Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels, 27-28 November 2012

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EN 1991-1-2 Basic design methods Worked examples
Prof. VASSART Olivier Chairman of the CEN/TC250 EC1/ Fire E.G. ArcelorMittal R&D
email: olivier.vassart@arcelormittal.com

Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels, 27-28 November 2012

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Basic design methods of EN1991-1-2 Fire part of Eurocode 1

Fire parts of Eurocodes 2 to 6 and 9
Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels, 27-28 November 2012 3

Following common layout to provide design rules for fire resistance of various types of structures:
- General  Scope, application field, definitions, symbols and units - Basic principles  Performances requirements, design values of material properties and assessment approaches - Material properties  Mechanical and thermal properties at elevated temperatures - Assessment methods for fire resistance - Constructional details - Annexes  Additional information: common case - more detailed design rules

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3 criteria to define the fire resistance: R E I – load bearing function – integrity separating function – thermal insulating separation function Above criteria may be required individually or in combination: •separating only: integrity (criterion E) and. when requested. E and.European classes Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. when requested I 4 . insulation (criterion I) •load bearing only: mechanical resistance (criterion R) •separating and load bearing: criteria R. 27-28 November 2012 4 Fire resistance is defined in terms of time as follows: • Relevant time of fire exposure during which the corresponding fire resistance function of a structure is maintained despite fire actions According to European standard.Fire resistance .

European classes Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 5 R – load bearing function Capacity of a structure to maintain its required mechanical resistance in case of fire Mechanical loading 5 .Fire resistance .

300.European classes Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. … (no limitation) 6 . 400°C. 27-28 November 2012 6 E – integrity separating function Capacity of a structure to maintain its required integrity separating function to hot gases in case of fire With or without additional mechanical loading hot gas heat 200.Fire resistance .

Fire resistance .European classes Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 7 I – thermal insulation separating function Capacity of a structure to maintain its required thermal insulation separating function in case of fire With or without additional mechanical loading hot gas heat Average temperature rise ≤140 K (under standard fire) Maximum temperature rise ≤ 180 K (under standard fire) 7 .

Resistance to Fire .Chain of Events Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 8 Loads Θ Steel columns time 1: Ignition 2: Thermal action 3: Mechanical actions R time 4: Thermal response 5:Mechanical response 6: Possible collapse 8 .

Structural Fire Safety Engineering vs. 27-28 November 2012 9 Prescriptive Performance based 9 . Classification Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Structural Fire Safety Engineering vs. 27-28 November 2012 10 Objective of the classification Describe the Thermal and mechanical behaviour of structures subjected to fire P Means P Displacement Normalised fire Time 10 . Classification Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Classification Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.Structural Fire Safety Engineering vs. 27-28 November 2012 11 Prescriptive Performance based 11 .

Actions on Structures Exposed to Fire EN 1991-1-2 .Prescriptive Rules Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 12 Design Procedures Prescriptive Rules (Thermal Actions given Performance-Based Code (Physically based Thermal Actions) by Nominal Fire) 12 .

Combined Two-Zones and One-Zone fire + Exact geometry .CFD .HESKESTADT .Parametric Fire θ (t) uniform in the compartment No data needed Rate of heat release Fire surface Boundary properties Opening area Ceiling height *) Advanced Fire Models .One-Zone Model . 27-28 November 2012 13 *) Nominal temperature-time curve Standard temperature-.HASEMI θ (x.Nominal Temperature-Time Curve Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.Two-Zone Model .& Hydrocarbon fire curve *) Simplified Fire Models Localised Fire Fully Engulfed Compartment . y. External fire . z. t) .

Prescriptive Fire Regulations Defining ISO Curve Requirements Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 14 ISO-834 Curve (EN1364 -1) 1200 1000 842 800 600 400 200 0 0 30 60 90 120 180 θ [°C] T = 20 + 345 log (8 t + 1) 1110 1006 945 1049 The ISO curve * Has to be considered in the WHOLE compartment. even if the compartment is huge ISO ISO ISO * Never goes DOWN ISO ISO ISO ISO ISO Time [min] * does not consider the PRE-FLASHOVER PHASE * Does not depend on FIRE LOAD and VENTILATION CONDITIONS 14 .

