tests.1) is the basic equation for analytically estimating behavior of a pile as a beam on an elastic foundation. The PHRI method uses equation (4. [Commentary] Methods of analytically estimating the behavior of a single pile subject to lateral force as a beam rested on an elastic foundation include the relatively simple Chang’s method as well as the Port & Harbor Research Institute (PHRI) method 6).5 or kN/m2.

the nonlinear relationships between p and y are introduced as given by equations (4. the ground is classified into the S type and the C type. (b) Constants of lateral resistance of the ground The two ground types in the PHRI method are defined as follows. T. (c) Estimation of lateral resistance constants by loading tests Estimations of the lateral resistance constants by using the N-value can only provide approximate values. Loading tests should be conducted to obtain more accurate values. The second. Therefore. ② C-type ground (i) The p-y relationship is expressed as p = kc y0. T. T. Kubo and Sawaguchi conducted model experiments on the relationship between the ks value in sandy ground (PHRI method) and B. In this way. the increment N may be determined from the mean gradient of N-values passing through the zero point at the ground level. the relationship between the inclination angle of the piles and the ratio of the lateral resistance constant of batter piles to that of vertical piles has been obtained as shown in Fig.5.4.5 where ks： constant of lateral resistance in S-type ground (kN/m3. its value can be applied to other conditions as well. and are unaffected by other conditions unlike Chang’s Es. Therefore.5 (see equation (4.5 C-type ground: p = kc y 0.4. Shinohara.3.37). In the PHRI method.4) to reflect the actual state of subgrade reaction. (e) Effect of pile inclination For batter piles.3.3) and (4. The results of many full-scale tests have confirmed that this method reflects the behavior of piles more accurately than the conventional methods. S-type ground: (4. On the basis of these results.3. In the S-type ground.3. and normally-consolidated clayey ground.4) The identification of S-type or C-type ground and the estimation of ks and kc are based on the results of loading tests and soil investigation.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) PHRI Method (a) Characteristics of the PHRI method In the PHRI method.3.5) (4.5 lm1 (lm1: depth of the first zero point of bending moment in the PHRI method).3.5) kc： constant of lateral resistance in C-type ground (kN/m2. they must be at least as long as 1. is to assume that the value of p corresponding to a given y value is inversely proportional to B.3.3) and (4. the approximate value of ks or kc may be judged from the distribution of N-values with depth. T. (d) Effect of pile width There are two ways of considering the effect of pile width. ① S-type ground (i)The relationship between p-y is expressed as p = ks xy0.4)) (ii) The N-value by the standard penetration test is constant regardless of depth. the solutions under individual conditions would remain unattainable without help of numerical calculation. respectively. (iii) Actual examples: sandy ground with compacted surface.3.3.4).4.4.3. -296- . as proposed by Terzaghi.5 (see equation (4. Even if the distribution of N-values with depth does not have the value 0 at the ground level.4. the relationship between the increment N of the N-value per meter in depth and the lateral resistance constant ks has been obtained as shown in Fig. In the C-type ground.2. if ks or kc can be obtained by a loading test. the relationship between the N-value itself and kc has been obtained as shown in Fig. and heavily-preconsolidated clayey ground. The relationship between the subgrade reaction and the pile displacement for each ground is assumed by equation (4. it was decided not to consider the effect of pile width in the PHRI method.3) p = k s xy 0.3)) (ii) The N-value by the standard penetration test increases in proportion to the depth.3. The constants ks and kc are determined from the ground conditions alone. and the principle of superposition could not be applied.3. (iii) Actual examples: sandy ground with uniform density. The results are shown in Fig. It seems to support a combination of the two theories mentioned above in such a way that the first theory holds true if the pile width B is sufficiently large. It is commented here that for piles to behave as long piles. The first is to regard that the pile width B has no effect on the relationship between the subgrade reaction p per unit area and the displacement y.

