You are on page 1of 14

ACOUSTICS

SOUND ACOUSTICS TERMINOLOGY

Acoustics The science that studies the waves that are conducted through matter due to the motion of the matter. Usually air is the material that most people think of when it comes to acoustic waves. But acoustic waves exist in all matter. Architectural acoustics, is the study of acoustics when the air is contained in a room. Church acoustics is a sub-division of architectural acoustics.. Sound (waves) Pressure fluctuations in the air that are heard when an acoustic wave passes by. They are usually caused by objects in the air that quickly change position or a stream of air that quickly changes position. Sound escapes away from the sound source as an expanding spherical wave that travels at the speed of 1130 feet per second, traveling about 1 1/8th of a foot each one thousandths of a second (millisecond).. Sound Level The measure of the strength of sound. Units are decibels (dB) and usually measured with a dB meter. The threshold of quiet sound is zero dB and the onset of painful sound is 100 dB. Conversations are at 50 dB, whispers at 30 dB and shouting is 70 dB. When the sound strength of something doubles, it increases by 3 dB, or halved, it drops by 3 dB. Loudness The apparent strength of the sound to the listener. A change in 1 dB is just barely noticed as a change in loudness. Something twice as loud is actually 10 dB stronger, (10 times stronger). Something half as loud is 10 dB weaker, (1/10th as strong). Direct Sound (direct signal) The part of a sound wave that travels directly along the line of sight path between the speaker or sound source and the listener. The dry or actual sound. Reflections Sound waves that strike a surface and bounce off are reflected sounds. They bounce off the wall, changing directions but keeping the same angle off the wall as they had when they approached the wall. Early Reflections Reflections that are heard within 1/20 of a second of the direct sound are called early reflections. Early reflections cannot be distinguished from direct signals, they merge with the direct sound to form one composite sound. This combining effect can cause the sound of the direct signal to change in tonal characteristics and apparent direction.

Late reflections (Echoes) A distinct reflection that arrives at the listener later than 1/20th of a second after the direct sound is heard. The listener can identify from where an echo comes. An echo does not change the tonal characteristics of the direct sound. Flutter Echo This type of echo is most easily heard as one claps their hands out in front of them, while standing in a hallway. The sound "zings" and it's tone depends on how many times a second the reflection passes by the listener's head. In a hall 8' wide, the clap will expand out, hit the wall and return 143 times a second and the zing will sound like a 143 Hz buzzy tone. Not a real sound, just a pseudo-tone. Reverberation For sound in a large room, reverberation begins at about 1/5 second following the direct sound. It is due to the accumulation of many reflections, compounding one upon the other, so much that the sound no longer seems composed of echoes but rather just a sound of noise, a din of chaos that has no discrete direction and no discrete timing. Diffusion Reflections off of a non flat surface that causes the sound wave to become more quickly disorganized than if off a flat surface is a diffusive surface. Diffusion decreases the time it takes for echoes to become converted to reverberation. The beautiful gothic churches of the old world have very diffusive or sound scattering surfaces. That is part of the sonic beauty of those spaces. Decay The dying out of sound. Usually referring to the steady decline in the loudness of the reverberation. Decay Rate (RT-60) The time (in seconds) it takes for reverberation to change from very loud to imperceptibly quiet, a total sound level difference of 60 dB. For a living room the RT60 might be 1 second but in a gym, it might be 4 seconds. Absorption The loss of sound energy that occurs when the sound wave strikes a fibrous surface. The fibers provide acoustic friction for the sound wave. The wave does not slow down due to the friction, it keeps it's same speed but it does lose energy and get quieter. NRC Rating (Noise Reduction Coefficient) A rating for absorption. It gives the % efficiency for a surface to absorb sound. If a surface is 30% absorptive, then only 70% of the incident sound is reflected back into the room.

Noise (Background Noise) The unwanted, undesirable and usually interfering sounds present in a listening space, typically due to an air conditioner or other conversations. Noise Floor The strength of the background noise, measured in dB. It is difficult to understand what is being said in a room with a high noise floor. Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S/N ratio) The difference in sound level (dB) between the desired sound and the noise floor. Articulation The clarity of a sound, particularly a message conveyed by sound, such that it can be easily and completely understood. A slurred sound may be well heard but the message it carries may still not be well understood, it is inarticulate. Also, a clear and distinct sound may be drowned out by a nearby louder noise, rendering the message not understandable, inarticulate. Echoes also cause articulation problems. Articulation is most often measured in some form of a desired signal to unwanted noise ratio. Intelligibility A measure of the clarity of sound based on the comprehension of the message being conveyed by sound. A "cat, bat, tat, rat... type of recognition test. The conversational version of Articulation. Bright/Lively The condition of sound in which there is an abundance of treble range reflections giving the feeling of "brightness" or "liveliness" to the sound. Sound in a tile bathroom or kitchen is bright. Too much can seem harsh and irritating. Dark/Dead The condition of sound in a room when there is a lack of reflections and a lack of reverberance. Too much can seem lack-luster and uneasy feeling. Boomy The condition of sound in a room when the lower frequencies, particularly the male voice range is excessively reverberant. Psychoacoustics The study and science of how the human comprehends and makes sense out of the sounds they hear. The difference between an early reflection and a late