Flashover 1000-1200°C Natural fire curve ISO834 standard fire curve Time Ignition .Stages of a Natural Fire and the Standard Fire Curve Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.Flashover Flashover Post. 15 .Smouldering Heating Cooling …. 27-28 November 2012 15 Temperature Pre.

Actions on Structures Exposed to Fire EN 1991-1-2 - Performance Based Code
Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels, 27-28 November 2012 16

Design Procedures

Prescriptive Rules
(Thermal Actions given

Performance-Based Code
(Physically based Thermal Actions)

by Nominal Fire)

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Natural Fire Safety Concept
Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels, 27-28 November 2012 17

1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0

θ [°C]

30

60

90

120 180 Time [min]

Implemented in: • EN 1991-1-2 • Some National Fire Regulations include now alternative requirements based on Natural Fire

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NFSC Valorisation Project
Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels, 27-28 November 2012 18

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& Hydrocarbon fire curve *) Simplified Fire Models Localised Fire Fully Engulfed Compartment .One-Zone Model .HASEMI θ (x. z.Two-Zone Model .Parametric Fire θ (t) uniform in the compartment No data needed Rate of heat release Fire surface Boundary properties Opening area Ceiling height *) Advanced Fire Models .CFD 19 . t) . 27-28 November 2012 19 *) Nominal temperature-time curve Standard temperature-. External fire . y.Natural Fire Model Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.Combined Two-Zones and One-Zone fire + Exact geometry .HESKESTADT .

List of needed Physical Parameters for Natural Fire Model Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 20 Boundary properties Ceiling height Opening Area Fire surface Rate of heat release Fire Geometry 20 .

Characteristics of the Fire Compartment Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. λ Definition of Openings 21 . ρ. 27-28 November 2012 21 Fire resistant enclosures defining the fire compartment according to the national regulations Material properties of enclosures: c.

27-28 November 2012 22 Occupancy Dwelling Hospital (room) Hotel (room) Library Office School Shopping Centre Theatre (movie/cinema) Transport (public space) Fire Growth Rate Medium Medium Medium Fast Medium Medium Fast Fast Slow RHRf [kW/m²] Fire Load qf.Characteristic of the Fire for Different Buildings Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.k 80% fractile [MJ/m²] 250 250 250 500 250 250 250 500 250 948 280 377 1824 511 347 730 365 122 22 .

q f .87 0. m .22 1.73 0.13 0. 27-28 November 2012 23 Compartment floor area Af [m²] 25 250 2500 5000 10000 Danger of Fire Activation δq1 Danger of Fire Activation δq2 Examples of Occupancies Art gallery.87 or 0. swimming pool Residence.50 1. δ q 2 . ∏ δ ni .66 Automatic Fire Suppression Automatic Water Extinguishing System δ n1 δ q f .00 1.0 δ n6 or δ n7 δ n8 δ 1.d = δ q1 . hotel.61 0.k ni Function of Active Fire Safety Measures Automatic Fire Detection Manual Fire Suppression Safe Access Routes Independent Water Supplies 0 δ 1 n2 2 Automatic fire Automatic Alarm Detection Transmission & Alarm to by by Fire Brigade Heat Smoke δ δ n3 δ n4 n5 0.9 or 1 1.61 1.00 2.44 1.78 0. museum.5 1.Fire Load Density Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.78 1.87 Work Fire Brigade Off Site Fire Brigade Fire Fighting Devices Smoke Exhaust System δ 1.10 1.0 0.5 23 .5 1. office Manufactory for machinery & engines Chemical laboratory.90 2.7 0.0 n9 n10 0. Painting workshop Manufactory of fireworks or paints 1.

d •0A 0 fi) 0 5 5 10 15 10 0 tdecay Time [min] 24 .Rate of Heat Release Curve Stationary State and Decay Phase Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 24 10 9 10 Ultra8 9 Fast 7 (FGR) 8 6 7 5 6 4 5 3 4 2 3 2 1 1 0 Growing Steady state phase Fast (FGR) A f x RHR f RHR [MW] RHR [MW] RHR [MW] COMPARTMENT FIRE Medium (FGR) Fire Growth Rate = FGR A x RHR f f Ventilation Controlled Fire Slow (FGR) Decay phase 300'' 600'' 75'' 150'' t [min] Decay Phase 20 t [min] 25 30 15 20 70% (qf.