Yahata Seitetsu No. Tokyo National Railways A4 19. Kurihama model experiment 14. Tobata K-I (PHRI) 11.) No.2 Relationship between N and ks 1.4.6.9 11. Montana (GLESER) 3.2 6. Hakkenbori No. Illinois (FEAGIN) 2.3.1.3 Relationship between N-value and kc -297- . Tobata L-II (TTRI) 5.1 7. Tobata K-III (TTRI) 3. Tobata L-IV (TTRI) 6. Yamanoshita (IGUCHI) N Fig. Winfield. Osaka National Railways 9.15 14. Tokyo National Railways B N-value Fig.2 8.25 15.) No. Tobata No. T.5. Shin-Kasai Bridge (TATEISHI) 15.6 10.9.4. Tobata K-II (PHRI) 12.3. Hakkenbori No. Tobata preliminary test-1 (TTRI)-1 12. Osaka National Railways (BEPPU) 8. Yahata Seitetsu No. Wagner (Callif. Port Hueneme (MASON) 4. Tobata preliminary test-2 (TTRI)-2 13. No. Hakkenbori No. Tobata K-I (TTRI) 2. No. Wagner-1 (Alaska)-1 16. Alton. Tobata L-II (PHRI) 13. T. Wagner-1 (Alaska)-2 17. Ibaragigawa (GOTO) 7. Tobata K-IV (TTRI) 4. Wagner (Callif.9 10. Tokyo National Railways b 18.PART V FOUNDATIONS 1.

TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (kN/m3.4 Relationship between ks and Pile Width k0 Indoor experiments Field experiments Value of .3. when θ = 0 k Fig.5) Lateral resistance constant 1st Series 2nd Series 3rd Series Legend maximum pile head displace p-y curve bending moment -ment ks Pile width (cm) Fig. T.5 Relationship between Pile Inclination Angle and Ratio k = k/k 0 -298- .4.3. T.4.

3562 β 4β Ht β Ht 2β M s. use equations in putting 4EI β 3 h 0 = M t / H t : the same applies below M yx = Ht e – β x ( cos β x + sin β x ) 4EI β 3 yt = Ht βH t = 4EI β 3 Bkh y0 = yt Pile head displacement yt yt = ( 1 + βh ) 3 + 1/2 ( 1 + βh ) 2 Ht + Mt 2EI β 2 3EI β 3 Ground level displacement y0 y0 = 1 + βh 0 Ht 2EI β 3 Pile head inclination -299θt = 0 θt = Mx = – H M z = t ( 1 + βh – 2βz ) 2β H M x = t e – β x [ ( 1 – βh ) cos βh – ( 1 + βh ) sin β x ] 2β Sz = – H t S x = – H t e – β x [ cos β x – βh sin β x ] M0 = M s.3224 l m = π = 0.m2) Situation of pile –M t ( M z) Mm (M x) ( M z) Deflection curve does not rotate Basic formation yt θt Mt If pile head Basic system (but Mt If pile head does not rotate diagram Ht y0 ( y z) l 0 Bending moment ∞ ∞ L lm h diagram (y x) (M x) ∞ ∞ Deflection curve y yt = yt = y0 = yt y0 = H ( 1 + βh ) 3 + 2 Ht = t K1 12EI β 3 Ht 2βH t = 2EI β 3 Bk h 1 + βh Ht 4EI β 3 M H y z = y t – θ tz + t z 2 + t z 3 2EI 6EI Ht yx = e – β x [ ( 1 + βh 0 ) cos β x – βh 0 sin β x ] 2EI β 3 Ht ( 1 + βh ) H t 2 H t 3 yx = e – β x cos β x yz = yt – z + z 6EI 4EI β 2EI β 3 Ht yx = e – β x [ ( 1 + βh ) cos β x + ( 1 – βh ) sin β x ] If t 0. K 3.4.Table T. K 2.max = – l m = 1 tan – 1 1 β βh Ht 1 + ( βh ) 2 ⋅ exp ( – βl m ) 2β 1 + βh K Ht = 2 Ht K1 2β M0 = 0 θt θt = ( 1 + βh ) 2 1 + βh Ht + Mt EI β 2EI β 2 Ht 2EI β 2 θt = 0 Bending moment of pile members M M z = – M t – H tz H M x = – t e – β x [ βh 0 cos β x + ( 1 + βh 0 ) sin β x [ β H t – βx e sin β x β S x = – H t e – β x ( cos β x – sin β x ) Mx = H t – βx e ( cos β x – sin β x ) 2β S x = – H t e – β x cos β x M0 = M s.1 Calculations for Piles of Semi-Infinite Length if kh Is Constant [Symbols] : Height of pile head above ground (m) 4 h Differential equations Ht z (M t) : Coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction (kN/m ) 3 Exposed sections: EI EI Protruding above ground of deflection curve 0 ( y z) d 4 yz =0 dz 4 d 4 yx + Bk h y x = 0 dx 4 h 0 Embedded underground = 0) Ht h yt θ t H t= H 0 l 0 Mm (M x) L l (y x) lm L lm y0 0 l L ( M z) yt M0 and explanation of x symbols (y x) kh h β Bk h / 4EI (m –1) M h0 = h + t Ht h =0 yt = y0 Ht H0 M0 lm M Embedded sections: H t : Lateral force on pile head (kN) M t : External force moment on pile head (kN.3562 β 4β L = π = 3.max = – 0.5708 β 2β l 0 = 3π = 2. K 4 12EI β 3 1 + βh K2 = K3 = K1 ⋅ 2β ( 1 + βh ) 3 + 2 4EI β ( 1 + βh ) 3 + 1/2 K4 = ⋅ ( 1 + βh ) ( 1 + βh ) 3 + 2 K 1 = 4EI β 3 K 2 = K 3 = 2EI β 2 K 4 = 2EI β .max occurs lm 1 l m = 1 tan – 1 1 + 2βh 0 β Depth of 1st steady point l0 1 + βh 0 l 0 = 1 tan – 1 β βh 0 βh + 1 l 0 = 1 tan – 1 β βh – 1 L = 1 tan – 1 ( – βh ) β Depth of deflection angle zero point L L = 1 tan – 1 [ – ( 1 + 2βh 0 ) ] β Pile head rigidity factor K1 = PART V FOUNDATIONS K 1.7854 β 4β l 0 = π = 1.max = – 0.3.m) B : Pile diameter (m) EI : Flexural rigidity (kN.max M s.5708 2β β L = 3π = 2.max = – Ht 2β ( 1 + 2βh 0 ) 2 + 1 ⋅ exp ( – βl m ) Depth at which M s.2079 l m = π = 1.1416 β β Ht β Shear strength of pile members S Sz = – H t S x = – H t e – β x [ cos β x – ( 1 + 2βh 0 ) sin β x ] Pile head bending moment M0 M0 = – Mt Maximum bending moment of embedded parts M s.

For such cases. the solution for piles of semi-infinite length can be obtained (see Table T.200 1.600 4.4.000 ～ 32. If shorter than this.3.3.1).6 shows the relationship between these values and the mean N-values at depths down to b -1 from the ground level. Figure T. piles of finite length can also be calculated in a similar way to piles of infinite length as long as bL ≧ p. Terzaghi assumes that the value of kh is inversely proportional to the pile width B. ly1 itself is a function of Es. Other opinions suggest that pile width is irrelevant (see [Technical Notes] (2) (d)).3.3.000 24. 64748 (b) Estimation of kh in Chang’s method ① Terzaghi’s proposal8) Terzaghi proposed the following values for the coefficient of lateral subgrade reaction in cohesive and sandy soil: (i) In case of clayey soil 0.3.000 ② Yokoyama’s proposal Yokoyama 9) has collated the results of lateral loading tests on steel piles conducted in Japan and he reversely calculated kh by using these results.600 10.4.= 0 Exposed section: (0 ≧ x ≧ -h) EI ---------dx 4 (4.000 or greater 96.3. According to Yokoyama.000 Table T.000 Solid 400 or greater 64.400 Dense 17. as shown in equations (4.3. Table T. d4 y1 .5) d4 y2 . Although the reversely-calculated values of kh by using the actually observed data decrease in -300- .4. Diagrams are available to simplify this process.3 (4.800 Very hard 200 ～ 400 32.9) In sandy soil. and repeated calculations have to be made to obtain the value of Es.000 48.2 -k k h = -----B h1 Es = where kh ： B： kh1： Bk h = 0.2 Coefficient of Lateral Subgrade Reaction Consistency of clay Unconfined compressive strength qu Range of kh1 (kN/m3) (kN/m3) Proposed value of kh1 (kN/m2) Hard 100 ～ 200 16. the elasticity equation of piles are expressed as follows.