(echo) reflection, is an example of psychoacoustics. The blending of the early reflections with the direct sound is another. Audiology The science and practice of amplifying or otherwise improving how well a person hears sound. Frequency (Hertz, Hz, cps) A single sound pulse as from a fire cracker has sound energy but no tone. Tones are sounds that come from voices or instruments which have a repetitive pressure pulse characteristic. The number of repeat times per second that a sound has is called it's frequency. It's unit of measurement is cycles per second (cps) also called Hz (Hertz). Similar to pitch in musical terms. Sound Spectrum The sound level measured at different frequencies. Most tones are composed of more than one frequency, a combination of frequencies, as in a musical chord. The sound spectrum would measure the strength of each frequency and display that graph as a plot of Sound Level vs. Frequency, also known as a sound spectrum. The "color" of sound is used as emphasis in the spectrum. Sonic Color The shift in emphasis of a complex sound within it's spectral range. A neutral color is the preferred natural sound but sometimes sound can have a warm color, an emphasis on lower frequencies or a cold color, an emphasis on higher frequencies or a nasal color, an emphasis on midrange frequencies. Ultrasonics Sound whose frequency range is above that of human hearing, above 20,000 Hz. Infrasonics Sound whose frequency range is below that of human hearing, below 20 Hz. Octave Sound that exists within a limited frequency range, between a lower set frequency and a set upper frequency. The difference between the lower and upper frequency is specified to be equal to the lower frequency. The octave sequence for the note "C" starts at 31 Hz and continues thru 63 Hz, 125 Hz, 250 Hz, 500 Hz, 1k Hz, 2k Hz, 4k Hz, 8k Hz and ends at 16k Hz. (k = thousand).

Voicing The process of defining the desirable condition of sound in an acoustic space. It integrates the direct, early and late reflections with the reverberation, including a sense of timing and direction for each into an appropriate and desirable acoustic condition for the listener. It combines both the art and science of sound. It requires an understanding of the purpose to be served by each acoustic space. As an art form, it recognizes the aesthetic side of sound, the impression that most people prefer to have of each particular type of sound that exists in some particular place. As a science, it is based on psychoacoustics. Acoustician An acoustical engineer who is trained and experienced in voicing rooms. Acoustical Engineer One formally educated, experienced in the science and practice of acoustics. Sound Engineer Someone trained in setting up microphones and speakers. Acoustic Contractor Someone trained and experienced in installing acoustic tiles and wall panels. Acoustic Consultant Someone, not formally trained, experienced in providing acoustical services. Acoustic Designer Someone, not formally trained, who prepares blueprints for acoustic projects. Sound Designer One who envisions and directs the way sound plays out of a stage..

PLUMBING

STANDARD COMMERCIAL NSIZE OF GI PIPE FOR WATER SUPPLY: 1 1/3

2 1/2 4 LOCATION FOR CLEAN OUT: 1. any horizontal waste or soil pipe exceeding 15m 2. at upper end of every branch 22.5 & over ZEOLITE- treatment of hard water MAIN VENT- principal artery of venting system to which vent branch pipe maybe connected COMMON VENT- single vent that ventilates multiple traps of back to back fixture AIR OUTLET- air generated device to open or close a damper or valve UTILITIES .60- elevator width for single door for small commercial and residential .35- distance of rung type fire escape 2m- min distance of face to face elevators ULTRAVIOLET TYPE- other type of flame detector other than infrared type HUMIDSTAT- control device sensitive to degree of moisture in air. Also hygrostat THERMOSTAT- device installed in electric water heater to detect temperature WINDING DRUM MACHINE- geared drive machine in w/c suspension ropes are fastened to and wind on a drum GUIDE RAILS- track that serves as guide for car and counter weight IMPEDANCE- resistance in AC system CONDUCTANCE- reciprocal at resistance CIRCULAR MILL- .0051 60 CYCLES- frequency of power supplied by Meralco 10 ft- standard length of electric metal conduit POWER PANEL- another name for distribution panel AMMETER- device used to measure current flow in electrical circuit FARAD- unit capacity of a capacitor SEPTIC TANK: location and features a. 15 meters away from potable water b. if theres a public sewer pipe, septic tank is not allowed c. no septic tank under house d. inlets & outlets are submerge e. bottom tank should have slope of 1:10 mm towards center

f. g. h. i.