Natural Simplified Fire Model
Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels, 27-28 November 2012 25

*) Nominal temperature-time curve Standard temperature-, External fire - & Hydrocarbon fire curve *) Simplified Fire Models Localised Fire Fully Engulfed Compartment
- HESKESTADT - HASEMI θ (x, y, z, t) - Parametric Fire θ (t) uniform in the compartment

No data needed

Rate of heat release Fire surface Boundary properties Opening area Ceiling height

*) Advanced Fire Models
- One-Zone Model - Two-Zone Model - Combined Two-Zones and One-Zone fire

+ Exact geometry

- CFD 25

Simplified Fire Models Localised Fire
Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels, 27-28 November 2012 26

LOCALISED FIRE
θ (x, y, z, t)

FULLY ENGULFED COMPARTMENT
θ (t) uniform in the compartment

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Real Localised Fire Test
Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels, 27-28 November 2012 27

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25 (0.8 Qc)2/3 (z-z0)-5/3 ≤ 900°C Flame axis The flame length Lf of a localised fire is given by : Lf = -1.02 D + 0. 27-28 November 2012 28 Annex C of EN 1991-1-2: • Flame is not impacting the ceiling of a compartment (Lf < H) • Fires in open air Θ(z) = 20 + 0.Localised Fire: HESKESTAD Method Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.0148 Q2/5 H Lf z D 28 .

27-28 November 2012 29 Annex C of EN 1991-1-2: • Flame is impacting the ceiling (Lf > H) concrete slab beam θg θ = Air Temperature at Beam Level Y = Height of the free zone Calculated by CaPaFi x 29 .Localised Fire: HASEMI Method Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Simplified Fire Models Fully Engulfed Compartment
Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels, 27-28 November 2012 30

LOCALISED FIRE
θ (x, y, z, t)

FULLY ENGULFED COMPARTMENT
θ (t) uniform in the compartment

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Real Fire Test Simulating an Office Building
Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels, 27-28 November 2012 31

Fully engulfed fire

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Real Fire Test Simulating an Office Building
Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels, 27-28 November 2012 32

Demonstration test : set-up

Openings with normal glazed windows

Fire load with real office furniture

Real Fire Test Simulating an Office Building Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 33 Fully developed fire Early stage of fire .

Real Fire Test Simulating an Office Building Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 34 700 1200 Vertical displacement (mm) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 800 Maximum vertical displacement Steel temperature 70 80 90 600 400 200 0 100 Time (min) Temperature (°C) 34 1000 .

04 m ½ O = 0.06 m ½ O = 0.Fully Engulfed Compartment Annex A: Parametric Fire Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. At & Af 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 time [min] 35 .20 m ½ For a given b.10 m ½ O = 0. 27-28 November 2012 35 Temperature [°C] 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 Annex A of EN 1991-1-2 Iso-Curve O = 0.14 m ½ O = 0. qfd.

& Hydrocarbon fire curve *) Simplified Fire Models Localised Fire Fully Engulfed Compartment .Combined Two-Zones and One-Zone fire + Exact geometry .Two-Zone Model .HESKESTADT .One-Zone Model . t) . External fire .CFD 36 .Parametric Fire θ (t) uniform in the compartment No data needed Rate of heat release Fire surface Boundary properties Opening area Ceiling height *) Advanced Fire Models . 27-28 November 2012 36 *) Nominal temperature-time curve Standard temperature-. z.HASEMI θ (x. y.Natural Advanced Fire Model Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

27-28 November 2012 37 LOCALISED FIRE The Fire stays localised The Fire switch to a fully engulfed fire LOCALISED FIRE FULLY ENGULFED COMPARTMENT 37 .Advanced fire Models Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Advanced fire Models Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 38 38 .

Ignition Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 39 39 .

Localised Fire Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 40 T 40 .

27-28 November 2012 41 T 41 .Growing of Localised Fire Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

U Q mIN.L p mp mIN. EU. TU.Theory of two zones models Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. VL. ρU Upper layer mOUT. EL.L mL . 27-28 November 2012 42 → Localised Fire T ZS ZP Ozone Software Model Z H QC QR mU . VU. TL. ρL Lower layer 0 42 .

