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C. List the 4 sources of energy mentioned in the text.

5. Catching Some Rays

Harnessing the power of the sun is nothing new. People have had solarpowered calculators and buildings with solar panels for decades. But plants are the real experts: They've been using sunlight as an energy source for billions of years. Cells in the green leaves of plants work like tiny factories to convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into sugars and starches - stored energy that the plants can use. This conversion process is called photosynthesis. Unfortunately, unless you're a plant, it's difficult and expensive to convert sunlight into storable energy. That's why scientists are taking a closer look at exactly how plants do it.

1. Answer the following questions:

. Suppose .

you were any other living organism except human. How would you get the energy to sustain Yourself? solar Sunlight is Earth's chief energy source. can we make greater use of

, Man has learned how to fly from birds. ls there anything plants can teach us? . Does your answer to the last question have anything in common with your
answer to the Previous

energy? How?

one?

energy' 2. You are going to read a text about converting the sun's light into in Match the life form in the fjrst column with its source of obtaining energy

the second column.


animals plants organisms deeP in the ocean heat other organisms sunlight

The main sources of energy that people use today are called fossil fuels, such as natural gas, oil, and coal. Unfortunately, the supply of fossil fuel is limited. Once we use all the coal and oil in the Earth, they're gone for good. The sun, on the other hand, is a renewable energy source. No matter how we tap it for energy, the sun will be around - at least for the next few billion years. There's another problem with burning fossil fuels - pollution. The ideal energy sources of the future will be "clean": they won't produce carbon dioxide and other gases that pollute the environment as fossil fuels do. Hydrogen is one alternative to fossil fuels that interests many researchers today. Hydrogen burns clean - it produces only water, not carbon dioxide. Researchers are trying to come up with ways to make large quantities of hydrogen cheaply and cleanly, and one way involves using plants.
Some scientists are trying to get plants, or biological cells that act like plants, to work as miniature photosynthetic power stations. For example, Maria Ghirardi of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colo., is working with green algae. During photosynthesis, plants normally make sugars or starches. "But under certain conditions, a lot of algae are able to use the sunlight energy not to store starch, but to make hydrogen," Ghirardi says. For example, algae will produce hydrogen in an airfree environment. lt's the oxygen in the air that prevents algae from making hydrogen most of the time. Working in an airfree

trSreck ltour ComPrehension lt'


3. A. Read the text quickly and say whether this passage comes from:

a) a novel b) a science book c) a newspaPer

plants B. Read again and choose the best heading for each section: Putting scratch, from to work, Storing solar energy, Making sun catchers Growing algae, Focusing on fuel. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use.

environment, however, is difficult. lt's not a practical way to produce cheap energy. But Ghirardi and her colleagues have discovered that by removing a chemical called sulfate from the environment that the algae grow in, they will make hydrogen instead of sugars, even when air is present. Unfortunately, removing the sulfate also makes the algae's cells work very slowly, and not

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much hydrogen is produced. Still, the researchers see this as a first step in their goal to produce hydrogen etficiently from algae.

o rd 'IV'ork
5. For each set of sentences, find one word in the text which can be used appropriately in all three situations. a) Since the sun lights and warms the entire planet, the ability to .... its energy could provide a clean energy source for everyone. lf you can . your energy, you will accomplish a great deal.

Other scientists interested in alternate fuel sources are also focusing on plants. But these researchers want to re-create what plants do without actually using them. Plants have specific molecules that catch the energy of sunlight during photosynthesis. Some biochemists have used special techniques to take a snapshot of these molecules inside a cell. "We finally know what the little factory looks like," says Daniel Nocera, a professor of chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MlT). Chemists in Nocera's lab have an ambitious plan to capture the sun's energy. Instead of adjusting the suncatching molecules found naturally in plants and algae, these researchers want to build artificial sun-catching molecules from scratch. "We're all busily working away to try to figure out how to make [photosynthesis] happen outside of the leaf," Nocera says. Finding solutions to our energy problems is one of the great scientific challenges of our time, Nocera says. But it's the challenge of the unanswered questions that keeps him excited about his work. "lt's like we need to paint a picture," he says. "At some points, we don't even have thg
paints yet."
(Ad a pted fro m www. scie n ce n ew sfo rkid s. o rg )

to . a horse to a wagon. b) During photosynthesis, plants normally make sugars or ... He is so full of ... ..... he can't relax. Spray . on the shirt collars before ironing them and they'll become
My grandfather knew how stiff. 6. The phrase

from scratch is an idiomatic expression meanin g "from the

beginning; with nothing". Choose the best meaning for the following idioms.
1 . lt's a far cry from those days long ago when you could leave your front door unlocked. a) a long shout away b) a long time since c) a long way before d) a long time before

4. Decide if the following sentences are true (T) or false (F) according to the
text. 1. Scientists consider that converting sunlight into storable energy is a simple process. 2. Solar power is an environmental friendly source of energy. 3. Unlike fossil fuels, the sun is an unlimited energy source. 4. Future energy sources, such as hydrogen, will still pollute the environment. 5. One of the challenges of today's research is producing large quantities of hydrogen. 6. Green algae usually produce hydrogen instead of sugars during photosynthesis. 7. An airfree environment proved to be practical to produce cheap energy. 8. Researchers are working on creating artificial molecules that will capture

2. I wish you would stop talking and hear me out. a) let me go across b) let me listen to you c) let me carry on listening d) let me finish speaking
3. We haven't seen him for ages but he turns up once in a) occasionally b) sometimes c) very rarely d) frequently

a blue moon.

the sunlight. 9. Finding alternative ways to solve our energy problem is regarded as
manageable.