top cover 0.15 m above soil 0.30 m air space 0.50 lower- inlet 0.025 lower- outlet

VOLUME OF SEPTIC TANK a. min width- 0.90 b. min length- 1.50 c. min depth- 1.20 d. for residential- 0.14 to 0.17 per person e. 12 persons- not more than 2.0 cum f. schools, industrial- 0.057 cum per person minimum 0.86 cum maximum MATERIALS FOR PLUMBING INSTALLATIONS 1. galvanized iron- (G.I) steel pipes - 15-20 years life span - deteriorates fast when used for hot water - corroded w/ alkaline and acid water - made out of mild steel 2. plastic or synthetic pipe a. rigid 1. polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 2. chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) 3. unplastesized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) 4. polypropylene (PP) 5. acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 6. styrene rubber plastic (SR) b. flexible 1. polyethylene (PE)- coil form at 30 mts 2. polybutylene (PB)- up to 150 mts long in coil form 3. cast iron pipe- durable - use for less than 25 storey because water leak due to vibration 2 types: 1. SV- for building installations 2. XV- for underground installation 4. acid resistant cast iron pipe- made of alloy, cast iron & silicon - installed in chemical labs for acid waste disposal 5. asbestos pipe- made of asbestos fibers & Portland cement

- suitable for embedment on concrete structures 6. bituminous fiber sewer pipe- cheapest and lightest - for house sewer 7. vitrified clay pipe- made of clay & w/ length of 0.75 m threaded w/ glazed compound. High resistant to acid & suited in underground installation. Brittle, cracks easily when laid on unsuitable ground 8. lead pipe- one of the oldest plumbing material . not recommended to convey water for human consumption 9. galvanized wrought iron pipes- better than steel pipes for plumbing because it is more resistant to acid waste 10. brass pipe- most expensive. Made of alloy of zinc & copper mixed 15% :85% highly suitable for waste & water because of its smooth surface aside from its high resistance to acids 11. copper pipes- durable material w/c is extremely corrosive resistance. Easiest to install Type K- heaviest for underground installation L- lighter than K, comes in flexible & rigid type M- thinner & available only in rigid form

Types of Water Closet SIPHON-VORTEX Water enters through diagonal punching around the rim of the bowl, creating a vortex that draws the water down into the rear trap with a swirling action that scours the walls of the bowl. Water strikes two parallel ridges and folds over forming a jet, producing siphonic action. Large water surface provides a very efficient and clean process, and the flushing is extremely quiet. This model is mostly of one-piece construction with a low profile. Expensive. SIPHON-JET Water enters through rim punchings and jets placed in an up-leg of the rear trap, filling the trapway and creating an instant siphon action without rise of water level. The result is quick water withdrawal. Large water surface provides an efficient and clean operation. With quiet flushing and moderate cost, this is the most popular residential model. REVERSE-TRAP Water enters through rim punchings and through a jet that fills the rear trapway completely, creating a siphon action and resulting in quick withdrawal of water from

the bowl. A water jet is located at the inlet of the trapway. Most of the bowl surface is covered with water. This model is efficient but moderately noisy. Its cost is reasonably low. WASH-DOWN Water enters through an open rim, as though a bucket of water were dumped into the bowl, filling the front trapway and creating siphon action. This model provides quick removal of water with minimum water rise. Small water surface makes the model more vulnerable to soiling and clogging. This is the least efficient and most noisy type but lowest in cost. PRESSURE/TANKLESS Strong flushing action is created by a jet of water directed into the rim and jet. The force of the jet draws the bowl contents into the rear trap. It doesn't use siphonic action but relies on the driving force of jet action. At flush valve 25 psi is needed with 1.5-in. inlet spud. Large water surface and large trapway size make this model efficient and suitable for commercial use. Flushing is very noisy. Expensive. PRESSURE/TANK A steel tank is located inside the china tank. Uses pressure from the water supply system. A 1.5 in. water supply line provides 25 psi pressure, compressing trapped air in the tank. When flushed the compressed air forces the water out. The bowl is designed to accept the torrent of water. The crest of the surging water empties the bowl through the enlarged trap. Large water surface makes this model efficient. Design features make it suitable for residential use. Flushing is very noisy. Low water usage (1.5 gpf) helps conserve water. Expensive.