+ Bk h y 2 = 0 (x ≧ 0) Embedded section: EI ---------dx 4 By calculating these general solutions (with Bkh as a constant) and inputting the boundary conditions.3. Es = khB is taken as valid for both sandy and clayey soil. a pile must be treated as having a finite length. Chang states that Es should be taken at one-third of the value at the depth of ly1 (depth of the first zero-displacement point).6) (4.3 Value of n h Relative density of sand nh for dry or wet sand (kN/m3) (kN/m3) nh for submerged sand Loose 2.7) (ii) In case of sandy soil x k h = n h -B E s = Bk h = n h x where x： depth (m) B： pile width (m) nh： value listed in Table T.3.6) and (4. while kh itself is assumed not to be affected by B.4.4.000 ～ 64. The book by Yokoyama 9) describes the method of calculation without repetition.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (3) Chang’s Method (a) Calculation equation Using the elasticity modulus of the ground Es = Bkh.3.4.3.8). In this case.3.300 Medium 6.3. However.8) (4.2 (4.2 k h 1 coefficient of lateral subgrade reaction (kN/m3) pile width (m) value listed in Table T. Es is a function of depth and thus cannot be introduced directly into Chang’s method.

It may generally be assumed that all of the horizontal force is borne by the coupled piles.PART V FOUNDATIONS proportion to the increase of load. and “longitudinal” means in the direction of the external force. Tokyo Supply Warehouse 13. Tobata 3. In the table. Ibaragigawa 11.6 Lateral Bearing Capacity of Coupled Piles The lateral bearing capacity of a foundation of the structure with coupled piles shall be determined as appropriate in view of structural characteristics of the foundation. Tobata K-III 7. Aoyama 15. Kasai Bridge 14.4. Shell Ogishima 10.3.5 times the pile diameter 3. the force borne by vertical piles is far smaller than that borne by coupled piles under the condition of equal horizontal displacement. T. “transverse” means in the direction perpendicular to that of the external force. Tobata K-IV 9. Tobata K-II 6.3.5 times the pile diameter 2.5 Consideration of Pile Group Action When piles are used as a pile group.4.4. T.3. Table T. [Technical Notes] When the interval of the driven piles exceeds the value listed in Table T.4.3. the effect of pile group action on the behavior of individual piles shall be considered. [Commentary] (1) Distribution of Horizontal Force in Foundation with a Combination of Vertical and Coupled Piles When a horizontal force acts on a foundation with a combination of vertical and coupled piles. Takagawa 12. This diagram may be used when approximating the value of Es from soil conditions alone without conducting loading tests in situ.6 Reversely-Calculated Values of kh from Horizontal Loading Tests on Piles 4.3. Tobata L-II 5. Tobata L-IV 8. Den-en N-value Fig.3. 1. -301- . the effect of the pile group on the lateral bearing capacity of individual piles may be ignored.4 Minimum Pile Interval for Lateral Bearing Capacity of Individual Piles Sandy soil Cohesive soil transverse longitudinal transverse longitudinal 1.6 shows the values of kh corresponding to the load at which the bending stress of steel material reaches 100 ~ 150 MN/m2.0 times the pile diameter 4.0 times the pile diameter 4. Fig. Tobata K-I 4.4. Yamaborigawa 2.

