of teeth K_B J (from chart) Y_N K_T K_R Safety factor (S_F) Quality of gear Pinion diameter for pinion 1 (P_d) Value Unit 4908.653 in 20 Degrees 8 4908. Input Parameter Force for Extrusion Pinion diameter Face width pressure angle Quality of gear Value Unit 45 mm 1. Input parameters Input (Pinion tooth failure) Parameter Force on pinion (F_t) K_o No.666667 N Bending failure analysis of teeth. .Design Parameters: Following are the design parameters for analysis of pinion.1 8 45 mm Relations used.66 N 1 15 1 0.42 1 1 1 1.

14408555 18.1 8 . Output(Pinion tooth failure) Parameter Bending stress S_t S_t(Mpa) Value 17.8584941 130. we obtained following output results.66 N 20 Degrees 1 1 15 1 1 1 1 1 1.0104583 Unit kpsi kpsi Mpa Contact failure analysis of teeth Input Parameters Input (Pinion tooth failure) Parameter Force on pinion (F_t) Pressure angle K_s K_o No.Here. calculations were done for different gear diameters keeping force on pinion and values for were found so that a proper gear material can be decided. of teeth C_f I Z_N K_T K_R Safety factor (S_F) Quality of gear Value Unit 4908. Putting values in above relations.

43 kpsi 382.771653543 in 2300 psi^1/2 1 Relations used.15 Mpa . we obtained following output results.39 kpsi 55.Pinion diameter for pinion 1 (d_p) d_p C_p C_h 45 mm 1. calculations were done for different gear diameters keeping force on pinion and values for found so that a proper gear material can be decided. ( ) Here. Putting values in above relations. Output(Pinion tooth failure) Value were Parameter Contact stress S_c S_c(Mpa) Unit 50.

6 12.28 08 Diameter Diameter(mm) 0.37405342 .1E+08 Mpa Gear4 S.07671183 105000000 Diameter of shaft 0.013981 m 13.07336661 Shaft With Gear 4&5 Sigma (allowable) S_y 2.029374 Diameter(mm) 29.77 Max(bending moment) Sigma (net) 1.98136 mm Shaft With Gear 2&3 Gear1 F_t (N) 490 F_r (N) 178.Design (Bending +Torsion) Shaft With Gear 1 F_t (N) 490 F_r (N) Torque Max(bending Sigma on shaft moment) (net) N-m N-m 178.3 4908 1786 220.4 Torque on shaft (N-m) 139.F Gear 5 2 1.025073 25.86 Max(bendin Sigma g moment) (net) 177.05E+ 108.271 26.78 1.6 Gear 2 F_t (N) 1636 F_r (N) 595.05E+08 Diameter 0.05E+08 Torque on F_t (N) F_r (N) F_t (N) F_r (N) shaft (N-m) 1636 595.

Bearings analysis Analysis was done for four bearings as shown in figure. 3 1 2 P_B P_A .

Bore size = 24.54kN Type –Single-Row tapered roller bearings (From online catalog mentioned in references) For bearing 3 & 4.00 mm Outer Diameter = 55.Load on bearings 1 & 2. Bearing 1. X O 1 2 ( ) For above bearings. loads were calculated and they came out to be.00 mm Load rating – 49. Bearing 2. on bearings 1 and 2. 3 4 . From equation above. From equation above.000 mm Width = 25. ‘O’ means out of plane. notation ‘X’ means into the plane. Appling force and moment balance.

00 mm Width = 19.Bearing 3. From equation <>.00 kN Type –Single-Row tapered roller bearings(From online catalog) Bearing 4. Bore size = 26.988 mm Outer Diameter = 62.05 mm Load rating – 53. . From equation above.

the procedure of analysis is what is important. . Power screw mechanism will be used to apply extrusion force on slurry or paste material in the <> mm diameter nozzle as described in design 1.Design 2 Design Overview This design consists of power screw mechanism coupled with nut type gear coupled with spur gears which are further engaged with bevel gear. This assumption is not quite reasonable for actual final designing of machine but it works well here as we are doing gear tooth analysis only. Analysis will be done at the extreme conditions of forces.  Pressure to be applied on paste is assumed to be constant (10 MPa). This assumption is valid for most practical purposes. Although value of pressure seems wrong.  We have neglected the effects due to helix angle of screw. Nut type Gear with external teeth Direction of motion/force of screw Basic assumptions  We have neglected the forces on members due to weight of each component.