Polyvinyl chloride - A strong, rigid and economical plastic pipe. It resists a wide range of acids and bases but may be damaged by some solvents and chlorinated carbons

Glass pipe - A type of pipe manufactured from low expansion borosilicate having low alkali content; primarily used for the drainage of various corrosive liquids. It is very brittle and should be used when some measure of protection is provided against damage. Check valve - A valve that permits the flow of liquid in a pipe in one direction only and closes automatically to prevent backflow Floor drain - A fixture providing an opening in the floor to drain water into the plumbing system Cleanout - A pipe fitting with a removable plug which provides for inspection or cleaning of the pipe run; also called an access eye or cleaning eye Circuit vent - A branch vent which serves two or more traps and extends from infront of the last fixture connection of a horizontal branch to the stack Vent pipe - A pipe attached to drainage pipes near one or more traps which leads to outside air Wye fitting - A fitting used to connect a branch pipe into a straight run of piping at 45 degrees Trap - A fitting or device so constructed as to prevent the passage of foul air, gases and some vermin without affecting the flow of sewage inside the pipe Seal Measurement - The vertical distance between the top dip and crown weir of a pipe Cesspool - A lined and covered excavation in the ground which receives the discharge of domestic sewage or other organic wastes from a drainage system Septic tank - A watertight receptacle which receives the discharge of a plumbing system or part thereof and is designed and constructed so as to separate solids from liquid, digest the organic matter through a period of detention and allow the effluent to discharge into a drainage system Back vent - Also called an individual vent Blind vent - A vent which terminates on the upper side of the fixture and does not connect to the main vent system. This is sometimes done with the intent of cheating Globe Valve - A valve in which the flow of fluid is controlled by a rotating drilled ball that fits tightly against a resilient seat in the body Loop Vent - A type of ventilation system used on fixtures in a room away from partitions Air Gap - The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the outlet of a waste pipe and the flood level rim of the fixture or receptacle into which it is draining

Trap - A device or fitting which provides when properly vented, a liquid seal to prevent the emission of sewer gases without materially affecting the flow of sewage or waste water through it Horizontal Pipe - Any pipe or fitting which makes an angle of less than 45degrees with the horizontal Half Bath - A bathroom containing a water closet and a lavatory Roughing-in - The installation of all parts of the plumbing system which can be completed prior to the installation of fixtures Floor Mounted Fixture - Refers to a plumbing fixture that rests on the floor Flushometer - A device which discharges a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes Full Bath - A bathroom containing a water closet, a lavatory and a bathtub Hose bibb - A faucet to which a hose may be attached Area Drain - A receptacle for wastes which are ultimately discharged into the sanitary drainage system Riser - A water supply pipe that extends one full storey or more to convey water to fixture branches or to a group of fixtures Soil Stack - A vertical line of piping that extends one or more floors and receives the discharge of water closets, urinals and similar fixtures Vent Pipe - The pipe installed to ventilate a building drainage system and to prevent trap siphonage Stack Vent - The extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain connection to the stack Building Supply Pipe - The pipe from the water main or other source of water supply to the water distributing system of the building Vent Stack - A vertical pipe installed in order to provide circulation of air to and from the drainage system Drain Pipe - A pipe that only conveys liquid waste, free from fecal matter Siphonage/Syphonage - A suction created by the flow of liquid in pipes Stack - A general term for any vertical line of soil, waste and vent pipe extending through one or more storeys Backflow - The flow of water in pipes in a reverse direction from the which is normally intended

Battery of fixtures - Any group of two or more similar adjacent fixtures which discharge into a common horizontal waste or soil branch Branch - Any part of the piping system other than the main riser or stack Clean-out - A fitting with a removable plate or plug that is placed in plumbing drainage pipe lines in to afford access to the pipes for the purpose of cleaning their interior Developed Length - The length of pipe measured along the center line of the pipe and fittings Crown Weir - The highest part of the inside portion of the bottom surface at the crown of a trap Fixture Drain - The drain from the trap of a fixture to the junction of that drain with any other drain pipe Durhams System - A term sometimes used to describe a soil or waste pipe system which is constructed of threaded pipe, tubing or other rigid construction, using recessed drainage fittings Invert - The lowest portion of the inside surface of any horizontal pipe Indirect Waste Pipe - A waste pipe that does not connect directly with the drainage system but conveys liquid waste by discharging into a plumbing fixture or receptacle Sewer - An artificial conduit, usually underground, for carrying off waste water and refuse Alkalinity - Cased by bicarbonates, carbonates or hydroxide components E.Coli - Bacteria in water Ferrous Bicarbonate - Iron in water Hardness - Caused by calcium and magnesium deposits Black Water - Water plus human waste from toilets and urinals Grey Water - Waste water from laundry area, lavatory, sink, shower and bathtub Filtration - Mode of turbidity correction Hydro-pneumatic System - Indirect water distribution system