Theory of two zones models Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 43 2  1 zone: if one of the following criteria is reached Thot gases> 500 oC Combustible material in the smoke and Tsmoke> 300 oC Localised fire> 25 % of the compartment’s surface Smoke height > 80 % of the total height of the compartment T 43 .

combustion products 0 p = f(Z) m.O mOUT 44 . T. E.Theory of two zones models Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.L ZP mIN. ρ(Z) QC+R. 27-28 November 2012 44 Generalised Fire Ozone Software Model Z H QC QR mOUT.L Fire: RHR. V.

Large Compartment Test Fire Load Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 45 45 .

Large Compartment Test External Flaming During the Test Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 46 46 .

Large Compartment Test After the Test Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 47 47 .

27-28 November 2012 48 48 .2” Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.Two Zone Calculation Software “OZone V2.

Software “OZone V2. 27-28 November 2012 49 49 .2” Definition of the Compartment Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

2” Definition of the boundaries Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 50 50 .Software “OZone V2.

27-28 November 2012 51 51 .2” Definition of the fire Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.Software “OZone V2.

2” Criteria 2 zones – 1 zone Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 52 52 .Software “OZone V2.

27-28 November 2012 53 53 .OZone results : Input and Computed RHR Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

OZone results : Gas Temperatures Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 54 θHot θCold 54 .

OZone results : Smoke Layer Thickness Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 55 55 .

27-28 November 2012 56 56 .Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 57 57 .

27-28 November 2012 58 58 .Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

27-28 November 2012 59 59 .Compartment Fire test Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Calibration of Software OZone: Gas Temp Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 60 1400 MAXIMUM AIR T EMPERATURE OZone 1200 1000 OZone [°C] 800 600 400 200 MAXIMUM AIR T EMPERATURE IN THE COMPARTMENT 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 TEST [°C] 60 .

Calibration of Software OZone: Steel Temp Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 61 1400 UNPROTECTED STEEL TEMPERATURE 1200 1000 OZone [°C] 800 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 TEST [°C] 61 .

Calibration of Software OZone: OZone Vs Test Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.OZone Design fire 1400 1300 1200 1100 Gas Temp [°C]] 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4200 4800 OZone Office Fast OZone Office Medium Test Average Test Max Test Min qf.d =511MJ/m2 RHRf = 250kW/m2 5400 6000 6600 7200 Time [sec] 62 . 27-28 November 2012 62 Comparison BRE Test 4 .

27-28 November 2012 63 15 m 9m 63 .Calibration of Software OZone: OZone Vs Ulster Test Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

positioned evenly around the compartment(9.0m x 15.5 m high). WOODEN CRIBS LOCATION . 27-28 November 2012 64 Fire load energy density was700MJ/m2 The fire load can be achieved using 45 standard wooden cribs(1m x 1m x 0.0m).Calibration of Software OZone: OZone Vs Ulster Test Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

27-28 November 2012 65 65 .Calibration of Software OZone: OZone Vs Ulster Test Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Calibration of Software OZone: OZone Vs Ulster Test Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 66 66 .

Computer Fluid Dynamics: Software Sofie Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 67 Grid definition 67 .

27-28 November 2012 68 68 .Sofie Results: Gas Temperatures Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

27-28 November 2012 69 69 .Computer Fluid Dynamics: Free Software FDS Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Computer Fluid Dynamics: Free Software FDS Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 70 Definition of the mesh .

Computer Fluid Dynamics: Free Software FDS Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 71 71 .

Chain of Events Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.Resistance to Fire . 27-28 November 2012 72 Loads Θ Steel columns time 1: Ignition 2: Thermal action 3: Mechanical actions R time 4: Thermal response 5:Mechanical response 6: Possible collapse 72 .

27-28 November 2012 73 S Actions for temperature analysis W G Q A C T I O N S Thermal Action FIRE Actions for structural analysis Mechanical Action Dead Load Imposed Load Snow Wind G Q S W Fire 73 .Basis of Design and Actions on Structures Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

: Offices area with the imposed load Q.i.5 Q + 0.35 G + 1.i γ Q.5 • 1. the leading variable action Ed = 1.5 S 74 .1 Q 1 + ∑ ψ 0.5 W + 0. 27-28 November 2012 74 Room temperature Ed = γG G + γ Q.i Q i >1 i f.6 • 1.Combination Rules for Mechanical Actions EN 1990: Basis of Structural Design Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

d = G + ψ1or2.i.d = G + 0.0 W + 0.d = G + 0. the leading variable action Efi. : Offices area with the imposed load Q. 27-28 November 2012 75 Fire conditions ≡ Accidental situation ψ1or2.i Q i Efi.Combination Rules for Mechanical Actions EN 1990: Basis of Structural Design Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. the leading variable action Efi.3 Q 75 .3 Q Offices area with the wind W.1 Q 1 + ∑ i >1 f.