4.3. The first group only takes account of the resistance from the axial bearing capacity of each pile. T.7 Axial Forces of Coupled Piles (2) Estimation of Lateral Bearing Capacity of Coupled Piles Considering Lateral Bearing Capacity of Individual Piles There are various ways of calculating the lateral bearing capacity of the coupled piles. [Technical Notes] (1) Estimation of Lateral Bearing Capacity of Coupled Piles Considering the Axial Bearing Capacity of Piles Only When the resistance forces are borne by axial bearing capacity only.4. The axial force is calculated by using equation (4. For example: ① Setting conditions whereby the displacement of each pile is always the same at the point of connection of coupled piles.10) or a graphic solution (see Fig.3.3. or the settlement and the upward displacement of -302- 64748 (Out-batter pile) (In-batter pile) Fig. on the assumption that the spring characteristics in the axial and lateral directions at the pile head are elastic9). T.7. ② Calculating the ultimate resistance of the coupled piles on the assumption that the axial and lateral bearing capacities of piles indicate an elasto-plasticity characteristic10). q2： inclination angle of each pile (º) Vi： vertical external load of coupled piles (kN) Hi： horizontal external load of coupled piles (kN) Fig. ③ Calculating the load and displacement at the pile heads.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN (2) Lateral Bearing Capacity of Coupled Piles There are two groups of calculation methods for the lateral bearing capacity of coupled piles. The second group takes account of the resistance from the axial bearing capacity of each pile and the lateral bearing capacity of each pile in consideration of the bending resistance of piles.3.3. the vertical and horizontal external loads acting on the head of a pair of coupled piles are divided into the axial force of each pile. T. as shown in Fig. P2： pushing force acting on each pile (or pulling force when negative) (kN) q1.3. V i sin q 2 + H i cos q 2 P 1 = ------------------------------------------sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) (4. This means that the force acting in the axial direction of each pile should be less than the allowable axial bearing capacity (or allowable pulling resistance).4.8 Coupled Piles in View of Soil Resistance Due to Deflection Caused by Pile Bending Moment .4. T. taking account of the lateral bearing capacity of individual piles.10) V i sin q 1 H i cos q 1 P 2 = ------------------------------------------sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) where P1.7).

8.{ [ m 2 cos q 2 + m 1 cos q 1 cos ( q 1 + q 1 ) + w 1 sin q 1 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ] V N 2 = ----D [ m 2 sin q 2 m 1 sin q 1 cos ( q 1 + q 2 ) + w 1 cos q 1 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ] H } m1 H 1 = ----. In the coupled piles shown in Figure T. H2： V： H： q1. The symbols used in Table T.4.{ [ m 1 cos q 1 + m 2 cos q 2 cos ( q 1 + q 2 ) + w 2 sin q 2 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ] V N 1 = ----D + [ m 1 sin q 1 m 2 sin q 2 cos ( q 1 + q 2 ) + w 2 cos q 2 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ] H } 6444444744444448 w2 . T. derived from the conditions of force equilibrium and compatibility of displacements.5 may be used for the spring constants of pile head.8.3.5 are defined below.12) 1 .[ ( m 1 w 1 ) sin 2 q 1 + ( w 2 m 2 ) sin 2 q 2 ] H } + -2 1 ì1 .3. are “1” for the pushed pile and “2” for the pulled pile when only a horizontal load acts.{ [ w 1 sin q 1 w 2 sin q 2 cos ( q 1 + q 2 ) + m 2 cos q 2 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ] V D + [ w 1 cos q 1 + w 2 cos q 2 cos ( q 1 + q 2 ) + m 2 sin q 2 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ] H } m2 H 2 = ----. ④ Using the results of loading tests on single piles12).4. The values listed in Table T. m2： d1¢. the settlement of each pile at the pile head is proportional to the axial force acting on that pile and also the lateral displacement is proportional to the lateral force acting on that pile. The method ① is for calculating the distribution of horizontal force to each pile on the assumption that the axial and lateral