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eruption is preceded by about 2 days or coryza, during which stage grayish pecks (Koplik spots) may be found on the inner surface of the cheeks. A morbilliform rash appears on the 3rd or 4th day affecting face, body and extremities ending in branny desquamation. Death is due to complication (e.g. secondary pneumonia, usually in children under 2 years old. Measles is severe among malnourished children with fatality of 95-100%. Etiologic Agent: Filterable virus of Measles Source of Infection: Secretion of nose and throat of infected persons. Modes of Transmission: 1. 2. 3. Directly – by being sprayed with droplets emanating from a cough or sneeze Indirectly – with articles newly contaminated with respiratory secretions from a patient. Probably Airborne Incidence peak age is about 1-5 years old in congested urban areas and at early school age in less crowded sections. Immunity from the disease is long lasting while passive immunity transmitted transplacentally from mothers who have had measles may last about 5-6 months. The live attenuated vaccine confers almost lifelong immunity while
the inactivated antigen gives an immunity 0f 6-18 months. Incubation Period:
10-12 days; one attack usually confers a lasting immunity 8 days shortest; 20 days longest
Period of Communicability: During the period of coryza or catarrhal symptoms – 9 days (from 4 days before and 5 days after rash appears)
Pre-eruptive Stage 2. A cool mist vaporizer can be used to relieve cough. 3. Methods of Prevention and Control 1. Remove eye secretions with warm saline or water. Respiratory symptoms – which appear first as a common cold. Fever – gradually subsides as the eruptions disappear on the hands and feet Treatment: No theraphy is indicated for uncomplicated measles. Observe closely the patient for complications during and after the acute stage. guide and supervise adequate nursing care indicated. 5. 4. Teach.1. Nursing Care 1. . 5. 3. and sneezing nasal discharges. progress to the bronchi resulting successively in rhinitis. Isolate child until fifth day of rash. oropharynx. The patient may also take over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol. leaving a dirty brown pigmentation and finely granular which maybe noted for several days. Apply antipruritic medication to prevent itching. from the face downwards. Gamma globulin although effective in prophylaxis is no value once symptoms are evidence. Eruptive Stage/Stage of Skin Rashes exanthem sign – means eruption in the skin 3. Keep the patient in an adequately ventilated room but free from drafts and chilling to avoid complications of pneumonia. others) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to help relieve the fever that accompanies measles. pruritis. patient is highly communicable fever catarrhal symptoms – start in the nasal cavities. demonstrate. conjunctivitis and then bronchitis. Emphasize the need for immediate isolation when early catarrhal symptoms appear . lethargy and occipital lymphadenopathy Stage of Convalescence Maculopapular Rashes – appears 2-7 days after onset With high fever – increases steadily Rashes – fade in the same manner as they appeared. Administer antipyretic medication and tepid sponge baths as ordered. explain this to the family and refer to physician or clinic giving this service. Patient should be monitored for the development of bacterial infections which should be treated with appropriate antibiotics on the basis of clinical and bacteriological findings. Encourage the patient not to rub the eyes. Teach concurrent and terminal disinfection. If there is sensitivity to light. 2. Protect eyes of patients from glare of strong light as they are apt to be inflamed. If immune serum of globulin is available (gamma Globulin). 2. steadily progress into a distressing and annoying cough that persists up to convalescence. Explain proceedings in proper disposal of nose and throat discharges. keep room darkly lit. 2. Avoid exposing children to any person with fever or with acute catarrhal symptoms Isolation of cases from diagnosis until about 5-7 days after onset of rash Disinfection of all articles soiled with secretion of nose and throat Encourage by health department and by private physician of administration of measles immune globulin to susceptible infants and children under 3 years of age in families or institutions where measles occurs. Maintain bedrest and provide quiet activities for the child. 4. Anorexia and irritability – are disturbing particularly at the height of the fever Diarrhea. at 9 months of age or soon thereafter Public Health Nursing Responsibilities 1. Don’t give aspirin to children because of the risk of Reye’s syndrome — a rare but potentially fatal disease. Live attenuated and inactivated measles virus vaccines have been tested and are available for use in children with no history of measles. 6. then in the conjunctivae.
Symptoms and signs usually start from eight to twelve days after getting exposure to the virus. and eruption in the entire body. Teach. Then the rash appears in the skin after fourteen days of exposure. they are German measles or rubella. which forms rashes on the skin and it last about three days and rubeola or regular measles. The person having measles sneezes or coughs. fever. a brassy cough. . Measles Causes The measles virus is communicable or contagious. When to need medical Care Generally. sneezing. Check for corrections of medication and treatment prescribed by physician. But the affected patient should be taken to the doctor to evaluate any general malaise. fever. Types of Measles There are two types of measles. Roseola is another infectious disease prevalent among children Roseola forms rashes and which comes and goes in 24 to 48 hours. person can spread the disease within one to days before any symptoms appear. conjunctivitis. which accompany rash in children. 4. conjunctivitis. Sometime or occasionally air is the medium for the spreading the virus. releases or expels water droplets. the infection can be spread from one person to another. a brassy cough. guide and supervise correct technique of giving sponge bath for comfort of patient. sneezing. nasal congestion. Measles is a highly communicable or contagious disease. It is continued to be contagious three to five days before appearance of the rash and four to five days after the rash starts. immediate emergency is not required for the measles.3. What is Measles? Measles is a disease generally affects children and can occur in other age groups. occurs primarily in children. Measles is a viral infection of respiratory system with distinct red spots followed by a rash in skin. nasal congestion. is the second type that last about seven days. which is characterized by general malaise. which carry the virus and it can infect anyone who come into contact with them.
. A vaporizer or humidifier can be used to ease the cough. Cough medicines to be given as approved for children. Plenty of liquid should be given to drink to avoid dehydration. Child fingernails should be trimmed or to be put inside the gloves to avoid scratching the rash excessively and which can hurt more. Pain reliever and medicine for fever to be given to children such as Children's Motrin. Self-Care at Home There is no proper cure for measles. Medically. this can help in control the cough. Benadryl or Calamine lotion should be applied on the effected parts to ease the itch occur due to the rash. Pediaprofen and Children's Advil according to the symptoms.5°F. Prevention and summary Vaccination and immunization has minimized the disease to great extend.15 months. Extra steps to be followed up Few rare complications may be experienced in children having weak immune system during the course of measles attack then a doctor to be consulted immediately. initial measles immunization is done to the children from age 12. the doctor may have particular specialized blood test to diagnose properly. One has to be very careful giving medicines to children because if aspirin is given to a child then he may have Reye syndrome that is another disease. Ibuprin. If the child has fever higher than 100. In doubtful cases. The second immunization is done to the children enter to school or middle school level. then the child should be given sponge bath with lukewarm water to upper body and the face. Giving sufficient bed rest to the child so he feels more comfortable.Exams and Tests The doctor may diagnose by taking physical exam and studying the history of measles patient. But one can take necessary steps at home to make total course of disease more adjustable and tolerable.