5 0 0.s. Iceland.7 0 0.7 0.50 0.50 0.6 0.50 0.20 0.70 0.7 0.3) Finland.70 0.5) ψ0 0.February 2002) 76 . residential areas Category B :office areas Category C :congregation areas Category D :shopping areas Category E :storage areas Category F : traffic area vehicle weight ≤ 30kN Category G :traffic area.7 1.20 0 0 0 ( Reference : EN1990 .l.3 0 0.0 0.3 0.7 0.3 0.4) Temperature (non-fire) in buildings (see EN1991-1. Sweden Remainder of CEN Member States.6 0.7 0. Norway. Remainder of CEN Member States.s.8 0. category (see EN 1991-1.7 0. Wind loads on buildings (see EN1991-1.20 0. for sites located at altitude H > 1000 m a.7 0. 30 kN < vehicle weight ≤ 160kN Category H :roofs Snow loads on buildings (see EN1991-1.1) Category A : domestic.l.9 0.5 0.7 0.5 ψ2 0.6 0. for sites located at altitude H ≤ 1000 m a.5 0.2 0.6 ψ1 0. 27-28 November 2012 76 Action Imposed loads in buildings.Values of ψ factors for buildings Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.6 0.

Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 77 Worked examples of EN1991-1-2 Fire part of Eurocode 1 .

27-28 November 2012 78 3.The Building (R+5) Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.4m 30 m 14 m 78 .

27-28 November 2012 79 What do we need for the calculation ? Size of the compartment Boundary properties Ceiling height Opening Area Fire surface Rate of heat release 79 Geometry Fire .The Building (R+5) Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

27-28 November 2012 80 1 30 m 6 A C 14 m 80 .Size of the compartment Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Ceiling height : 3. 27-28 November 2012 81 3.4m 30 m 14 m 81 .05 m Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

ulg.be/logiciel.ac. This Software package has been developed by the University of Liège (Cadorin-Franssen) and is available for free download on: http://www.arcelormittal.com/sections 82 .OZone Software Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.php http://www.argenco. 27-28 November 2012 82 The Software Package that will be used to perform this calculation is OZone.

27-28 November 2012 83 83 .OZone Software Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

OZone Software Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 84 84 .

Boundaries Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 85 Typical floor will be chosen: .Exterior walls : 20 cm of normal concrete .Ceiling : 15 cm of normal concrete 85 .Slab : 15 cm of Normal concrete .

27-28 November 2012 86 86 .Boundaries Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Boundaries Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 87 87 .

the amount of oxygen in the compartment will be too small and the fire will not develop. Openings can be doors. 27-28 November 2012 88 This point is one critical point.Opening Factors Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. windows and general « porosity » of the building. If no opening is taken into account from the beginning of the fire. The Eurocode is not providing the scenario that must be chosen to take into account the openings. 88 .

27-28 November 2012 89 Here are some information to help for definition of the scenario for the breaking of the windows: In the literature. it can be found that: -Normal glazing will start to break with a ∆T of 40°C on the glass -Tempered glazing will start to break with a ∆T of 120°C on the glass -Tempered glazing with reinforcement will start to break with a ∆T of 120°C on the glass (The reinforcement will melt at 300°C) 89 .Opening Factors Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Opening Factors Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. This guide will become official soon. But here is some extract for the non fire resistant glazing: -Scenario 1 : 90% of the glazing is open since the beginning -Scenario 2: -Simple glazing : -Double glazing: -Triple glazing: 100°C : 50% and 250°C: 90% 200°C : 50% and 400°C: 90% 300°C : 50% and 500°C: 90% 90 . 27-28 November 2012 90 Luxembourgish authorities have realized a guide that needs to be followed when FSE is used.