resistances of a pile have elastic properties 9). N2： H1.12) axial force acting on each pile (compressive force is indicated by positive value) (kN) lateral force acting on each pile (kN) vertical load per pair of coupled piles (kN) horizontal load per a pair of coupled piles (kN) inclination angle of each pile (º) axial spring constant of each pile head (kN/m) lateral spring constant of each pile head (kN/m) vertical displacement of each pile head (m) horizontal displacement of each pile head (m) The subscript numbers attached to the symbols. w2： m1.3.3. the axial and lateral forces acting on each pile of the coupled piles can be calculated using equation (4.4.3.11) Vertical and horizontal displacements of the pile head are calculated by equation (4.3.3. d2¢： h1¢.4.{ [ w 1 sin 2 q 1 + m 1 cos 2 q 1 + w 2 sin 2 q 2 + m 2 cos 2 q 2 ] V d 1 ¢ = d 2 ¢ = -D 644474448 1 .{ [ w 2 sin q 2 w 1 sin q 1 cos ( q 1 + q 2 ) + m 1 cos q 1 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ] V D +[ w 2 cos q 2 + w 1 cos q 1 cos ( q 1 + q 2 ) + m 1 sin q 1 sin ( q 1 + q 2 ) ] H } D = ( w 1 + w 2 ) ( m 1 + m 2 ) + ( w 1 m 1 ) ( w 2 m 2 ) sin 2 ( q 1 + q 2 ) (4.3.[ ( m 1 w 1 ) sin 2 q 1 + ( w 2 m 2 ) sin 2 q 2 ] V h 1 ¢ = h 2 ¢ = -Dí î2 ü + [ m 1 sin 2 q 1 + w 1 cos 2 q 1 + m 2 sin 2 q 2 + w 2 cos 2 q 2 ] ý þ where N1. w1 . ⑤ Assuming that the yield state of each pile will occur in turn and the resistance of the yield member will be constant thereafter until the resistance of coupled piles reach the ultimate bearing capacity. ( 1 + bl)3 + 1 ¤ 2 j D( bl ) = --------------------------------------(bl )3 ( 1 + bl)3 + 2 j D( bl ) = -------------------------------( bl)3 b = 4 Es -------4 EI -303- . On this assumption. q2： w1.-.PART V FOUNDATIONS piles in the case of ② on the basis of empirical equations11). h2¢： (4.11). as shown in Fig.

5 Spring Constants of Pile Head Bearing piles Axial spring constant of pile head (ω) Cohesive soil Friction piles Sandy soil Without exposed section (λ ＝ 0) Pile head hinged Lateral axial spring constant of pile head (μ) With exposed section (λ ≠ 0) Without exposed section (λ ＝ 0) Pile head fixed With exposed section (λ ≠ 0) AE w = ----------l+l 2 AE w = -------------2l + l 3 AE w = -----------------3l + 2l ES m = 2 EI b 3 = ----2b 3 EI m = -----------------------3j l D ( bl ) ES 3 m = 4 EI b = ----b 12 EI m = -----------------------3j l D ( bl ) 4.4.4 Estimation of Pile Behavior Using Analytical Methods by the factor obtained from Fig. Es =khB pile width (m) coefficient of lateral subgrade reaction (kN/m3) The coefficient of lateral subgrade reaction kh may be calculated by multiplying the value of kh obtained in [Technical Notes] (3) (b) in 4. this resistance may be assumed to support the horizontal load.3. -304- . (2) Horizontal Loads In principle. No bearing capacity shall be expected for the ground touching with the bottom of structures supported by piles. this displacement of the structure could cause the pile bending failure.4. for the sake of safety the bearing capacity of the ground under a structure should be ignored.4 Pile Design in General 4. There is no simple way of determining whether the passive earth pressure of the ground reaches its ultimate value in response to the pile head displacement corresponding to the allowable lateral bearing capacity of piles. However. However it is generally difficult to calculate the resistance due to passive earth pressure in this case. if a structure is displaced to the extent of passive earth pressure obtained by using Coulomb’s equation. In some cases. even if the bottom is constructed by touching the ground.3. Thus. If the resistance due to passive earth pressure against the embedded section of structure can be expected. when enough resistance can be obtained by the earth pressure acting on the embedded section of structure alone. Table T.1 Load Sharing (1) Vertical loads shall be supported by piles alone. (2) Horizontal loads shall be supported by piles alone in principle.TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND COMMENTARIES FOR PORT AND HARBOUR FACILITIES IN JAPAN where l： l： E： A： I： Es： B： k h： embedded length of piles (m) exposed length of piles (m) Young’s modulus of pile