666667 N 2 in 0. Gear 1 is driving screw downwards. gear 4 can be smaller than 3.Mechanism Mechanism consists of screw applying force vertically and is driven by spur-gear as shown in figure 2. For actual design. Bevel Gears 1 2 Handle 3 4 R Direction of force 5 Here.25 in . Here. Design Parameters & Calculations Following are the design parameters chosen for analysis of screw. for example. more gear stages can be added between 1 and 2 as above diagram is only representative. Bevel gears 3 & 4 are just for converting direction of rotation comfortable to user. Input Parameter Force for Extrusion Dscrew pitch Value Unit 4908.

of teeth K_B J (from chart) Y_N K_T K_R Safety factor (S_F) Quality of gear Pinion diameter for pinion 1 (d) Value Unit 10930. ( Calculating torque.4418 N 1 60 1 0. Parameters for gear tooth analysis (Gear 1) are. ) . Input (Pinion tooth failure) Parameter Force on pinion (F_t) K_o No..11 From relation of Torque required raising the load. Force on pinion teeth was calculated by relation Here.25 14. (1) This torque has to be applied on gear 1.Lead alpha Friction factor (f) 0.3 8 180 mm were .5 Degrees 0. calculations were done for different gear diameters keeping force on pinion and values for found so that a proper gear material can be decided.42 1 1 1 1.

.29 kpsi (Mpa) 401.(2) .29 kpsi..98 kpsi 58.Relations used. Output(Pinion tooth failure) Parameter Bending stress Value Unit 52. we obtained following output results. .83 Mpa Stress factor comes out to be 58..(3) Putting values in above relations.

A schematic of one stage has been shown in fig <>. required gear ratio can be obtained. 10) Value Unit 981. Let the module of gear be 3 mm. we have reasonable type of gear to be used and reasonable force required to be applied by hand.Gear ratio/No.30976 N 0. If these stages are put in sequence. Input (Gear ratio) Parameter Torque at stage 1 Arm Length No. Input parameters required were. of stages required = 5 Force to be applied by arm = 98.4 m 5 5 After iterations. The arm length or radius of disk 5 has been assumed to be 40 cm (Shown in figure <>). all our design requirements are met. and at each stage. of stages required calculations Gear ratio has to be decided on the basis of maximum force can be applied by hand casually i. 100N. No. reduction takes place of factor of 5. of stages Gear reduction per stage (max. .13 N (<100N) So.e.

In Design 1. Design 2 can be only useful when the process needs to be automated not manual. Also. force has to be applied with impact whereas. they were lower in case of Design 1. in design 2. Design 2 a very high reduction in gear ratio. . This may lead to fatigue of operating person if operated for long time. This will lead to more rotation required at handle side to move screw by small amount. it can be easily applied by some servo motor because of high gear reduction.Comparison between Design 1 and Design 2 Above design shows picture as compared to design 1 as the pinion forces are within range for this design but are greater than whereas.

 5 way spool valve controls direction of motion of actuator rod.1).  This system will be highly efficient in terms of production rate. Learning Outcomes  We learned about failure of gear tooth and its impact on a practical machine.Design 3 Pneumatic driven mechanism (ONLY Qualitative design)  Component marked A is pneumatic actuator.  Design 1 proves to be more efficient and effective if this has to be operated by hand. End of A is connected to lever that drives handle of agarbatti maker.  This circuit can be used to make a small scale machine that may be used small scale production.  Design 3 is a pneumatic design proposed without any quantification or analysis.  ASTM A536 Grade 120-90-02 should be used as Pinion material as per the gear tooth calculations (with safety factor of 1. .  This system is very appropriate for high pressure application like this agarbatti maker. Conclusions  Reason for failure for previous design of agarbatti machine gear was poor material as well as stress concentration at the hole radially drilled across the gear. It can only be used for mass production. This valve is controlled by a electromagnet.  Design 2 can be proposed as the automatic machine design driven by servo motor.

9th edition.  Learned how to select bearings from various catalogs as per the shaft diameter.  MS Word References       Shigley’s Mechanical Engg.Analysis and design for Design 3.png .com/mdme/memmods/MEM30009A/lifting_systems/lifting_systems. Material Selection shaft analysis and conclusions. Software Used  Autodesk Inventor  MS Excel.ejsong.olx. We learned the practical considerations that should be taken care of during iterating.com/other-technologies/chapter-14-sequence-valves-and-reducing-valves http://www.pdf http://vadodara. Design.coroll. http://www.  Got feel for the numbers as we tried to judge them as per design like Pressure required for extrusion.in/agarbatti-making-machine-fully-automatic-iid-215446318 http://hydraulicspneumatics.Analysis and design for Design 2  Prateek Nyati . like force that can be applied by hand.html http://commons.wikimedia. Work Load Distribution  Prashant Bhatewara – Analysis and design for Design 1  Nakul Nuwal .org/wiki/File:Rack_and_pinion.sk/Coroll/NSK_katalogy_files/Rolling_Bearings_UK.

85 1 2 1 1 1. mB= rim thickness factor. KB= reliability factor (90%)= temp factor= stress cycle.22 .Gear Analysis (a) Bending fatigue Wt (Newtons)= module (mm)= face width (mm)= dynamic factor= overload factor= backup ratio.583333333 1 0.2 0. YN= load distribution factor= size factor= surface condition geometry factor. J= 10000 6 40 1 2 1.

Grade 1. St for 200 HB= S. bending= S.021835294 MPa .= 197.4 Mpa 464.4705882 454.5454545 1.F= S_all/Sigma S_allowable= Sigma.F.