1: 0. 27-28 November 2012 91 Assumptions for the façade: -Ex.8m open all around the building -Ex.5m open all around the building -Ex. 2: 1.Opening Factors Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 3: full glazing Façade 91 .

Opening Factors Ex. 27-28 November 2012 92 92 .1 Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Opening Factors Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 93 93 .

Opening Factors Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 94 94 .

Definition of the fire Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 95 Occupancy Dwelling Hospital (room) Hotel (room) Library Office School Shopping Centre Theatre (movie/cinema) Transport (public space) Fire Growth Rate Medium Medium Medium Fast Medium Medium Fast Fast Slow RHRf [kW/m²] Fire Load qf.k 80% fractile [MJ/m²] 250 250 250 500 250 250 250 500 250 948 280 377 1824 511 347 730 365 122 95 .

Definition of the fire Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.k 80% fractile [MJ/m²] 250 250 250 500 250 250 250 500 250 948 280 377 1824 511 347 730 365 122 96 . 27-28 November 2012 96 Occupancy Dwelling Hospital (room) Hotel (room) Library Office School Shopping Centre Theatre (movie/cinema) Transport (public space) Fire Growth Rate Medium Medium Medium Fast Medium Medium Fast Fast Slow RHRf [kW/m²] Fire Load qf.

7 0. 27-28 November 2012 97 Compartment floor area Af [m²] 25 250 2500 5000 10000 Danger of Fire Activation δq1 Danger of Fire Activation δq2 Examples of Occupancies Art gallery.9 or 1 1.0 0. m . swimming pool Residence. office Manufactory for machinery & engines Chemical laboratory.22 1.61 0. Painting workshop Manufactory of fireworks or paints 1.d = δ q1 .44 1.61 1.13 0.00 1. ∏ δ ni .0 δ n6 or δ n7 δ n8 δ 1. q f .73 0.87 or 0.87 0.5 97 .0 n9 n10 0.k ni Function of Active Fire Safety Measures Automatic Fire Detection Manual Fire Suppression Safe Access Routes Independent Water Supplies 0 δ 1 n2 2 Automatic fire Automatic Alarm Detection Transmission & Alarm to by by Fire Brigade Heat Smoke δ δ n3 δ n4 n5 0.5 1.5 1.78 1.Definition of the fire Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.87 Work Fire Brigade Off Site Fire Brigade Fire Fighting Devices Smoke Exhaust System δ 1. hotel. δ q 2 . museum.00 2.10 1.78 0.50 1.66 Automatic Fire Suppression Automatic Water Extinguishing System δ n1 δ q f .90 2.

27-28 November 2012 98 98 .Definition of the fire Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

8m windows Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 99 Gas Temperature 900 800 700 600 500 Hot Zone 400 300 200 100 0 0 Analysis Name: 20 40 60 Time [min] 80 100 120 99 .Results for 0.

0 0.0 350.0 50.0 Oxygen Mass 150.0 300. 27-28 November 2012 100 Oxygen Mass 400.0 100.Results for 0.8m windows Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.0 200.0 250.0 0 Analysis Name: 20 40 60 Time [min] 80 100 120 100 .

27-28 November 2012 101 Steel Temperature 900 800 700 600 500 Hot Zone 400 Steel 300 200 100 0 0 Analysis Name: 20 40 60 Time [min] 80 100 120 101 .Results for IPE450 Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Opening Factors Ex. 27-28 November 2012 102 102 . 2 Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Results for 1. 27-28 November 2012 103 Gas Temperature 800 700 600 500 400 Hot Zone 300 200 100 0 0 Analysis Name: 20 40 60 Time [min] 80 100 120 103 .5m windows Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

0 300. 27-28 November 2012 104 Oxygen Mass 400.0 50.0 350.0 Oxygen Mass 150.0 0.5m windows Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.0 0 Analysis Name: 20 40 60 Time [min] 80 100 120 104 .0 100.0 200.0 250.Results for 1.

27-28 November 2012 105 Steel Temperature 800 700 600 500 400 Hot Zone Steel 300 200 100 0 0 Analysis Name: 20 40 60 Time [min] 80 100 120 105 .Results for IPE450 Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

27-28 November 2012 106 106 . 3 Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.Opening Factors Ex.