4. lt's like hitting your head against a brick wall trying to get him to see sense because he takes no notice a) very painful

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b) almost impossible c) almost damaging d) very hurtful 5. He's got it into his head that we think he's stupid but we really don't. a) He seriously contemPlates b) He seriously ponders c) He seriously wonders d) He seriously believes

8. Fill in the blanks with either Present Simple or Present Continuous. 1. Nicola .... (organise) our conferences and booklets publishing. 2. Nicola is away on her vacation, so | . ... (arrange) all relations with publishing company. 3. Accidents .. .. (happen/always) on this terrible road. (have) turkey for Christmas dinner. 4. In Britain we 5. | .. .. (meet) Bob at 12 o'clock tomorrow. (begin) at 7.30 and . (end) at 6. The concert
9.30.

6. lt's like talking to a brick wall because you never get an answer from her. a) there's nobody there b) there's something there c) there's a lot there d) there's anything there

. 1 .. 8. But |
7

.....

(noUeaVusually) sweet things. ...... (eat) some birthday cake today because it's Alan's

birthday.

9. Read these example sentences; two of them have been taken from the text. Decide which one of the rules presented below is false.
Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous

!rt*t,

Practice

7. Notice these two sentences taken from the text:


Cel/s in the green leaves of plants work like tiny factories. Scienfisfs are taking a closer look at exactly how plants do it.

Some biochemists have used special They've been using sunlight as an techniques to take a snapshot of energy source for billions of years. these molecules inside a cell. lt has snowed every winter for years. It has been snowing all day.

They clearly illustrate the differences in using Present Simple (for permanent situations) versus Present Continuous (for temporary situations). Choose the appropriate usage from the list a - h for each of the sentences 1-8' a) habitual action
b) repeated action expressing annoyance c) timetables/ programmes
1. The exhibition opens on January 1"'

l've written six letters since


breakfast.

l've been writing letters since


breakfast.
I have been waiting for you for 20 minutes.

2.They're flying to Barcelona next week. 3. Jonathan drives to work every day.
4. You're always interrupting when I talk.

Chloe has lived in Paris


for 25 years. He has bought a house. (Now he owns a house.)

5. John works for computer magazine' Every month he wrifes a computer market review.

He has been running. That's why he's out of breath.

d) fixed arrangement in 6. Send this information to John. He needs it for a current review he's writing now. the near future e) permanent situations 7. Peter deals with enquiries about our book sales. f) temporary

situations 8. I am dealing with enquiries

about our last

g)

routine
speaking

published book while Peter is away on training courses.

h) moment of

Rule 1: We use Present Perfect Simple for recently completed actions, whereas Present Perfect Continuous illustrates actions starting in the past and sfill happening at present. Rufe 2: Present Perfect Simple for a repeated action and Present Perfect Continuous for a continuing activity. Rule 3: We can place emphasis on numbers using Present Perfect Simple and emphasis on duration with Present Perfect Continuous.

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Rule 4: Only the Present Perfect Continuous can be used for activities which are stiil happening. Rule 5: We use Present Perfect Simple to describe the present result of an earlier action and Present Perfect Continuous when we are more interested in the activity as a process.
10. Write full sentences starting from the prompts given, using either Present

$ritins
11. In a world with increasing energy needs, scientists are turning to plants for help in using solar power. And this is but an example of how researchers

Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Continuous, as in the example: e.g. Frank / sleep / 10 hours ... Frank has been sleeping for 10 hours... 1. (How many hamburgers / you / have?)

2. (How long / you lwait?)

are trying to achieve the impossible and give us hope for the future. Still, scientists complain about lack of funding to support their work. Given the progress science has made lately, should we allocate more money for research? Write your opinion in a 1SO-word composition organised as follows: Introduction - paragraphl: state your opinion clearly Main body - paragraphs 2 and 3: give two different arguments supported by j ustifications/examples Conclusion - paragraph 4: summarise your opinion

. ,""rf n"ro, "r" o'nu. (;"'; ;.p";;;il" ""r)


4. You can borrow this book. (l / already / finish / it)

s trnev I r.no* ;;

";;;,

''0 u""'.1

6. You can't drive a car. (you / drink)

i f, no,rr"",nrltoo"vl
8. (Roger / win / 4 competitions / this season)

n ti i *r',",

"r"iir,

"

rorni.gl

10. (l / answer / 7 emails / since 9 am)


11. Your eyes are red. (you / cry?)

''r.

tt"*.i

'"r"

inir r"o' on"."i "

13. (across / three times / sail / the Pacific / we)

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