Results for full windows Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 107 Gas Temperature 500 450 400 350 300 250 Hot Zone 200 150 100 50 0 0 Analysis Name: 20 40 60 Time [min] 80 100 120 107 .

Results for full windows Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.0 100.0 50.0 300.0 0 Analysis Name: 20 40 60 Time [min] 80 100 120 108 .0 Oxygen Mass 200.0 150. 27-28 November 2012 108 Oxygen Mass 400.0 250.0 350.

27-28 November 2012 109 Steel Temperature 500 450 400 350 300 Hot Zone Steel 200 250 150 100 50 0 0 Analysis Name: 20 40 60 Time [min] 80 100 120 109 .Results for IPE450 Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Fire resistance assessment of steel structures Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 110 Worked examples of EN1991-1-2 Fire part of Eurocode 1 : Localised Fire .

27-28 November 2012 111 Non-dimensional parameters: Horizontal length on the ceiling: Virtual vertical coordinate: EN 1991-1-2 : 2002. Annex C Heat flux: Net Heat flux: 111 .Hasemi method for localised fires Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

0 m Steel Beam: IPE 550 . 27-28 November 2012 112 Building: Car park Auchan.Localised fire Parameters Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.0 m Diameter of flame: D = 2.7 m Horizontal distance from flame axis to beam: r = 0. Luxembourg Type: Underground car park Height: H = 2.

Localised fire Static system and section of the beam Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 113 .

67 · 10-8 W/m2K4 = 25.0 Stephan Boltzmann constant: σ = 5.0 Configuration factor: Φ = 1.0 m Vertical distance between fire source and ceiling: H = 2.0 W/m² Coefficient of the heat transfer: αc Steel profile: Section factor: Unit mass: Surface emissivity: IPE 550 Am/V = ρa = = εm 140.7 114 .Localised fire Hypothesis Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 114 Diameter of the fire: D = 2.1/m 7850 kg/m³ 0.7 m Horizontal distance between beam and flame axis: r = 0.0 m Emissivity of the fire: εf = 1.

27-28 November 2012 115 Curve of the rate of heat release of one car From ECSC project: Development of design rules for steel structures subjected to natural fires in closed car parks. .Localised fire Rate of Heat Release Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

02 ⋅ D + 0.Localised fire Flame Length Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 116 Lf = −1.0148 ⋅ Q 2 5 if Lr ≥ H if Lr < H ⇒ Model A has to be used ⇒ Model B has to be used .0148 ⋅ Q 2 5 = −2.04 + 0.

27-28 November 2012 117 The net heat flux is calculated according to Section 3.0 ⋅ θ( z ) − θ m + 3.  = h α c ⋅ θ( z ) − θ m net ( ) 4 4  + Φ ⋅ ε m ⋅ ε f ⋅ σ ⋅  θ( z ) + 273 − (θ m + 273)    = 25.1st case: The flame is not impacting the ceiling Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.969 ⋅ 10 ( ) −8 ( ) ⋅  (θ( ) + 273)  z 4 − (θ m + 273)    4 117 .1 of EN 1991-1-2.

0052 ⋅ Q 25 118 .04 + 0.1st case: The flame is not impacting the ceiling Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.8 ⋅ Q ) 23 ⋅ 4.0052 ⋅ Q ( ) −5 3 ≤ 900 °C where: z is the height along the flame axis (2.25 ⋅ ( 0.0052 ⋅ Q 25 = −2.02 ⋅ D + 0.74 − 0. 27-28 November 2012 118 The gas temperature is calculated to: θ( z ) = 20 + 0.25 ⋅ ( 0.7 m) z0 is the virtual origin of the axis [m] z0 = −1.8 ⋅ Q ) ⋅ ( z − z0 ) 23 −5 3 ≤ 900 °C 25 = 20 + 0.

2nd case: The flame is impacting the ceiling Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. is given by: 4 4   hnet = h − α c ⋅ (θ m − 20 ) − Φ ⋅ ε m ⋅ ε f ⋅ σ ⋅ (θ m + 273) − ( 293)  − 25. if the flame is impacting the ceiling.0 ⋅ (θ − 20 ) − 3.969 ⋅ 10−8 h = m ( ⋅ ( (θ m + 273) 4 ) − ( 293) ) 4 119 . 27-28 November 2012 119 Net heat flux.

300 − 121.30:  = 100. different equations for determination of the heat flux have to be used.7 + z ' 120 . if y ≤ 0.2nd case: The flame is impacting the ceiling Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.30 < y < 1.7 = h where: r + H + z' 2.000 h  = 136.0: if y ≥ 1. For different dimensions of y. 27-28 November 2012 120 The heat flux depends on the parameter y.000 ⋅ y −3.000 ⋅ y h if 0.7 + z ' y = = Lh + H + z ' Lh + 2.0:  15.

11 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 2.83 ⋅ (Q ) ( * H ) 0.0: if QD* ≥ 1.0 − ( Q ) ) 25 − QD* * 25 23 = 4.7 ) where: * 6 2.5 6 2.11 ⋅ 10 ⋅ D = Q 1.4 ⋅ D ⋅ QD* (( ) ( ) ) (( ) ( z ' =2.33 ) − 2.11 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 2.0 D ( ) ( ) .7 + z ' r + H + z' = Lh + H + z ' Lh + 2.9 H ⋅ QH ( ( * ) 0.5 6 2.0 − ( Q ) ) =4.8 ⋅ QD* 25 − QD* ) 23 ) * 25 D D * 6 2.4 ⋅ D ⋅ (1.5 Q = Q 1. 27-28 November 2012 y 2.5 Q = Q 1.33 )−H = (7.7 H ( The vertical position of the virtual heat source is determined by: if QD* < 1.2nd case: The flame is impacting the ceiling Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.8 ⋅ (1.7 + z ' 121 The horizontal flame length is calculated by: Lh =⋅ 2.11 ⋅ 10 ⋅ H = Q 1.0: where: z' = 2.

max = 31.max = 770 °C at t θ.07 min . 27-28 November 2012 122 Temperature-time curve for the unprotected steel beam: Am V  1.78 ⋅ 10−2  θ a= θ m + ksh ⋅ t θm + ⋅ hnet ⋅ ∆= ⋅ hnet .Localised fire Steel temperatures Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.t ca ⋅ ρ a ca θa.

max = 770 °C at t θ.t ca ⋅ ρ a ca θa. 27-28 November 2012 123 Temperature-time curve for the unprotected steel beam: Am V  1.78 ⋅ 10−2  θ a= θ m + ksh ⋅ t θm + ⋅ hnet ⋅ ∆= ⋅ hnet .Localised fire Steel temperatures Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.max = 31.07 min .

27-28 November 2012 124 .Excel Spreadsheet Capafi Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

27-28 November 2012 125 Chart Title 850 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 Pos 1 Pos 2 Pos 3 Pos 4 Pos 5 Axis Title 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 Axis Title 4200 4800 5400 6000 6600 7200 .Excel Spreadsheet Capafi Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 126 Worked examples of EN1991-1-2 Example of Application of buildings calculated with Natural Fire Safety Concept .

27-28 November 2012 127 Braun Building in Crissier Production of Medical Material .Switzerland Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Switzerland Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 128 BOBST Building in Lausanne Offices + Production .

27-28 November 2012 129 Congress centre of EPFL in Lausanne Crédit Suisse / HRS / Richter-Dahl&Rocha .Switzerland Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

27-28 November 2012 130 © EADS Airbus .France Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

France Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 131 Car park of Toulouse Blagnac Airport .

27-28 November 2012 132 Greich Office Building in Liège .Belgium Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

27-28 November 2012 133 BARREIRO RETAIL PARK .Portugal Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Portugal Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 134 Exhibition Center .

27-28 November 2012 135 IKEA shopping center in Lefkosia .Cyprus Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

United Kingdom Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 136 Heron Tower – Arup Fire London .

Luxembourg Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 17 rue de Hollerich à Luxembourg Ville Shopping centre Residential . 27-28 November 2012 137 Fonds du Logement.

Luxembourg Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 138 Chambre de Commerce Luxembourg Office Building .

Luxembourg Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 139 Dexia-Bil in Esch sur Alzette Office Building .

27-28 November 2012 140 ArcelorMittal Office Building in Esch sur Alzette .Luxembourg Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels.

Luxembourg Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 141 ArcelorMittal Office Building in Esch sur Alzette .

Workshop ‘Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes’ – Brussels. 27-28 November 2012 142 Thank you for your attention … QUESTIONS? 142 .

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